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HandsOnRelaySchool

TransformerProtectionOpenLecture

HandsOnRelaySchool
TransformerProtectionOpenLecture ClassOutline Transformerprotectionoverview Reviewtransformerconnections Discusschallengesandmethodsofcurrent differentialProtection Discussotherprotectiveelementsusedin transformerprotection

ScottCooper EasternRegionalManager MantaTestSystems

scottc@mantatest.com (727)415-5843 204 37th Avenue North #281 Saint Petersburg, FL 33704

TransformerProtectionOverview
TransformerProtectionZones

TypesofProtection
MechanicalProtection
AnalysisofAccumulatedGases
Looksforarcingbyproducts

SuddenPressureRelays
Orificeallowsfornormalthermalexpansion/contraction.Arcing causingpressurewavesinoilorgasspaceoverwhelmingtheorifice andactuatingtherelay.

Thermal
Causedbyoverload,overexcitation,harmonicsandgeomagnetically inducedcurrents
Hotspottemperature TopOil LTCOverheating

TypesofProtection
RelayProtection InternalShortCircuit
Phase:87HS,87T Ground:87HS,87T,87GD

SystemShortCircuitBackUpProtection
PhaseandGroundFaults
Buses:50,50N,51,51N,46 Lines:50,50N,51,51N,46

TypesofProtection
RelayProtection AbnormalOperatingConditions
OpenCircuits:46 Overexcitation:24 Undervoltage:27 AbnormalFrequency:81U BreakerFailure:50BF,50BFN

PhaseDifferential
Overview
Whatgoesintoaunitcomesoutof aunit Kirchoffs Law:Thesumofthe currentsenteringandleavinga junctionis(shouldbe)zero Straightforwardconcept,butnot thatsimpleinpracticewith transformers
I1 + I2 + I3 = 0 I1 UNIT I2

I3

PhaseDifferential
Overview
Ahostofissuespresentsitselftodecreasesecurityandreliabilityoftransformer differentialprotection CTratio causedcurrentmismatch Transformationratio causedcurrentmismatch(fixedtaps) LTCinducedcurrentmismatch Deltawye transformation ofcurrents Vectorgroupandcurrentderivationissues Zerosequencecurrentelimination forexternalgroundfaultsonwye windings Inrushphenomena anditsresultantcurrentmismatch Harmoniccontentavailabilityduringinrush periodduetopointonwave switching(especiallywithnewertransformers) Overexcitationphenomena anditsresultantcurrentmismatch Internalgroundfaultsensitivity concerns Switchontofault concerns CTsaturation,remnance andtolerance

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

TransformerTapCalculationPerUnitConcept Compensation(2) ChangeinCTRatio 1:1, Y-Y


4:1, 3Y IA, IB, IC IA', IB', IC' Ia', Ib', Ic' 1:1, 3Y Ia, Ib, Ic

IA'*4 = Ia' IB' * 4 = Ib' IC' * 4 = Ic'

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

TransformerTapCalculationPerUnitConcept

Compensation(3) TransformerRatio
1:1, 3Y IA, IB, IC IA', IB', IC'

2:1, Y-Y
1:1, 3Y Ia, Ib, Ic Ia', Ib', Ic'

IA' = Ia' / 2 IB' = Ib' / 2 IC' = Ic' / 2

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

TransformerTapCalculationPerUnitConcept Compensation(2) ChangeinCTRatio

IA, IB, IC IA', IB', IC' Ia', Ib', Ic'

Ia, Ib, Ic

There must be an easier way..

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

TransformerTapCalculationPerUnitConcept

100MVA IN

100MVA OUT

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

TransformerTapCalculationPerUnitConcept

Tap Calculation with Wye CTs

Tap Calculation with Delta CTs

WindingTap =

TransformerVA VL L CTR 3

TransformerVA WindingTap = VL L CTR

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

TransformerTapCalculationPerUnitConcept

Each measured current is divided by the winding Tap. The result is a percent of rating. These percent of ratings can be compared directly.

