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Renato Orta

Transmission Line Theory

October 2009

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS

POLITECNICO DI TORINO

Contents

Contents

1

1 Transmission line equations and their solution

 

4

1.1 Introduction

 

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4

1.2 Electromagnetism background .

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5

1.3 Circuit model of a transmission line

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7

1.4 Lossless lines. Wave equations and their solutions

 

11

1.5 Review of Fourier transforms and phasors

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14

1.6 Transmission line equations in the frequency domain

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16

1.7 Propagation of the electric state and geometrical interpretations

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21

1.8 Solution of transmission line equations by the matrix technique

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23

2 Examples of transmisssion lines PRELIMINARY VERSION

 

27

2.1 Introduction

 

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27

2.2 Coaxial cable

 

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27

2.3 Two-wire line

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29

2.4 Wire on a metal plane

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30

2.5 Shielded two-wire line

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31

2.6 Stripline

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32

2.7 Microstrip .

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33

3 Simple transmisssion line circuits PRELIMINARY VERSION

 

38

3.1 Introduction

 

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38

3.2 Definition of local impedance

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38

3.3 Reflection coefficients

 

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45

3.4 Energy balance

 

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46

3.5 Line voltage, current and impedance diagrams

 

48

3.6 Distributed parameter reactive components

 

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52

1

CONTENTS

3.6.1

Inductors

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52

3.6.2 Capacitors

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54

3.6.3 Risonatori .

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55

3.7 La Carta di Smith

 

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58

3.8 Analysis of simple circuits

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62

4 Fenomeni dissipativi nelle linee di trasmissione

 

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4.1 Perdite nel dielettrico

 

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66

4.2 Perdite nei conduttori

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67

4.3 Parametri di perdita di alcune linee di trasmissione

 

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4.3.1 Cavo coassiale

 

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75

4.3.2 Linea bifilare

 

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76

5 Lossy transmission lines PRELIMINARY VERSION

 

79

5.1 Solution of transmission line equations

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79

5.2 Computation of the power flow

 

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87

5.3 Approximate expressions of propagation constant and characteristic impedance

 

88

6 Matching circuits PRELIMINARY VERSION

 

92

6.1 Introduction

 

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92

6.2 Types of impedance matching

 

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92

6.3 Impedance matching devices .

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95

6.3.1 L cells with lumped reactive elements

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96

6.3.2 Single stub matching network .

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98

6.3.3 Double stub matching network

 

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103

6.3.4 λ/4 matching networks

 

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106

7 The Scattering matrix PRELIMINARY VERSION

 

108

7.1 Lumped circuits

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108

7.2 Distributed parameter circuits

 

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110

7.3 Relationship between [S] and [Z] or [Y ]

 

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112

7.4 Computation of the power dissipated in a device

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113

7.5 Properties of the scattering matrix [S] of a device

 

113

7.6 Change of reference impedances

 

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114

7.7 Displacement of reference planes

 

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115

7.8 Cascade connection of structures

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116

7.9 Scattering matrix of some devices .

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120

7.9.1

Ideal attenuator

 

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120

 

2

CONTENTS

 

7.9.2 Isolator

 

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120

7.9.3 Circulator .

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121

7.9.4 Ideal directional coupler

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121

7.10 Examples of analysis of structures described by S matrices

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123

7.10.1 Cascade connection of a two-port and a load

 

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123

7.10.2 Interconnection of two two-ports by means of a length of transmission line .

125

7.10.3 Cambiamento di impedenza di riferimento

 

127

7.11 Matrice di trasmissione

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128

8

Linee di trasmissione nel dominio del tempo

 

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8.1 Introduzione .

