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OCTOBER 17TH: INTERNATIONAL DAY

FOR THE ERADICATION OF POVERTY


SUPPORT BY:
Oficina de
Santiago
Con el apoyo de la
Organizacin
de las Naciones Unidas
para la Educacin,
la Ciencia y la Cultura









N 1
ISSN 2255-033X
This edition is dedicated to the memory of the 15 million
people who die every year of hunger, treatable diseases, and
other conditions related to poverty on our planet. People
who publish items on this magazine take their lives seriously.
La presente edicin est dedicada a la memoria de las 15
millones de personas que mueren cada ao de hambre, por
enfermedades tratables y otras situaciones derivadas de la
pobreza en nuestro planeta. Las personas que aqu publican
se toman enserio sus vidas.
Cette dition est consacre la mmoire des 15 millions de
personnes qui meurent de faim chaque anne, cause des
maladies curables et dautres situations rsultantes de la
pauvret sur la plante.Les personnes qui publient ici sont
enganges avec eux.
Diese Ausgabe ist dem Gedenken an die 15 Millionen Opfer
gewidmet, die jhrlich an Folgen von Hunger, heilbaren
Krankheiten und anderen Grnden von Armut sterben. Die
Verfasser von Texten in diesem Magazin nehmen deren
Leben ernst.
Esta edio dedicada memria dos 15 milhes de
pessoas que morrem a cada ano de fome, doenas tratveis
e outras condies relacionadas com a pobreza em nosso
planeta. As pessoas que aqui publicam levam a srio suas
vidas.
|,;15,|]
|{||

IN MEMORIAM...
1



Oficina de
Santiago
Con el apoyo de la
Organizacin
de las Naciones Unidas
para la Educacin,
la Ciencia y la Cultura






iii
! Welcome to Global Education Magazine! A digital magazine inspired in
the universal values of the Declaration of Emerging Human Rights that aims to
contribute to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by United Nations
(MDGs), which is supported by the Regional Offices of Latin America and the
Caribbean of UNESCO and UNHCR. An initiative launched by the teaching
team that formulated the proposal most voted in the group Sustainable
Development for the Eradication of Poverty in Rio+20. Our goal is to
disseminate educational experiences (formal, non-formal and informal) from all
over the world, creating new glocals networks to reflect about the value and
significance of education in the XXI century globalized age. Some reflections that
demand to contextualize the globalization tackling global dynamics (economical,
political, cultural, social, educational, religious, etc.) with a complex thinking
process and a holistic, poly-logic, multireferential, planetary and cosmic vision
that proposes pragmatic alternatives for a changing, multidimensional and
interdependent world.
! Undoubtedly, one of the biggest challenges of the future education is the
process of directing humanity towards new forms of cooperation and democratic
social organization, which integrates the cultural diversity as a source of wealth,
as well as fair and ecologically sustainable relationships with the environment.
But, how to create a Global Education that respect the defining historic-
cultural characteristics of each community, and at the same time, develop a
critical consciousness that addresses common issues like sustainable
development? That is the challenge we face today to achieve the MDGs, to which
we must reply with a new awareness-identity of Homeland-Earth, where the
human being is seen as a same biological specie with the same evolution, because
the future history of our biosphere will depend of the future history of knowledge
we develop and how we choose to apply it.
! Thus, we need to formulate and organize knowledge through a complex,
creative, transversal, polysemous, transcultural and transpolitical epistemology
that promotes respect for human rights as an articulator metapoint of view of the
human effort to become aware of the ethic sustainability of the world-society. We
need, then, to take existential consciousness where the life is understood as an
emergency in the autopoietic Planet Earth, (as the result of a cosmological
exception), and where each version of us are aware of the existence of quantum
interferences in the elections of our replicas in the infinite parallel universes of
the multiverse. That is, quantum consciousness represents a new perception of the
structure of reality where energy is connected to the ontological nature of life in
all its manifestations.
! In a metaphorical way, education is the causal energy principle of the
transformation process of the human being, where the consciousness-body
represent the reflection of the wave-particle duality, because our wishes and
thoughts send a message-energy to the quantum-physical field toward the brain
neurotransmitters. Therefore, education represent the big-bang full of
transformative energy in continuously expanding that interacts positively on the
lives of people: generating a self-organizing cosmos of infinite potential for
personal fulfillment and improving the quality of life in the communities. Some
well-known by thousand-year-old civilizations (of which only few of them are
studied by science), which interpreted this cosmic energy in a phenomenological
and hermeneutical way, according to past technologies and beliefs, shaping rich
plural cultures and religions of different types.
! Hence the importance, dear readers, that all and each one of us, coming
from the big ethnocultural logs that make up the humanity, we take aware of the
infinite potential of transformative energy that holds the sum of our hearts,
thoughts and actions. An infinite potentiality that has to be promoted by a global-
cosmic education-energy that generate a humanist quantum interference leading
to the emergence of the homo conscienciatus: able to eradicate poverty and
to achieve the MDGs.
Javier Colado Ruano
Director of Edition
The humanist quantum interference: towards the
homo conscienciatus

iv
! Bienvenidos/as a Global Education Magazine! Una revista digital inspirada
en los valores universales de la Declaracin de Derechos Humanos Emergentes,
que pretende contribuir a alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio de las
Naciones Unidas (ODM), junto al auspicio de las Oficinas Regionales de Amrica
Latina y el Caribe de UNESCO y ACNUR. Una iniciativa puesta en marcha por el
equipo docente que formul la propuesta ms votada en el grupo de Desarrollo
Sostenible para la Erradicacin de la Pobreza de Rio+20. Nuestro objetivo es
hacer difusin de experiencias educativas (formal, no formal e informal) de todos los
rincones del mundo, creando nuevas redes glocales para reflexionar sobre el valor
y la significacin de la educacin en la era globalizada del siglo XXI. Unas
reflexiones que exigen contextualizar la globalizacin abordando las dinmicas
mundiales (econmicas, polticas, culturales, sociales, educativas, religiosas, etc.)
con un pensamiento complejo y una visin holstica, polilgica, multirreferencial,
planetaria y cosmolgica que proponga alternativas pragmticas para un mundo
cambiante, multidimensional e interdependiente.
! Sin duda, uno de los mayores desafos de la educacin del futuro es el proceso
de encaminar a la humanidad hacia nuevas formas de cooperacin y organizacin
social democrtica, que integren la diversidad cultural como una fuente de riqueza,
as como relaciones justas y ecolgicamente sostenibles con el medioambiente. Pero,
cmo crear una Educacin Global que respete las caractersticas histrico-
culturales definitorias de cada comunidad, y que, al mismo tiempo, desarrolle una
conciencia crtica que aborde los problemas comunes como el desarrollo sostenible?
Ese es el reto al que nos enfrentamos hoy da para alcanzar los ODM, al cual
debemos responder con una nueva consciencia-identidad de Tierra-Patria, donde
el ser humano sea visto como una misma especie biolgica con un mismo devenir, ya
que la historia futura de nuestra biosfera depender de la historia futura del
conocimiento que desarrollemos y del modo en que decidamos aplicarlo.
! De este modo, necesitamos formular y organizar el conocimiento a travs de
una epistemologa compleja, creativa, transversal, polismica, transpoltica y
transcultural que promueva el respeto a los Derechos Humanos como un metapunto
de vista articulador del esfuerzo humano de tomar consciencia de la sostenibilidad
tica de la sociedad-mundo. Se trata, pues, de una toma de consciencia existencial
donde la vida sea comprendida como una emergencia en el autopoitico Planeta
Tierra (fruto de una excepcin cosmolgica), y donde cada versin de nosotros sea
consciente de la existencia de las interferencias cunticas de las elecciones de
nuestras rplicas en los infinitos universos paralelos del multiverso. Es decir, la
consciencia cuntica representa una nueva percepcin de la estructura de la realidad
donde la energa est conectada a la naturaleza ontolgica de la vida en todas sus
manifestaciones.
! A modo metafrico, la educacin es el principio energtico causal del proceso
de transformacin del ser humano, donde consciencia-cuerpo representan el reflejo
de la dualidad onda-partcula, ya que nuestros deseos y pensamientos envan un
mensaje-energa al campo fsico-cuntico a travs de los neurotransmisores
cerebrales. Por tanto, la educacin representa el big-bang cargado de energa
transformadora en continua expansin que interacta positivamente en las vidas de
las personas: generando un cosmos auto-organizado de infinito potencial para la
autorrealizacin personal y la mejora de la calidad de vida en las comunidades. Algo
de sobra conocido por las civilizaciones milenarias (poco estudiadas por la ciencia),
las cuales interpretaron dicha energa csmica de forma fenomenolgica y
hermenutica, acorde a las tecnologas y creencias del pasado, configurando culturas
y religiones plurales riqusimas de diversa ndole.
! De ah la importancia estimados/as lectores/as, de que todos y cada uno de
nosotros, provenientes de los grandes troncos etnoculturales que conforman la
humanidad, tomemos consciencia de la potencialidad infinita de energa
transformadora que alberga la suma de nuestros corazones, pensamientos y acciones.
Una potencialidad infinita que debe ser promovida por una educacin-energa
global-csmica que genere una interferencia cuntica humanista que d lugar a la
aparicin del homo conscienciatus: capaz de erradicar la pobreza y conseguir
los ODM.
Javier Colado Ruano
Director de Edicin
La interferencia cuntica humanista:
hacia el homo conscienciatus

8 Global Issues of Poverty
6. Letter of Mr.
F. W. de Klerk
Peace Nobel
Prize 1993
11. Entrevista: o Movimento Sem
Teto da Bahia (Brasil)
13. Noticias de Educacin:
OREALC/UNESCO Santiago
22. Declaraci Universal de
Drets Humans Emergents
2 3 . ACNUR/ UNHCR: L a s
Amricas
32. FAO: The State of Food
Insecurity in the World
36. PNUD: Match contre la
Pauvret
37. Entrevista: La Educacin
Prohibida
40. Our Guests
Mr. Bill Drayton
Mrs.Chiaki Mukai
45. Research Papers
47. MDGs
64. Global Education
86. Transversal Studies
108. Letters to the Editor
5


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Articles with
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Editada en Almansa (AB), Espaa, por Educar para Vivir
REFLECTIONS OF MR. FREDERIK WILLEM DE KLERK
Nelson Mandela and F. W. De Klerk: Nobel Peace Prize in 1993
! De Klerk is best known for engineering the end of apartheid,
South Africa's racial segregation policy, and supporting the
transformation of South Africa into a multi-racial democracy by
entering into the negotiations that resulted in all citizens,
including the country's black majority, having equal voting and
other rights. He won the Flix Houphout-Boigny Peace
Prize in 1991, the Prince of Asturias Award in 1992 and the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 along with Nelson Mandela.
OCTOBER 17TH 2012
INTERNATIONAL DAY
FOR THE ERADICATION
OF POVERTY
South Africa is one of the most unequal societies in the world.
! This is despite the fact that the achievement of equality is one of the core
founding values of our Constitution. Our failure to achieve greater income equality
is reflected in the fact that our Gini index has deteriorated from 66 in 1996, to 70
in 2008. Inequality has also increased within all our population groups - from 54
to 62 among black South Africans, and from 43 to 50 among whites.
! The most equal countries in the world - Japan, Sweden and Denmark - have
Gini indexes of 25. In these countries the top 10 % earn only six times as much as
the bottom 10%. By contrast, the top 10% in South Africa earn 110 times more
than the bottom 10%.
What then are the roots of the persistent poverty and
increasing inequality in our society?
! A recent study by the World Bank provides some answers. According to
the study inequality of opportunity among children is affected by personal and
family-related factors such as:
The gender and ethnicity of the child;
Household composition - whether both parents live in the household and the
number of children up to the age of 16;
The education level, gender and age of the household head; and
Whether the household is located in urban townships, informal settlements,
other urban areas, or rural areas.
! Other factors that can impact on poverty and equality include access to
quality basic services such as education, health care, essential infrastructure
including water, sanitation, and electricity, and early childhood development. In
terms of these criteria, white children have enormous advantages: 83% come from
two-parent households with relatively small families. They live overwhelmingly in
urban areas and have access to good education and health services.
6
! By contrast, only 30% of black children come from double-parent families.
In poorer communities and in rural areas most have several siblings. 859 000 are
double orphans and 98,000 live in child-headed households. The great majority of
black children live in rural areas, informal settlements or townships. Very few
have access to decent schools and health care.
! Apart from such social factors, one of the principal causes of inequality is
the catastrophic failure of our education system. Our children fare very badly in
Grade 3 and Grade 6 numeracy and literacy tests. 60% leave school without a
proper school-leaving qualification and those who pass the final school exam do
so with an average mark of less than 40%. Only the 13% who obtain university
entrance have reasonable qualifications.
! Unemployment - exacerbated by poor education - is the other principal
reason for persistent poverty and for our failure to promote equality.
Unemployment levels are far more serious than official statistics indicate. The
official unemployment rate at the end of the second quarter of 2012 was 24.9%.
However, if the two million workers who have given up their search for jobs are
included, the expanded unemployment rate climbs to 36.2%.
! The real problem is the very low labour absorption
rate particularly among black South Africans. Only
36.8% of black South Africans between the ages of 15
and 64 are in employment - compared with 63.2%
among whites.
! At the same time, important progress is being made in improving the
conditions in which the poorest segments of our population live. A recent study
by the South African Institute of Race Relations shows that state programs are
already having a marked effect on improving the basic living conditions of the
poorest segments of the population. The study is based on an analysis of recent
Living Standards Measures (LSMs). LSMs categorize people - not according to
income - but according to objective criteria such as whether they are urbanized,
own motor vehicles or major appliances, or have running water or a flush toilet.
LSM 1 is the lowest or poorest category and LSM 10 the highest.
! The study revealed that between 2001 and 2011 the percentage of people
living in the lowest four LSMs diminished from 52.6% to just 24.4%. This
improvement is ascribed almost entirely to the enormous increase in social
transfers in the past 10 years. This includes the provision of childrens
allowances, disability payments and pensions to 15.6 million people - more than
30% of the population. State transfers now comprise the largest income
component for the bottom 30% of the population.
! The improvement in living standards also reflects the provision of more
than three million state houses and greatly enhanced access to mobile phones,
electricity, water and sanitation services. Between 2001 and 2011 per capita
social spending increased from R4 993 to R10 207 in constant 2008 rands.
Increased social expenditure has undoubtedly had a significant impact on living
standards - but not on income levels. The problem is that such transfers are
unsustainable and hold the danger of creating a permanent dependency culture.
! The long-term solution to the problems of poverty and inequality lies in
vastly improving our education and training system, in creating jobs and in
ensuring rapid and sustainable economic growth. It will also be essential to
address the underlying social problems identified by the World Bank. These are
precisely the factors that have been diagnosed and addressed by the South
Africas National Planning Commission in its National Development Plan.
The challenge will be to ensure that we successfully implement the National
Development Plan. If we can do so, I am confident that we will be able to make
continuing progress in reducing poverty and inequality - and thus, in achieving
the vision in our Constitution.
Frederik Willem de Klerk
7
Global Issues of
Poverty
Poverty is a very relative term and can be rather difficult to define
due to the great number of factors that influence it. It is not solely
determined by the personal position held by an individual. It is a
concept that also influences important policies and social services
made both at national and international level. As a result, poverty is
a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that not only affects
the unique situation of the individual, nor the socio-economic
organization of a nation, but the overall status of the development of
humanity.
! Now, we will take a minute to briefly recap some of the
mechanisms that have been used over the years in the measurement
to determine the situation of poverty being faced by the inhabitants
of the planet according to these different indicators.
! In 1997, the UNDP included the human poverty index (HPI)
for the first time in their human development report to try to
categorize the different characteristics of deprivations found in the
quality of life with a composite index that could be used to judge the
extent of poverty in a given community.
! After 13 years of reporting using the poverty based system of
the HPI, in 2010, UNDP, through its Office of Human Development
Reports (HDR) along with the Oxford Poverty & Human
Development Initiative (OPHI), the University of Oxford presented
a new way of measuring poverty, the Multidimensional Poverty
Index (MPI). Bringing about multidimensional vision of people
living in poverty, which according to its creators could be helpful in
the allocation of developmental resources more effectively.
! Results from the data which can be drawn from the MPI in its
annual report in 2011, produced by the HDR, are rather alarming.
By selecting the 5 countries with the highest number of inhabitants
(China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh), with
populations totaling nearly 3000 million inhabitants, we can see
how more than 1.3 billion (44.8%) live under the threshold of
multidimensional poverty. This meaning that at least 33% of the
indicators reflect serious deprivations in health, education and
standard of living. These statistics also show that largest emerging
countries such as China or India, according to World Bank data,
have an average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth over 10
years of a 10% and 7.5% respectively, and will not have reached the
desirable result of equitable development of their populations that
have a 18.7 and 70.2% respectively of multidimensional poverty
population.
This data reveals that a countrys economic
growth is not sign of progress towards
equality of population since the monetary
development continues to accumulate in a
few hands and thus keeping the situations
of inequality and poverty within the
borders of the countries.
! Of the 109 Countries analyzed in the MPI, all of them are
developing; we find that 48 Nations that suffer multidimensional
poverty in more than 50% of its population, becoming
overwhelming that in 20 of these countries you will encounter that
this negative quality exceeded 85% of its inhabitants. Except for
8
East Timor and Somalia, the 18 remaining countries, belong to the
region of Sub-Saharan Africa.
! This statistic draw our particular attention because when
crossing with the annual report Global Employment Trends 2012
of the International Labour Organization (ILO) we can see that the
Sub-Saharan region is presented as the farmer of the world with
62% of its population being dedicated to that sector. On the other
hand these regions are also the ones with the least dedication to
industry with only 8.5% employed in this sector, thus creating the
continuous need for imported industrial products with its inexorable
consequence of national reductions in social spending within the
country.
These indicators show us that agriculture and
the rural world are still linked to poverty,
perpetuate gaps in basic health services, in
quality education and a high standard of living.
! To overcome these hardships faced by multidimensional
poverty populations, we will need to diversify the productive sectors
in all regions of the world, or as an alternative, exercise a fair trade
between all nations that respect and value the production of each of
these regions. As well as promote dedication to avoid the current
reality in which agricultural nations are equivalent to nations
misery where most of its population suffer from severe deprivation
that prevents them from enjoying a reasonable standard of living.
! We discussed earlier that the MPI has been conducted in 109
developing countries, but the United States of America and the
European Community are exempted from poverty? This is far from
the reality. In the last decade, due in part to the global economic
crisis that is taking place, these so called developed countries are
watching how the number of its residents living in poverty is on the
rise every year.
! The Census held every year by the Government of the United
States shows how in the last ten years its inhabitants in poverty have
been rising from 11 to the current 15.1%, encompassing 46.2
million people, which is a considerable figure for a country that is
shown as a culmination of freedom and individual rights.
! Meanwhile, the European Community (EC), through its
Parliament on 24 October 2011 presented its report on the
European Platform Against Poverty and Social Exclusion which
show the data on the situation in the EC. It shows that 116 million
inhabitants of the European Union are threatened by poverty
and 42 million (8%) live in conditions of severe material
deprivation and cannot cover a range of needs considered essential
to live a dignified life in Europe.
! Among the 116 million who are under threat of poverty in the
EU are 20 million children. After analyzing the data, we can reflect
that northern countries, (USA and EC) despite having some
excellent material and productive infrastructures, have not made an
attempt to establish a social justice within their borders that
promotes equitable development among its inhabitants. This has
consequently produced the gap of millions of people who are
pushed into social exclusion through poverty.
! Today that blatant lack of interest in social justice reflects the
increasing number of unemployed in these regions, social well-
being, health and educational services are suffering limitations due
to the decrease of their economic budgets, depriving millions of
people of those basic services for social development.
! A quick overview of the annual ILO Global Employment
Trends 2012 report helps us to understand the plight of billions of
people around the world. There are 3,300 million workers, of which
900 million obtained a payment less than $2 a day, with 456 million
earning less than $1.25 a day and apart from them we must not
9
forget to add 200 million more are unemployed. Closely linked to
this are the statistics of employment vulnerablility (I) found 1,520
million (49.1%) of workers, most of them located in sub-Saharan
Africa and South Asia, South-East Asia and the Pacific, regions
heavily dependent on agriculture, once again presenting more
evidence in the relationship with the level of poverty in these
regions.
! The world is still an unfair place to live with unequal
distribution of wealth, causing a disproportionate poverty rate
among the majority of its population. It is evident in the annual List
of the Richest People in the world by Forbes magazine, where it
indicates that the 10 individuals with greatest fortunes on the planet
possess greater accumulation of wealth than the joint of the 67
countries GDP poor of the planet; according to data extracted from
the to the annual report of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
! The top of the list, Carlos Slim, has the personal wealth
equivalent to the joint GDP of the 35 poorest countries in the world.
This data around the world believe that they are the expression of
the socio-economic organization in the most local dimensions,
where, at all levels, a very small number of people always boast the
economic wealth of the majority of workers who sustain the current
production system with their daily work.
! If all of us are born equal, with some inherent global human
rights, how is that possible that a poverty of this extreme can exist,
or better yet we need to ask ourselves how can we allow the
existence of this tremendous inequality demonstrated by these
statistics below?
There are 48 countries with more than 50% of its
population living in multidimensional poverty.
There are 20 countries with more than 85% of its
population living in multidimensional poverty. (Except 2,
all of sub-Saharan Africa)
There are 1,520 million workers in vulnerable employment
(49.1%)
Over 900 million people earn less than $2 a day (27.2%)
More than 456 million people earn less than $1.25 a day
(13.8%)
US: 46 million poor people (15.1%).
EC: 116 million at risk of poverty, 42 million poor people
(8%)
There are over 783 million people in the world without
access to safe drinking water.
Over 868 million undernourished people. in the world.
Wealth 10 richest people in the world = 395.400 million
USD
GDP of the 67 poorest countries in the world = 389.019
million USD.
There are 35 countries with a combined 66.406 million
USD GDP - Carlos Slim 69,000 million USD.
10
(I)Vulnerablility: Dened as the sum of own-account workers and unpaid family
workers. This indicator provides valuable insights into trends in overall employment
quality, as a high share of workers in vulnerable employment indicates widespread of
informal work arrangements, whereby workers typically lack adequate social protection
and coverage by social dialogue arrangements.6 Vulnerable employment is also often
characterized by low pay and difcult working conditions, in which workers fundamental
rights may be undermined.
ENTREVISTA SOBRE O MOVIMENTO
DOS SEM TETO DA BAHIA (BRASIL)
Javier Collado Ruano: Como surgiu a
idia de conhecer o MSTB e quantas
Ocupaes voc pesquisou?
Adriana Balaguer: A idia surgiu a partir
da minha pesquisa de mestrado, realizadas
n a U F B A , e m P s i c o l o g i a d o
Desenvolvimento. H uma demanda, nessa
rea do saber, de conhecer diferentes
contextos onde a criana se desenvolve.
Co mo o MS TB u m n i c h o d e
desenvolvimento novo, surgido nos ltimos
10 anos e ainda no havia sido pesquisado,
enquanto contexto de desenvolvimento
especfico na Bahia, achamos que esse seria
o incio de um novo campo de pesquisas.
Foram pesquisadas duas ocupaes, por um
ano: a Ocupao Cidade de Plstico e a
Ocupao Quilombo Paraso, ambas
localizada no bairro de Periperi, mas com
caractersticas fsicas bem distintas.
JCR: Diga o que o MSTB e qual seu
objetivo primordial?
AB: O Movimento dos Sem Teto da Bahia
(MSTB) um movimento social urbano,
caracterizado por pessoas que lutam por
melhores condies de vida e de moradia,
no se restringindo a habitao, mas
buscando reafirmar a funo social da
pr opr i edade ur bana. i mpor t ant e
compreender que o movimento tem um forte
carter poltico e identitrio, de luta pela
cidadania, entendendo que a escassez de
moradia urbana e a excluso social so
problemas estruturais e histricos que
devem ser compreendidos e transformados a
partir da conscincia poltica e do
movimento em busca da equidade. Assim, a
luta no se refere apenas moradia, mas
procura abarcar tudo que est ligado
qualidade de vida e das relaes sociais.
JCR: Comente um pouco da trajetria
desse movimento social:
AB: Tal movimento oriundo do MSTS
Movimento dos Sem Teto de Salvador, que
realiza sua primeira ocupao no dia 02 de
julho de 2003, de forma espontnea, onde
um grupo de pessoas se juntou para ocupar
um espao na estrada velha do aeroporto.
No dia seguinte iniciou-se um movimento
que durou 17 dias (de 03 a 20 de julho) onde
se criou oficialmente o MSTS (no dia 20 de
julho de 2003, aprovado em assemblia.
Vale ressaltar que esse no um movimento
exclusivo da cidade de Salvador, mas que se
estende no somente por todo o estado da
Bahia, mas que acontece em todo o pas. A
partir da luta o MSTB j conquistou, diante
11
Adriana Lima Balaguer
Terapeuta ocupacional pela FBDC. Mestre em
psicologia pela UFBA
albalaguerl@hotmail.com
das autoridades municipais, a construo de
aproximadamente 200 casas populares no bairro de Valria
e vai conquistar muito mais.
JCR: Que fatores favoreceram o surgimento do
MSTB?
AB: preciso contextualizar o sistema poltico e scio
econmico vigente, bem como conhecer a configurao
histrica que levou a essa trajetria. O Movimento vai
surgir a partir de duas vertentes: dos fatores
histrico estruturais e dos fatores de conjuntura
social.
JCR: Voc acredita que pode se fazer uma
relao entre o passado histrico de escravido
e o MSTB?
AB: Sim. fundamental compreender que a
abolio da escravatura, sem medidas de proteo
ou reparao (polticas pblicas de redistribuio
de terras, por exemplo) aos ex escravos tambm
contribuiu para a formao da realidade atual. Vale
ressaltar que, grande parte dos componentes do
MSTB so afro-descendentes e, por isso uma das
ocupaes pesquisada se intitula Quilombo
(Quilombo Paraso).
JCR: No MSTB h uma relao familiar entre
os habitantes? Como se do as relaes pessoais
nos espaos de Ocupao?
AB: Tal movimento engloba uma srie de famlias
que, juntas, ocupam determinados locais em busca
de espaos urbanos de moradia, associado a uma
luta poltica, reivindicando por uma habitao mais
digna. Os espaos de ocupao passam, assim, a se consti-
tuir como espaos de vida do coletivo, onde pessoas, li-
gadas ou no por laos parentais, vivem dentro de um
mesmo ambiente fsico e social, que vem a se constituir
como contexto de desenvolvimento. As famlias que vivem
no MSTB se constituem como nichos individuais con-
vivendo em um macro-nicho que ganha caractersticas
de comunidade a partir do momento em que todos daquele
ncleo esto trabalhando em prol de um objetivo comum
(moradia urbana) e habitam o mesmo espao fsico. Dessa
forma o movimento se caracteriza enquanto luta social.
JCR: Descreva um pouco do modo de vida e habitao
nas Ocupaes visitadas
AB: As casas so feitas de materiais diversos como:
madeirite, papelo, pedaos de computador ou reboco.
Ficam localizadas muito prximas uma da outra e h
intenso contato entre os habitantes, que tem um senso de
comunidade e de troca muito grande, onde compartilham
refeies, cuidado com as crianas e muito contato uns
com os outros.
JCR: Voc conheceu um pouco do MSTB enquanto
contexto de desenvolvimento infantil. O que voc
poderia comentar a respeito da infncia no
Movimento?
AB: As crianas deste contexto vivem em um ambiente
comunitrio, muitas vezes compartilhando espaos de
moradia, experimentando situaes de instabilidade e
precariedade habitacional e monetria em uma realidade
scio econmica desfavorecida. Apesar disso, elas se
desenvolvem, e tem uma rotina de estudos, brincadeira e
cuidados gerais que podem favorecer seu desenvolvimento
e, em alguns casos, garantir seu suporte emocional.
Portanto, vale ressaltar que apesar da pobreza material
poder ser um fator de risco, a mesma no determinante
para um resultado desenvolvimental negativo.
JCR: Dentro da sua pesquisa voc encontrou
brincadeiras especficas que acontecem no Movimento
dos Sem Teto?
AB: Sim. As crianas do Movimento so extrema-
mente criativa e brincam muito. Observei algumas
brincadeiras inclusive inventadas por eles,
adaptando elementos do seu cotidiano, com a
brincadeira de Tampinha, que era uma espcie
de jogo de gude, usando tampas de garrafa pet e
a brincadeira de 7 pedrinhas, onde as crianas
usavam tijolos. Tambm foram vistas muitas
brincadeiras de comidinha, usando o barro do
cho. O mais interessante foi constatar a
adaptao ambiental que as crianas fazem para
viabilizar suas brincadeiras.
JCR: A partir do tempo que voc conviveu com
o MSTB e diante das conquistas observadas no
Movimento, que prospees voc poderia fazer
a respeito do futuro do Movimento, no sentido
de conquista da moradia urbana e melhoria das
condies de vida dos seus habitantes?
Percebi que alguns dos habitantes vem buscando
um maior nvel de organizao poltica, bem como
procurando ser mais participativo na organizao
comunitria. Foram construdas 200 casas para os
habitantes do MSTB e novas casas j esto sendo
construdas. Acredito que os habitantes devem alcanar seu
objetivo de melhoria das condies de vida e espero que
eles possam deixar um legado de luta e de conquista para
as prximas geraes.
12
www.globaleducationmagazine.com
N1
Gostaria de agradecer a minha orientadora, Prof.
Dra. Ilka Dias Bichara (UFBA) que orientou,
viabilizou e acreditou nessa pesquisa.
13
Oficina de
Santiago
Con el apoyo de la
Organizacin
de las Naciones Unidas
para la Educacin,
la Ciencia y la Cultura
La Educacin...
...te har libre!