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

ABconnecteddeltawye transformer

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics
Subtracting Vectors: Subtract from reference phase vector the connected non-polarity vectorin our example Ia-Ib

-b

b
Can be repeated for B & C, or you can assume 120 and 240 displacement from A for B&C respectively Ib Ic and Ic Ia would be the vectors

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

ACconnecteddeltawye transformer
Ia-Ic Ia Ic-Ib Ia Ia

Ib-Ia

Ib

Ic

Ib

Ib Ia

Ic-Ib

Ic Ib-Ia Ic Ic Ib

Ia-Ic

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics
Subtracting vectors: Subtract from reference phase vector the connected nonpolarity vectorin our example Ia-Ic

-c
Can be repeated for B & C, or you can assume 120 and 240 displacement from A for B&C respectively Ib Ia and Ic Ib would be the vectors

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics
AngularDisplacementConventions: ANSIYY, @0;Y ,Y@X1lagsH1by30
ANSImakeslifeeasy

Eurodesignationsuse30 incrementsofLAGfromtheX1bushingtothe H1bushings


Dy11=X1lagsH1by11*30=330
or,H1leadsX1by30

Thinkofaclock eachhouris30degrees

0 11 10 9 8 7 6

1 2 3 Dy1 = X1 lags H1 by 1*30 = 30, or

H1 leads X1 by 30 (ANSI std.)

4 5

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics

US Standard Dy Example: H1 (A) leads X1 (a) by 30 Currents on H bushings are delta quantities
Assume 1:1 transformer

PhaseDifferential
OverviewTransformer Basics
US Standard Yd Example: H1 (a) leads X1 (A) by 30 Currents on X bushings are delta quantities
C

Assume 1:1 transformer

PhaseDifferential
Overview
Appliedwithvariable percentageslopesto accommodateCTsaturation andCTratioerrors Appliedwithinrushandover excitationrestraints Setwithatleasta20%pickup toaccommodateCT performance
ClassCCT;+/ 10%at20X rated

IfunitisLTC,addanother+/ 10% Maynotbesensitiveenough forallfaults(lowlevel,ground faultsnearneutral)

PhaseDifferential
EMRelayApplication
CTratiosandtapsettingsareselectedto accountfor: Transformerratios Ifdeltaorwye connectedCTsare applied Deltaincreasesratioby1.73 DeltaCTsmustbeusedtofilterzero sequencecurrentonallwye transformer windings Dy transformerconnectionscompensated byydCTconnectionstomakethecurrents applestoapples.

PhaseDifferential
EMRelayApplication
Zerosequenceelimination:InEMrelayswithwye connectedtransformers, deltaconnectedCTsareusedtoremovethegroundcurrent.

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication
Settingscompensateforthefollowing: Transformerratio CTratio Vectorquantities
Whichvectorsareused Wherethe1.73factor(3)isapplied
Whenexamininglinetoline quantitiesondeltaconnected transformerwindingsandCT windings

Zerosequencecurrentfilteringfor wye windingssothedifferential quantitiesdonotoccurfrom externalgroundfaults

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication
Angulardisplacement(IECandSEL) IEC(Euro)practicedoesnot haveastandardlikeANSI Mostcommonconnectionis Dy11(lowleadhighby30!) Obviouslyobservationof angulardisplacementis extremelyimportantwhen parallelingtransformers!

*1 *1 *2 *2

*1 = ANSI std. @ 0 *2 = ANSI std. @ X1 lag H1 by 30, or high lead low by 30

DigitalRelayApplication

All wye CTs shown, most can retrofit legacy delta CT applications

BenefitsofWyeCTs
Phasesegregatedlinecurrents
Individuallinecurrentoscillography Currentsmaybeeasilyusedforovercurrent protectionandmetering Easiertocommissionandtroubleshoot Zerosequenceeliminationperformedby calculation

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication
Zerosequenceelimination:Indigitalrelayswithwye connected transformersandwye connectedCTs,groundcurrentmustberemovedfrom thedifferentialcalculation.

3I0 = [Ia + Ib + Ic]


I0 = 1/3 *[Ia + Ib + Ic]

Used where filtering is required, such as wye winding with wye CTs

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

2nd and 4th Harmonics During Inrush

TypicalTransformerInrushWaveform

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

HarmonicallyRestrainedDifferentialElement InrushDetectionandRestraint
Inrushoccursontransformerenergizingasthecoremagnetizes Sympathyinrushoccursfromadjacenttransformer(s)energizing,fault removal,allowingthetransformertoundergoalowlevelinrush Characterizedbycurrentintoonewindingoftransformer,andnotout oftheotherwinding(s) Thiscausesthedifferentialelementtopickup Useinrushrestrainttoblockdifferentialelementduringinrushperiod