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131

8.2 La velocit`a di gruppo

 

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133

8.3 Distorsioni .

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137

8.4 Comunicazioni ottiche digitali .

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140

8.5 Linee di trasmissione ideali disadattate .

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141

8.5.1 Soluzione generale delle equazioni delle linee

 

141

8.5.2 La linea disadattata

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142

8.5.3 Interconnessioni reali

 

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149

 

3

Chapter 1

Transmission line equations and their solution

1.1

Introduction

Electromagnetic energy, once generated in one place, has a natural tendency to spread in the whole space at a speed close to 300.000 Km/s. In telecommunications this behavior can be useful when the user position is not known in advance, as in a broadcasting system or in a cell phone network. In other applications, instead, electromagnetic energy must be transferred from one place to the other along a well defined path without any spreading at all: an example is the cabling of a building.

In the most general terms, a transmission line is a system of metal conductors and/or dielectric insulating media that is capable of “guiding” the energy transfer between a generator and a load, irrespective (at least with a good approximation) of the bends that the line undergoes because of installation needs. From this point of view, a one dimensional propagation phenomenon takes place on a transmission line.

There are many types of transmission lines, some examples of which are shown in Fig. 1.1. The various line types are used for different applications in specific frequency ranges. Striplines and microstrips are used only inside devices, such as amplifiers or filters, and their lengths never exceeds some centimeters. Twisted pairs and coaxial cables are used for cabling a building but coaxial cables can also be used for intercontinental communications. Hollow metal pipes, known as waveguides, are used to deliver large amounts of microwave power over short to moderate distance. Waveguides can also be made of dielectric materials only, as in the case of optical fibers. In this text we will deal only with structures consisting of two metal conductors, such as coaxial cables, microstrips and striplines. These can be defined transmission lines in strict sense, whereas the others are more appropriately called metal or dielectric waveguides. More rigorously, all the structures of Fig. 1.1 are waveguides, but those of the first type are characterized by the fact that their fundamental propagation mode is TEM (transverse electromagnetic) - or quasi-TEM in the case of microstrips - since they consist of two conductors. This implies that they can be used also at very low frequency - even at dc - irrespective of their size. Waveguides, in general, have a lowest frequency of operation, which depends on their transverse size. In conclusion, transmission lines are waveguides whose behaviour, at sufficiently low frequency, is related to the TEM mode only.

4

1 – Transmission line equations and their solution

a
a
1 – Transmission line equations and their solution a d b n 3 n 2 n

d

b
b
n 3 n 2 n 1 c
n 3
n 2
n 1
c
line equations and their solution a d b n 3 n 2 n 1 c e

e

Figure 1.1.

fiber, (d) microstrip , (e) stripline.

Examples of transmission lines: (a) coaxial cable, (b) two wire line, (c) optical

1.2 Electromagnetism background

The physical phenomena that take place in a transmission line belong to the realm of electromag- netism and hence, from a quantitative point of view, they are completely described by four vector fields: the electric field E(r,t), the magnetic field H(r,t), the electric displacement (or electric induction) D(r,t) and the magnetic induction B(r,t). The relationships between these fields and the sources (described by the current density J (r,t)) are specified by Maxwell equations, that are written in MKSA units as

∇ × E(r,t)

=

t B(r,t)

t D(r,t) + J c (r,t) + J (r,t)

× H(r,t)

=

(1.1)

Let us review the meaning of the symbols and the relevant measurement units.

E(r,t)

electric field

V/m

H(r,t)

magnetic field

A/m

D(r,t)

electric induction

C/m

2

B(r,t)

magnetic induction

Wb/m 2

J (r,t)

current density (source)

A/m 2

J c (r,t)

(conduction) current density

[A/m 2 ]

These equations must be supplemented with the constitutive relations, that describe the link

5

1 – Transmission line equations and their solution

between fields and inductions. The simplest case is that of free space in which

B(r,t)

D(r,t)

=

=

µ 0 H(r,t)

0 E(r,t)

(1.2)

where 0 , dielectric permittivity, and µ 0 magnetic permeability, have the values

µ 0

0

=

=

4π · 10 7

H