La Educacin como un Derecho
Hace ms de cuarenta aos, las naciones de la tierra afirmaron en la
Declaracin Universal de Derechos Humanos que toda persona tiene
derecho a la educacin". Sin embargo, pese a los esfuerzos realizados para
asegurar el derecho a una educacin de calidad para todos, persisten grandes
desafos. La educacin es un derecho humano fundamental, esencial para poder
ejercitar otros derechos. La educacin promueve la libertad, la movilidad social y
la autonoma personal, generando importantes beneficios para el desarrollo.
! Sin embargo, millones de nios y adultos siguen privados de oportunidades
educativas, principalmente a causa de la pobreza y la desigualdad. De igual
forma, sin educacin no se puede construir ciudadana y, mucho menos, se
pueden ejercer los derechos democrticos fundamentales. As, la educacin tiene
que ser entendida como una herramienta clave no slo para mitigar la
desigualdad y reducir la pobreza, sino para consolidar la estabilidad
democrtica. Sin educacin la democracia siempre estar incompleta.
! Hoy existen 793 millones de adultos analfabetos en el mundo, en su
mayora nias y mujeres. 67 millones de nios en edad de asistir a la escuela
primaria no lo hacen. 72 millones de adolescentes en edad de cursar el primer
ciclo de la enseanza secundaria tampoco estn gozando de su derecho a la
educacin, de acuerdo con el Informe de Seguimiento de la Educacin
para Todos en el Mundo de UNESCO.
! En la regin de Amrica Latina y el Caribe la tasa de alfabetizacin de los
adultos pas del 84% al 91%, pero an hay cerca de 36 millones de analfabetos
absolutos. Adems, 5 millones de nios y adolescentes, lo que corresponde a
5,3% de la poblacin, estn fuera de la escuela. Si bien el 71% de los jvenes de
entre 20 y 24 aos han concluido el primer ciclo de la educacin secundaria, slo
un poco ms de la mitad de ellos han concluido el secundo ciclo.
! La desigualdad socioeconmica, la polarizacin poltica, la violencia
ocasional y estructural, la delincuencia, los desastres naturales y el impacto del
cambio climtico son grandes retos en nuestra regin, y aumentan la complejidad
de los desafos educativos. Dichas caractersticas especficas exigen un enfoque
contextualizado para lograr las metas de Educacin para Todos (EPT), con sus
mltiples efectos para las personas de la regin.
! Ya podemos afirmar que lo ms probable es que no logremos alcanzar los
seis objetivos de EPT en la regin al 2015. Se ha avanzado en casi todas las reas
y en la gran mayora de los pases de Amrica Latina y el Caribe, pero no es
suficiente. Para lograr las metas, hace falta acelerar el paso. Slo se lograrn si
se fortalecen los sistemas de apoyo para el aprendizaje: mejorar los planes de
estudios; mejorar sustancialmente la formacin docente; fortalecer el liderazgo
escolar para asegurar un clima escolar acogedor, libre de intimidacin y
inseguridad; fortalecer sistemas de planificacin y gestin de sistemas educativos
en todo nivel administrativo, incluyendo a nivel de escuela, descentralizando
responsabilidades de la autoridad pero manteniendo sistemas slidos de
rendicin de cuentas y garanta de calidad; reafirmar el apoyo comunitario para
la educacin, por medio de oportunidades y mecanismos de financiamiento
innovadores, incluyendo alianzas pblicoprivadas.
! Al acercarse el 2015, es el momento de reflexionar en los rezagos y en los
desafos que emergen. En primer lugar, hace falta preguntarnos como completar
las metas de EPT de manera que todos y todas se pueden beneficiar de una
educacin de calidad. En esencia, debemos intentar trazar rumbos que deriven de
nuestra experiencia y enfocarnos en una agenda educacional a realizar ms all
del 2015. Tres puntos que deberamos considerar son: reconceptualizar la calidad
de la educacin; asegurar la equidad; y fomentar la educacin secundaria y
superior, incluyendo el aprendizaje profesional y vocacional hacia sociedades del
conocimiento y as poder competir en la economa global.
! Es tambin indispensable pensar en cmo se va a financiar la agenda del
desarrollo educativo hasta el 2015 y posteriormente, y qu alianzas sociales e
internacionales pueden contribuir polticas educativas ms efectivas. En ese
sentido, esfuerzos como Global Education Magazine son clave para elevar la
sensibilidad social sobre los retos educativos que enfrentamos; nos motiva ver a
ciudadanos comprometidos con el trabajo que Educacin para Todos nos exige
ahora y en los aos por venir.
Jorge Sequeira
Director
OREALC/UNESCO Santiago
14
Oficina de
Santiago
Con el apoyo de la
Organizacin
de las Naciones Unidas
para la Educacin,
la Ciencia y la Cultura

! En Amrica Latina y el Caribe hay aproximadamente 117 millones de nios,
nias y adolescentes en edad de asistir a la educacin inicial, primaria y
secundaria bsica. Sin embargo, 6,5 millones de ellos no asisten a la escuela y
15,6 millones concurren a ella arrastrando fracasos y seales de desigualdad
expresadas en dos o ms aos de desfase grado-edad o rezago escolar.
! Esta es la informacin principal del informe Completar la Escuela. Un
Derecho para Crecer, un Deber para Compartir presentado por el Fondo de las
Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) y la Organizacin de las Naciones
Unidas para la Educacin, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO) por medio de su
Instituto de Estadstica (UIS).
! En las recientes dcadas, los sistemas educativos de Amrica Latina y el
Caribe se han ampliado para recibir a una enorme mayora de nios, nias y
adolescentes. Tambin se han lanzado iniciativas regionales como el proyecto
Metas Educativas 2021: la educacin que queremos para la generacin de los
Bicentenarios lanzada en el 2010 y cuya finalidad ltima es mejorar la calidad y la
equidad en la educacin para hacer frente a la pobreza y a la desigualdad y, de esta
forma, favorecer la inclusin social.
! Sin embargo, todava quedan muchos bolsones de exclusin, actuales o
potenciales: nios y nias que ingresan tarde al sistema educativo, que fracasan
reiteradamente, que no encuentran experiencias pedaggicas que les permitan
desarrollar sus capacidades y que viven situaciones de discriminacin. El mensaje
que quiere trasmitir el ttulo del informe, Completar la Escuela. Un Derecho para
Crecer, un Deber para Compartir vuelve a plantear la meta del cumplimiento de
todos los derechos educativos de la infancia y a la vez, insiste en la necesidad de
actuar en forma cooperativa y eficaz para lograrlo.
MENSAJES CLAVE
22.1 millones de nios, nias y adolescentes en Amrica Latina y el
Caribe no estn en la escuela o estn en riesgo grave de abandonarla.
El fracaso escolar y el rezago son los principales determinantes de la
exclusin.
El gnero, vivir en zonas rurales, el trabajo infantil, pertenecer a una
poblacin indgena, sufrir una discapacidad o ser afrodescendientes son
algunas de las disparidades que pueden agudizar la exclusin escolar.
La escolarizacin total, oportuna, sostenida y plena es un deber de todos.
15
Completar la escuela
Un derecho para crecer, un deber para compartir
Informe de UNICEF y UNESCO sobre la educacin en Amrica Latina y el Caribe
Oficina de
Santiago
Con el apoyo de la
Organizacin
de las Naciones Unidas
para la Educacin,
la Ciencia y la Cultura

! En la elaboracin del informe se comenz reconociendo los perfiles de
los grupos ms afectados por la exclusin escolar. Luego se identificaron las
barreras que obstaculizan la educacin sostenida, oportuna y plena de estos
nios, nias y adolescentes. Finalmente, se propusieron estrategias para
abordar estas problemticas. El enfoque metodolgico adoptado supone un
proceso innovador para la regin, debido a que identifica los perfiles de
sujetos excluidos de manera previa a la deteccin de barreras. Este abordaje
descarta que los perfiles sean causales de la exclusin y fija la mirada en las
barreras de la oferta educativa, a diferencia de otros anlisis e interpretaciones
de la ltima dcada, que se han concentrado sobre todo en los problemas de la
demanda educativa.

Cinco dimensiones de exclusin


! En el marco del informe se determinan cinco dimensiones de exclusin,
es decir, cinco posibilidades de estar hoy o maana fuera de la escuela y del
mapa del recorrido escolar.
- Dimensin 1: nios y nias en edad de asistir a la educacin inicial que no
estn en la escuela inicial o primaria.
- Dimensin 2: nios y nias en edad de asistir a la educacin primaria que no
estn en la escuela primaria ni secundaria, distinguiendo entre aquellos que
nunca acceden a la escuela primaria, accedern en forma tarda, o han
participado de ella por un tiempo restringido y abandonaron sin finalizar el
nivel completo.
- Dimensin 3: nios, nias y adolescentes en edad de asistir a la educacin
secundaria bsica que no estn en la escuela primaria ni en la secundaria.
- Dimensin 4: nios y nias que estn en la escuela primaria pero que estn
en riesgo grave de abandonar.
- Dimensin 5: nios, nias y adolescentes que estn en la escuela secundaria
bsica pero que estn en riesgo grave de abandonar.
! El informe destaca que los nios, nias y adolescentes indgenas,
afrodescendientes, con discapacidades o que viven en zonas rurales estn en
mayor riesgo de exclusin o rezago escolar. Los datos analizados demuestran
que, en algunos pases, la asistencia de la poblacin en edad de estar en la
secundaria alcanza a menos del 50% en las zonas rurales. Tambin evidencian
una clara vinculacin entre la condicin del trabajo infantil y la asistencia a la
escuela; los estudiantes de entre 12 y 14 aos que trabajan, si bien muchos
estn escolarizados, muestran tasas de asistencia menores que los que no
trabajan. Adems, en algunos pases los nios y nias afrodescendientes
atraviesan ms frecuentemente situaciones de ingreso tardo y fracaso escolar.
Disparidades que agudizan la exclusin
La situacin de gnero.
Las zonas rurales (en la mitad de los pases de la regin, la asistencia de la
poblacin en edad de estar en la secundaria alcanza a menos del 50%).
El trabajo infantil (en 2008 trabajaba el 10% de los nios con edades
comprendidas entre 5 y 17 aos).
Las poblaciones indgenas.
Nios y nias con discapacidad.
Nios, nias y adolescentes afrodescendientes.
La insuficiencia de ingresos econmicos en la familia.
16
Barreras econmicas de la demanda de educacin
Los costos directos (tiles, uniformes, libros) o indirectos (trasporte,
alimentacin) de la escolarizacin son elevados para las familias de
insuficientes ingresos.
El trabajo infantil perjudica las oportunidades. En las pruebas de evaluacin
de la calidad aplicadas regionalmente, los nios que trabajan obtienen, en
promedio, entre 7 y 22 puntos menos que los estudiantes que no trabajan.
El 6% de los nios menores de 5 aos tiene peso insuficiente, causado por
desnutricin y otros problemas de salud. Esta cifra alerta de los casos de nios
que llegan cotidianamente a la escuela sin haber ingerido un aporte calrico
suficiente para permitir un adecuado rendimiento durante la jornada escolar.

Barreras socioculturales en la demanda de educacin.


La pobreza y las diferentes pautas culturales no son en s mismas
explicaciones absolutas, sino relativas, de la problemtica de la exclusin. Los
prejuicios sobre las capacidades de los que son distintos
a l a cul t ura escol ar promedi o, di smi nuyen l a
autovaloracin y motivacin por la escuela.
Existen posturas retradas para demandar o ejercer el
derecho a la educacin en sectores sociales que viven una
variedad de postergaciones. Considerarles culpables de
no ejercer el derecho a la educacin para sus hijos,
encubre las injusticias que padecen de larga data.
Existen diferencias entre las culturas populares y la
cultura sostenida en la escuela, con escaso dilogo e
integracin. As, la brecha entre la cultura escolar y las
culturas de vastos sectores populares ha sido poco
estudiada como brecha y no existe mucha informacin
sobre el esfuerzo que supone a estos sectores adaptarse a
vivir de una forma diferente en la escuela. Es necesario y
tcnicamente posible, ayudar a este proceso.
Existen tambin situaciones de violencia social y riesgos
del entorno escolar, que pueden inhibir la escolarizacin.
Barreras materiales, pedaggicas y simblicas que se manifiestan en las
escuelas
En Per, ms del 70% de los alumnos de escuelas rurales y ms del 50% en
las urbanas asisten a establecimientos que, segn los directores, necesitan una
renovacin completa o mejoras edilicias importantes. Chile fue el pas que
present los porcentajes ms bajos de la regin (25% y 15% respectivamente).
El 76% de las escuelas en Amrica Latina y el Caribe tienen agua potable,
aunque esta situacin abarca diversidades: ms del 90% delas instituciones
educativas de Chile, Cuba, Uruguay y Nuevo Len (Mxico) accede a este
servicio, mientras que menos de la mitad de las escuelas de Nicaragua cuenta
con l. A su vez, slo dos tercios de los centros educativos de la regin tienen
baos suficientes para los estudiantes.
En Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Panam, Paraguay y Repblica
Dominicana menos del 50% de establecimientos tienen biblioteca escolar; en
Brasil, Colombia, El Salvador, Mxico y Per ascienden al 50% y el 60%;
finalmente en Argentina, Cuba, Chile, Guatemala y Uruguay, este porcentaje es
mayor al 60%.
En cuanto al promedio de libros con los que cuentan las
bibliotecas de la regin, este valor equivale a 851 volmenes.
En Argentina, Brasil, Colombia o Chile, la cantidad de libros
supera los 1.400 volmenes. Ecuador o Guatemala alcanzan
valores cercanos a los 300 libros.
Las experiencias de aprendizaje que viven los estudiantes,
especialmente los que pertenecen a los perfiles de mayor riesgo
de exclusin, son insuficientes o inadecuadas para el desarrollo
de sus capacidades.
Se combina la influencia de metodologas ineficaces de
enseanza, de procesos de evaluacin arbitrarios y poco
fundamentados, poco manejo de las situaciones del grupo
clase, un clima escolar competitivo y poco cooperativo, y la
intervencin de prejuicios arraigados sobre los nios y nias, y
las familias que son diferentes a una pauta promedio
trasmitida en la formacin docente. Todos estos factores
pueden ser mejorados desde las polticas educativas y la
movilizacin social.
17
ver resumen ejecutivo ver informe completo
Barreras polticas, tcnicas y de financiamiento del sistema educativo
En tanto Amrica Latina y el Caribe destinan poco ms del 14.4% del gasto
pblico total y el 4.5% del PIB a la educacin, los pases ms desarrollados de
Amrica del Norte y Europa asignan 12.4% y 5.3%, respectivamente.
La Organizacin de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI) coordina la Iniciativa
Metas 2021, cuyo objetivo es mejorar la calidad y equidad educativas y la
inclusin social. La Comisin Econmica para Amrica Latina y el Caribe
(CEPAL) llev a cabo en 2010 el costeo de dichas metas y concluy que al
finalizar, el gasto educativo adicional respecto a la situacin actual para
cumplir las metas ascendera a casi 58.000 millones de dlares anuales. Debe
tenerse en cuenta la gradualidad. As, en 2021, respecto del ao anterior, el
incremento slo sera de 10.500 millones de dlares. Si se consideran las
proyecciones de crecimiento de la regin y la meta que el mismo programa
propone de incrementar un 0.1% del PIB anualmente hasta 2021, Amrica
Latina podra encaminarse a la prosecucin de las acciones necesarias para
ello.
Los sistemas educativos pueden y deben apoyar con mayor nfasis y calidad
a las escuelas que tienen mayor desafo pedaggico por las particularidades de
la poblacin que atienden. La calidad tcnica de las propuestas que se brindan
debe corresponderse con resultados observables en los aprendizajes y en la
progresin regular de los estudiantes durante toda la educacin obligatoria. En
particular, superar el rezago escolar convoca a la mejor definicin de
estrategias pedaggicas, organizacionales y de movilizacin social.
Estas acciones eficaces para proteger el derecho a la escolarizacin, tienen a
su vez impacto positivo en los recursos financieros. El fracaso escolar
manifiesto en la repeticin y el recursado generan un sobrecosto improductivo
para el sistema: se paga ms veces por alcanzar un mismo grado. Esto
incrementa, a su vez, el costo de producir un egresado, ya que se requieren
ms aos de estudio por alumno. El gasto derivado de la repeticin en Amrica
Latina y el Caribe ascendera a 19.980,3 millones de dlares; es decir, tres
veces el costo de las metas de cobertura universal desde el nivel inicial hasta el
secundario inferior estipulado en las Metas 2021. Esto representa
aproximadamente el 0,34% del PIB regional y un 7% del gasto educativo de
Amrica Latina y el Caribe. Estas cifras se derivan de que en la regin, los
recursantes representan casi el 13% del total de la matrcula de esos niveles.
El rezago avanzado tener dos o ms aos de desfase grado/edad, que
afecta a nueve millones de estudiantes en la regin, es producido por la
acumulacin de los fracasos del sistema educativo. En el quinto grado de la
educacin bsica, 2 de cada 10 estudiantes estn en esa condicin y otros 2 de
cada 10 tienen un ao de desfase. 1 de cada 3 alumnos/as de 12 a 14 aos que
viven en zonas rurales tiene dos y ms aos de rezago. Es decir, que es muy
probable que se encuentre cursando la educacin primaria en vez de estar en la
secundaria bsica. Para los educandos que tienen padres de bajo nivel
educativo, la probabilidad de cursar con rezago es casi 10 veces superior a
quienes tienen padres de alto nivel educativo.
Esta situacin no es inevitable: gran nmero de los factores que la producen
pueden operarse desde el sistema educativo, contando con estrategias
pedaggicas, de organizacin de las escuelas, de compromiso y movilizacin
de las comunidades de referencia, con los recursos presupuestarios, y el apoyo
de otros organismos que atienden necesidades derivadas de otros derechos de
la infancia no cubiertos.
A modo de ejemplo, la educacin rural y con poblaciones indgenas requiere
una propuesta que incorpore y valore los saberes propios, y permita el
desarrollo de las capacidades cognitivas e intelectuales con contenidos
relevantes para esos pueblos. Tener una escuela rural con slo uno o dos
docentes para atender 30 estudiantes de distintos grados (organizacin en
multigrado) no es una desventaja en s misma, si los docentes conocen y
aplican una metodologa de enseanza adecuada y peculiar, contando con
recursos materiales bsicos y, sobre todo, con el acompaamiento eficaz de las
estructuras locales del sistema. Finalmente, si se moviliza la comunidad de
referencia a favor de la infancia, es posible alcanzar en todas las escuelas
rurales, an en las pequeas y aisladas, una escolarizacin total, oportuna,
sostenida y plena, como merecen y tienen derecho estos nios, nias y
adolescentes.
18
Preguntas y Respuestas
sobre el informe

Un deber para compartir
! El informe revela que, en la regin, la mayor parte de quienes se han ido
tempranamente de la escuela han estado varios aos escolarizados y
acumulando distintas formas de fracaso escolar. Seala tambin que no se
pueden alcanzar las metas de cobertura sin abordar este problema que termina
expulsando tempranamente a los grupos ms vulnerables de la escuela. Por
ello, al momento del anlisis y de la accin, los temas de cobertura y de
calidad no se deben abordar de manera separada, sino que es indispensable
alinearlos para alcanzar resultados positivos de inclusin.
! La expresin un deber para compartir es una convocatoria para evitar
el reparto de culpas entre sectores y en su lugar asumir colectiva y
cooperativamente los esfuerzos que hay que realizar para garantizar el derecho
a la educacin. Los Estados nacionales y subnacionales, los organismos de
financiamiento y de cooperacin, las entidades sindicales docentes, los medios
de comunicacin, las familias, las comunidades y las universidades y centros
de investigacin no pueden mantenerse al margen y deben asumir sus
responsabilidades para que el sistema escolar pueda cumplir con su misin de
la mejor manera.
! La educacin es clave para hacer frente a las profundas
inequidades en nuestra regin. Debemos trabajar desde todos los
sectores para que todos los nios, nias y adolescentes puedan
completar la escuela dijo el Director Regional para Amrica Latina y el
Caribe de UNICEF, Bernt Aasen. Para conseguirlo es necesario
articular los esfuerzos del sector educacin con los que realizan los
sectores de proteccin social, salud y nutricin, as como con las
familias y comunidades. UNICEF trabaja activamente para que esta
articulacin sea una realidad. En sintona con este diagnstico, Jorge
Sequeira, Director Regional de educacin de la UNESCO, agreg que la
prioridad por elevar la calidad educativa de las nias, nios y
adolescentes, dotndolos de conocimientos pertinentes y relevantes,
dndoles la posibilidad de desenvolverse de manera digna y con
sentido de pertenencia a sus sociedades es un requisito esencial de
nuestros sistemas educativos si es que aspiramos a universalizar la
conclusin de esos niveles de educacin.
Acerca de UNICEF
! UNICEF trabaja sobre el terreno en
ms de 190 pases y territorios para
ayudar a los nios a sobrevivir y a
desarrollarse desde la primera infancia
hast a l a adol escenci a. El mayor
proveedor de vacunas para los pases en
desarrollo, UNICEF apoya la salud y la
nutricin de la infancia, el abastecimiento
de agua y saneamiento de calidad, la
prestacin de educacin bsica de calidad
para todos los nios y nias y la proteccin de los nios y nias contra la
violencia, la explotacin y el SIDA. UNICEF est financiado en su totalidad
por las contribuciones voluntarias de individuos, empresas, fundaciones y
gobiernos. Para obtener ms informacin acerca de UNICEF y su trabajo en
Amrica Latina y el Caribe, visite: www.unicef.org/lac
Acerca de la UNESCO y su Instituto de Estadstica (UIS)
! La misin de la UNESCO consiste
en contribuir a la consolidacin de la
paz, la erradicacin de la pobreza, el
desarrollo sostenible y el dilogo
intercultural mediante la educacin, las
ciencias, la cultura, la comunicacin y
la informacin. Sus estrategias y
actividades se sustentan en las metas y
objetivos concretos de la comunidad
internacional, como los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM). El UIS es
la oficina de estadstica de la UNESCO y es depositario de la ONU en materia
de estadsticas internacionalmente comparables en los mbitos de la
educacin, la ciencia y la tecnologa, la cultura y la comunicacin. Ms
informacin sobre la UNESCO y el UIS en www.unesco.org y en
www.uis.unesco.org
Para obtener ms informacin, pngase en contacto con:
Tamar Hahn: thahn@unicef.org / Isabel Andrades: iandrades@unicef.org
19
EPT/PRELAC
Proyecto Regional de Educacin para Amrica Latina y el Caribe
! El EPT/PRELAC pone el acento en la resolucin de aspectos
pendientes para lograr una educacin de calidad para todos para el ao 2015.
! La regin de Amrica Latina y el Caribe es la ms desigual del planeta.
Las diferencias entre quienes tienen ms y quienes tienen menos, lejos de
reducirse, se acrecientan da a da. Esta desigualdad incluye tambin el acceso
a servicios sociales de calidad como la educacin.
! Las seis metas del movimiento Educacin para Todos (EPT),
suscritas por todos los pases del mundo en Dakar, Senegal 2000, apuntan a
lograr una educacin bsica de calidad, sin exclusiones para todos los nios,
nias, jvenes y adultos.
! El Proyecto Regional de Educacin
para Amrica Latina y el Caribe (EPT/
PRELAC) es la hoja de ruta adoptada por
los Ministros de Educacin de la regin
para alcanzar los objetivos de la EPT
para el ao 2015. Tiene por objeto
impulsar cambios sustanciales en las
polticas y prcticas de la educacin para
hacer realidad los objetivos enunciados en
el Marco de Accin de Dakar.
! Concebido como un marco de accin, el EPT/PRELAC identifica cinco
focos estratgicos para intervenciones:
Foco 1: Contenidos y prcticas de la educacin para construir sentidos acerca
de nosotros mismos, los dems y el mundo en el que vivimos.
Foco 2: Docentes y fortalecimiento de su protagonismo para que respondan a
l a s n e c e s i d a d e s d e a p r e n d i z a j e d e l o s a l u mn o s .
Foco 3: Cultura de las escuelas para que se conviertan en comunidades de
a p r e n d i z a j e y p a r t i c i p a c i n .
Foco 4: Gestin y flexibilizacin de los sistemas educativos para ofrecer
oport uni dades de aprendi zaj e efect i vo a l o l argo de l a vi da.
Foco 5: Responsabilidad social por la educacin para generar compromisos
con su desarrollo y resultados.
! El EPT/PRELAC est regido por un Comit Intergubernamental
integrado por todos los Estados Miembros y Estados Asociados de la
UNESCO en Amrica Latina y el Caribe, representados por sus Ministros de
Educacin. El Comit tiene una Mesa compuesta por siete miembros con
mandato de cuatro aos. La UNESCO acta como la Secretara Ejecutiva y
representa a la Directora General de la UNESCO ante el Comit.
! La Secret ar a (UNESCO) i mpl ementa
intervenciones variadas, en lnea con las seis
metas de Educacin para Todos y los cinco
focos del EPT/PRELAC. As, la UNESCO apoya
tcnicamente el desarrollo de polticas y prcticas
educativas en reas prioritarias, evala los
impactos de las polticas, programas y prcticas
educativas desarrolladas por los pases, favorece
la participacin de actores del gobierno y la
sociedad civil y facilita la cooperacin entre los
pases y las agencias de cooperacin.
! La Mesa del EPT/PRELAC - Argentina
(Presidente), Brasil, Domnica, Costa Rica,
Ecuador, Paraguay, Trinidad y Tobago - se reunir
en Enero del 2013 en Mexico. En ese contexto,
los Ministros analizarn los logros educativos de
la regin as como tambin los desafos
20
pendientes al 2015 y formularn recomendaciones preliminares para la agenda
educacional post-2015 en la regin.
Para aumentar la eficacia del EPT/PRELAC
Analizar el impacto de los escenarios polticos, econmicos y culturales en la
educacin.
Armonizar las agendas educativas de las agencias que trabajan en educacin.
Monitorear avances de la regin hacia la EPT.
Programas Conjuntos priorizando el logro de las metas de la EPT al 2015 y
ms all.
Ofrecer asesora tcnica especializada a los pases
Ayudar a hacer ms efectiva la gestin de los sistemas educativos
incrementando la eficiencia en el uso y asignacin de recursos.
Disear mecanismos para mejorar la toma de decisiones para la inversin.
Desarrollar trabajo conjunto entre los Ministerios de Educacin y de
Hacienda para una inversin educativa adecuada fundada en prioridades.
Analizar la situacin de los jvenes en la regin para una oferta educacional
acorde a sus necesidades.
Dar cuenta de las TICs en educacin, como un asunto emergente y clave.
Formular e implementar un marco integral de accin en el campo de los
docentes en la regin.
Trabajar en torno a la educacin en situaciones de emergencia: post desastre y
post conflicto.
Apoyar a EPT/PRELAC mediante la cooperacin internacional
Organizar una reunin sobre financiamiento innovador para educacin.
Proponer orientaciones para una mejor utilizacin, coordinacin y asignacin
de recursos provenientes de la cooperacin.
! La reunin de Mxico tocar otros temas clave para el EPT/PRELAC,
entre ellos una rendicin de cuentas por parte de la UNESCO sobre la
implementacin de las recomendaciones desde la ltima reunin en 2010,
seguido de un dilogo por parte de los Ministros con miras a un plan de accin
regional al 2015 y ms all.
Conozca la Historia y Documentos del PRELAC aqu.
21
Actualidad:
Dia Internacional de la No Violencia
! En el da del natalicio de
Mahatma Gandhi, 2 de octubre,
la Embajada de la India junto a
la Oficina de la UNESCO en
Sant i ago de Chi l e y ot ras
agencias de las Naciones Unidas
en Chile conmemoraron el Dia
I n t e r n a c i o n a l d e l a No
Violencia. En otra ceremonia
realizada el 8 de octubre en el
Teatro de Carabineros de Chile,
d i v e r s a s a u t o r i d a d e s s e
p r o n u n c i a r o n s o b r e l a
importancia de cultivar la paz.
Did you know
about
...the Universal Declaration
of Emerging Human Rights?
! The Declaration of Emerging Human Rights arises from the
global civil society at the beginning of the 21st century with the aim of
contributing to the design of a new horizon of rights that will orientate
the social and cultural movements of communities and peoples, and that
will at the same time be inscribed in contemporary societies, institutions,
public policies and the agendas of leaders in order to promote and favour
a new relationship between the global civil society and the authorities.
! Els drets humans sn el fonament de les societats lliures. La
societat globalitzada shauria de manifestar per la defensa de la garantia
efica dels drets humans, que assegura a tots la pau, la justcia, la
llibertat i les condicions de benestar duna vida harmoniosa i feli.
! En los aos transcurridos desde que el 10 de diciembre de 1948 la
Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas proclam solemnemente la
Declaracin Universal de los Derechos Humanos, se han producido
cambios polticos, sociales, ideolgicos, culturales, econmicos,
tecnolgicos y cientficos que han incidido de manera profunda en el
saber de los derechos humanos, en los mecanismos para su garanta y en
la fuerza e impacto de las voces y movimientos que desde la sociedad
civil global demandan su respeto.
! Plus dun demi-sicle sest coul, le chemin effectu est
considrable, certes, et un patrimoine juridique universel commence se
mettre en place et se consolider. Cependant, les droits de lHomme
nont pas t dfinis de faon permanente, car chaque volution sociale
ou technique rend les re- lations plus complexes et ouvre de nouvelles
voies ventuelles de domination ou de spoliation. Qui peut douter que
nous ne soyons aujourdhui devant une de ces tapes, peut-tre lune des
plus difficiles dans lhistoire de lhumanit?
Do you want to learn more? Go here!
22