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

InrushDetectionandRestraint
2nd harmonicrestrainthasbeenemployedforyears Gapdetectionhasalsobeenemployed Astransformersaredesignedtoclosertolerances,both2nd harmonic andlowcurrentgapsinwaveformhavedecreased If2nd harmonicrestraintlevelissettoolow,differentialelementmay beblockedforinternalfaultswithCTsaturation(withassociated harmonicsgenerated)

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

InrushDetectionandRestraint
4th harmonicisalsogeneratedduringinrush OddharmonicsarenotasprevalentasEvenharmonicsduringinrush OddharmonicsmoreprevalentduringCTsaturation Use4th harmonicand2nd harmonictogether M3310/M3311relaysuseRMSsumofthe2nd and4th harmonicas inrushrestraint Result:Improvedsecuritywhilenotsacrificingreliability

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

OverexcitationRestraint

Overexcitationoccurswhenvoltsperhertz levelrises(V/Hz) Thistypicallyoccursfromloadrejectionand malfunctioninggenerationAVRs Thevoltageriseatnominalfrequencycauses theV/Hztorise Thiscauses5th harmonicstobegeneratedin thetransformerasitbeginstogointo saturation Thecurrententeringthetransformerismore thanthecurrentleavingduetothisincreasein magnetizingcurrent Thiscausesthedifferentialelementtopickup Use5th harmonicleveltodetectoverexcitation

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication
2.0

1.5

TRIP 87T Pick Up with 5th Harmonic Restraint 87T Pick Up RESTRAIN

1.0

Slope 2

0.5

Slope 2 Breakpoint Slope 1 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

87TPickUp
ClassCCTs,use20% LTC,add10% Magnetizinglosses,add1% 0.3to0.4pu typicallysetting

Slope1
Usedforlowlevelcurrents Typicallysetfor25%

Slope2breakpoint
Typicallysetat2Xratedcurrent Thissettingassumesthatanycurrentover2Xratedisa throughfaultorinternalfault,andisusedtodesensitizethe elementagainstunfaithfulreplication

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

Slope2
Typicallysetat70%

InrushRestraint(2nd and4th harmonic)


Typicallysetfrom1520% Employcrossphaseaveragingblockingforsecurity

OverexcitationRestraint(5th harmonic)
Typicallysetat30% Raise87Tpickupto0.60pu duringoverexcitation Nocrossphaseaveragingneeded,asoverexcitation is symmetriconthephases

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

Unrestrained87HPickUp
Typicallysetat810puratedcurrent Thisvalueshouldbeabovemaximumpossibleinrushcurrent andlowerthantheCTsaturationcurrent C37.91,section5.2.3,states10puanacceptablevalue Canusedatacapturedfromenergizations tofinetunethe setting

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

CTIssues: Remnance:Residualmagnetismthatcausesdcsaturationofthe CTs Saturation:Errorsignalresultingfromtoohighaprimarycurrent combinedwithalargeburden Tolerance:ClassCCTsarerated+/ 10%forcurrentsx20of nominal


Thrufaultsandinternalfaultsmayreachthoselevelsdependingonratio selected

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

CTIssues(cont.) BestdefenseistousehighClassCvoltagelevels
C400,C800 Thesehavesuperiorcharacteristicsagainstsaturationandrelay/wiring burden

Uselowburdenrelays
Digitalsystemsaretypically0.020ohms

Useavariablepercentageslopecharacteristictodesensitize thedifferentialelementwhenchallengedbyhighcurrentsthat maycausereplicationerrors

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

PointonWaveConsiderationsDuringEnergization
Asmostcircuitbreakersaregangedthreepole,eachphaseisclosedata differentangleresultinginlessharmonicsononephaseandmoreonthe others Lowlevelsofharmonicsmaynotprovideinrushrestraintforaffectedphase securityrisk! Mostmodernrelaysemploysomekindofcrossphaseaveragingschemeto compensateforthisissue
Providessecurityifanyphasehaslowharmoniccontentduringinrushoroverexcitation Thiscanoccurdependingonthevoltagepointonwavewhenthetransformerisenergizedfora givenphase Crossphaseaveragingusestheaverageofharmonicsonallthreephasestodeterminelevel

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

ImprovedGroundFaultSensitivity: 87Telementistypicallysetwith2040%pickup ThisistoaccommodateClassCCTaccuracy duringafaultplustheeffectsofLTCs Thatleaves2040%ofthewindingnotcoveredfor agroundfault Employagrounddifferentialelementtoimprove sensitivity(87GD)

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

SwitchontoFault: Transformerisfaultedonenergizing Harmonicrestraintonunfaulted phasesmaywork againsttripdecisionifcrossphaseaveragingisused