UN SOLO REFUGIADO ES DEMASIADO!
23

24
Carta de presentacin
Los ltimos aos han sido marcados por una sucesin interminable de conflictos y crisis humanitarias, en me-
dio de incertidumbres, sociales, polticas y econmicas. Una de las primeras consecuencias de tal escenario es el
incremento de las personas forzadas a desplazarse y buscar proteccin en otros pases.
! La combinacin de estos factores ha reducido el espacio humanitario y de proteccin en el cual se
opera para asegurar el pleno goce de los derechos humanos de las personas desplazadas y garantizar que los
principios de humanidad, imparcialidad y neutralidad del trabajo humanitario sean respetados.
! La Agencia de la ONU para los Refugiados est haciendo frente a crisis de refugiados sin precedentes en
la historia reciente, ya que se estn produciendo emergencias simultneas en Siria, Mal, Sudn, Sudn del Sur y
la Repblica Democrtica del Congo (RDC). Y en lo que llevamos de ao, ms de 700.000 personas han huido
de estos pases. La capacidad de ACNUR para ayudar a los desplazados forzosos del mundo ha sido puesta a
prueba de forma radical por la rapidez con la que han surgido nuevas crisis y gracias a los pases que han man-
tenido sus fronteras abiertas para las personas que huyen de los conflictos.
! Sin embargo, los costes de ofrecer asistencia a los ms de 42 millones de desplazados forzosos del
mundo estn aumentando rpidamente, ya que las situaciones de desplazamiento de larga duracin, como es el
caso de Afganistn, Colombia o Somalia, continan. Mientras que poner fin a los conflictos requiere de
soluciones polticas, los actores humanitarios tambin pueden hacer ms por mejorar las perspectivas de paz,
como por ejemplo a travs de la sensibilizacin, invirtiendo en medios de subsistencia, educacin y otras
actividades que permitan mejorar la confianza en s mismas de las poblaciones de refugiados.
! Vivimos en tiempos peligrosos, en un mundo impredecible. Cada vez ms personas se estn viendo obli-
gadas a desplazarse en busca de refugio. Es importante el compromiso colectivo de los Estados y de las sociedad
civil para hacer frente a su sufrimiento y al de todos aquellos que se encuentran desplazados de sus hogares y
comunidades a medida que las crisis de hoy y de maana siguen desatndose
! A lo largo de la historia, Amrica Latina ha sido testigo de crisis humanitarias con dramticas
repercusiones. Sin embargo, la regin tiene como tradicin un profundo sentido de solidaridad para con los
refugiados, desde el mantenimiento de fronteras abiertas como las actividades de proteccin e integracin de
aquellos que se vieron forzados a dejar todo atrs.
! Actualmente, el Ecuador tiene la mayor poblacin refugiada de Amrica Latina: ms de 55 mil personas
(la gran mayora de origen colombiano) que han sido forzadas a huir de su lugar de origen a
causa del conflicto armado. Ecuador ha implementado medidas que facilitan el goce de sus
derechos fundamentales, con conviccin humanitaria considerando la situacin precaria en la
que llega la mayora de los refugiados a su territorio.
Francesca Fontanini
Oficial Regional de Informacin Pblica para las Amricas

AMRICA DEL SUR AMRICA CENTRAL
Colombia El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras
Ecuador Panam
Venezuela Costa Rica
Argentina Mxico
Paraguay y Bolivia
Brasil
AMRICA DEL SUR
COLOMBIA
! El conflicto y la dinmica de la violencia en Colombia han cambiado en los ltimos
aos como consecuencia de la desmovilizacin de grupos paramilitares, as como de la
proliferacin de actores armados ilegales, muchos estrechamente vinculados al trfico ilcito
de drogas y al crimen organizado. Esta situacin tiene un impacto negativo sobre la
proteccin de las personas desplazadas y refugiadas, as como en el espacio humanitario en el
que operan las oficinas del ACNUR.
! A causa de esta prolongada situacin, 3.943.508 de personas han sido desplazadas
internamente en Colombia y 395.949 personas han cruzado las fronteras en busca de
proteccin internacional, de los cuales 113.605 han sido reconocidos oficialmente como
refugiados.
! Esta grave situacin humanitaria ha generado la necesidad de desarrollar un enfoque
regional holstico que el ACNUR define como la Situacin Colombia, cuyo objetivo es
promover la respuesta armonizada al desplazamiento interno en Colombia y asegurar la
proteccin internacional de los refugiados en la regin.
! Los pases que conforman la Situacin Colombia son: Ecuador, la Repblica
Bolivariana de Venezuela y Panam. Estos pases salvo la Repblica Bolivariana de
Venezuela- hacen parte de la Convencin de Refugiados de 1951 y todos del protocolo de
1967. Costa Rica, a pesar de no formar parte de la situacin Colombia, acoge a 12.571
refugiados colombianos en su territorio.
Programas regionales
! El Plan de Accin de Mxico fue suscrito en noviembre de 2004 por 20 pases
latinoamericanos para fortalecer los sistemas de proteccin internacional en la regin y
contiene medidas en defensa de los derechos de refugiados, desplazados internos y otras
personas desarraigadas. Algunas de las iniciativas principales en el Plan de Accin de Mxico
en la regin son:
Fronteras solidarias: El objetivo principal de este programa es identificar y atender las
necesidades humanitarias de personas en busca de proteccin internacional. En este marco,
se promueve la integracin local a travs de estrategias que beneficien tanto a personas
necesitadas de proteccin como a la poblacin local receptora. Para asegurar su impacto y
25
CON EL AUSPCIO DE LA OFICINA REGIONAL DE LAS
AMRICAS DE ACNUR
Para informacin adicional,
pngase en contacto con
Francesca Fontanini:
fontanin@unhcr.org
Oficina Regional de
Informacin Pblica
O visite las oficinas de ACNUR

sostenibilidad, este programa est estrechamente vinculado con los planes nacionales de
lucha contra la pobreza y el impulso de desarrollo regional.
Ciudades solidarias: Este programa busca apoyar la integracin y autosuficiencia de las
personas necesitadas de proteccin que residen en medianas y grandes ciudades. Su objetivo
fundamental es promover el acceso a servicios bsicos de salud, educacin, empleo y
vivienda para los refugiados a travs de su incorporacin en los programas nacionales
existentes. Igualmente promueve la autosuficiencia de los beneficiarios por medio de su
insercin en el mercado laboral y la promocin de actividades generadoras de ingresos.
Reasentamiento solidario: Esta iniciativa representa uno de los componentes ms
emblemticos e innovadores del Plan de Accin de Mxico y consiste en reasentar un
nmero limitado de refugiados que enfrentan altos riesgos de proteccin en los pases de
asilo. Sin embargo, la integracin depende de la voluntad poltica y del apoyo para asegurar
que los refugiados reasentados lleguen a ser autosuficientes y miembros productivos de la
sociedad.
El trabajo de ACNUR en Colombia
! El objetivo principal del ACNUR en la regin es el de promover y fortalecer la
respuesta efectiva de los estados en todas las etapas del desplazamiento forzado y maximizar el
espacio de proteccin para los refugiados. Algunos objetivos del ACNUR son:
Fortalecer el rgimen de asilo para proteger de manera eficaz a todas las personas en
necesidad de proteccin internacional, facilitndoles el acceso a documentacin adecuada
que certifique su condicin jurdica y as garantizar sus derechos fundamentales.
Promover la integracin local, que se ve perjudicada por unas condiciones
socioeconmicas complejas, especialmente a travs del acceso a la vivienda y a proyectos de
generacin de ingresos en reas urbanas.
Llevar a cabo un papel catalizador para obtener apoyo a la integracin de retorno,
reubicacin e integracin locales donde haya condiciones de seguridad y dignidad. Apoyar
planes de accin liderados por las autoridades locales sobre la base de diagnstico
participativo con la poblacin afectada, la promocin de la participacin de los actores de
desarrollo y del gobierno para facilitar la fase de transicin de asistencia humanitaria al
desarrollo sostenible
Dedicar especial atencin a la proteccin y necesidades de las personas ms vulnerables
en las que el desplazamiento o refugio tiene un impacto desproporcionado como los pueblos
indgenas, las comunidades afro-descendientes, las mujeres jefas de hogar, los nios y nias,
jvenes y personas con capacidades especiales.
A travs de proyectos vinculados a actividades autnomas de empoderamiento para los
refugiados y desplazados, brindar infraestructura bsica de salud y educacin a las
comunidades de escasos recursos donde viven (escuelas, centros de salud, centros
comunitarios, casas recreativas).
El Panorama Futuro
! ACNUR ha estado trabajando en la implementacin de una respuesta de proteccin
integral incluyendo la prevencin de futuros desplazamientos y el apoyo para la integracin
local en zonas receptoras de desplazados internos y refugiados. En 2010, el gobierno
colombiano lanz un programa ambicioso de retorno, Retornar es Vivir, cuyo objetivo es
facilitar el regreso de 120.000 desplazados a 115 municipios a lo largo del pas. Hasta ahora, las
condiciones inestables de seguridad, la dificultad de acceso a la tierra y las oportunidades
limitadas de generacin de ingresos han impedido el progreso de este programa en trminos de
retorno.
! El ACNUR y el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) estn
trabajando en conjunto en la promocin de proyectos orientados a las soluciones en zonas
priorizadas de Colombia que permitan la transicin desde la asistencia humanitaria hacia
procesos de desarrollo sostenibles.
! Otro cambio importante fue introducido por el gobierno colombiano en junio de 2011
con la aprobacin de la Ley de Vctimas y Restitucin de Tierras que reconoce el impacto del
conflicto armado en Colombia sobre la poblacin civil y define una ruta para avanzar en el
proceso de reconciliacin y bsqueda de soluciones con nuevas medidas judiciales y
administrativas. Esta nueva ley le permitir a las vctimas despojadas de sus tierras o que
tuvieron que abandonarlas, acceder a una reparacin integral.
26
ECUADOR
! Ecuador tiene la mayor poblacin de refugiados de Amrica Latina, en su
mayora compuesta por personas que huyen del conflicto armado interno del vecino pas
Colombia. Hasta Marzo de 2012, el Gobierno Ecuatoriano ha reconocido a 56.398 personas
refugiadas en el Ecuador; 60% de ellas viven en reas urbanas y la mayora del 40% restante
permanece cerca de la frontera, en regiones poco desarrolladas y aisladas, con limitados
servicios bsicos e infraestructuras. Ecuador comparte una amplia frontera de 640 kilmetros
con Colombia, desde la costa del Pacfico hasta la Amazona.
El trabajo de ACNUR en Ecuador
En este ao ACNUR se ha propuesto cuatro objetivos, con sus respectivas acciones:
! Como ejes transversales de la operacin se encuentran los siguientes:
1. Atencin especial a nios, nias, adolescentes y jvenes: trabajando con este grupo
poblacional que es afectado directamente por el conflicto. Los grupos armados
irregulares tienden a reclutar forzosamente a los nios y nias cuando empiezan su
adolescencia.
2. Luchando contra la violencia de gnero: trabajando de manera especial con las
mujeres refugiadas, las cuales viven en condiciones extremadamente difciles,
particularmente las que son cabeza de familia.
3. Atencin especial a la diversidad tnica y cultural de la poblacin beneficiaria:
desarrollndolo a travs de tres vas:
a) mejorando la calidad de vida de hombres y mujeres en comunidades indgenas y
Afro-descendiente en frontera;
b) fortaleciendo las organizaciones comunitarias de estos pueblos; y
c) sensibilizando sobre la necesidad de atender a refugiados y desplazados de
comunidades de estos pueblos.
27
OBJETIVOS ACCIONES
Fortalecimiento del
procedimiento de asilo
Asegurando el acceso a la documentacin de refugiados y
solicitantes de la condicin de refugiado.
Asegurar acceso al procedimiento de determinacin del estatuto
de refugiado.
Promocin de
soluciones duraderas:
Acceso a Derechos
Enfocando mximos recursos y esfuerzos en incrementar la
integracin entre poblacin refugiada y local.
Incrementando el reasentamiento.
Repatriacin voluntaria en condiciones de dignidad y seguridad.
Asistencia humanitaria
inicial: Necesidades
bsicas
Mejorar el acceso de los servicios bsicos.
Implementacin de un Sistema de Cupones de acceso a servicios
bsicos.
Fortaleciendo las redes de proteccin.
Acciones contra la
xenofobia y
discriminacin
Fortaleciendo relaciones con medios de comunicacin, lderes
de opinin y periodistas.
Implementando campaas anti-discriminacin en conjunto con el
Gobierno, Sistema de Naciones Unidas y la Sociedad Civil.
VENEZUELA
! A Venezuela han llegado cerca de 200.000 personas con necesidad de proteccin
internacional durante la ltima dcada, de los cuales ms del 95% son colombianos
obligados a huir de su tierra por persecuciones, amenazas de distintos grupos armados y
situaciones de extrema violencia generalizada. Mejorar su documentacin junto con su acceso
a servicios bsicos y fuentes de ingreso dignas es la prioridad para el ACNUR. La mayora de
los refugiados se encuentra en los estados fronterizos de Zulia, Tchira y Apure, donde
ACNUR ha abierto sus oficinas. Ms de la mitad vive en viviendas precarias, sin agua
corriente. Dos tercios de las familias sobrevive con jornales de mano de obra. La Oficina del
ACNUR en Venezuela, abri sus puertas en el ao 1991 para atender las necesidades de estas
personas y otras que soliciten la condicin de refugiado en Venezuela. La oficina principal del
ACNUR est ubicada en Caracas.
El trabajo de ACNUR en Venezuela
Promovemos el respeto a los derechos de los y las refugiadas de acuerdo con la ley
venezolana: Miles de copias de la Ley Nacional sobre Refugiados son distribuidas
anualmente entre refugiados, solicitantes de este estatus, funcionarios pblicos, cuerpos de
seguridad y autoridades.
Brindamos asesora tcnica a las autoridades para fortalecer la respuesta de
proteccin: Emprendemos actividades de formacin y asistencia tcnica para fortalecer
los conocimientos y habilidades de las autoridades responsables de la determinacin del
estatuto de refugiado en Venezuela, en particular a la CNR.
Con el apoyo del Departamento de Ayuda Humanitaria de la Comisin Europea,
ofrecer asistencia legal y humanitaria a las personas ms vulnerables. Orientacin para
acceder al sistema de asilo en Venezuela y a los servicios bsicos. Kits escolares, de
alimentacin y subsidios entregados a quienes ms lo necesitan al momento de su llegada.
Identificar y atender las necesidades de los grupos ms vulnerables dentro de la
poblacin refugiada y en necesidad de proteccin. Cada ao lideramos sesiones de
diagnstico participativo en las que las personas en necesidad de proteccin identifican
sus necesidades y proponen soluciones a sus problemas.
Fortalecer la autosuficiencia de los y las refugiadas, para desarrollar una actividad
econmica acorde con su nuevo entorno y limitaciones. Comenzamos otorgando micro
crditos a los grupos ms vulnerables de la poblacin refugiada y hoy el Estado a travs de
sus instituciones de micro-finanzas ha tomado las riendas de esta estrategia de proteccin.
Llevar infraestructura bsica de educacin y salud a las comunidades donde viven los
refugiados, promoviendo la integracin. Mejoramos la infraestructura de escuelas y
ejecutamos proyectos de agua en aquellas comunidades ms remotas con mayor presencia
de personas en necesidad de proteccin.
ARGENTINA
! En Argentina viven cerca de 4.000 refugiados y solicitantes de asilo provenientes
de alrededor de 70 pases de Amrica, frica, Asia y Europa. La gran mayora de ellos son
originarios de pases de Amrica Latina, principalmente de Per, Cuba y Colombia. Sin
embargo, en los ltimos aos, ms de la mitad de las solicitudes de asilo fueron presentadas
por personas de origen africano, y muchas de estas peticiones han sido realizadas por menores
no acompaados o separados de sus familias. En Argentina no existen campos de refugiados.
Tampoco hay casos de desplazamiento interno ni de aptridas.
El trabajo de ACNUR en Argentina
Proveer asistencia tcnica a las autoridades gubernamentales a fin de adoptar las
regulaciones internas necesarias para facilitar la efectiva implementacin de la ley de
refugiados.
Fomentar el establecimiento de procesos justos de proteccin y documentacin a travs
de la implementacin de un Proyecto de Fortalecimiento Institucional, que apunta a reforzar
las capacidades de la CONARE en la justa y efectiva toma de decisiones.
Trabajar junto a representantes de la CONARE y autoridades nacionales de inmigracin
para mejorar el acceso al territorio de los solicitantes de asilo y para prevenir los casos
de devolucin al pas de origen. ACNUR y sus contrapartes gubernamentales proveen
capacitacin en ley internacional de refugiados para oficiales de inmigracin y fuerzas de
seguridad.
Trabajar con autoridades gubernamentales y otros socios en la elaboracin de
procedimientos estndares para la recepcin y el tratamiento de menores no
acompaados que solicitan asilo.
Trabajar junto a los medios de comunicacin, los formadores de opinin y la sociedad civil
para difundir la temtica de las personas refugiadas y promover su integracin a la
sociedad.
! La Oficina Regional de ACNUR para el Sur de
Amrica Latina se estableci en Argentina en 1965 y la
misma cubre tambin a Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Per y
Uruguay.
28
PARAGUAY Y BOLIVIA
! Paraguay y Bolivia son Estados parte de la Convencin de 1951 sobre el Estatuto de
los Refugiados y de su Protocolo de 1967. Han ratificado los instrumentos regionales y
universales ms relevantes en derechos humanos.
! Sustentados en los principios de la Convencin de 1951 se puso en marcha a la
Comisin Nacional de Refugiados (CONARE), encargada de decidir sobre las solicitudes de
asilo y encontrar soluciones duraderas para los refugiados. Est integrada por representantes
de Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Ministerio del Interior, Ministerio de Trabajo, Justicia
y Seguridad Social, la Comisin de Derechos Humanos de ambas cmaras del Congreso, una
ONG y el ACNUR, que participa con voz y sin voto.
! Paraguay alberga a 89 refugiados entre sus fronteras y 7 solicitudes de asilo
esperando respuesta. Por su parte, Bolivia alberga a cerca de 700 refugiados de ms de 20
nacionalidades de todo el mundo. La gran mayora est conformada por personas de origen
peruano, colombiano, cubano e iraqu. Cerca del 40% de ellas son mujeres.
El trabajo de ACNUR en Paraguay y Bolivia
Proveer de asistencia tcnica a las autoridades gubernamentales a fin de adoptar las
regulaciones internas necesarias para facilitar la efectiva implementacin de la ley de
refugiados.
Promover la inclusin de salvaguardas de proteccin adecuadas para los refugiados y los
solicitantes de asilo en el marco de las polticas nacionales de migracin.
Brindar asesoramiento tcnico y apoyo a la CONARE sobre los procedimientos para la
determinacin del estatuto de refugiado y asuntos de elegibilidad.
Trabajar junto a los representantes de la CONARE y autoridades nacionales de inmigracin
para mejorar el acceso al territorio de los solicitantes de asilo y para prevenir los casos
de devolucin al pas de origen.
Acompaar a los gobiernos y a la sociedad civil en la bsqueda de soluciones duraderas,
en particular, el acceso a los refugiados y solicitantes de asilo a programas de integracin
local, auto-suficiencia y el disfrute de los derechos bsicos.
Consolidar el programa regional de reasentamiento solidario. Este programa aspira a
ofrecer una solucin duradera a los refugiados de la regin que no han podido encontrar la
proteccin necesaria en el primer pas de asilo.
Trabajar junto a los medios de comunicacin, los formadores de opinin y la sociedad civil
para ampliar la concientizacin sobre los temas de refugiados y promover su
integracin a la sociedad.
BRASIL
! De acordo com as ltimas cifras consolidadas pelo CONARE, o Brasil acolhe 4.460
refugiados de 77 diferentes nacionalidades. O grupo mais numeroso est representado pelos
refugiados de Angola(37,9%), seguidos dos da Colmbia(14,6%), Congo/Republica
Democrtica do Congo(10,4%), Libria(5,8%) e Iraque(4,5%). Em termos geogrficos, o
continente africano representa os 63,7% dos refugiados reconhecidos no Brasil, seguida por
Amrica(23,1%), sia(10,7%) e Europa(2,1%). O ambiente de proteo no Brasil favorvel
e a melhoria continua. Os procedimentos de reconhecimento de refugiados so funcionais e
limpos, ainda que falte algum conhecimento sobre a legislao sobre fronteiras e as
autoridades porturias podem levar a alguns transtornos. No h instalaes de deteno ou
internamento dos solicitantes de asilo. Os novos desafios de proteo implicam fluxos
migratrios mistos e, mais recentemente, a chegada de cidados haitianos trouxe o terremoto
que acariciava esse pas caribenho.
O trabalho do ACNUR no Brasil
O escritrio do ACNUR no Brasil realiza seu mandato de proporcionar proteo internacional
e a busca de solues duradouras para os refugiados e outras pessoas de interesse. Para
alcanar isto, o ACNUR tem um escritrio em Braslia e presena no terreno de Manaus.
Atravs de seus associados na execuo, ACNUR Brasil realiza uma srie de atividades para
assegurar a proteo, a assistncia e a auto-suficincia dos refugiados. A insero no mercado
de trabalho e a moradia acessvel seguem sendo os principais desafios para alcanar a auto-
suficincia dos refugiados. Neste sentido, o ACNUR trabalha estreitamente com o Ministrio
do Trabalho a fim de proporcionar ao refugiado emprego atravs da organizao de oficinas
em So Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, com a participao do Estado, autoridades municipais e o setor
privado. E tambm, ACNUR Brasil trabalha com uma rede de mais ou menos 49
organizaes da sociedade civil, associados mediante a Rede de proteo, um modelo inova-
dor que desempenha um papel importante na vigilncia do acesso ao territrio e determi-
nao das condies dos refugiados. Tambm busca garantir o respeito dos direitos de solici-
tantes de asilo e refugiados, especialmente nos pontos de entrada principais, zonas porturias e
zonas remotas do vasto territrio do Brasil. Algumas realizaes do ACNUR no Brasil so:
Garantir a proteo dos direitos da maioria dos grupos de refugiados vulnerveis, includas
as mulheres em risco e crianas. Ainda mais, o Escritrio trabalha em estreita colaborao
com a ONUSIDA para fomentar o tratamento conta o HIV/SIDA.
Garantir a integrao local e restabelecimento. Os refugiados recebem aulas de portugus,
cursos tcnicos, acesso a moradia e programas de reduo da pobreza.
Pleitear a incluso de refugiados em todos os programas de bem-estar social, com acesso
gratuito a educao pblica e aos sistemas de sade.
Criar conscincia sobre os problemas de refugiados, com investigaes e publicaes sobre
o assunto.
29
AMRICA CENTRAL
EL SALVADOR, GUATEMALA Y HONDURAS
! El Salvador alberga a 49 refugiados con origen en su mayora de Nicaragua y
Colombia. Las mujeres suponen un 32,65% del total de los refugiados. En Guatemala se le
da asilo a 391 refugiados, en su mayora mujeres, un 57,03%. La procedencia de los
refugiados en su mayor parte es de Nicaragua, El Salvador y Honduras. El pas hondureo
acoge a 22 refugiados procedentes de Hait, Cuba, Ir y Colombia. Entre ellos un 13,64% son
mujeres. En este momento Honduras cuenta con 50 solicitudes ms de asilo a la espera de
resolucin.
El trabajo de ACNUR
Fortalecer los sistemas nacionales de asilo a travs de la promocin de reformas en los
marcos legislativos, particularmente a travs del cabildeo para la aprobacin de un decreto
reglamentario sobre la implementacin de la ley nacional sobre refugiados.
Reforzar las capacidades institucionales de los funcionarios gubernamentales encargados
del tema del asilo y con las autoridades migratorias.
Monitorear el tratamiento de los solicitantes de asilo dentro de las grandes corrientes
migratorias.
Garantizar la integracin local de los refugiados.
Brindar orientacin legal a los solicitantes de asilo y a refugiados reconocidos, as como
apoyar la integracin local (incluyendo la residencia permanente y la naturalizacin).
Ofrecer asistencia tcnica y legal, y promover la aprobacin de una nueva ley sobre
refugiados, en caso de que el decreto relativo a la ley migratoria sea modificado.
PANAM
! Panam alberga a 1.399 refugiados, aunque esa cifra est por debajo del nmero real,
ya que en Noviembre de 2011, se dio inicio al proceso de diagnstico del procedimiento para
el reconocimiento de la condicin de refugiado en Panam. El mismo es un trabajo conjunto
entre ACNUR y Gobierno, con el fin de producir recomendaciones para mejorar la ley y la
prctica en cuanto al procedimiento de solicitud de la condicin de refugiado en Panam, de
acuerdo a los estndares internacionales. Las estimaciones de ACNUR rondan los 15.000
refugiados. Panam es tanto un pas de trnsito como un pas de destino para flujos
migratorios mixtos, que incluyen tanto refugiados como migrantes econmicos, vctimas de
trata y trfico de personas, entre
otros. En su intento por salir de sus
pases para huir de la persecucin,
los refugiados pueden utilizar los
mismos recursos y medios que los
migrantes irregulares. Muchos
refugiados no saben que lo son y
por lo tanto, no saben que tienen el
derecho de solicitar la condicin de
refugiado.
El trabajo de ACNUR en Panam
Capacitar a actores relevantes
( ONPAR , C o mi s i n d e
Elegibilidad, Servicio Nacional
de Migracin, Polica Nacional,
Polica de Fronteras, sociedad
civil, entre otros) en temas tales
como principios bsicos de proteccin y procedimiento nacional aplicable.
Diplomado de Derecho Internacional de Refugiados organizado en colaboracin con la
Universidad de Panam.
Acciones de cabildeo que procuren reformas legales y ratificacin de instrumentos
internacionales y regionales relevantes.
Fortalecimiento de las capacidades locales del Estado y la sociedad civil para crear un
ambiente ms favorable a las personas en necesidad de proteccin internacional.
Proporcionar apoyo y acompaamiento al proceso de implementacin de la Ley No.
81/2011 para la regularizacin de personas bajo el Estatuto Humanitario Provisional de
Proteccin (PTH) en Panam.
Proyectos de asistencia legal, humanitaria y proyectos comunitarios para promover la
integracin local de refugiados en las comunidades de acogida. Asistencia y orientacin a
solicitantes de refugio.
Desarrollar un diagnstico conjunto, (ACNUR/Gob.), del procedimiento de solicitud de
la condicin de refugiado en Panam.
Apoyar la incorporacin e implementacin de las Convenciones sobre Apatridia en
Panam.
Proyectos especiales para la prevencin, atencin y respuesta al VIH/Sida, infecciones
de transmisin sexual y la violencia basada en gnero.
30
COSTA RICA
! Durante el primer semestre de 2012, en Costa Rica, la poblacin refugiada total era
de 12.571 personas. La mayora de los solicitantes provienen de Colombia, Cuba y Venezuela,
y en los ltimos tiempos aumentan los refugiados provenientes del cuerno de frica. Muchos
de ellos huan de la violencia relacionada con las pandillas. La mayora de los refugiados se
integran localmente pero algunos carecen de un fundamento jurdico o de la documentacin
adecuada para una autosuficiencia.
El trabajo de ACNUR en Costa Rica
Coordinar con las autoridades gubernamentales que intervienen en la proteccin de
refugiados.
Establecer y fortalecer las diversas asociaciones en el mbito de los movimientos
migratorios mixtos y su relacin con la proteccin internacional.
Coordinacin con la OIM y el Defensor del Pueblo para el proyecto de vigilancia de
fronteras en el sur de Costa Rica y en la supervisin del Centro de detencin de
inmigrantes irregulares en Hatillo (San Jos).
Prestar servicios gratuitos a los refugiados, los migrantes y las personas que viven en la
pobreza a travs de la Casa de Derechos.
Abordar la xenofobia y promover la integracin a travs de actividades ldicas y
artsticas a travs de la Red de Jvenes sin Fronteras.
MXICO
! En los ltimos aos, la difcil situacin de los refugiados en Mxico se ha visto
ensombrecido por el fenmeno de la migracin, siendo uno de los pases ms afectados en
Amrica. En este contexto, el objetivo del ACNUR en Mxico es asegurar que los solicitantes
de asilo, tanto desde dentro del continente - principalmente de Colombia, Amrica Central y el
Caribe - as como los refugiados extra-continentales - sobre todo de frica, Oriente Medio y
Asia-, que se detectan entre los flujos migratorios mixtos, tengan acceso a procedimientos de
asilo justos y eficientes, y sean capaces de disfrutar plenamente de sus derechos y lograr una
solucin duradera a su situacin.
! El flujo de personas que cruzan Mxico hacia el norte se asemeja al flujo entre frica y
Europa, con pequeos grupos de refugiados que cruzan las fronteras de Centroamrica dentro
de un flujo migratorio mixto grande. Los retos para la proteccin de estos refugiados
"invisibles" son enormes. Desde 2003, el ACNUR abri una oficina en la ciudad de Tapachula,
en la frontera sur de Mxico para controlar la situacin en los estados sureos de Chiapas,
Tabasco y Oaxaca, de donde vienen casi el 60 por ciento de las solicitudes de asilo totales en
Mxico.
! Entre los grupos ms vulnerables en movimiento son los nios que viajan no
acompaados o han sido separados de sus familiares, los cuales representan ms del ocho
por ciento del total de los migrantes indocumentados interceptados por las autoridades
migratorias. Algunos huyen de agresiones intrafamiliares o de otro tipo de violencia en sus
pases de origen, mientras que otros estn en camino para reunirse con sus familiares en el
norte, por lo general los EE.UU. Estos nios y nias no acompaados corren un riesgo especial
de abuso y trata de personas. Algunos de ellos son refugiados, pero no son conscientes de su
derecho a solicitar asilo. ACNUR conjuntamente con la comisin Mexicana de Ayuda a
Refugiados (COMAR),
el Instituto Nacional de
Inmigracin (INM) y
otros organismos del
sistema de las Naciones
Uni das ( UNI CEF) ,
OIM tiene un programa
regular de capacitacin
de funci onari os de
migracin y agentes de
p r o t e c c i n d e l a
infancia sobre cmo
tratar con los nios
r e f u g i a d o s n o
acompaados basados
en los intereses del
nio.
El trabajo de ACNUR en Mxico
Hacer un seguimiento de las zonas fronterizas, puntos clave de entrada, as como estaciones
migratorias y albergues para migrantes, garantizando que los mecanismos adecuados estn
en su lugar para la deteccin y canalizacin de posibles solicitantes de asilo.
Apoyar al gobierno mexicano para identificar a las personas que huyen de persecucin
entre los grandes flujos migratorios.
Trabajar con el gobierno para asegurar que todos los nios solicitantes de asilo tengan
acceso a alojamiento adecuado, y se les asigne un tutor legal y un representante legal.
Formar a los funcionarios de migracin mexicanos que estn en contacto directo y
cotidiano con los inmigrantes en puestos de control, oficinas de migracin, y en las
estaciones migratorias en materia de proteccin de refugiados.
Capacitar para hacer cumplir la ley a los funcionarios municipales, oficiales de la marina y
las organizaciones de la sociedad civil sobre el nexo entre el trfico / asilo.
Enfocar hacia soluciones a largo plazo para facilitar la integracin de los refugiados
urbanos en Mxico.
31
32
October 16th
...World Food Day??
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO)
THE STATE OF
FOOD INSECURITY
IN THE WORLD
This years edition presents new estimates of the number and
proportion of hungry people in the world going back to 1990,
reflecting several key improvements in data and in the methodology
used by FAO to derive its prevalence of undernourishment indicator
(PoU). The new estimates incorporate: the latest revisions of world
population data; new anthropometric data from demographic, health
and household surveys that suggest revised minimum dietary energy
requirements, by country; updated estimates of dietary energy supply,
by country; country-specific estimates of food losses at the retail
distribution level; and technical improvements to the methodology.
! It should be noted that the current methodology does not
capture the impact of short-term price and other economic shocks,
unless these are reflected in changes in long-term food consumption
patterns.
The State of Food Insecurity in the World
2012 presents new estimates of the number
and proportion of undernourished people
going back to 1990, defined in terms of the
distribution of dietary energy supply. With
almost 870 million people chronically
undernourished in 2010-12, the number of
hungry people in the world remains
u n a c c e p t a b l y h i g h . I mp r o v e d
undernourishment estimates, from 90, sug-
gest that progress in reducing hunger has
been more pronounced than previously be-
lieved.
Most of the progress, however, was
achieved before 200708. Since then,
global progress in reducing hunger has
slowed and levelled off. The revised results
imply that the Millennium Development
Goal (MDG) target of halving the
prevalence of undernourishment in the
developing world by 2015 is within reach,
if appropriate actions are taken to reverse
the slowdown since 200708. Despite
significant improvements this year to the
FAO met hodol ogy f or est i mat i ng
undernourishment, further improvements
and better data are needed to capture the
effects of food price and other economic
shocks.
In order for economic growth to enhance
the nutrition of the neediest, the poor must
participate in the growth process and its
benefits: (i) Growth needs to involve and
reach the poor; (ii) the poor need to use the
additional income for improving the
quantity and quality of their diets and for
improved health services; and (iii)
governments need to use additional public
resources for public goods and services to
benefit the poor and hungry.
Agricultural growth is particularly
effect i ve i n reduci ng hunger and
malnutrition. Most of the extreme poor
depend on agriculture and related activities
for a significant part of their livelihoods.
Ag r i c u l t u r a l g r o wt h i n v o l v i n g
smallholders, especially women, will be
most effective in reducing extreme poverty
and hunger when it increases returns to
labour and generates employment for the
poor.
Economic and agricultural growth should
be nutrition-sensitive. Growth needs to
result in better nutritional outcomes
through enhanced opportunities for the
poor to diversify their diets; improved
access to safe drinking water and
sanitation; improved access to health
services; better consumer awareness
regarding adequate nutrition and child care
practices; and targeted distribution of
supplements in situations of acute micro-
nutrient deficiencies. Good nutrition, in
turn, is key to sustainable economic
growth.
Social protection is crucial for accelerating
hunger reduction. First, it can protect the
most vulnerable who have not benefited
from economic growth. Second, social
protection, properly structured, can
contribute directly to more rapid economic
gr owt h t hr ough human r es our ce
development and strengthened ability of
the poor, especially smallholders, to
manage risks and adopt improved
technologies with higher productivity.
To accelerate hunger reduction, economic
growth needs to be accompanied by
purpose-ful and decisive public action.
Public policies and programmes must
create a conducive environment for pro-
poor long-term economic growth. Key
elements of enabling environments include
provision of public goods and services for
the development of the productive sectors,
equitable access to resources by the poor,
empowerment of women, and design and
implementation of social protection
systems. An improved governance system,
based on transparency, participation,
accountability, rule of law and human
rights, is essential for the effectiveness of
such policies and programmess.
Economic growth is necessary but not
sufcient to accelerate reduction of
hunger and malnutrition
Undernourishment around the world
! About 870 million people are estimated to have been undernourished in the period
201012. This represents 12.5 percent of the global population, or one in eight people. The
vast majority of these 852 million live in developing countries, where the prevalence of
undernourishment is now estimated at 14.9 percent of the population (Figure, below left).
Undernourishment in the world is unacceptably high. The updated figures emerging as a result
of improvements in data and the methodology FAO uses to calculate its undernourishment
indicator suggest that the number of undernourished people in the world declined more steeply
than previously estimated until 2007, although the rate of decline has slowed thereafter
(Figure, below left). As a result, the developing world as a whole is much closer to achieving
the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing by half the percentage of people
suffering from chronic hunger by 2015. If the average annual decline of the past 20 years
continues through to 2015, the prevalence of undernourishment in the developing country
regions would reach 12.5 percent still above the MDG target, but much closer to it than
previously estimated.
! Considerable differences among regions and individual countries remain, however. A
reduction in both the number and proportion of undernourished in Asia observed in recent
years has continued, resulting in Asia being roughly on track for achieving its MDG hunger
target. The same holds true for Latin America. Africa, by contrast, is continuing its large and
rising deviation away from what is needed to meet its target; the trend for progress in reducing
undernourishment is broadly mirrored by those for poverty and child mortality. In Western
Asia also, the prevalence of undernourishment has progressively increased since 199092
(regional aggregations
follow standard UN
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; a
breakdown of country
c o m p o s i t i o n i s
provided in the annex
to the report). As
regions have differed
i n t he i r r a t e s of
pr ogr e s s t owa r ds
reducing hunger, the
distribution of where
hungry people are
concentrated in the
developing regions
has changed over the
past 20 years (Figure,
bel ow ri ght ). The
s ha r e s of Sout h-
Eas t er n As i a and
Eastern Asia in the
developing regions undernourished people have seen the most marked decline between 1990
92 and 201012 (from 13.4 to 7.5 percent and from 26.1 to 19.2 percent, respectively), while
that of Latin America also declined, from 6.5 to 5.6 percent. Meanwhile, the shares have
increased from 32.7 to 35.0 percent in Southern Asia, from 17.0 to 27.0 percent in sub-Saharan
Africa and from 1.3 to 2.9 percent in Western Asia and Northern Africa.
Undernourishment in recent years
! The new estimates also suggest that the increase in hunger during 2007/10 the period
characterized by food price and economic crises was less severe than previously estimated.
There are several reasons for this. First, the FAO methodology estimates chronic
undernourishment based on habitual consumption of dietary energy and does not capture the
effects of price spikes, which are typically short-term. As a result, the prevalence should not be
used to draw definitive conclusions about the effects of price spikes or other short-term
shocks. Second, the transmission of economic shocks to many developing countries was less
pronounced than initially thought. More recent GDP estimates suggest that the great
recession of 200809 resulted in only a mild slowdown in many developing countries, and
increases in domestic staple food prices were very small in China, India and Indonesia (the
three largest developing countries).
! However, even when higher prices cannot be directly linked to a reduction in the total
amount of calories consumed by the population, higher food prices may nevertheless have had
other negative impacts, for example a deterioration in the quality of the diet and reduced
access to other basic needs such as health and education. Such impacts are difficult to quantify
usi ng i nformat i on
currently available in
most countries, and
certainly cannot be
c a p t u r e d b y a n
indicator based only
on the adequacy of
dietary energy. In an
effort to fill this
information gap, FAO
h a s i d e n t i f i e d a
preliminary set of
m o r e t h a n 2 0
indicators, available
for most countries
and years. Data for
these are available
from the companion
website for this report
and will allow food
security analysts and
34
policy makers to assess more comprehensively the various dimensions and manifestations of
food insecurity, and thus inform policy for more effective interventions and responses.
Economic growth necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and
malnutrition
! Progress in reducing undernourishment has slowed considerably since 2007, and strong
economic growth will be an essential component for successful and sustainable hunger
reduction. Indeed, regions that have grown more rapidly have generally witnessed more rapid
reductions in hunger; throughout the world, people with more income have greater dietary
diversity (see Figure, below). During the past decade, per capita income growth was positive
in all developing country regions, but in many countries growth did not significantly reduce
hunger, suggesting that growth alone is unlikely to make a significant impact on hunger
reduction.
! Economic growth must involve and reach the poor through increased employment and
other income-earning opportunities. Furthermore, women need to share in these developments,
because when women have more control over household income, more money tends to be
spent on items that improve nutrition and health. In addition to economic growth, government
action is also required to eliminate hunger. Economic growth should bring additional
government revenues from taxes and fees, which should be used to finance education, skills
development and a wide variety of public nutrition and health programmes. Good governance
is also indispensible, including the provision of essential public goods, political stability, rule
of law, respect for human rights, control of corruption, and effective institutions.
! One example of growth that often reaches the poor is agricultural growth, especially
w h e n b a s e d o n
increased productivity
o f s ma l l h o l d e r s .
Agricultural growth is
especially important
i n l o w - i n c o m e
countries, where agri-
cultures contribution
to reducing poverty is
greatest. Agriculture
is also particularly
effective in reducing
poverty and hunger
when inequality in
asset distribution is
not high, because
smallholders are then
able to benefit more
directly from growth.
A greater focus on
integrating smallholders into markets will not only help meet future food demand, but will also
open up increased opportunities for linkages with the rural non-farm economy, as smallholders
are likely to use most of their additional income to purchase locally produced goods and
services.
! In order to reduce undernourishment as rapidly as possible, growth must not only
benefit the poor, but must also be nutrition-sensitive. Improving food security and nutrition
is about more than just increasing the quantity of energy intake it is also about improving the
quality of food in terms of dietary diversity, variety, nutrient content and safety. To date, the
linkage between economic growth and nutrition has been weak, with long lags before growth
is translated into real changes in nutritional status. Policies in support of such objectives
should be pursued within an integrated agriculturenutrition health framework. And while
economic growth is important for progress in improving peoples nutrition, the links run in the
other direction as well nutritious diets are vital for peoples full physical and cognitive
potential and health, thus contributing to economic growth. Improved childhood nutrition and
access to education can improve cognitive development and thereby raise income levels when
those children become adults, with personal benefits as well as benefits for society as a whole.
! Equitable and strong economic growth based on growth of the rural economy of low-
income countries goes a long way towards enhancing access to food and improving the
nutrition of the poor. However, some of the changes made possible through economic growth
take time to bear fruit, and the neediest population groups often cannot take immediate
advantage of the opportunities it generates. Thus, in the short-term, social protection is needed
to support the most vulnerable so that hunger and undernourishment can be reduced as soon as
possible. But social protection can also reduce undernourishment in the long term. First, it
improves nutrition for young children an investment that will pay off in the future with better
educated, stronger and
healthier adults. Second, it
helps mitigate risk, thus
promot i ng t echnol ogy
adoption and economic
growth. By designing a
well-structured system of
social protection to support
and complement economic
growth, undernourishment
and malnutrition can be
eliminated as quickly as
possible.
See more publications of
FAO
35
! Les lgendes du football et
Ambassadeurs de bonne volontdu
PNUD Ronaldo et Zinedine Zidane ont
invit quelques uns des joueurs les plus
prestigieux de la plante se joindre
eux afin de constituer deux formations de
premier plan pour le 10me Match
contre la Pauvret, qui se droulera le
19 dcembre 2012, dans le stade Grmio
Arena, Porto Alegre, la capitale de
l'tat du Rio Grande do Sul au Brsil.
En leur qualit d'Ambassadeurs de bonne
volont du Programme des Nations Unies
pour l e dvel oppement (PNUD),
Ronaldo et Zidane seront les capitaines
des deux quipes qui s'affronteront dans
le cadre de cette rencontre amicale, dont
le but est de sensibiliser le grand public
la lutte contre la pauvret.
La lutte contre la pauvret n'est pas un
jeu, a dclar Ronaldo, qui a lanc le
Match contre la Pauvret avec Zinedine
Zidane et le PNUD il y a dix ans. Mais
nous nous servons de ce Match comme
d'un tremplin, la fois pour lever des
fonds et pour faire prendre conscience
aux gens que la solution du problme est
entre nos mains. C'est en travaillant
ensemble que nous serons tous les
vai nqueurs du Mat ch cont re l a
Pauvret, a-t-il conclu.
Zidane, qui jouera au Brsil pour la
premire fois de sa carrire cette
occasion, a annonc qu'il tait trs
enthousiaste la perspective d'affronter
Ronaldo et ses amis, aprs avoir fait
quipe avec ce dernier au cours des dix
ditions prcdentes du Match contre la
Pauvret. Bien qu'il s'agisse d'un match
amical, j'ai hte de jouer contre mon
vieil ami Porto Alegre, a-t-il avou.
L'vnement qui aura lieu Porto Alegre
est le dixime d'une srie de matchs
a n n u e l s q u i s e s o n t d r o u l s
successi vement Bl e, Madr i d,
Dsseldorf, Marseille, Mlaga, Fs,
Lisbonne, Athnes et Hambourg. Chaque
anne, les fonds collects ont permis de
soutenir des projets spcifiques dans
diffrents pays confronts des dfis de
taille. Les recettes de la dixime dition
du Match serons reverses
au profit de projets mens
dans mon pays et d'un
programme mis en uvre
en Afrique dans lequel le
Brsil est activement
engag, a expl i qu
Ronaldo.
La l gende i t al i enne
Pierluigi Collina, qui a
assur l'arbitrage de huit
des neuf ditions du
Match sera, cette anne
encore, l'arbitre du Match.
Il n'existe pas beaucoup
d'initiatives caritatives qui
puissent parvenir fter
leur 10me anniversaire. Le Match
contre la Pauvret l'a fait et nous en
sommes trs fiers!, a-t-il comment.
En ce qui me concerne, cela a toujours
t un honneur d'tre invit arbitrer
ces matchs ; cela m'a permis galement
d'apporter ma contribution ceux qui
ont besoin d'aide, a-t-il ajout.
Rebeca Grynspan, Administratrice
associe du PNUD, a dclar que le
Match tait l'un des vnements les plus
en vue et les plus marquants pour le
PNUD et ses partenaires. Le football
tant le sport le plus populaire au
monde et la pauvret un flau mondial,
le Match constitue un instrument
formidable pour mobiliser les gens
autour du monde en vue de soutenir tous
les efforts visant assurer que chacun,
o qu'il soit, puisse mener une vie saine,
productive et gratifiante, a-t-elle
prcis.
L'dition 2012 du Match contre la
Pauvret, dont le coup d'envoi sera
donn 21:00 heure locale au stade
Grmio Arena, est organise par 9INE
Sports & Entertainment, une agence
brsilienne en conseils et en gestion des
affaires sportives. Retransmis par les
tlvisions du monde entier, l'vnement
est soutenu par les deux instances du
foot bal l que sont l a Fdrat i on
Internationale de Football Association
(FIFA) et l'Union europenne des
associations de football (UEFA).
Ronaldo et Zidane font partie du cercle
d'lite des Ambassadeurs de bonne
volont du PNUD, qui regroupe d'autres
stars du football comme Didier Drogba,
Iker Casillas ou Marta Vieira de Silva
ainsi que des personnalits de premier
plan telles que le Prince hritier Haakon
Magnus de Norvge, l'actrice japonaise
Misako Konno, l'toile du tennis russe
Maria Sharapova et l'acteur espagnol
Antonio Banderas.
Contact:
Aziyad Poltier-Mutal;
aziyade.poltier@undp.org
36
Le Brsil accueille la 10me dition du Match
contre la Pauvret, avec la participation de
Ronaldo, Zidane et d'autres stars du football

Javier Collado Ruano: Es increble! Habis conseguido
llegar a ms de 4 millones de personas de todo el mundo
en tan slo unas semanas. Todas las redes sociales hablan
de La Educacin Prohibida. Cmo se sienten ahora al
ver que su pelcula esta siendo todo un xito meditico?
Germn Doin: Yo siento que es un buen comienzo, pero
nos gustara que esto no termine en la pelcula. La
Educacin Prohibida es una herramienta para disparar una
discusin abierta sobre los cimientos de la educacin. Espero
que a medida que pase el tiempo contine esta reflexin que
comenz a generar la pelcula y pueda acompaar el
desarrollo de prcticas y acciones concretas.
JCR: Qu capital humano y financiero se necesita para
desarrollar tan exitoso proyecto?
GD: El equipo detrs de la pelcula es muy pequeo,
tenemos la suerte de tener conocimientos en diferentes reas
que fueron construyendo la comunicacin institucional del
proyecto, indispensable para que la idea sea compartida. El
Crowdfunding (Financiacion Colectiva) y Crowdsourcing
(Realizacin Colectiva) dependen en gran medida de la
llegada que tenga el proyecto a la gente, es decir, mientras
ms lejos y claro llegue el mensaje, es ms factible que se
conforme una comunidad alrededor del proyecto. Podemos
decir que si bien somos un equipo pequeo detrs del
proyecto, hay acompaando un gran nmero de personas en
diferentes reas (subtitulado, desgrabaciones, traducciones,
animaciones, msica, proyecciones, tecnicos, actores) que
suman ms de 150 personas.
JCR: Hablando de capital humano, nosotros tuvimos la
oportunidad de participar en el estreno el 13 de Agosto
en Buenos Aires y de conocer a todo vuestro equipo en
persona, y much@s de ell@s ya estaban creando
escuelas alternativas para sus hij@s. Qu
problemticas se generan cuando se pretende crear
escuelas diferentes del sistema tradicional? Qu os
apuntaban los docentes que habis entrevistado?
GD: En su gran mayora las experiencias educativas
diferentes (tanto pblicas, privadas como de gestin social)
han tenido que superar grandes trabas para poder llevar
adelante las escuelas. En primer lugar estn los conflictos
normales de cualquier escuela: recursos econmicos,
humanos, edilicios, etc. Pero a esto se le suman los
problemas burocrticos en relacin a la habilitacin de las
escuelas. En muchos casos estas experiencias han
sobrevivido aos sin habilitacin hasta que alguien desde el
estado decide concederles el permiso. En general deben
subsistir en la ilegalidad y al margen del sistema hasta ser
aceptados, o no. A estos conflictos se le suman los prejuicios
culturales de la comunidad, en muchos casos, las escuelas
reciben amenazas de sectores conservadores como las
iglesias, escuelas tradicionales y en algunos casos sindicatos.
Desde luego es diferente en cada pas y comunidad, pero es
cierto que nunca es tan sencillo como fundar una escuela
convencional.
JCR: Qu rol desempean los gobiernos y las familias
en estos procesos de ruptura de la escuela tradicional?
GD: Las familias por su parte tienen el rol fundamental,
porque acompaan o no estos cambios. Muchas familias
apoyan esta ruptura desde sus prcticas cotidianas aunque
continuen enviando a sus hijos a escuelas convencionales.
Desde las escuelas diferentes siempre se menciona la
importancia del apoyo de la familia, y tambin la impotencia
que tiene la escuela cuando los padres no son partcipes del
proyecto pedaggico. En cuanto a los gobiernos es muy
variable, muchas de estas experiencias han funcionado muy
Entrevista
90 Entrevistas, 45 Experiencias, 8
pases...
1 Pelcula
Una pel cul a sobre l a educaci n
centrada en el amor, el respeto, la
libertad y el aprendizaje
704 coproduct ores apoyaron el
proyecto. Todos ellos de diferentes
pases del mundo sin que hubiera una
lnea de guin escrita. Todo a partir de
un corto en youtube.
Los responsables de todo esto tienen
entre 21 y 24 aos
Es de distribucin libre y gratuita. No
tiene nes de lucro. Se permite y
alienta la copia del material.
37