Unfaultedphasewillhavenoharmonics,otherphases mayhavehighvalue

Employ87HStoprotectwindingthatisbeing energized Employ87GDoncoupledwindingifitiswye

PhaseDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

SwitchontoFault(cont): Employ87HStoprotectwindingthatisfirstenergized 87HSissetaboveinrushcurrent Iffaultisnearthebushingendofthewinding,thecurrentwillbehigher thaninrush


Typically912pu thrucurrent

87HSdoesnotemployharmonicrestraint
Fasttrippingonhighcurrentfaults

GroundDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

Use87GD IA + IB + IC = 3I0 Iffaultisinternal, oppositepolarity Iffaultisexternal,same polarity

IA IB

IC IG

GroundDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

IA IB

IA IB

IC IG IG

IC

Internal

External

GroundDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

RestrictedEarthFaultTripCharacteristic
87GDPickUp
Elementnormallyusesdirectionalcomparisonbetweenphase residualcurrent(3I0)andmeasuredgroundcurrent(IG)
Nousersetting

Pickuponlyapplicablewhen3I0 currentisbelow140mA(5A nom.)


Pickup=3I0 - IG

If3I0 greaterthan140mA,elementuses:
3I0 * IG * cos.Itwilltriponlywhenthedirectionsofthe currentsisopposite,indicatinganinternalfault Usingdirectioncomparisonmitigatestheeffectsofsaturationon thephaseandgroundCTs

GroundDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

IA IB
Residual current calculated from individual phase currents. Paralleled CTs shown to illustrate principle.

IC IG
IG 3I0

90 IG

180 -3IO 270

GroundDifferential
DigitalRelayApplication

90 -3IO IG 0

180

270

OtherTransformerProtection
OvercurrentElements

Fuses
Smalltransformers(<10MVA) Shortcircuitprotectiononly

Overcurrentprotection
Hside
Throughfaultprotection Differentialbackupprotectionforhighsidefaults

Xside
Systembackupprotection Unbalancedloadprotection

OtherTransformerProtection
OvercurrentElements

Hsideovercurrentelements: Protectionagainstheavyprolongedthroughfaults TransformerCategorybynameplatecapacity


IEEEStd.C57.1091985Curves

Cat.2&3 FaultFrequency Zones

ThroughFault Category1

ThroughFault Category2

ThroughFault Category3

ThroughFault Category4

OtherTransformerProtection
OvercurrentElements

XsideOverCurrent Elements Usedtoprotect againstuncleared faultsdownstream ofthetransformer Mayconsistofphase andground elements Coordinatedwith lineprotectionoff thebus

51 51 G

Failed Breaker

OtherTransformerProtection
OvercurrentElements

XsideOverCurrentElements: Negativesequenceover currentusedtoprotect againstunbalancedloads& openconductors Easytocoordinate

46

OtherTransformerProtection
OvercurrentElements

Overexcitation:
Respondstooverfluxing;excessivev/Hz Continuousoperationallimits
ANSIC37.106&C57.12
1.05loaded,1.10unloaded

Inversecurvestypicallyavailableforvaluesoverthe continuousallowablemaximum

OtherTransformerProtection
OvercurrentElements
Causes: GeneratingPlants
Excitationsystemrunaway Suddenlossofload Operationalissues(reducedfrequency)
Staticstarts Pumpedhydrostarting Rotorwarming

TransmissionSystems
VoltageandReactiveSupportControlFailures
CapacitorbanksONwhentheyshouldbeOFF ShuntreactorsOFFwhentheyshouldbeON Generatorunittransformerconnectedtolonglinewith noload(Ferrantieffect) RunawayLTCs

OverexcitationCurve

Thisistypicallyhowtheapparatusmanufacturerspecsit

Overexcitation Curve

Thisishowprotectionengineersenterthev/Hzcurveintoaprotectivedevice

References: ANSI/IEEEC37.91,GuideforProtectiveRelayApplicationsforPowerTransformers ANSI/IEEEC57.12,StandardGeneralRequirementsforLiquidImmersedDistribution, PowerandRegulatingTransformers ProtectiveRelaying:Principalsandapplications,ThirdEditionByJ.LewisBlackburn andThomasJ.Domin DigitalTransformerProtectionfromPowerPlantstoDistributionSubstations,CJ Mozina GeneralElectricTransformerConnectionsincludingAutotransformerConnections GET2J,Dec,1970

87 T

High Side

Low Side

50 51 G

51