bien durante gobiernos poco comprometidos en la
educacin, y han tenido muchos problemas cuando un
gobierno quiere llevar adelante un plan nacional. El
gobierno se ve limitado cuando debe realizar propuestas
masivas de cambios y eso no le permite ver y rescatar las
diversidades. Yo creo que una poltica que rescate esas
diversidades, y hasta les d suficiente autonoma a las
escuelas para plantear sus proyectos
educativos, puede ser la puerta para una
ruptura de la "escuela tradicional.
JCR: En lo personal, cmo llevan la
preparacin de educar a sus hij@s?
GD: Yo todava no soy padre, as que
solo puedo decir lo que pienso hacer. Yo
creo que lo nico que har ser
acompaar, y ofrecer desde mi lugar el
apoyo y apertura de posibilidades.
Tratar de que de mi reciba una mirada
abierta e intentar permitirle conocer la
d i v e r s i d a d d e e x p e r i e n c i a s y
conocimientos que yo pueda ofrecer.
Como mencionamos en la pelcula,
siempre acompaando (fsica, emocional
e intelectualmente) pero no dirigiendo su
camino.
JCR: Volviendo al documental,
imagino que no habr sido nada fcil
organizar todos las entrevistas, ideas y
elementos necesarios para crear una
estructura argumentativa, Con qu
dificultades os habis encontrado en todo este proceso de
logstica?
GD: Las dificultades estaban ms vinculadas a nuestros
procesos de aprendizaje. Durante los ltimos 3 aos yo
personalmente realic un camino de formacin autodirigido,
en el que muchas veces senta la necesidad de conocer o
aprender ms sobre un tema u otro para poder cerrar un
captulo de la pelcula. Hay muchas entrevistas que fueron
realizadas en el ltimo ao porque justamente sentamos la
falta de material o experiencias en torno a determinados
temas. Luego el desafo era filtrar esas ideas, muchas
propuestas que nos agradan mucho no aparecen en la
pelcula porque tomaban mucho tiempo. Otras se repiten
porque nos parecan fundamentales. Creo que pudimos
construir un discurso bastante coherente, y a la vez dejar
entrever que hay mucho ms detrs que no se pudo decir.
JCR: Qu lleva ms tiempo y trabajo, preparar las
entrevistas con los docentes de diferentes pases o la
edicin posterior de los vdeos?
GD: La preparacin de cada entrevista estaba ms atada al
objetivo de la pelcula y nuestro previo conocimiento de
cada experiencia. Muchas de las preguntas eran comunes a
todos los entrevistados, y suficientemente abiertas como
para permitirles explayarse en su experiencia propia. Por
otro lado, la edicin posterior fue ms compleja porque
todos hablaban de cosas diferentes y an as, compartan
ideas. El trabajo pesado mo y de Vero, fue encontrar esos
elementos que brillaban sobre el discurso, y cruzarlos con
otros entrevistados.
JCR: Bueno y cul es la sensacin final del resultado
obtenido, hay algo que os hubiese gustado incluir en el
documental pero que no pudo ser?
GD: Yo creo que hicimos todo lo que
pudimos en ese tiempo y momento, hoy
me gustara quitar algunas cosas y
agregar otras. Tal vez concentrarnos en
una propuesta que incluya a todas las
experiencias y a su vez se funda con la
educacin formal. Pero sinceramente la
investigacin no buscaba eso, tal vez
nosotros hoy si lo buscamos porque lo
vemos como una necesi dad. La
investigacin inicial buscaba recopilar
ideas y experiencias diferentes que
puedan aportar a un cambio en el
entendimiento de la educacin, y creo
que ese objetivo est cumplido.
JCR: Por otro lado, debo confesaros
que hablando con otros colegas desde
un punto de vista pedaggico ms
acadmico, me expresaban que
algunos de los tpicos tratados en el
documental pertenecen a los aos 70 y
que no hay nada de novedoso en stos.
Pueden que tengan razn en el
contenido, pero no en las formas. Me
explico. Creo que el mero hecho de
que personas como ustedes, formados en comunicacin,
se preocupen en realizar un documental, no viene ms
que a evidenciar el total desapego que sufrimos
TOD@S por la educacin tras pasar por el sistema de
escolarizacin actual. En este sentido, dgannos su
opinin personal, Qu tiene que suceder para cambiar
de paradigma?
GD: Yo coincido con que los tpicos pertenecen a otras
generaciones, pero no por eso son menos vigentes. Mismo
nuestro inters era democratizar una discusin que se di
38
sol ament e en espaci os formal es y
acadmicos. Poca gente antes de LEP
conoca estas crticas e ideas. Desde ese
lugar, lo revolucionario no son los
contenidos, sin su democratizacin, la
intervencin del audiovisual, la utilizacin
de internet como una herramienta de
empoderamiento para estas ideas. Como
ejemplo, Ivan Illich propona entre otras
cosas para lograr su desescolarizacin de la
sociedad, regalar magnetfonos y cintas
para que la gente comparta sus opiniones.
Sus ideas se resignifican completamente
con la existencia de internet. La situacin
actual las lleva a otro nivel, a tal punto que
ya existen hace aos espacios de formacin
de pares y autoformacin. Yo creo que el
paradigma ya est cambiando, ya tenemos
una generacin completa de programadores
de software, los arquitectos del siglo XXI,
que se formaron fuera de las escuelas y que
viven de lo que eran sus hobbies en la
i nf anci a. Los nuevos model os de
aprendizaje, de produccion de cultura, de
organizacin social ya estn funcionando. Tenemos que
seguir estudindolos y buscando las formas en que estos se
cruzan con las diferentes realidades sociales.
JCR: De modo simblico, consideramos que internet
sustenta la herramienta de cambio que en un da
significo la imprenta para la divulgacin de las ideas
reformistas luteranas. Cul creen que es el papel de
internet en este proceso de cambio de la sociedad-mundo
del siglo XXI? Representara la lucha por los Derechos
Humanos el equivalente a la reforma luterana?
GD: En mi opinion Internet es una herramienta de
empoderamiento que aporta fuerza a la lucha de los
Derechos Humanos, pero tambin a cientos de causas que
estaban invisibilizadas, vinculadas a nuevas formas de
comprender la actividad humana, la economa, la relacin
del hombre con su medio ambiente. Todas estas ideas
pueden integrarse bajo el paraguas de los Derechos
Humanos, pero entendidos desde una visin ms amplia.
JCR: Y hablando de internet, lo que est claro es que
defendiendo Copyleft y Creative Commons como
licencias de divulgacin del documental, al igual que
nosotros con la revista, la intencionalidad de vuestro
trabajo no es el lucro econmico Cul es, en realidad,
vuestro verdadero objetivo?
GD: Promover y alimentar una discusin, un debate, que
claramente creemos que hoy ser muy fructfero. Ayudar a
que estas experiencias se multipliquen y en ltima instancia
brindar herramientas para que las personas tomen las
decisiones sobre sus prcticas educativa, que toman las
riendas de lo que hacen.
JCR: Y cul es la finalidad de REEVO? Qu tiene de
interesante?
GD: Reevo, al igual que LEP, es una herramienta. Pero en
ese caso estar pensada y diseada para que los mismos
actores, maestros, jovenes y adultos, sean los protagonistas.
Reevo es una red social basada en las lgicas de la
Construccin Colectiva del Conocimiento,
donde por s sola no hace nada, pero se
resignifica y convierte en una herramienta
poderosa y activa cuando comienza a ser
utilizada y alimentada por los usuarios. As
como Wikipedia cambi la historia de la
enciclopedia y la forma en que accedemos y
generamos conocimiento, Reevo pretende ser la
herramienta de empoderamiento de los
educadores que trabajan da a da para
transformar la sociedad.
JCR: Por lo que vemos, Global Education
Magazine se ajusta en ese perfil, pues
p r e t e n d e mo s c r e a r u n a r e d d e
concientizacin social a travs de la difusin
de experiencias educativas y sociolgicas que
den paso a un cambio de paradigma. Algn
consejo que quieran darnos?
GD: Mant enernos en cont act o, segui r
colaborando en la difusin de experiencias e
ideas. Y desde nuestra perspectiva es
indispensable continuar trabajando en la lgica
colaborativa que brinda internet, junto a la
construccin y distribucin de contenidos libres y abiertos.
JCR: Y a l@s lectores/as, quieres decirles algo?
GD: Los invitamos a ver la pelcula en nuestro sitio web:
www.educacionprohibida.com y a compartirla, descargarla
y apropiarse de ella: criticndola, reeditndola y adaptndola
a sus necesidades.
JCR: Bueno, antes de acabar, quera pediros una
exclusiva para GEM, qu os habis dejado en el tintero
para sorprendernos en el futuro?
GD: Como mencion antes no es algo que nos "guardamos"
sino ideas que queremos seguir profundizando, estudiando.
Entre ellas la necesidad de comprender que una verdadera
educacin solo es posible en entornos comunitarios y de
pares, nuestro inters es visibilizar estos espacios, formas de
organizacin y brindar herramientas para que se
multipliquen y superen a s mismas.
39
MR. BILL DRAYTON
1. Prince of Asturias Awards, International
Cooperation 2011.
2. Drayton was named by US News & World
Report as one of Americas 25 Best Leaders in
2005.
3. He also served briefly in the White House, and
taught both law and management at Stanford
Law School and Harvards Kennedy School of
Government.
4. Draytons philosophy of social entrepreneurs
are individuals with innovative solutions to
societys most pressing social problems. To
quote Drayton, "Social entrepreneurs are not
content just to give a fish or teach how to fish.
They wi l l not res t unt i l t hey have
revolutionized the fishing industry."
OUR GUESTS
Creating an Everyone a
Changemaker World
40
We are living at an incredible moment in history, where all of the
existing sectors of society are redefining themselves. It started with
the private sector. Businesses let loose the radical idea: if you have a
new idea and you make it work, well make you rich and respected.
Then we will copy you. This revolutionary idea that everyone can
make change is now taking root in the social sector.
! In 1980, Ashoka was founded on the principle that the most
powerful force in the world is a big idea in the right hands. Therefore,
Ashoka has carefully selected and helped launch 3,000 of the worlds
most effective social entrepreneurs on every continent. Over half of
Ashoka Fellows have changed national policy within five years of
their selection and launch. In the same five-year period, three-
quarters of Fellows have changed the pattern in their field at a
national level.
! On a local level, Fabio Rosa is an example of an Ashoka fellow
who raised the standard of living for those in poverty. His program in
Brazil cut rural electrification costs 70-90% and brought electricity
to vast rural areas of that country. Fabio, like his social entrepreneur
peers, stepped out of existing institutions, challenged the status quo,
and built his vision for a better future. However, he first needed the
space to demonstrate and refine his ideas, to recruit a team, and to
determine how to scale his methods. A very modest stipend from
Ashoka allowed him to work full-time to refine and launch his vision.
This is how Ashoka changes the world with extremely modest
resources. Ashoka has become a community of mutual help and
collaboration that multiplies the individual entrepreneurs confidence
and strength.
! With time, we have realized that there is an even more powerful
role Fabio and other Ashoka Fellows play. These social entrepreneurs
catalyze new local changemakers into being. Every time a social
entrepreneur comes up with a new idea, it upsets the way things are
done. It challenges the assumption that you cant change things. The
entrepreneur is sowing a seed so that anyone in any community can
take this idea and run with it. The entrepreneur is a role model,
plowing the earth, breaking up the existing system, and giving people
seeds. That leads to thousands upon thousands of local
changemakers.
! With each new social entrepreneur you have another plowing
and seeding and the field expands from the local to national to global
level. With more and more citizen participation, the rate of change
increases. Ideas quickly travel from Brazil to Bangladesh. There is a
multiplier effect of individuals becoming changemakers, stepping up
as local role models, and joining forces with major social
entrepreneurs. The end result is Ashokas mission of Everyone a
Changemaker.
! The first step to an Everyone a Changemaker world is
believing that you can make lasting change and acting on your belief.
Identify a problem in your community and give yourself permission to
overcome it. Once you enact change, once you internalize that you
are a changemaker, you grow in confidence to tackle bigger problems.
Each new problem is an opportunity for you to express love and
respect in action at the highest possible level. Our world will
transform as a result.
! Therefore, the most important contribution any of us can make
is to increase the proportion of humans who know that they can cause
change. There is nothing that brings humans greater happiness in life
or that is more important to society.
Bill Drayton
41
www.globaleducationmagazine.com
Our Guests
Space and I
Chiaki Mukai, M.D.,
Ph.D.
Astronaut
Head of JAXA Center for Applied
Space Medicine and Human Research
(J-CASMHR)
Japanese Aerospace Exploration
Agency (JAXA)
CHAPTER 2
Our Guests
Awards and Honors
- Outstanding Service Award - The Society
of Japanese Women Scientists (1996)
- Prime Ministers Special Citation for
Contributions to Gender Equality (1995)
- Commendation for Technology - Japan
Society of Aeronautical and Space
Science (1993)
She was the first Japanese
woman in space, and was the first
Japanese citizen to have two
spaceflights. Both were Space
Shuttle missions; her first was
STS-65 aboard Space Shuttle
Columbia in July 1994, which was
a Spacelab mission. Her second
spaceflight was STS-95 aboard
Space Shuttle Discovery in 1998.
In total she has spent 23 days in
space!
! I was born in 1952 in a small town near Tokyo. Many people have asked
me if I had a dream to be an astronaut since my childhood. No, never. Ever
since I could remember, I never had a dream to fly into space---actually, until I
became 32 years old. It was in 1957 that the Russian Sputnik circled the earth. I
was only five years old then. At that time almost no Japanese person was even
aware of the space program, even less the manned efforts to explore that
frontier. More than that, it was incredible to even imagine that 37 years later,
the first Japanese woman would soar into space. Throughout my childhood,
there were so many epoch-making events within the space program. For
example: In 1961, when I was 9 years old, the Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
orbited the earth and became the first human being to travel into space and
return, to report about our "blue planet". In 1963, when I was 11 years old,
Russian Valentia Tereshkova became the first woman in space. On July 20,
1969, when I was 17 years old, the American astronaut Neil Armstrong became
the first person to ever walk on the moon. Every time, as I heard or read of
these events, I was so excited. It inspired me to search out and read any
biographies of these history-makers. During those early years, that was the
extent of my interest with regard to any personal aspirations in space. I felt that
those marvelous things were beyond any personal reach---occurring in what
appeared to be worlds away.
! My dream when I was a child was to be a medical doctor so that I could
help people suffering from diseases. My younger brother had difficulty walking
without physical assistance. He suffered from aseptic necrosis, a rare disease
which caused his leg bones to become very brittle. I could only watch as other
children teased him because he was crippled--it made our hearts heavy with
sadness. My parents eventually took my brother to a big university hospital in
Tokyo, where my brother received the medical care he needed. His condition
improved greatly. These experiences deeply affected my decision and
determination, to work even harder toward becoming a doctor. Even at age 10, I
was committed to this personal endeavor, as I wrote a composition assignment
entitled, What Will I Be in the Future. As I approached fourteen years of age,
I left my parents' home and moved to Tokyo to pursue a higher level of
education that would better prepare me to enter a medical school. After years of
education and formal training, I was fortunate enough to achieve my first
dream---to be a doctor. I chose to specialize in cardiovascular surgery.
! In each of our lives, nobody knows what will happen--nor be able to
predict the circumstances or events of what may or may not occur in our
futures. In any case, I make a conscious effort to never forget how very
fortunate I truly am. On a wonderful morning in December of 1983--I sat read-
ing the newspaper and relaxing with a cup of coffee in my medical office after
night duty in the intensive care unit. A very interesting article suddenly caught
my eyes! The article said that the Japanese Space Agency was inviting Japanese
candidates for a chance to conduct space experiments aboard the U.S. Space
Shuttle in 1988. I was so surprised by the article and shouted "Gee, can a
Japanese have an opportunity to go into space? You've got to be kidding!" I
thought stereotypically---that space travelers had to be either American or
Russian because I was yet unaware that the U.S. had already sent an
international astronaut from Germany into space in 1983. "Times have really
changed," I thought to myself. Even more surprising and wonderful was that the
article seemed to be seeking out candidates with scientific-educational
backgrounds capable of conducting various experiments in a limited time while
in space---hopefully scientists. My stereotyped mind again asked "Shouldn't
astronauts be pilots or aviators?" I felt struck by a great emotional sensation---
realizing that the progress of science and technology in the twentieth century
had indeed developed an advanced space program. Yes, so progressive that it
enables ordinary people working on earth to travel beyond this planet and
expand their professions and activities in space as well as on the earth. What a
wonderful era to be living in! In the 1980's, thanks to the development of the
Space Shuttle, our access to space became easier. We are now living in an era of
utilizing our space environment and realizing its value as a precious resource.
As I was being impressed by the progress of the space program, I grew more
and more intrigued about personally seeing the blue planet from outer space. I
wondered if such a magnificent experience would truly expand my concept of
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Our Guests
life itself and deepen my way of thinking. At the same time, I was greatly
fascinated by the space environment such as weightlessness for research pur-
poses. I saw it as an opportunity to contribute my medical expertise to the space
program.
! People often ask me: "Did you think that, as a woman, you had any
realistic chance of being selected?" I guess, the fact that I was a woman never
even occurred to me as a possible limitation or advantage. No matter what the
gender, color, religion, etc. I saw myself only as one human candidate among
hundreds of applicants. As far as a profession or any personal endeavor I may
have---my approach to the whole issue was always the
same: "If I like it, and want to do it---and I believe I can
do it well, I will surpass any obstacles and challenges and
go for it!" And so---with everything within me, I picked
up my pen and applied for a dream---that someday, I
might go into space.
! In 1985, I was lucky enough to be selected by the
Japanese Space Agency as one of three candidates among
533 applicants targeted for a 1988 Shuttle Flight called
the SL-J mission. It was a shared mission effort between
the U.S. and Japan using Spacelab. By then, I was 34 years
old. My second dream, which was to travel into and work in outer space, had
begun. Four months after beginning my basic training in Japan, one of the most
difficult things during my astronaut career happened. That was the explosion of
the Space Shuttle Challenger. Even now, I can clearly recall the very moment I
learned of the tragedy. It was in the midnight hours in faraway Tokyo. Every
part of my being felt shaken. "Should I leave the space program?" I repeatedly
questioned myself if I should return to the medical field. At that time, nobody
seemed certain of what actually caused the accident nor when the Space Shuttle
program would start up again. After a few days of consideration and soul
searching, I decided to remain in the space program. I felt committed to
pursuing my dream---I did not want to quit. The Challenger explosion in 1986,
and fuel leakage problems in 1991, delayed the SL-J mission into 1992, after
being originally scheduled for an early 1988 lift off.
! For the SL-J mission, we three Japanese candidates trained so hard to get
a flight position. Each of us hoped that we would be chosen for the flight. Only
one of us would be selected to fly on this mission. As it turned out, I was
destined to be a back up crew member for the mission. Of course, I was
disappointed by the outcome for a while. "It can't be helped." "My time has not
come yet." "Let's work hard as a back up." I thought to myself. As far as
training was concerned, a back up crew member was in an advantageous
position to understand the mission as a whole. It required
both flight crew training and the specific training for
back ups, such as working as a member of a ground
operational team in the Payload Control Center. Through
this valuable experience, I witnessed how many people
worked together to make the mission successful,
although astronauts were the only visible part to the
public. I feel this experience greatly enhanced my
opportunity toward a flight assignment. In 1992, after
completing my responsibilities as a back up crew
member for the SL-J mission, I was fortunately selected
as a prime crew member out of a pool of twenty-two international applicants.
Finally my dream to fly into space came true. I first flew in space in 1994,
followed by my second flight in 1998.
! On a personal note, I am grateful to have had opportunities to journey
into space. It took nearly ten years to see my dream come true. It was indeed
worth the effort and the wait. During these years, I met so many wonderful
people who inspired me. This experience will forever remain my lifetime
treasure. No longer in space and now an earthling once again, I feel that my
good fortune yet continues. I welcome the opportunity to express my heartfelt
gratitude to many people who have encouraged me to believe that "If you can
dream it, you can do it. "And I strongly believe that Education enables us to
envision and to pursue our dreams.
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Our Guests
If you can dream it,
you can do it. And I
strongly believe that
Education enables
us to envision and to
pursue our dreams.
45
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Research Papers
Transversal Studies
I. Structural Origins
of Todays Youth
P o v e r t y a n d
Inequality in Youth
Tr ans i t i ons : t he
Embl emat i c Case of
Uruguay.
Denisse Gelber and Cecilia
Rossel
II. Educacin y prevencin
de las drogas. Education
e t p r v e n t i o n d e s
drogues
Rafael Delgado Guerrero y
Pierre Bremond
III. El rol de los estados
f r e n t e a l a s
mu l t i n a c i o n a l e s :
Argentina y el caso
Benetton.
Carlos Bentez
IV. Pathf i nder Proj ect:
New Ways To Access
Eng l i s h f or Bl i nd
Students in Argentina
Fco. Ramn y Guadalupe
Eulalia
Millennium
Development Goals
I. A Tale of Two UN
Processes: The Global
Sustainability Panel
and Rio+20.
Georgios Kostakos
II. Af t er Ri o+20 and
B e y o n d 2 0 1 5 :
A d v a n c i n g t h e
Campaign for a Global
Citizens Movement.
Uchita de Zoysa
III. I n t e r - A me r i c a n
Center for Peace and
Security (ICPS)
Viktor Sebek
IV. African Centre for
Co mmu ni t y a nd
De v e l o pme nt i n
Cameroon
Arrey Mbongaya Ivo
Global Education
I. Educao para o consumo na busca pela sustentabilidade.
Helio Mattar
II. A Cooperao Internacional na Universidade Nacional de Timor-Leste:
contribuies para a melhoria da educao e desenvolvimento timorense
Valdir Lamim-Guedes e Carlos Junior Gontijo-Rosa
III. Cooperao e Educao Internacional: algumas lies da aprendizagem
com o Sul.
Jlio Gonalves dos Santos, Rui da Silva e Rosa Silva

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Philantrophic Formation
Throughout Volunteering
Global Education Magazine was founded as a magazine that aims to cover all
areas related to education to create a network of knowledge and experience that provides a
bank of ideas to be put at the service of all the professionals
of the pedagogy of the world. Included in this network of
knowledge that gives a special importance to the field of
volunteering, there is this sector that performs a lot of work
to human progress and where you can also share your
activities and implement the resources used in their fields of
action to be taken, contextualized and executed by other
volunteers or teachers in their fields of work. We provide
that space for organizations, institutions or independent
volunteer staff where you can find, discuss and enrich
themselves through common experiences in the past,
allowing a mutual aid for the progress of the various
activities implemented through international collaboration
between educators who dont know one other but with a
common goal, human development.
! In this world in which every day it becomes more difficult to maintain social
cohesion, we believe it is suitable to guide the training of future teachers to humanist
education, that comes close to the needs and the reality of life of the inhabitants of the
planet and educate the citizens aware of the context in which we live. We consider of
fundamental importance to forge that awareness of the context in which we interrelate to
educate future workers who have this sociability with its causes and consequences and
develop their work from a holistic perspective, avoiding partial technicality that ignores
that the human being is a historical subject, isolating individuals at the current time
ignoring the past. To acquire this awareness in a meaningful way, we advocated the
implementation of a voluntary service in projects of cooperation by the students to engage
in them in a world of social knowledge in direct and experiential manner that allows them
to learn the structures of social groups, knowing their problems on-site, collaborating
horizontally for the improvement of their status and acquiring the capabilities skills, and
attitudes that promote volunteerism.
! We look at volunteering as important within our concept of education, because we
believe that through a philanthropic, hermeneutic and critical training at the educational
level is encouraged. In a Hermeneutic way because it provides direct involvement in
human volunteering groups that allow you to recognize and interpret the consequences that
society exercises as superstructure on specific groups, and how they react to it. A critical
training that lies on the interpretation of the reality that unfolds when attempting to
transform it using your educational action and, finally, philanthropic: to discover and
appreciate at firsthand the human diversity, finding the difference in more elements that
unite us.
! Voluntary action, free from direct economic benefits, is characterized by intrinsic
motivations which promote, primarily by altruism focused towards the improvement of the
social situation of certain human groups that are generally at a disadvantage against the
human group which comes from the volunteer. The volunteer
moves through a philanthropic purpose of development of
humanity, regardless of nation, race, religion or political
ideology, its purpose is human development and it plays all
your skills, capabilities and attitudes to succeed. This altruistic
motivation is of a fundamental importance in the world of
teachers, since it gives you an essential perspective to exercise
their profession just like the education requires in the service of
progress without distinction, but as well directed towards an
intercultural humanity, which seeks to eliminate the existing,
and global inequalities where the actions of each region
influence the rest of the world.
! With these lines we intend to show the prevailing need to
establish a required voluntary service that facilitates from the
humanistic education to a professional sector included in the
social and human sciences, but that unfortunately most of their training is based on
conglomerations of theoretical contents within the four walls of a classroom, isolated from
the real and away context from the real goal of education. For this reason we will work and
seek more efficient methods to achieve a true philanthropic formation in the future
educators that allow future education to be at the service of mankind and its development.
! If there was compulsory military service in many countries, why not create a
required volunteer service that promotes awareness about the situation of the society and to
be able to work and improve it? Let's think about this.
Jos Mara Barroso T!"n
Secretary of Educational Alternatives
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Formacin lantrpica a
travs del Voluntariado
Global Education Magazine nace como una revista que pretende abarcar todos
los mbitos relacionados con la educacin para crear una red de conocimientos y experien-
cias que proporcionen un banco de ideas para ser puestas en comn al servicio de todos los
profesionales de la pedagoga del mundo. Incluido en esta red de conocimientos queremos
conceder una especial importancia al mbito del voluntariado, sector que realiza una gran
labor para el progreso humano pero que, lamentablemente, suele carecer de canales de
expresin donde poder compartir sus actividades y poner en prctica los recursos utilizados
en sus campos de actuacin para poder ser tomados, contextualizados y ejecutados por otros
voluntarios o docentes en sus terrenos de trabajo. Pretendemos ofrecer ese espacio para las
organizaciones, instituciones o personal voluntario independiente donde se puedan
encontrar, debatir y enriquecerse a travs de la puesta en comn de las experiencias
realizadas, posibilitando una ayuda mutua para el progreso de las diferentes actividades
puestas en marcha a travs de la colaboracin internacional entre educadores/as
desconocidos entre s pero con un objetivo comn, el desarrollo humano.
! En este mundo en el que cada da se hace ms difcil mantener la cohesin social,
estimamos conveniente orientar la formacin de los futuros docentes hacia una educacin
humanista, que se acerque a las necesidades y a la realidad vital de los habitantes del planeta
para, de esta forma, poder educar a la ciudadana, siendo conscientes del contexto en el que
vivimos. Consideramos de fundamental importancia forjar esa conciencia sobre el contexto
en el que nos interrelacionamos para educar futuros trabajadores que tengan presente la
realidad social con sus causas y consecuencias para que desarrollen su actividad laboral
desde una perspectiva holstica, evitando el tecnicismo parcial que ignora que el ser humano
es un sujeto histrico, aislando a los individuos al momento actual, obviando el pasado que
lo convirti en lo que actualmente es. Para adquirir esa conciencia de una forma
significativa abogamos por la realizacin de un servicio de voluntariado en proyectos de
cooperacin por parte del alumnado, que al involucrarse en ellos les sumerja en un mundo
de conocimientos sociales de forma directa y vivencial que le permita aprehender las
estructuras de los grupos sociales, conociendo sus problemticas in situ, colaborando de
forma horizontal para la mejora de su situacin y adquiriendo las capacidades, habilidades y
actitudes que promueve el voluntariado.
! Contemplamos el voluntariado como un elemento muy importante dentro de nuestro
concepto de educacin, ya que estimamos que a travs de l se fomenta una formacin
hermenutica, crtica y filantrpica en el plano educativo. Hermenutica ya que provee al
voluntario de una participacin directa en grupos humanos que le permite reconocer e
interpretar las consecuencias que la sociedad ejerce como superestructura sobre grupos
especficos, y como estos reaccionan ante ella. Una formacin crtica que yace de la
interpretacin de la realidad en la que se desarrolla al intentar transformarla mediante su
accin educativa y, por ltimo, filantrpica: al descubrir y apreciar en primera persona la
diversidad humana, hallando en la diferencia ms elementos que nos unen de los que nos
hacen divergir.
! La accin voluntaria, al estar exenta de beneficios econmicos directos, se
caracteriza por las motivaciones intrnsecas que la promueven, principalmente por un
altruismo enfocado hacia la mejora de la situacin social de determinados grupos humanos
que se encuentran, generalmente, en desventaja frente al grupo humano del que proviene el
voluntario. El voluntario se mueve por un fin filantrpico de desarrollo de la humanidad,
sin importarle nacin, raza, religin ni ideologa poltica, su fin es el desarrollo humano y
en ello desempea todas sus habilidades, capacidades y actitudes para conseguirlo. Esta
motivacin altruista es de fundamental importancia en el mundo de los docentes, ya que le
aporta una perspectiva fundamental para el ejercicio de su profesin como es la educacin
al servicio del progreso sin distinciones, sino como bien dirigido hacia una humanidad
intercultural, que busca eliminar las desigualdades existentes, y global en donde las
actuaciones de cada regin influyen en las del resto del mundo.
! Con estas lneas pretendemos mostrar la necesidad imperante de establecer un
servicio de voluntariado obligatorio que facilite la formacin humanstica a un sector
profesional englobado en las ciencias sociales y humanas, pero que lamentablemente la
mayor parte de su formacin se basa en aglomeraciones de contenidos tericos entre las
cuatro paredes de un aula, aislados del contexto real y alejado del autentico objetivo de la
educacin que no son otro que las personas que recibirn esa educacin. Por este motivo
trabajaremos y buscaremos los mtodos ms eficientes para lograr una verdadera formacin
filantrpica en los futuros educadores/as que permita que la futura educacin est al
servicio de la humanidad y su desarrollo.
! Si existi el servicio militar obligatorio en muchos pases, Por qu no crear un
servicio de voluntariado obligatorio que promueve la concientizacin sobre la situacin en
la que vive la sociedad para poder trabajar y mejorarla? Pensemos en ello.
Jos Mara Barroso T!"n
Secretario de Alternativas Educativas
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Millennium Development Goals
! This years report on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) highlights
several milestones. The target of reducing extreme poverty by half has been reached five years ahead of
the 2015 deadline, as has the target of halving the proportion of people who lack dependable access to
improved sources of drinking water. Conditions for more than 200 million people living in slums have
been ameliorated, double the 2020 target. Primary school enrolment of girls equalled that of boys, and
we have seen accelerating progress in reducing child and maternal mortality.
! These results represent a tremendous reduction in human suffering and are a clear validation of the
approach embodied in the MDGs. But, they are not a reason to relax. Projections indicate that in 2015
more than 600 million people worldwide will still be using unimproved water sources, almost one billion
will be living on an income of less than $1.25 per day, mothers will continue to die needlessly in
childbirth, and children will suffer and die from preventable diseases. Hunger remains a global challenge,
and ensuring that all children are able to complete primary education remains a fundamental, but
unfulfilled, target that has an impact on all the other Goals. Lack of safe sanitation is hampering progress
in health and nutrition, biodiversity loss continues apace, and greenhouse gas emissions continue to pose
a major threat to people and ecosystems.
! The goal of gender equality also remains unfulfilled, again with broad negative consequences,
given that achieving the MDGs depends so much on womens empowerment and equal access by women
to education, work, health care and decision-making. We must also recognize the unevenness of progress
within countries and regions, and the severe inequalities that exist among populations, especially between
rural and urban areas.
! Achieving the MDGs by 2015 is challenging but possible. Much depends on the fulfilment of MDG-
8, the global partnership for development. The current economic crises besetting much of the developed
world must not be allowed to decelerate or reverse the progress that has been made. Let us build on the
successes we have achieved so far, and let us not relent until all the MDGs have been attained*.
Ban Ki-moon
Secretary-General, United Nations
*Extracted from the Millennium Development Goals Report 2012, Foreword, page 3.
Key messages
1. The eight MDGs, agreed by world
leaders at UN summit in 2000,
set specific targets on poverty
alleviation, education, gender
equality, child and maternal
health, environmental stability,
HIV/AIDS reduction, and a Global
Partnership for Development.
2. Three i mportant targets on
poverty, slums and water have
been met three years ahead of
2015, says this years Report on
the MDGs.
3. Unlocking Progress: MDG
Acceleration on the road to 2015.
SECTION 1
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Abstract: This article examines two sustainable development-related processes that unfolded in
parallel at the United Nations during the period 2010-2012. The first one, the Global Sustainability
Panel, was established by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and produced a report entitled
Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A Future Worth Choosing at the end of January 2012. The
second one, the preparatory process for the UN Conference on Sustainable Development, also known
as Rio+20, was an intergovernmental negotiation that culminated in the adoption of an Outcome
Document entitled The Future We Want in June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro. Both processes and their
outcomes dealt with a broad range of sustainable development issues. They both started with an
understanding that implementation of sustainable development is lagging significantly behind in
practice, especially in view of major global challenges facing the world today, like climate change
and food insecurity. And both attempted with their recommendations, which include the introduction
of new sustainable development goals (SDGs), to shape a more effective sustainable development
framework for the post-2015 period, that is after the year set for the completion of the current
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The article presents the two processes and their outcomes,
analyzes the context in which they evolved, points to their commonalities and differences, and
ponders on how their best elements can be combined towards the desired post-2015 sustainable
development framework, on the basis of actions by all relevant stakeholders.
Key words: Sustainable development, United Nations, Global Sustainability Panel, Rio+20, MDGs,
SDGs, post-2015 development framework.
Introduction and context
Sustainable development is not a new concept. It dates at least as far back as 1987 and the
Brundtland Report (I) that prepared the ground for the Earth Summit in 1992 in Rio de
Janeiro, which resulted in the adoption of Agenda 21 (II). Why did it resurface at the end
of the first decade of the 21st century, and why was there another Rio summit, known as
Rio+20 or the UN Conference on Sustainable Development, in June of this year?
! One could see many reasons for that, from rather mechanical ones to some very
substantive. Yes, there is a ritualistic tendency to mark major conferences with new
conferences, at the 5-, 10- or 20-year mark. Indeed, there was a Rio+10 conference too, the
World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002, which resulted in
the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. These conference series work well for those
who supported the holding of the initial conference and/or those who feel that got most out
of it, in terms of issues raised and commitments made. So one can see why sustainable
development advocates, environment ministries and activists from around the world, and the
relevant parts of the UN bureaucracy, would like to see such a reminder conference twenty
years after the original Rio.
! At the same time, new awareness through scientific advancements, for example on
climate change and other planetary boundaries(III), as well as the increasingly felt pressure
of other emerging major challenges, like the food crisis of 2008 and the global financial
meltdown of the same year, underlined the need to revisit development in all its aspects. In
response, emerging new ideologies, which as usual combine an idealistic part with one
more grounded in economic and other interests, like the Green Economy, wanted formal
recognition and broad commitment to implementation through the decisions of a global
forum.
! A convergence of interests, after long negotiations and historic compromises, led to
the UN General Assembly deciding to convene the UN Conference on Sustainable
Development (UNCSD or Rio+20) with the objective to secure renewed political
commitment for sustainable development, assessing the progress to date and the remaining
gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable
development and addressing new and emerging challenges. The focus of the Conference
would include two themes, namely a green economy in the context of sustainable
development and poverty eradication and the institutional framework for sustainable
development (IV).
! In parallel to the Rio+20 gestation process, the UN Secretary-General and his senior
advisors, after more than two years of wholehearted efforts to bring about a major global
agreement on climate change, had come to the conclusion that climate change was part of a
broader package of global sustainable development challenges, and could probably be better
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A Tale of Two UN Processes: The Global Sustainability Panel
and Rio+20
Georgios Kostakos is currently an independent consultant specializing in
global sustainability, governance and the United Nations system. From
September 2010 to July 2012 he served on the Secretariat of the UN
Secretary-Generals High-level Panel on Global Sustainability (GSP), as
Senior Adviser and Acting Deputy Executive Secretary. More information
on and opinions by Dr. Kostakos can be found on his blog. The views
expressed in this article are personal, and do not necessarily reflect the
views of the GSP, its members or the United Nations. The GSP has
expressed its views and recommendations in its report entitled Resilient
People, Resilient Planet: A Future Worth Choosing.
e-mail: georgios@kostakos.net

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addressed in conjunction with the rest. Moreover, a May 2009 report issued by the
Commission on Climate Change and Development, which had been sponsored by the
government of Sweden, urged the UN Secretary-General to convene an independent high-
level task force to articulate a vision for development that achieves the multiple goals of
mitigation, adaptation, and meeting human needs (V). Persistent pressure by the European
Union, primarily moved by France and Germany, for upgrading the UN Environment
Programme (UNEP) into an independent specialized agency of the United Nations and in
support of a Green Economy, was also part of the mosaic. All this, and probably more, led
to the announcement by the UN Secretary-General at the Climate Change Summit on 22
September 2009 in New York that he intended to set up a high-level panel after the
Copenhagen Conference to advise on how to better integrate climate change adaptation and
mitigation into development(VI). The disappointment with the UNFCCC Conference of the
Parties held in Copenhagen in December 2009 only strengthened the determination and
broadened the scope of this endeavour.
! Eventually, the High-level Panel on Global Sustainability, or Global Sustainability
Panel GSP for short was announced on 9 August 2010, with a mandate to present its
report and recommendations to the UN Secretary-General by the end of 2011. The Panel
was co-chaired by the Presidents of Finland and South Africa, Tarja Halonen and Jacob
Zuma respectively, and its membership included another twenty personalities from around
the world, ranging from the legendary Gro Harlem Brundtland to the former Prime Minister
of Australia Kevin Rudd, the Brazilian and Indian Environment Ministers Izabella Teixeira
and Jairam Ramesh respectively, the Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Ali Babacan, the
European Commissioner for Climate Action Connie Hedegaard, and the co-CEO of RIM
(producers of Blackberry) Jim Balsillie, along with high-level personalities from Barbados,
China, Japan, Mexico, Mozambique, Nigeria, Republic of Korea, Russia, Spain, Sweden,
Switzerland, UAE and the US (VII).
! The Rio+20 preparatory process and the GSP process were quite intertwined, in
substance if not form. Some developing countries, most vocally those of the Alba Group
(VIII), challenged the legitimacy of the Panel on the basis of its not having an
intergovernmental mandate. Some actually suspected that the GSP was an attempt to bypass
the intergovernmental process, in which all UN member states had a say, through a secretive
process that would bring them before faits accomplis in Rio. Through extensive outreach to
UN members states, as well as civil society and the private sector, the GSP managed to
dispel initial suspicions and to influence/enrich the Rio+20 process and its outcome.
! Each of the two sections that immediately follow presents one of these processes
and its outcomes. The final section assesses their respective strengths, commonalities and
differences, and ponders on how their best elements can be combined towards a more
effective sustainable development framework for the post-2015 period, that is after the year
set for the completion of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), on the basis of
actions by all relevant stakeholders.
GSP findings and recommendations
The report of the Global Sustainability Panel, entitled Resilient Planet, Resilient People: A
Future Worth Choosing, was handed over to the UN Secretary-General on 30 January
2012. It contains 56 recommendations distributed under the three main chapters of the
report, namely Empowering people to make sustainable choices, Working towards a
sustainable economy, and Strengthening institutional governance.
! Peoples opportunities and choices are at the center of the GSP vision, which aims
to: eradicate poverty, reduce inequality and make growth inclusive, and production and
consumption more sustainable, while combating climate change and respecting a range of
other planetary boundaries (IX). The Panel puts special emphasis on integrating the
economic, social and environmental dimensions of development, and argues for the
introduction of a new political economy in order to achieve sustainability.
! On peoples empowerment the Panel recommends, among other things, the
following steps that need to be taken mainly by governments and international organizations
(X):
Focus on education, with the establishment of a global fund to close the primary school
education gap by 2015, and the provision of universal access to quality post-primary and
secondary education no later than 2030, emphasizing the skills and knowledge needed for
sustainable growth and jobs.
Advancing gender equality and womens rights, including through equal rights to own
and inherit property, equal rights in political participation, equality at the workplace, and
universal access to quality and affordable family-planning services.
Advancement of green jobs and decent work policies as a priority in government
budgets and sustainable development strategies.
Reducing the world food deficit through an ever-green revolution, promoting
responsible agricultural, land and water investment.
Ensuring the sustainable management of marine resources through the establishment of
regional oceans and coastal management frameworks, including regional fisheries
management policies and practices.
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Ensuring universal access to affordable sustainable energy by 2030 and providing
citizens, especially those in remote areas, with access to universal telecommunications and
broadband networks.
Access for all citizens to basic safety nets, with targeted social protection programmes and
policies to manage the economic and social impacts of transition and enhance resilience,
scaled-up humanitarian capacities to deal with increasing environmental stress and
potential shocks, and increased resources for adaptation and disaster risk reduction
integrated into development budgets and strategies.
On making the economy sustainable the Panels recommendations include:
Use by governments of price signals and other incentives including through taxation,
regulation or emissions trading systems, national and international schemes for payments
for ecosystem services, fuels subsidy phase-out measures, targets for renewable energy or
conservation to guide towards sustainable consumption and investment decisions of
households, businesses and the public sector itself.
Shift towards cost-effective sustainable procurement by governments, businesses,
international organizations and other entities over a ten-year period, with annual public
reporting on this from 2015 onwards.
Inclusion of long-term sustainable development criteria in investment and transactions
conducted by companies, including financial transactions, and development of a
framework for sustainable development reporting, which can be mandatory for corpora-
tions with market capitalizations larger than $100 million. Integration of such criteria into
stock market regulation; the management of sovereign wealth funds and public pension
funds; risk assessments by credit rating agencies, international organizations and
governments; company boards of directors (fiduciary duty); etc.
Incentives for increased investments in sustainable technologies, innovations and
infrastructures to be jointly developed by governments, international financial institutions
and major companies.
Creation of a Sustainable Development index or set of indicators by 2014 to measure
progress on sustainable development, supplementing narrow concepts of economic growth
reflected in GNP/GDP.
On institutional governance, the Panels recommendations include:
Ensuring the rule of law, good governance and citizens rights as the basis for sustainable
development.
Enabling young peoples participation in decision-making processes at all levels, also by
incorporating voices from non-conventional networks and youth communities, such as
Internet forums and opinion-making blogs.
Adoption by governments of whole-of-government approaches, under the leadership of the
Head of State or Government and involving all relevant ministries, for addressing
sustainable development issues across sectors. Moreover, inclusion by governments and
parliaments of the sustainable development perspective into relevant strategies, legislation
and budget processes.
Strengthening the environmental pillar of sustainable development by strengthening the
UN Environment Programme (UNEP).
Development of a set of universal sustainable development goals, covering all three
dimensions of sustainable development, as well as their interconnections, to galvanize
individual and collective action and complement the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) in a post-2015 framework.
Preparation of a regular global sustainable development outlook report assessing the state
of key economic, social and environmental indicators and their interlinkages, making use
of cutting-edge knowledge across all relevant sectors. The report should be put together by
a range of key international organizations and private sector entities, under the overall
direction of the UN Secretary-General and in close cooperation with the global scientific
community.
Creation of a global sustainable development council to replace the Commission on
Sustainable Development and improve the integration of the three dimensions of
sustainable development, address emerging issues and review sustainability progress,
bringing together, in addition to governments, other relevant stakeholders, including
intergovernmental organizations and representatives of civil society, the private sector and
science.
Making full use of the United Nations as the worlds meeting place, with the UN
Secretary-General convening periodic high-level exchanges to set the agenda and address
emerging sustainable development issues, bringing together Heads of State or
Government, heads of international institutions and representatives of civil society and the
private sector.
! These were some key recommendations made by the GSP to the Secretary-General,
who had established the Panel and had asked for its advice. The follow-up was left primarily
on the Secretary-General to pursue. He in turn brought the Panels report and
recommendations to the attention of the UN member states as they were finalizing
preparations for the Rio+20 conference (XI).
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The Rio+20 outcome
The outcome document of Rio+20 (XII), entitled The Future We Want, was finalized in Rio
under the strong leadership of Brazil and was approved by consensus among UN member
state leaders. Despite widespread disillusionment, initially at least, because of a perceived
lack of specificity and focus, the document has a lot of gems in its 283 paragraphs (XIII).
Among them:
In terms of common vision, it clearly places sustainable development at the intersection of
the economic, social and environmental spheres, correcting an imbalance in favour of the
environmental pillar that has been evident since Rio 1992, and puts poverty eradication at
the centre.
Recognizes the need to complement gross domestic product (GDP) with broader measures
of progress, and requests the UN Statistical Commission, the intergovernmental body that
brings together the statistical offices of the world and approves common methodologies
and standards, to work on it.
Considers the green economy, in the context of sustainable development and poverty
eradication, as one of the important tools available for achieving sustainable development,
which could provide options for policymaking. However, it should not be a rigid set of
rules and should not be used to impose green conditionalities or trade barriers.
In terms of institutional arrangements, it establishes a universal intergovernmental high-
level political forum to lead on the implementation of sustainable development, replacing
the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). The format and organizational
aspects of the forum are to be decided through negotiations in the UN General Assembly,
with a view to holding the first such forum in September 2013.
Invites the UN General Assembly to adopt a resolution at its present session on
strengthening and upgrading UNEP, among other things by making the UNEP Governing
Council membership universal, increasing UNEPs financial resources, and enhancing its
coordinating role within the UN system on matters pertaining to the environment.
After reviewing the existing intergovernmental framework for action and advising for
further follow-up in several issue areas including poverty eradication, food security and
sustainable agriculture, sustainable transport, sustainable cities, health and population,
employment and social protection, oceans and seas, disaster risk reduction, climate
change, sustainable consumption and production, and education the Rio+20 outcome
document recognizes the importance and usefulness of setting a limited number of
universally-applicable Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for focused and coherent
action on sustainable development. To that end it mandates a 30-member, geographically
balanced working group of UN member state representatives to make proposals on such
goals to the UN General Assembly at its next session that starts in September 2013.
In terms of means of implementation, it decides to establish an intergovernmental
committee of 30 experts to prepare, by 2014, a report with proposals on a sustainable
development financing strategy to facilitate the mobilization of resources and their
effective use in achieving sustainable development objectives.
! In addition to the formal Rio+20 outcome, a significant number of voluntary
commitments were made by governments, businesses and other civil society partners in the
lead-up to Rio and at Rio itself. The UN registered over 700 such commitments amounting to
almost US$400 billion (XIV).
What next?
Sustainable development implementation remains elusive. Not that sustainable development
can ever be achieved once and for all, in a static way, with nothing further to do. By the very
nature of things the pursuit of sustainable development is a never-ending process, the specific
goals of which get redefined according to the times, the people and their/our needs. But did
we move closer to some degree of implementation because of Rio+20? Did the Global
Sustainability Panel play a role in it and does it have, through its report and
recommendations, anything more to contribute in the post-Rio+20 phase?
! As was mentioned in the introduction, there are many parallels between the GSP
report and recommendations, on the one hand, and the Rio+20 outcome, on the other. The
two processes informed each other, and in a way the GSP worked as an informal support
group and testing ground for many of the things that eventually made it to the Rio+20
outcome. It helped, no doubt, that a geographically representative group of members was
chosen for the GSP, including the Brazilian hosts of Rio+20. Beyond the GSP members
themselves, their Sherpas, or senior advisers, were actually often wearing a second hat as
negotiators of Rio+20 and/or other intergovernmental processes, like climate change,
ensuring a two-way flow of information between the Panel and those processes.
! At this point, at the intergovernmental level the way forward is determined primarily
by the Rio+20 outcome. Beyond what it has already offered, the GSP can inform the Rio+20
follow-up with some deeper thinking contained in its report on several issues, and with some
concrete proposals, especially on the economy. The latter does not get covered in any
specificity in the Rio+20 outcome document, beyond the political adoption, with several
caveats, of the Green Economy, and the work mandated on beyond GDP. Despite the
unfortunate absence of economy or finance ministers or experts as such from the GSP
membership, the Panel realized early enough the importance of radically transforming the
global economy as a prerequisite for moving towards greater sustainability. The Rio+20
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follow-up should involve key national and international actors in economics and finance,
much more than this was the case in the lead-up to Rio.
! There are positive signs in that regard, at least if one judges by the number of
members with economics/finance background on the Post-2015 Panel established by the UN
Secretary-General to support work on the post-2015 development agenda (XV). Hopefully the
members of the working groups to be established by the UN member states on issues like the
SDGs will also reflect that. Moreover, the high-level political forum due to be convened for
the first time in September 2013 is an opportunity to bring together all actors that can make
sustainable development work in practice. Participation should extend from the various
branches of member state governments, under the leadership of the respective Head of State
or Government, to the Bretton Woods Institutions, other IFIs and UN system agencies,
representatives of the private sector, civil society and science. This may eventually lead to a
new kind of representation at multilateral fora that goes beyond Foreign Ministries to experts
in other ministries, the private sector, scientific unions, etc., with a focus on finding solutions
rather than scoring diplomatic points.
! Civil society can help bring those who really matter into this process, from the
experts to the end users, be it farmers or health providers or womens groups, etc. And it is
not only at the UN level and in summits that the bet of sustainable development will be won
or lost. At all levels of human organization, from the global to the regional, the national and
the local, there has to be mobilization and a problem-solving approach to address the
challenges of sustainability. May the high-level political forum, once it is established in a
hopefully productive way, be replicated at the other levels too, bringing together the people
that matter at each level, and mobilizing the public at large.
! Among the things that the public has to keep a keen eye on is the various
commitments made at and around Rio+20. Together with the numerous partnerships
established to further specific aspects of sustainable development, these commitments and
those who made them have to be kept honest through scrutiny by civil society and the public
at large. Otherwise, commitments can be made cheaply when they are not followed up, or
they can be resold several times in different fora for political or commercial purposes.
Accountability is an important companion on the road to sustainability.
! Finally, a thought for another article that may be written in the future. This article and
the processes that it covers have been talking about sustainability and sustainable
development almost interchangeably. It may well be so, if so defined. But to the mind of this
author, the concept of sustainability is somewhat broader, and includes human security, as
well as peace and security at large. Treating these comprehensively, along with the rule of
law and human rights, which have already been mentioned, is a major undertaking, but may
be the only way to really achieve something stable in the long run.
! We may have to wait till 2015 and beyond to find out whether Rio+20 and its follow-
up have been successful. And even then things will probably not be absolutely clear, as
multilateral affairs and their outcomes seldom are. But the years leading to 2015 are very
important and need everybodys attention and active engagement.
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NOTES
I. See Our Common Future, report of the World Commission on Environment and
Development, chaired by Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, contained in UN document A/42/
427.
II. Agenda 21 was adopted by UN member states at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as Earth Summit, held in Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992.
III. Note the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), issued in 2007, and the award to IPCC and Al Gore of the Nobel Peace Prize in
the same year. See also 2009 article on Planetary Boundaries published in the
magazine Nature by Johan Rockstrm et al.
IV. See General Assembly resolution 64/236 (A/RES/64/236) of 24 December 2009.
V. See report of the Commission on Climate Change and Development entitled Closing
the Gaps.
VI. See Closing Remarks by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.
VII. The titles used here correspond to those that the GSP members had at the launch of the
Panel. Several members changed capacities during the time span of the Panel but
remained Panel members nonetheless.
VIII. The ALBA Group of countries includes Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Cuba, Dominica,
Ecuador, Nicaragua, St Vincent and the Grenadines, and Venezuela,
IX. GSP report, para. 6.
X. GSP recommendations below are merged and summarized for the purpose of this article,
inevitably leaving out several of their elements and nuances. For the full text of the
recommendations collected in one place see Annex I of the GSP report.
XI. The Secretary-General circulated the GSP report to the UN member states with a note of
his own urging implementation; see UN document A/66/700 of 1 March 2012.
XII. UN Conference on Sustainable Development, also known as Rio+20, Rio de Janeiro,
13-22 June 2012 (high-level segment/Summit on 20-22 June 2012).
XIII. The Future We Want was further endorsed by the UN General Assembly on 27 July
2012 through resolution 66/288 (document A/RES/66/288 of 11 September 2012).
XIV. See relevant page of the UN Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform.
XV. The membership and terms of reference of the High-level Panel of Eminent Persons on
the Post-2015 Development Agenda were announced by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-
moon on 31 July 2012.
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Abstract: The 1992 Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro mobilized a massive network of civil
society and non-governmental organizations and engaged in a historical dialogue on
sustainable development. This year, in June 2012, when the world reconvened in Rio de
Janeiro for Rio+20 Earth Summit the fragmentation of civil society was more obvious than
ever. While the nations of the world tussled with the official documents and the statements
and proclamations, a vigorous initiative to formulate Peoples Sustainability Treaties begun
to take shape that presents an alternative, grass-roots view of peoples aspirational pathways
to sustainable futures. The Widening Circle (TWC), a campaign for a global citizens
movement, joining forces in Rio de Janeiro to see beyond the summit and plan collectively
our transition to the great transition towards sustainable futures. Knowing that time is ripe for
catalytic campaign to evolve a powerful and coherent movement expressing a supranational
identity and building new institutions for a planetary age the mission of TWC is to reenergize
the dispersed and frustrated civil society towards advancing a diverse popular movement of
engaged citizens the world over.
Key words: 1992 Earth Summit, Civil Society, NGO, Sustainable Development, Rio+20,
Global Citizens Movement, The Widening Circle, Future.
54
After Rio+20 and Beyond 2015: Advancing the Campaign for
a Global Citizens Movement
Despus de Ro+20 y ms all de 2015: Fomento de la
Campaa por un Movimiento Ciudadano Global
Resumen: La Cumbre de la Tierra de 1992 en Ro de Janeiro moviliz una red masiva de la
sociedad civil y de organizaciones no gubernamentales, donde se particip en un dilogo
histrico sobre el desarrollo sostenible. Este ao, en junio de 2012, cuando el mundo volvi
a reunirse en Ro de Janeiro para la Cumbre de la Tierra de Ro+20, la fragmentacin de la
sociedad civil fue ms evidente que nunca. Mientras que las naciones del mundo se peleaban
con los documentos oficiales, las declaraciones y las proclamas, una iniciativa vigorosa para
formular Tratados de Sostenibilidad de los Pueblos comenz a tomar forma, presentando
una alternativa, cuya base era el punto de vista de las personas que aspiraban a un futuro
sostenible. El Amplio Crculo (TWC), una campaa a favor de un movimiento ciudadano
global, une sus fuerzas en Ro de Janeiro para ver ms all de la cumbre y el plan colectivo
de nuestra transicin a la gran transicin hacia un futuro sostenible. Sabiendo que el tiempo
est maduro para la campaa de catalizar y desarrollar un movimiento potente y coherente
que sirva de expresin de una identidad supranacional y la creacin de nuevas instituciones
para una era planetaria, la misin de TWC es revitalizar la sociedad civil dispersa y frustrada
para promover un movimiento diverso popular de los ciudadanos que participan el mundo.
Palabras clave: Cumbre de la Tierra 1992, Sociedad Civil, ONG, Desarrollo Sostenible,
Ro+20, Movimiento Ciudadano Global, El Amplio Crculo, Futuro.
Uchita de Zoysa: author, strategist and frontline leader in mobilizing civil
society and stakeholder alliances for shaping the global sustainability
movement - is Global Coordinator of The Widening Circle campaign for a
Global Citizens Movement, Chairman of Global Sustainability Solutions,
Executive Director of Centre for Environment and Development, and the
initiator of the Peoples Sustainability Treaties. He is the author of It has to
be Climate Sustainability, and has contributed to hundreds of global
conferences during past two decades from the first Rio Earth Summit in
1992 and up to the recently concluded Rio+20 Summit.
e-mail: uchita@sltnet.lk
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Rio+20 and the future we dont want?
Rio+20 never promised to inject life to a sustainable development agenda. On the contrary, it
ridiculed forty years of serious attempts to place the world on a sustainable development path
and tried to change the direction established twenty years ago through Agenda 21; these
attempts were made by redefining sustainable development from a narrow green economy
perspective, by drowning the calls for equity, and by trying to slaughter the rights to
sustainability. One thing was obvious from the beginning; we had to fight to keep the true
sustainable development agenda alive while Rio+20 tried to murder it.
! The first real evidence that Rio+20 could seriously damage twenty plus years of
sustainable development work was when it released the Zero Draft of the outcome document.
For many of us it was a zero minus draft, and a red alert warning to rally civil society for a
greater battle. The zero draft ignored the hundreds of submissions made by national
governments, civil society organizations and major groups and came up with a document that
even shocked government negotiators who called for greater imagination by the UN
Secretariat for Rio+20. This document not only lacked any imagination but took us twenty
years backwards in the sustainable development agenda. The zero draft of the outcome
document was ironically named as The Future We Want and lead to an immediate outcry
and a campaign that was to be called The Future We Dont Want.
Challenges after Rio+20
Rio+20 was a summit of nothing that could not draw any vision for sustainable futures and
derive political commitment from our leaders to further the sustainable development agenda
drawn in 1992. Indeed, since 1992, there has been a retrogression in the consensus that was
reached at the Earth Summitand reflected in such principles as burden sharing, articulation
of rights, mobilization of support, and protection of the vulnerable. Repeated attempts to
revive this consensusat Johannesburg in 2002, Bali in 2007, Copenhagen in 2009, and now
Rio de Janeiro in 2012have come up empty handed, thus thwarting efforts to build upon it.
The failure of Rio+20 Summit goes beyond the lack of political will power. It showcased the
lack of institutional acumen required to address the level of consciousness towards
cultivating a sense of identity that reaches across space to embrace the whole human family,
across time to recognize the rights of future generations, and across nature to acknowledge
humanitys place in the wider community of life.
The failure of Rio+20 deepens the challenges of a sustainable world order. The challenge is
to recognize the legitimacy of the global polity as an outer layer of a nested system of
affiliation that reaches across regions and places to build processes of democratic global
governance for managing our collective affairs on this planet. We as citizens of the world are
now left to look after our own sustainable futures. In this realization, advancing global
citizens movement to shepherd the transition to a sustainable, equitable, and democratic
future, one in which ethics is both a right and a responsibilityat the level of the individual,
the community and the planet has become more important than ever.
Time for the Sustainability Transition
We have entered the new planetary phase of civilization. This is new era also carries
unprecedented challenges and demands a deep shift in the direction of development. A
dangerous chasm is opening between the imperatives of the Planetary Phase and the ways of
thinking and acting that persist from the past. Failing to close the gap invites a slide toward
catastrophe and barbarism. Can our common sense prevail to heal the earth, vanquish
poverty, and create a planetary civilization of secure, just, and diverse places? For this to
happen, forms of consciousness and democratic institutions that reflect the condition of the
twenty-first century must essentially emerge. This calls for a sustainability transition, one
that envisions a profound and historical transformation in the world-views and values that
shape the organizing principles of human society. These necessarily new ways of thinking,
and the urgently needed transformation in our values, attitudes and beliefs, must emphasize
human solidarity, affinity with nature. A dramatic re-emphasis on the idea of a decent quality-
of-life for all must prevail.
Architecture of an emerging new world order
We need to grow the processes of democratic global governance that implements the
necessary transition toward planetary sustainability. For this a post-national citizenry, nested
in a formation of an interlinked and interpenetrated global, regional and local phenomena, is
required. The dominant model of development has entirely failed to lift large sections of
humanity out of unacceptable levels of poverty, misery and desperate want. It has also
dramatically increased the inequitable gap between the wealthy and the poor, in a world
where real wages stagnate even as work productivity rises exponentially. Whats worse, it
does all this while degrading planetary bio-geo-chemical processes and laying waste to
natural landscapes, and destroys the resource base for future generations. The status quo in
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development is predatory of both nature and people, ecologically unsustainable, and socio-
economically inequitable. A radically different vision of human well-being is the call; one that
is in tune with nature and respects other species, promotes socio-economic equity amongst all
people, enhances the cultural, material, economic, social, and political opportunities for all,
empowers each person and community to take part in decision-making affecting their lives,
even as it leaves the natural world a better and much improved place.
Principles of an alternative economic system
The current proposals for a green economy that focuses on a singular growth-driven, high
technology, free-market, Intellectual Property Rights-dominated system, is no green economy
at all. What is needed is a vision of a networked system of decentralized, community based,
sustainable economies in a diversity of settings, which stands on a foundation of ecological
integrity, social accountability and an economically equitable distribution. The core idea is
that all economies are made sustainable, not just a drive to maintain a singular, monopolistic
and dominant global corporate-capitalist economy. A truly just and sustainable economic order
will be one that increases the resilience of natural ecosystems, enhances the quality of life for
all individuals, and creates a level of prosperity that allows all of humanity the opportunity to
attain its full potential. A new economic order will be one that leaves both humans and the
planet better off, in perpetuity.
Manifesto of the peoples sustainability treaties
Sadly, Rio+20 was also a demonstration of how fragmented the global civil society has
become. While many civil society groups were competing to build their own image at the side
events in the official Rio Centro tents and other locations, the so called Peoples Summit in the
Flamingo Park was a chaotic demonstration that lead to thousands of civil society
representatives from across the world being stranded and lost without any sense of direction or
coordination. Alternately, fourteen Peoples Sustainability Treaties evolved through a
consultative process with hundreds of civil society organizations converged at the Rio+20 to
launch a Manifesto on the final day of the summit. They declared that another world is
possible after Rio+20 and pledged their commitment to a transition toward increasingly
sustainable futures on earth. The signatories to this Manifesto refused to sit idly by in the face
of another failure of governments to provide hope for a sustainable future for all. They
announced their own responsibility for undertaking actions, inviting and encourage similar
actions and commitments by other rightsholders and stakeholders, communicating a vision for
healthy communities, sustainable and equitable human well-being and its associated
strategies, and coming together in the form of a global citizens movement to shepherd the
transition to a sustainable, equitable, and democratic future.
! This manifesto calls for action that helps move simultaneously toward a more
localized socio-economic structure and toward a supra-national mindset that helps us
transcend the parochial concerns of a corporate-capitalistic globalization to activate a global
citizens movement. The signatories have pledged to:
Equity is the overarching demand from the civil society world, and must be the foundation
of the collective global response. We call for equity within generations, equity across
generations, and equity between humans and nature. For this we need to revert back to
making individual and societal decisions based on equity and ecological factors and not
merely on monetary factors. A different sort of economics, a new approach to learning and
education as a process, a revised understanding of ethics and of spirituality then become the
ways in which we can work toward a more Equitable society; one that recognizes our
integral relationship with the natural world
Localizing our systems of economies, decentralizing governance, and advancing
sustainable lifestyles and livelihoods becomes the new social order of sustainable societies.
Localism is the theme emerging across the board which is linked to the principles of
devolution, of decentralization and of subsidiarity, turning localism into a world-wide
movement becomes the key to unpacking many of the complexities we face, whether in the
case of sustainable consumption and production or in the case of radical ecological
democracy. Protecting the rights of Mother Earth and of humans, transforming our
governance systems through radical ecological democracy, respecting cultural diversity, and
strengthening sustainable economies is the way towards sustainable futures for all. It is thus
essential that we create a more effective, responsible and democratic system of global
governance
A Global Citizens Movement is the collective response towards transitioning to a
sustainable world. All sections of society must thrive to converge upon their visions and
convictions and find common ground for collective action that can bring about the
transformation required to ensure the wellbeing of all on the planethumans as well as
nature. Such a global citizens movement would catalyze for a peaceful and prosperous new
world that generates widespread happiness and contentment thus propagating widespread
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practices of mindful intentional action. For this, a new sense of ethics, values and
spirituality must be seeded within current and future generations through a redesigned
system of learning, education and enlightenment.
The widening circle campaign for a global citizens movement
A global citizens movement that engages masses of people for a Great Transition remains
latent, ready to be born. But can it crystallize with sufficient speed and scale? Awakening this
movement begs for a focused and directed effort. This is mind The Widening Circle (TWC)
was launched as a new organizing initiative with the explicit aim of catalyzing the Global
Citizens Movement (GCM), a sustained campaign that will spread across regions and issues
in widening circles. TWC is not the GCM itself; it is a catalyzing campaign to advance a
GCM. It is a campaign to bring coherence to the global movement by fostering a shared
vision, an effective strategy, and a politics of trust that seeks to balance unity and pluralism
on the road to our common future. TWC nurtures the idea and practice of global citizenship,
while actively promoting unified action in civil society. Corresponding to the polycentric
character of the GCM, the core structure of TWC is built on an expanding set of globally-
allied semi-autonomous territorial and issue circles linked through representative global
circles.
! A GCM would work on all fronts, understanding the various struggles for the
environment and justice, as well as the search for meaningful and responsible ways of living
in our interdependent world, as different expressions of a common project. TWC, the
campaign for a GCM, has passed through two distinct phases. The Conceptual Phase (2002-
2010) saw the formulation of the Great Transition scenario and identification of a GCM as
the critical change agent. The Launch Phase (2010-2012) TWC 1.0 introduced and
defined the campaign, establishing the soundness of its conceptual framework and preparing
the ground for a more ambitious phase. On that foundation, the time is ripe for moving the
campaign forward into a three-year Development Phase (TWC 2.0). To significantly
advance a coherent and vital GCM, TWC will decisively move the campaign to a higher
level of intensity that attracts participation from all geographic and demographic groups, link
with allied movements, and inspire large numbers of people the world over.
After Rio+20 and Beyond 2015
Humankind faces multiple and daunting crises that are more than likely to confront and
impact billions of people in the decades to come. In addition, research is showing us that our
actions are very likely going to cause us to transgress multiple planetary thresholds and
boundaries. Despite unprecedented growth in the global economy since 1992, governments
are trapped in making insatiable demands for still more unsustainable growth and rising
inequity to remedy problems that economic globalization itself has caused.
! Just after Rio+20, international NGOs are quickly shifting their focus on the beyond
2015 development agenda. The next three years, 2013 to 2015, will demonstrate another cir-
cus of UN global agenda setting and reactions from the civil society and rest of the
stakeholders. While like Rio+20 this process too will provide a forum for an international
conferencing circus, civil society should not let loose the focus on the need of getting
together around a campaign for a Global Citizens Movement (GCM). A GCM is the collec-
tive response towards transitioning to a sustainable world. All sections of society must thrive
to converge upon their visions and convictions and find common ground for collective action
that can bring about the transformation required to ensure the wellbeing of all on the planet
humans as well as nature. Such a global citizens movement would catalyze for a peaceful and
prosperous new world that generates widespread happiness and contentment thus propagat-
ing widespread practices of mindful intentional action. For this, a new sense of ethics, values
and spirituality must be seeded within current and future generations through a redesigned
system of learning, education and enlightenment.
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References
i.! 2013-2014 Strategy of The Widening Circle,
http://www.wideningcircle.org/documents/TWC%20Readings/TWC%202013-2015%20Strateg
y%20(JUNE-2012).pdf
ii.! Peoples Sustainability Manifesto, http://sustainabilitytreaties.org/pst-manifesto/
iii.! Synthesis Report of Peoples Sustainability Treaties,
http://sustainabilitytreaties.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/peoples-sustainability-treaties-synthesis
-report-for-rio20-13-06-2012.pdf
iv.! Post Rio+20 World Order: The Need for Advancing A Global Citizens Movement,
Uchita de Zoysa,
http://sustainabilitytreaties.files.wordpress.com/2012/02/rio20-analysis-article-by-uchita-de-zoy
sa-media-release.pdf
v.! KOSMOS Journal, The Widening Circle After Rio+20: Advancing the Campaign for a
Global Citizens Movement, Uchita de Zoysa, http://www.kosmosjournal.org/
Abstract: The Cartagena based Inter-American Center for Peace and Security (ICPS) is a policy
resource venue for exchange of ideas leading to Improvement of understanding and engagement of
equals in the Americas welfare, peace, security and opportunities for Americans. Create and further
exchanges between the Americas and other regions of the world, with special emphasis on the South/
South cooperation. ICPS created the Cartagena Dialogue as its main vehicle for these exchanges to
strengthen peace and security throughout the Americas and in the Caribbean region by raising
standards of living to include adequate nutrition, shelter, healthcare, career/livelihood development.
Innovate, inspire and lead programs that deliver quantifiable improvements for targeted populations.
Promote inter-American cooperation and exchange between businesses, governments, academics and
students to drive sustainable economic development. Advance human relations and values through
global exchanges of best practices and insights. Eradicate death and disability caused by land mines
and abandoned munitions and fight other forms of conflicts and improve post-conflict situations.
Bring awareness and effect change to the indigenous populations starting with preservation of land
and natural resources. Respond in proactive and imaginative ways to issues of the day in the Latin
American and Caribbean areas, bringing new players, investors and participants to programs and
institutions.
Key Words: Security, Americas and Caribbean, Peace, Human Rights, Indigenous,
Environmental, Inmigration, Food, Cooperation South-South.
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Inter-American Center for Peace and Security (ICPS) Centro Inter-Americano para la Paz y la Seguridad
Resumen: El Centro Interamericano para la Paz y la Seguridad (CIPS) con sede en Cartagena es un
recurso para la poltica regional, como un escenario vlido para el intercambio de ideas enfocadas
para mejorar el reconocimiento y la inclusin de los iguales en las Amricas; elevar los niveles de
bienestar, paz, seguridad y oportunidades para los Americanos; crear y promover intercambios entre
las Amricas y otras regiones del mundo, con especial nfasis en la cooperacin Sur/Sur. El CIPS ha
creado los Dilogos de Cartagena como su principal vehculo para tales intercambios, buscando
fortalecer la paz y la seguridad en las Amricas y la Regin Caribe mediante el mejoramiento de los
estndares de vida, incluyendo nutricin, vivienda, salud y oportunidades laborales. Promover la
cooperacin interamericana y los intercambios entre la empresa, el gobierno, la academia y los
estudiantes, para lograr un desarrollo econmico sostenible. Promover las relaciones humanas y los
valores, mediante los intercambios globales de las mejores prcticas. Erradicar las muertes y las
discapacidades causadas por las minas antipersonales y las armas abandonadas y combatir otras
formas de conflicto y mejorar las condiciones post-conflicto. Crear conciencia y realizar cambios en
las poblaciones indgenas, comenzando con la preservacin de la tierra y los recursos naturales.
Responder de manera proactiva e imaginativa a los acontecimientos diarios en las regiones
Latinoamericana y el Caribe, atrayendo nuevos jugadores, inversionistas y participantes hacia los
programas y las instituciones.
Palabras clave: Seguridad, Amricas y el Caribe, paz, Derechos Humanos, Indgenas,
Medioambiente, Comida, Cooperacin Sur-Sur.
Viktor Sebek served as the Executive Director of the Advisory Committee on
Protection of the Sea (ACOPS), set up by former British Prime Minister Lord
Callaghan in 1952. He developed and coordinated policy aspects of global
environmental projects in sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, Central and
South America and the Russian Federation. He also acted as an advisor to
European local authorities in the 1980s and 1990s, and as a consultant to the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the
European Commission, and various UN agencies. In 1997, he organized the
Conference on Ocean Security in the US Congress, and its sequel in Swedish
Parliament in 1998, which were precursors to the Ocean Security Initiative
(OSI), which was established in 2005. Dr. Sebek serves as the President and CEO,
aiding the organization in its vision to further develop and promote the global
concept of ocean security.
e-mail: vsebek@intercips.org
web: http://www.intercips.org
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Inter-American Center for Peace and Security (ICPS)
The Cartagena based Inter-American Center for Peace and Security (ICPS) fills a gap in
policy coordination and cooperation on peace, environmental issues, food, health, energy,
immigration, security and cultural exchanges, combating drug trade and promoting good
governance and human rights, including the rights of indigenous peoples in the Caribbean
and Latin America.
! This organization which partners with academia, Governments, both national and
local, and also the civil society, is currently engaged in a number of projects throughout the
world, but with emphasis on the Americas, including the Caribbean.
The current projects include the following:
Promoting understanding between cities and provinces in Colombia with
other parts of the world:
ICPS believes that the twinning arrangements involving local authorities at the city or
provincial level can lead to better understanding, improve cultural, economic and other ties
between different parts of the world. ICPS has helped ensure twinning arrangements between
the Department (Province) of San Andres archipelago of Colombia and the City of Braganza
in the state of Para in northern Brazil, and also between San Andres and the province of
Bohol in the Philippines. Efforts are also under way to twin San Andres province with a
number of provinces in Africa, and also the City of Cartagena with cities in the Americas,
Africa, Asia and Europe.
The twining arrangements will result in academic, commercial and cultural links and a visit
form the local authority officials and parliamentarians form Belem in the State of Para in
Brazil is planned for Cartagena before the end of the year.
South-South Cooperation
ICPS believes that south-south cooperation is an important vehicle of sharing information
amongst nations of Asia, Africa and South America which have much in common in terms of
social, economic and cultural development. For this reason, ICPS joined forces with the
presidency of the Philippines and the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources of
Kenya in an effort to exchange best practices in response to disaster mitigation and risk
management. To this end, the three partners held a side event at the Rio plus 20 conference
and concluded a memorandum of understanding which is enclosed here. The next stage of the
process will take place at the 18th session of the contracting parties of the Climate Change
Convention in Qatar in December 2013.
Promoting closer links between Wider Caribbean and Africa:
Three countries in the Americas boost the largest African diaspora which started centuries
ago as a result of the slave routes from Africa to the Americas, These are the United States,
Brazil and then Colombia. Apart from Cuba and Brazil, few Caribbean or South American
countries have widespread diplomatic missions in Africa. Therefore, even though there is a
huge curiosity of populations of the Americas to learn about the continent from which their
ancestors came, there is precious little knowledge of Africa in the Americas, especially the
Caribbean and South America. On the other hand, many people in Africa are not aware of the
large number people of African origin in the Caribbean. For this reason, ICPS whose
directors worked and lived in many parts of Africa, has joined forces with the Province of
San Andres and the City of Cartagena, as well as its contacts in South Africa, in an effort to
forge closer links between the two regions. This should spearhead a long term process which
will be implemented through conferences held in the first year in San Andres and Cartagena
(summer of 2013).
The project will have four focal areas:
Promoting cultural links, which is the heart of the project in the sense that links between
the two regions are manifested in the strongest way through culture, especially music.
Promoting tourism and commercial links
Environmental challenges specially climate change, disaster mitigation and risk
management and
Illegal trade in drugs and lessons learnt from peace processes in Africa and the Caribbean
(especially Central America and Colombia).
! The Governor of San Andres Province, her Secretary of Interior and Director of
Culture of the City of Cartagena joined CIPS in initial discussion with the Presidency of
Colombia and Ministry of Foreign Affairs to discuss the initial stages of the project, and an
agreement has been reached with allies in South Africa to have this country coordinate
linkages in Africa, together with Kenyan Ministry of Environment on environmental issues.
! Allies in Colombia also include AMUNAFRO (Association of mayors of afro origin)
and the University of Cartagena which hopes, as a result of this process, to open a chair in
African and Afro studies. Indeed, academic exchanges will become one of the lynchpins of
this program. A further ally is the world congress of mayors of African origins which will be
held in Cali and Cartagena in the summer of 2013, back to back with this event.
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! This process is also expected to result in further increase of twining arrangements
between African and Caribbean nations.
Sport and Culture as Tools to fight Juvenile Crime in Cartagena
In common with many other cities of developing world, including Colombia, the City of
Cartagena is fighting problems of increasing absenteeism of young people from schools, the
huge increase in the number of bands called pandillas, involvement of young people in drug
trade or use, large number of underage mothers, and other similar phenomena. It is generally
agreed that the root cause of this problem, in addition to the large number of displaced people
(the largest in the Americas) is poverty and lack of infrastructure providing young people with
an opportunity to express themselves in cultural or sport hobbies after school.
! On the basis of ample experience of one of its lead partners, the Barcelona/Medellin/
Washington DC organization entitled Ideaborn, which already carried out similar projects in
Central America and in Africa, ICPS has promoted development of a programme to use
culture and sport as tools to fight crime in the City of Cartagena. This large multidisciplinary
project involves departments of interior, education, culture, sport, prisons, legal services and
many others. The fundraising from external parties has already begun and the project is
expected to start shortly, In parallel, similar projects are now being planned for Medellin and
also for Makati, one of the conglomerate of cities which make up Metro Manila. ICPS has a
particularly strong relationship with central Government and civil society in the Philippines,
the only country in Asia with Hispanic cultural heritage.
Promoting Sustainable Tourism:
ICPS is aware that tourism, especially responsible, sustainable tourism, can contribute hugely
towards better understanding amongst nations, especially as this economic activity has grown
in to the worlds largest single industry. Cartagena de Indias is one of most attractive
destinations in the Caribbean and the number of foreign tourists is constantly on the increase.
ICPS was therefore pleased to join forces with Scripps Network (owners of Travel Cannel) to
make a pilot video programme on Cartagena, with special emphasis on its history and musical
diversity. The program is currently being edited in the United States in the hope that it will
trigger a series of similar programs in other regions of Colombia and elsewhere in the
Caribbean and South America.
Promoting National identity through music
ICPS is aware that fostering national identity and pride through deeper understanding of
musical culture is an essential component of education in South America. Most of the
countries have very diverse musical culture and it is quite common for the population in one
region to have no knowledge whatsoever of music in other regions. For this reason, CIPS
started a project in 2911 bringing together talented young musicians from different parts of
Colombia with a view to playing together music from the parts of the country they never vis-
ited and whose music they never played. Part of the project is educational and your musicians
gave master classes to groups in Cartagena which ordinarily only play music of African origin.
The project will continue.
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Abstract: This article explores my key areas of work as the Director of African Centre for
Community and Development which is involved in diverse humanitarian and development
devices towards poverty alleviation, education, sustainability and the empowerment of vul-
nerable sub-populations in Cameroon, Africa and the world. African Centre for Community
and Development is a non-governmental organization.
Key words: African Development, International Development and Cooperation, Education,
Citizenship Empowerment, Holistic and Sustainable Development, Poverty alleviation,
Communication, Participation, Environmental Protection, Gender, Cameroon.
Arrey Mbongaya Ivo
Founder and Director of African Centre for Community and Development.
e-mail: ivoemmanuelarrey@yahoo.com
web: www.africancentreforcommunity.com
Firstly I would like to thank Global Education Magazine for the invitation to
share my work as the Director of African Centre for Community and
Development on this much cherished platform.
My work as Director of African Centre for Community and Development
in Cameroon
My work as the Director of African Centre for Community and Development is founded on
precepts and duties to man and community that happen to be the very basis of my
organization in the first place. I would say putting people first, improving wellbeing by
including all and eradicating poverty via holistic and sustainable approaches are focal points
which in many ways are not separated from my strong commitment to vulgarizing education,
sharing and learning, communication, cultural exploration and inter-cultural dialogue, art,
environmental protection and broadening the use of transformational technologies as a way
of combating poverty, achieving millennium development goals and reducing suspicion and
development lapses in Africa and the world.
! In this light we have come to know the best way to advocate for people is to approach
them, learn from them, their cultures, values and their tested practices in order to create
platforms where others can borrow, replicate, adapt and transform their own lives for their
immediate wellbeing and the wellbeing of mankind.
! This in no way is a mild task as it entails a lot of processes including reading
extensively, watching videos and slides, organizing workshops and seminars, writing articles,
sharing and analyzing news, which need resources that are in many cases scarce and difficult
to access. It has meant narrowing historical differences between people, cultures, races,
civilizations, histories, technologies, politics and lifestyles in order to create bridges where
people and organizations with a common good can see the need to work together and that
hopeless people can also dream and work hard to leave their vulnerabilities which in many
instances is not their making.
! It has also meant making links between formal and informal sectors, urban and rural
livelihoods, coastal and forest livelihoods, private and public interventions, social conflicts,
economic thinking, agriculture, fisheries, environment, poverty alleviation, and subjective
and objective wellbeing analyses in order to approach things from a humanitarian and
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African Centre for Community and Development in
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educative and inclusive dimension that will be relevant to my immediate contexts which is
Africa and the rest of the world.
! Practically we have interviewed a wide array of stakeholders with diverse
backgrounds, needs and opinions towards transforming lives and alleviating poverty. We
have talked to and documented several hundreds of people and worked with diverse
organizations in workshops in order to learn on their models and to vulgarize good
knowledge to places that matter so that actions that will be taken are going to be based on
informed data hence impact more meaningfully on the poor and vulnerable. This is vital as
it can no longer be denied that projects have been failing in developing countries and that
the path that aid has taken has not always been sustainable or has not reached the affected.
Africa needs my model as most things about Africa are unknown, speculated upon, complex
and multi-dimensional hence need a complex, but inclusive, just, bottom-top, flexible,
participatory work based on research, goodwill, dedication and sound education to impact.
! We have thus interviewed and worked with cultural and development organizations,
fishermen, farmers, women groups, researchers, community-based organizations, non-
governmental organizations, teachers, orphans, the poor, artists, scientists, writers and many
more categories that this ink and bronze-aged paper cannot take for now. We have learnt
that the poor are not a passive lot, we know what people want from their voices themselves
and we have expressed what we think could be done to transform lives in Cameroon, Africa
and the world in our blogs, radio programmes, videos and seminars.
Interviewing farmer on the impact of climate change around Bonadikombo, Mile Four Area, Cameroon
Some experiences
! Personally, I produced and presented slots called Cultural Panorama, Green
Planet, Books and People, Art Gallery, Development Trends etc over local radios,
produced and published interviews under the banner of People Places and Events which
are accessed online and have organized workshops like Fighting Poverty and Engaging
Conservation through Sounds 2009 and 2010 and Conference on Sustainable Strategies
and Practices for Development which led to a framework that could be used by
stakeholders to buttress their organizations in the sustainable and holistic thinking
unavoidable at this time.
! I have also organized Outreaching to Orphans which led to green practices like
planting of trees with orphans as well as environmental sharing. I control our poultry
venture that produces quail eggs and has improved on meat and egg laying village poultry
varieties and has designed local incubators so as to improve access to proteins in a region
where resilience to diseases is vital. I have communicated visions, stories and social issues
via my poetry and art
exhibitions etc which
some can be accessed
online. Communication is
a strategic device of my
work hence the reason
why African Centre for
C o m m u n i t y a n d
Development has a bold
p r e s e n c e o n El d i s ,
Facebook, YouTube and I
have engaging profiles on
twitter and Facebook.
African Centre for Community and Development gifts and planting trees with
Orphans during Outreaching to Orphans 2009 (above and below)
! In order to engage the international community of experts and goodwill ambassadors
across levels seeking to better human lives across communities, we created Holistic
Approach to Sustainable Development group on LinkedIn which has active, sharing,
participatory polls and news on development and Global issues. I also created Hello
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Africa Group on Facebook to share useful transformational issues on sustainable
development and wellbeing and these platforms are gaining grounds across various
stakeholders.
! With fieldwork, a deep humanitarian orientation, Global learning and from data
gathered and analyzed I have developed the experience necessary to understand diverse
stakeholders and to help build up their capacities in order to arrive at sustainable
development. I thus spread knowledge as regularly as I am doing in order to build power
atoms in society, which will merge to produce power molecules and compounds necessary to
vulgarize power development and to reduce poverty within my immediate society and the
world.
! That is why we run conferences to train NGOs, CBOs, SMEs and accept professional
invitations to grant talks aiming at mainstreaming people via bottom-top approaches and
holistic devices into long lasting development. I have come to know the branch is not the
whole tree therefore my work focuses on including the stem, roots, leaves, fruits and every
tiny cell in the drawing and life of development. Africa being naturally cut out of information
and un-mapped needs such a vehicle to be heard so that actions affecting her will reflect on
local realities, needs and interests.
Last reflections
! This case for Africa also applies for many powerless developing countries as well. All
these tallies well with our academic and professional backgrounds in Laws, political science,
project planning and management and development communication and I guess has played
no small way in African Centre for Community and Development getting a special
consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.
! With collaboration and support it is clear that the zeal to create community
Development Radios and Television, farmer field schools, Capacity Building and
Development Schools, eco-tourism hubs, Vocational training centres on intangible cultural
assets, sustainable agriculture and fisheries, sustainable development, environmental
protection, green technologies and economies, poverty alleviation, gender empowerment,
holistic approach to sustainable development, etc. will be a reality for Africa and the world.
! I encourage all readers to follow our work, updates, etc. and to share in our platforms
so that we can redesign old unworkable schools and instruments into fertile grounds for
human wellbeing and development. Support us where it is necessary so that our seeds will
sprout and bear fruits for society and for man. We are by our nature communal beings hence
developing ourselves is our duty and calling. A bumpy road is not good enough to stop us
hence it should not be a reason why we cannot collaborate, partner, support each other and
add wellbeing where it is absent.
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Bibliography
Arrey I.M, 2008 Subjective wellbeing a lucrative contemporary jargon for
development management? Published online in http://africancentreforcommunity.com
Bond R, Hulme D. 1999. Process approaches to development: theory and Sri Lankan
practice. World Development 27 (8): 1330-1358.
Camfield, L. (2004), Measuring SWB in developing countries in Glatzer, W., Von Be-
low, S. and Stoffregen, M. Challenges for the Quality of life in contemporary societies,
Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Gow D, Morss E. 1988. The notorious nine: critical problems in project implementation.
World Development 16 (2): 1339-1418.
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Global Education
Ten years after the Maastricht Global Education Declaration, there was a need to reflect on and
discuss the achievements in the field of global education, considering the changing realities and addressing
the emerging social, economical and environmental challenges.
! Against this background, the 2nd European Congress on Global Education: Education,
Interdependence and Solidarity in a Changing World took place in Lisbon, 27-28 September 2012, organized
by the North-South Centre of the Council of Europe (NSC) in partnership with the Global Education Network
Europe (GENE) and CONCORD Europe, in cooperation with the Portuguese Institute for Development
Assistance (IPAD), the Portuguese NDGO Platform and the University of Lisbon and with the financial
support of the European Commission.
! The Congress brought together approximately 200 stakeholders, coming from International
Organisations, Ministries of Education, Ministries of Foreign Affairs, parliamentarians, local and regional
authorities; civil society organisations, educators and other relevant actors.
Global Education programme objectives fall within the scope of the UNESCO decade of education for Sustainable Development
Key messages
1. The Maastricht Congress
Declaration (2002) established a
European strategy framework for
global education in Europe until
2015.
2. Global Education guidelines
are meant to be a pedagogical tool
to support educators from formal
and non-f ormal syst ems t o
understand and put into practice
global education activities in their
respective contexts.
3. A report concerning the GE
Congress held in Lisbon last 27-
2 8 S e p t e mb e r i s u n d e r
preparation and will be circulated
during the Autumn.
4. Global Education Week 2012
(10-18 November): will take place
under the theme Moving towards
One World.
SECTION 2
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Abstract: By assuming the mission of mobilizing people to use the transformative power of
their acts of conscious consumption as a means of building the sustainability of life on the
planet, the Institute Akatu for Conscious Consumption elected children and adolescents as
two of its public priority. Since established itself as a Brazilian NGO that works for
sensitization, awareness and mobilizing people through conscious consumption, Akatu has
invested in education programs in schools, businesses and communities. The education
program for conscious consumption is transverse to life and knowledge of young people and
children, including on any and all subjects in the curriculum. It is important that relates to the
daily consumption, leading into the schools elements of everyday life, easy to grasp for
students, with surprising news and content, in order to motivate them for the theme and for
the practice of conscious consumption. So it is not something abstract, but something that
relates to specific aspects of life. Moreover, the Akatus education program values the teacher
as a leading agent of social transformation through education of children and adolescents
through the transmission of new values, new concepts and new practices where the school
environment acts as a space host of this process.
Key Words: Education, Conscious Consumption, Sustainability, Akatu, Transformation,
Youth, Brazil.
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Consumer Education in the Search for Sustainability Educao para o consumo na busca pela sustentabilidade
Resumo: Ao assumir como misso a mobilizao de pessoas para o uso do poder
transformador de seus atos de consumo consciente como instrumento de construo da
sustentabilidade da vida no planeta, o Instituto Akatu pelo Consumo Consciente elegeu a
criana e o adolescente como dois de seus pblicos prioritrios. Desde que se consolidou
como uma ONG brasileira que trabalha pela sensibilizao, conscientizao e mobilizao
das pessoas pelo consumo consciente, o Akatu tem investido em programas de educao em
escolas, em empresas e em comunidades. O programa de educao para o consumo
consciente transversal vida e aos conhecimentos dos jovens e crianas, incluindo-se em
todas e quaisquer disciplinas do currculo. importante que se relacione com o consumo do
dia a dia, levando para dentro das escolas elementos da vida cotidiana, de fcil apreenso
pelos alunos, com notcias e contedos surpreendentes, de forma a motiv-los para o tema e
para a prtica do consumo consciente. Assim, no algo abstrato, mas algo que diz respeito
aos aspectos concretos da vida. Alm disso, o programa de educao do Akatu valoriza o
professor como um destacado agente de transformao da sociedade por meio da formao
de crianas e adolescentes por meio da transmisso de novos valores, novos conceitos e
novas prticas, onde o ambiente escolar atua como um espao de acolhimento desse
processo.
Palavras-chave: Educao, Consumo Consciente, Sustentabilidade, Akatu, Transformao,
Jovens, Brasil.
Helio Mattar
Diretor-Presidente do Instituto Akatu pelo Consumo Consciente
e-mail: heliomat@heliomattar.com.br
web: www.akatumirim.org.br
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Contexto de Insustentabilidade
Aproximadamente 70% da populao mundial consome s o mnimo necessrio para a vida,
enquanto que apenas 16% da humanidade consomem 78% do total do consumo no planeta(I).
! Alm dessa concentrao injusta, que em si j aponta para uma grave questo de
insustentabilidade social, a humanidade j est consumindo 50% mais recursos do que a
Terra consegue regenerar (II), o que significa que o planeta no capaz de purificar o ar, de
produzir gua potvel, de recuperar reas agricultveis e de absorver os diversos tipos de
resduo gerado no consumo.
! Tratam-se, portanto, de ameaas atuais para a humanidade e no de riscos futuros,
tanto do ponto de vista social como ambiental, uma situao extremamente vulnervel para
toda humanidade.
! A questo social precisa ser urgentemente revertida se buscamos um mundo que viva
em paz e harmonia, e no um mundo com enormes diferenas de perspectiva material e
espiritual a tal ponto de colocar uma grande parte da humanidade em uma situao de
insegurana cotidiana, muitas vezes colocando as pessoas na beira de no ter nada a perder. E
isso acontece em vrias regies e pases, como vemos diariamente nos meios de
comunicao, onde a abundncia de recursos para alguns se contrape de modo doloroso
escassez de recursos mnimos para a vida da grande maioria.
! Alm disso, os dados acima mostram que o atual modelo de produo e consumo
completamente inadequado para a construo de um mundo social e ambientalmente
sustentvel. Isso especialmente verdadeiro se considerarmos que o modelo de consumo dos
pases desenvolvidos vem inspirando o restante do mundo e induzindo as populaes a viver
na chamada sociedade de consumo, em que a estrutura o sistema econmico se baseia na
fragilidade do consumo excessivo e do endividamento insupervel, levando a um consumo
muito maior do que as pessoas realmente precisam para seu bem estar material e psicolgico.
! Se esse padro de consumo excessivo da maioria das naes desenvolvidas for
adotado pelo resto da populao mundial, sero necessrios quatro a cinco planetas Terra
para suprir os recursos naturais que atendam a essa voracidade de consumo.
! Nesse contexto, seria de extremo otimismo esperar que a soluo para essa
extraordinria concentrao de consumo e para esse enorme desperdcio de recursos naturais
seja o produto das decises e das aes de um nico agente social, sejam organizaes
multilaterais, governos nacionais, corporaes ou sociedade civil. At porque os interesses
econmicos presentes na sociedade contempornea atual se baseiam precisamente na
permanncia do modelo insustentvel atual. Dada a enorme presso de alguns desses
poderosos interesses, nenhum ator isoladamente conseguiria operar mudanas na velocidade
e escala necessrias para se alcanar a sustentabilidade e, desta forma, evitar uma catstrofe
ambiental irreversvel e uma violenta convulso social, que podero romper seriamente a j
desequilibrada e vulnervel relao entre regies e pases do globo.
! Muitos acreditam que se poderia induzir e implementar as mudanas necessrias por
meio de polticas governamentais que coloquem incentivos e desincentivos que conformem
um modelo de produo e consumo gradualmente mais sustentvel. No entanto, as alteraes
nas polticas governamentais tendem a ser lentas demais face s dificuldades encontradas na
negociao frente aos interesses de curto prazo das poderosas foras econmicas na
sociedade, ainda que conformem um mundo insustentveis.
! Mudanas no modelo de produo por meio de um extraordinrio esforo no
desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias que no s no ameacem o meio ambiente, mas
protejam, ainda estariam longe de trazer o gigantesco ganho de produtividade necessrio para
produzir com os recursos naturais de um nico planeta os produtos e servios que
demandariam quatro a cinco Terras em termos de recursos naturais. Mantida a pegada
ecolgica do atual modelo de produo e de consumo da humanidade, seria necessrio
reduzir 4 a 5 vezes o uso de recursos naturais por unidade de produto ou servios produzida
em relao ao que usado nos dias de hoje. Certamente, o tempo necessrio para que tal
mudana tecnolgica atingisse tal ganho de produtividade colocaria em serssimo risco social
e ambiental o mundo como o conhecemos hoje.
! O que fazer ento? preciso de um processo global que leve criao de uma
responsabilidade coletiva no sentido de criar as mudanas nos valores e nos modelos que
possam gradualmente ganhar escala e velocidade nas sociedades e pases. To hercleo
quanto inovador, esse desafio requer um dilogo multistakeholder, isto , que envolva os
diferentes atores sociais necessrios a construo de um entendimento amplo de um novo
contrato social, no qual se busque compatibilizar a produo e o consumo como a
necessidade de justia social e sustentabilidade ambiental. Dada a interdependncia entre os
impactos sociais e ambientais das aes de produo e consumo, sem um acordo entre os
diversos atores sociais quanto a um novo modelo para tais aes, no ser possvel criar para
a vida no planeta, e muito especialmente a vida humana, um futuro sustentvel.
! Desta forma, solues que pareciam totalmente inviveis, frente luta cega e surda de
poder entre atores sociais, podem se tornar viveis e se transformar em um conjunto
inteligente e negociado de aes voltadas ao bem coletivo no longo prazo e no para a
manuteno de privilgios individuais de curto prazo.
Histrico do Akatu
O embrio do Instituto Akatu pelo Consumo Consciente surgiu no ano 2000, dentro do
Instituto Ethos de Empresas e Responsabilidade Social, quando os seus dirigentes
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perceberam que as empresas s aprofundariam suas prticas de Responsabilidade Social
Empresarial (RSE) se os consumidores passassem a valorizar essas iniciativas em suas
decises de compra. Caso essa induo no ocorresse com intensidade suficiente, a RSE no
realizaria o seu potencial transformador da sociedade.
! A descrio a seguir apresenta as fases do trabalho do Akatu para educar o consumidor
na direo de um outro comportamento de consumo.
Fase 1: Ingenuidade criativa
Naquela ocasio, as pesquisas elaboradas pelo Ethos mostravam que os consumidores tinham
grande interesse em conhecer as prticas de RSE. No entanto, esse interesse no se refletia nas
suas decises de consumo. Aparentemente, esse descompasso era provocado basicamente por
dois fatores: o consumidor (a) desconhecia a extenso do conceito de RSE; e (b) no tinha
informao suficiente para fazer escolhas conscientes de compra em termos das empresas das
quais comprar.
! O Akatu acreditou que bastaria esclarecer essas duas questes e o consumidor
naturalmente assumiria o seu papel de indutor da RSE. No foi o que aconteceu. O Akatu saiu
a campo para pesquisar e constatou que, para a grande maioria dos consumidores, o termo
consumo consciente era ligado basicamente aos temas da gua, energia e lixo.
! Ficou evidente que os consumidores no estabeleciam um vnculo entre os produtos
disponveis para compra e as empresas que os produziam. Assim como ficou claro que o
interesse dos cidados em conhecer as prticas de RSE se dava por considerarem as empresas
suficientemente poderosas para serem potenciais colaboradoras na direo de uma
transformao social positiva. Porm, os consumidores no se percebiam como parte
importante na induo dos atributos de RSE das empresas.
! Ficou claro que o primeiro desafio seria mostrar aos consumidores o seu poder no
sentido de mudar a atuao das empresas. Para isso, era preciso empoderar os consumidores
para que percebessem o quanto os seus atos de consumo poderiam causar uma transformao
positiva da sociedade. E, para isso, o Akatu decidiu deixar a questo da RSE para um
momento posterior e comear a trabalhar o empoderamento do consumidor exatamente pelos
elementos mais valorizados por ele, ou seja, gua, energia e lixo.
! Assim, em 2002, o Akatu desenvolveu um material, nos temas da gua, energia e lixo,
que mostrava ao consumidor que, mesmo um grupo pequeno de pessoas, ao longo de um
perodo extenso de tempo, teria um impacto significativo sobre a sociedade e o meio ambiente
por meio de seus consumo. Os objetivos centrais eram os de mostar a existncia de impactos
do consumo e de mobilizar os indivduos e suas famlias a uma mudana de hbitos que
levaria a um impacto no mnimo menos negativo e, se possvel, positivo.
! Esse impresso continha a semente do que mais tarde viria a se tornar a metodologia
pedaggica do Akatu, em que a formatao de contedos e de mensagens de forma
surpreendente e mobilizadora contribui significativamente para mudar o comportamento de
consumo.
Fase 2: Mtricas e contedos
Ao pensar a mudana de comportamentos de consumo, ficou clara a necessidade de mensurar
o grau de conscincia no consumo, de modo a poder identificar a real mudana a partir da
metodologia usada pelo Akatu. Por outro lado, ao segmentar os consumidores segundo seu
grau de conscincia no consumo , seria possvel conceber iniciativas mais adequadas a cada
um dos grupos ao qual se destinavam.
! Assim, em 2003, o Akatu desenvolveu o Teste do Consumidor Consciente (TCC), um
questionrio composto por 13 perguntas, relacionadas a comportamentos de consumo,
definidas estatisticamente de modo a permitir segmentar os consumidores segundo o seu grau
de conscincia ao consumir. Vale dizer que, ao ser desenvolvido, o TCC considerou cerca de
120 comportamentos, com os quais os 13 selecionados tem uma forte correlao, de modo ao
teste retratar o quadro mais amplo de comportamentos de uma pessoa no consumo.
! A aplicao do TCC mostrou que, alm de mensurar o grau de conscincia dos
consumidores, a ferramenta servia para educar para o consumo consciente, uma vez que as
pessoas, ao responder s perguntas, acabavam por identificar formas de atuao que
indicavam o caminho da conscincia no consumo.
! Alm disso, o TCC permitiu diferenciar 4 grupos de consumidores conscientes,
engajados, iniciantes e indiferentes de acordo com o nmero de comportamentos de compra,
uso e descarte de produtos ou servios declarados como prtica cotidiana (respectivamente, 11
a 13, 8 a 10, 4 a 7, and 0 a 3). A diferena fundamental entre os consumidores menos
conscientes (indiferentes e iniciantes) e os mais conscientes (conscientes e engajados) que o
primeiro grupo s se interessa por benefcios imediatos e individuais, enquanto que os mais
conscientes tambm consideram os benefcios coletivos e de longo prazo derivados de suas
escolhas de consumo.
! Por outro lado, a pesquisa que levou identificao do TCC mostrou que, apesar de
algumas variaes ligadas a fatores sociais, econmicos e educacionais, o critrio segmentante
fundamental era o comportamento do consumidor.
! A aplicao do TCC em membros de vrias comunicadades mostrou que o carter
educativo do teste aliado ao fornecimento de contedos gerava uma sensibilizao e
mobilizao das pessoas na direo do consumo consciente.
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Fase 3: Envolvimento dos formadores de opinio
Ficou clara a necessidade da elaborao sistemtica de uma metodologia para a elaborao e
a transmisso dos contedos sensibilizadores da mudana de comportamento, no bastando
dar dicas de consumo consciente.
! A necessidade de estruturar os contedos de forma organizada, lgica e mobilizadora
terminou por provocar o surgimento das pedagogias do Akatu, que estabelecem como as
mensagens devem ser formatadas e transmitidas para que o consumidor seja mobilizado na
direo de um consumo mais consciente.
! Desta forma, o Akatu poderia conhecer o perfil do consumidor por meio da aplicao
do TCC, que avaliava o grau de conscincia individual dos membros de uma comunidade, e
passava a utilizar contedos sensibilizadores, impactantes e mobilizadores para aprofundar a
sensibilizao e mobilizao na direo de comportamentos de consumo que reduzissem os
impactos negativos e aumentavam os positivos.
! Atualmente, as mensagens de sensibilizao e mobilizao esto estruturadas em seis
metodologias pedaggicas que apoiam a organizao do trabalho do Akatu e norteiam seus
processos de interveno seja na educao, na produo de contedos ou na comunicao.
As metodologias pedaggicas podem ser aplicadas na forma de organizar e transmitir a
informao; na maneira de planejar a capacitao; no desenho das aes de multiplicao, na
forma de avaliao dos resultados, entre outras possibilidades. As seis metodologias
pedaggicasa so as seguintes, descritas para a primeira pessoa de um consumidor
genrico:
Relevncia: os problemas gerados pelos meus atos de consumo impactam a minha vida, o
meio ambiente, a sociedade e a economia.
Interdependncia: os meus atos de consumo impactam a todas as pessoas e esses impactos
retornam a mim mesmo.
Cotidiano: mesmo os meus pequenos atos de consumo, ou de um pequeno grupo de
pessoas, repetidos por um longo perodo de tempo, causam muito impacto.
Exemplaridade: meu exemplo, por si s, influencia outras pessoas.
Multiplicao: posso e devo ser um mobilizador de outras pessoas para o consumo
consciente, pois, quando adotado por muita gente, resulta em enormes impactos
rapidamente
Pertencimento: eu posso tomar parte em um movimento transformador para um futuro
sustentvel, que me acolhe e me fortalece para continuar consumindo conscientemente.
! Um bom exemplo das mensagens de sensibilizao e mobilizao relaciona-se com o
uso de gua: ao fechar a torneira para escovar os dentes, o menor dos atos individuais de
consumo, um nico indivduo, ao longo de sua vida (estimada em 72 anos), economizaria o
equivalente a trs quartos do volume de uma piscina olmpica cheia de gua. E, se esse
comportamente, for levado a um milho de pessoas, que o pratiquem durante um ms, a
economia seria equivalente ao volume de gua que cai pelas cataratas do Igua por 12
minutos. E isso ocorre quando se fala de um nico gesto de consumo, o de escovar os dentes!
Pode-se ento ter uma ideia do impacto quando se analisa todos os usos da gua...
! O passo seguinte foi levar essas mensagens mobilizadoras aos formadores de
opinio, para que houvesse uma disseminao em escala. do conceito e da prtica do
consumo consciente.
! Assim, a partir de 2004, ampliou-se o mosaico de atividades do Akatu, que passou a
envolver a comunicao por meio de empresas disseminadoras, da publicidade, e dos meios
de comunicao de massa, ao lado da educao para o consumo consciente de voluntrios
dispostos a se tornarem multiplicadores em comunidades, alm de lderes e formadores de
opinio. Um outro esforo fundamental foi desenvolvido junto a escolas pblicas, onde
foram testados e aprimorados mtodos para engajar professores e alunos na direo do
consumo cosciente por meio de projetos sobre este tema introduzidos, pelos prprios
professores, em cada uma das matrias do currculo escolar.
! Dessa forma, foram ampliados os eixos de atuao do Akatu, aumentando
significativamente o alcance e abrangncia da ao para a conscientizao em favor do
consumo consciente.
! Passou-se a disseminar com grande frequncia a mensagem do consumo consciente
nos meios de comunicao, deste modo amplificando a mensagem do Akatu. Campanhas de
publicidade, artigos em jornais de grande circulao, entrevistas para os mais diversos
veculos foram incorporados s aes do Akatu. Essas aes contriburam para a
sensibilizao para os novos comportamentos de consumo. E as atividades de educao em
comunidades, junto a funcionrios de empresas, e em escolas, contriburam para mobilizar
aes concretas de consumo consciente.
Fase 4: Busca de instrumentos de grande impacto social
O grande desafio o de levar a escala e com velocidade esse processo de sensibilizao e
mobilizao voltados a comportamentos mais conscientes de consumo. Novos contedos e
novos instrumentos, tais como jogos e dinmicas, tm sido aplicados a diferentes grupos. As
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experincias com cada pblico so avaliadas em termos de processo, contedo, materiais,
estratgias e resultados, sendo esse aprendizado sistematizado para que possa ser feita a
multiplicao e replicao das atividades em escala mais ampla.
! No entanto, o processo de conscientizao e empoderamento do consumidor se d de
forma lenta quando considerado frente gravidade e urgncia do problema de
sustentabilidade da vida no planeta. Assim, o Akatu passa a buscar iniciativas de grande
impacto social por meio de eventos tais como exposies e articulao e mobilizao em
redes que consigam atingir um grande nmero de consumidores de forma rpida e efetiva.
! Esse o atual desafio do Akatu, uma organizao em constante transformao em
busca de formas para contribuir para a transformao da sociedade.
Fase 5: Akatu 2.0 e o Declogo da produo responsvel e do consumo consciente
Nesta fase, iniciada a partir de 2010 e que continua nos dias atuais, o Akatu passou a investir
fortemente em estratgias de internet e redes sociais: reformulou integralmente seu portal,
criou o portal infantil Akatu Mirim e ampliou a proposta para educao de crianas e jovens
j contida no Akatu Mirim para uma plataforma digital mais ampla de estmulo ao
conhecimento, educao formal e auxlio a professores. A importncia do envolvimento
mais amplo das redes sociais, presenciais ou virtuais, a de criar um grupo de referncia que
possa dar sustentao e manuteno aos novos comportamentos de consumo consciente.
! Ficou claro, no entanto, que, para que tais comportamentos sejam de fato praticados,
devero existir mudanas significativas na forma de atendimento do bem estar dos
consumidores por meio de produtos e servios fortemente desmaterializados em relao aos
modelos atuais de produo e consumo. Basta pensar que, conforme apontado ao incio deste
artigo, se no houver uma mudana significativa desses modelos, sero necessrios 4 a 5
planetas Terra para atender ao consumo de toda a humanidade. Assim, sem que haja uma
forte desmaterializao dos modelos de produo e consumo, os recursos naturais no sero
suficientes nem mesmo para atender demanda atual de produtos e servios, e muito menos
as 3 bilhes de pessoas que estaro entrando na nova classe mdia nos prximos 20 anos.
! Visando dar concretude natureza das aes necessrias tanto na produo quanto no
consumo, o Akatu elaborou o Declogo da Produo Responsvel e do Consumo
Consciente, que apresenta dez novos caminhos que contribuem para modos de produo e
consumo mais sustentveis. Trata-se de articular e mobilizar novos modelos de produo e
consumo que inspirem novas oportunidades de negcios social e ambientalmente mais
sustentveis, e que atenda o bem estar de toda a humanidade com a maior eficincia possvel
no uso dos recursos naturais, e visando a uma sociedade com maior equidade e justia.
importante ressaltar, no entanto, que os elementos abaixo descritos so necessrios, mas
ainda insuficientes para um uso sustentvel dos recursos naturais, mas certamente totalmente
insuficientes para estabelecer relaes sociais mais justas e que possam ser sustentveis ao
longo do tempo. Mas, de qualquer forma, a mudana de tal ordem que devem ser buscadas
todas as possibilidades, e nesse sentido que caminha a proposta de modelos de produo e
consumo que valorizem:
1. Os produtos durveis mais do que os descartveis ou os de obsolescncia acelerada.
2. A produo e o desenvolvimento local mais do que a produo global.
3. O uso compartilhado de produtos mais do que a sua posse e seu uso individual.
4. A produo e a compra de produtos e servios social e ambientalmente mais sustentveis.
5. As opes virtuais mais do que as opes materiais.
6. O no-desperdcio dos alimentos e dos produtos, promovendo o seu aproveitamento
integral e o prolongamento da sua vida til.
7. A satisfao pelo uso dos produtos e no pela sua compra em excesso.
8. Os produtos e as escolhas mais saudveis.
9. As emoes, as ideias e as experincias mais do que os produtos materiais.
10. A cooperao mais do que a competio na busca de inovaes em produtos, servios e
negcios mais sustentveis.
! Visando a mobilizao de aes concretas em cada um desses princpios de negcio,
o Akatu est buscando, neste momento, articular dilogos multi stakeholder envolvendo os
diversos atores necessrios a implantar solues em cada uma das linhas acima. A
expectativa que, colocando empresas e suas associaes, governos, e organizaes da
sociedade civil debatendo as possibilidades em cada uma das linhas acima, ser possvel o
desenvolvimento de inovaes exemplares do ponto de vista da sustentabilidade e que
podero ser inspiradoras de novos esforos que permitam disseminar os atributos de
sustentabilidade nos modelos de produo e consumo.
Consumo Consciente e Educao
Desde que foi criado em 2001, o Akatu investiu na experimentao de diversos modelos e
abordagens visando a educao em escolas assim como de professores e alunos interessados
em aprofundar seu conhecimento e sua prtica de consumo consciente. Estas experincias
levaram, em 2012, criao do Edukatu, uma plataforma voltada disseminao ampla do
consumo consciente em escolas e entre professores e alunos.
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! Vale destacar que o estmulo e o apoio para a insero do tema do consumo
consciente em sala de aula uma importante contribuio para a formao e construo de
conhecimento e, consumo consciente e sustentabilidade, em uma perspectiva que permita a
formao de novos valores em crianas e jovens, que, com isso, iro consolidar uma
sociedade do bem estar onde o consumo seja um instrumento para cumprir este objetivo e
no um fim em si mesmo.
! A perspectiva da introduo do consumo consciente e da sustentabilidade como um
elemento transversal s vrias matrias do currculo escolar permite que crianas e jovens
aprendam sobre o tema dentro dos vrios saberes do ensino formal.
! Mais que isso, a iniciativa de usar a educao para mobilizar para o consumo
consciente de modo transversal s diversas disciplinas contribui tambm para a busca de um
novo paradigma de ensino integrador dos diversos assuntos, contribuindo para que o
aprendizado de crianas e jovens para o consumo consciente e a sustentabilidade no seja
compartimentalizado em uma disciplina.
O programa de educao do Akatu usa as seguintes estratgias:
Sensibilizao: processo que procura despertar o indivduo para o poder de transformao
dos atos de consumo.
Capacitao de multiplicadores: processo de formao de pessoas para que estejam
preparadas e instrumentadas para a disseminao dos conceitos e prticas do consumo
consciente.
Redes de aprendizagem: estmulo criao de redes reais e virtuais visando troca de
experincias e ampliao de conhecimento;
Vivncias e prticas: implantao de projetos que possibilitem a apropriao de
aprendizados e o estmulo gerao e multiplicao de boas prticas.
Alm de vir se mostrando uma estratgia eficaz para a disseminao do consumo consciente
para a sustentabilidade por meio da educao, o programa e os projetos do Akatu nessa rea
esto alinhados com o documento final produzido na
! Rio+20 com os quatro pilares da educao definidos pela Organizao das Naes
Unidas para a Educao, a Cincia e a Cultura (UNESCO), e com o chamado Processo de
Marrakesh, organizado pelo Programa das Naes Unidas para o Meio Ambiente (PNUMA).
! Em seu artigo 230, o documento final da Rio+20, O Futuro que Queremos, refora
a urgncia da educao para a sustentabilidade. O Akatu vem trabalhando com esse olhar
direcionado j h alguns anos, acreditando que a transformao social s ocorrer, de um
lado, com o envolvimento de todos os setores da sociedade em torno do tema e, de outro, por
meio da educao.
Artigo 230:
! ! Reconhecemos que as geraes mais jovens so as guardis do futuro,
bem como a necessidade de uma melhor qualidade da educao alm do nvel
fundamental e o acesso a ela. Portanto, resolvemos melhorar a capacidade de
nossos sistemas educativos a fim de preparar as pessoas para que alcancem o
desenvolvimento sustentvel, em particular mediante uma maior capacitao dos
professores, a criao de planos de estudos relativos a sustentabilidade, a
elaborao de programas de capacitao que preparem os estudantes para
empreender carreiras relacionadas sustentabilidade e com uso mais eficaz de
tecnologias de informao e comunicao que contribuam para a melhoria da
resultados da aprendizagem. Apelamos a uma maior cooperao entre escolas,
comunidades e autoridades em seus esforos para promover o acesso educao
de qualidade em todos os nveis.
! Para a UNESCO, a educao ao longo da vida deve se basear em quatro pilares:
aprender a conhecer, aprender a fazer, aprender a conviver e aprender a ser.
! Aprender a conhecer: combinando uma cultura geral suficientemente ampla, com a
possibilidade de estudar, em profundidade, um nmero reduzido de assuntos, ou seja,
aprender a aprender, para beneficiar-se das oportunidades oferecidas pela educao ao longo
da vida.
! Aprender a fazer: a fim de adquirir no s uma qualificao profissional, mas, de uma
maneira mais abrangente, a competncia que torna a pessoa apta a enfrentar numerosas
situaes e a trabalhar em equipe. Alm disso, aprender a fazer no mbito das diversas
experincias sociais ou do trabalho, oferecidas aos jovens e adolescentes, seja
espontaneamente graas ao desenvolvimento do ensino alternado com o trabalho.
! Aprender a conviver: desenvolvendo a compreenso do outro e a percepo das
interdependncias realizando projetos comuns e preparando-se para gerenciar conflitos com
respeito pelos valores do pluralismo, da compreenso mtua e da paz.
! Aprender a ser: para desenvolver o melhor possvel a personalidade e estar em
condies de agir com uma capacidade cada vez maior de autonomia, discernimento e
responsabilidade pessoal. Com essa finalidade, a educao deve levar em considerao todas
as potencialidades de cada indivduo: memria, raciocnio, sentido esttico, capacidade fsica
e aptido para comunicar-se.
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! Por fim, o alinhamento com o Processo de Marrakesh, onde vem ocorrendo, em
diversos pases, uma abordagem multi stakeholder que visa desenvolver um conjunto de
programas de produo e consumo sustentveis para os prximos dez anos.
! O Programa das Naes Unidas para o Meio Ambiente (PNUMA) convocou
governos nacionais e seus ministrios do meio ambiente para desenvolver dilogos regionais
entre instituies de governos, organizaes da sociedade e representantes de corporaes
para chegar a um quadro de programas, a serem implementados ao longo de 10 anos e que
vo certamente ajudar a estabelecer uma sociedade mais sustentvel.
! Embora longe de ser homogneo quanto ao engajamento dos diversos pases no
processp, o mesmo resultou, em muitos casos, como o do Brasil, em um excelente conjunto
de aes para a sustentabilidade, que envolvem, por exemplo:
a) implementao de programas de educao formal para o consumo sustentvel;
b) envolvimento de organizaes da sociedade civil na apresentao de solues que possam
ser modeladas e ampliadas para uso em polticas pblicas voltadas soluo dos
problemas ambientais e sociais;
c) envolvimento dos meios de comunicao tradicionais na sensibilizao de atores sociais
para mudar a percepo de que os benefcios de curto prazo para alguns pode levar ao
bem-estar coletivo a longo prazo;
d) iniciativas governamentais para a introduo de aes de sustentabilidade em suas
operaes do dia a dia, seja no currculo do ensino formal, em campanhas de
conscientizao sobre os impactos do modelo atual de produo e consumo, ou em
polticas negociadas para que os mercados cumpram sua funo de uma maneira melhor,
com informaes mais completas e com as externalidades sendo gradualmente
incorporadas nos preos dos produtos;
e) o envolvimento das corporaes, que j perceberam que no s a sustentabilidade
ambiental e social est em jogo, mas a sustentabilidade de longo prazo de seus prprios
negcios, propondo mudanas em produtos e tecnologias de produo, bem como o
envolvimento e a educao dos consumidores para a sustentabilidade.
Algumas iniciativas do Akatu na rea de educao formal
! 1. Trilha do consumo consciente nas escolas/consciente coletivo
Em 2008, o Instituto Akatu e a HP Brasil firmaram parceria indita para a criao do
projeto Educao para o Consumo Consciente e Sustentabilidade Ambiental, cujo objetivo
foi a educao de jovens alunos do Ensino Fundamental II, 6 9 srie, da rede estadual de
escolas pblicas das cinco regies do pas sobre as questes do Consumo Consciente e da
Sustentabilidade Ambiental. Em 2009, o projeto foi implantado em trs escolas pblicas de
cada uma das cinco regies geogrficas do Brasil. Os conceitos de consumo consciente e
sustentabilidade foram trabalhados por meio da aplicao das metodologias pedagcias do
Akatu na formao de professores, com a valorizao de seu papel em sala de aula, e visando
a utilizao de seu poder de disseminao dos conceitos para um grande nmero de alunos.
! Os principais materiais de apoio foram um material impresso contendo contedos e
sugestes de temas para aulas dos professores; o livro Trilha do Consumo Consciente,
distribudo aos alunos e que tratava os temas de forma transdisciplinar; e, numa fase
posterior, dez pequenos vdeos de dois minutos, feitos em parceria com a TV Futura, que
compuseram a srie Consciente Coletivo, acompanhado de um guia a ser usado pelos
multiplicadores, a includos tambm os professores.
! 2. Portal Akatu Mirim
Em 2011, o Akatu lanou o Akatu Mirim, um portal indito sobre consumo consciente
voltado para crianas. O lanamento do Akatu Mirim fez parte das comemoraes do
aniversrio de 10 anos do instituto. Alm das pginas dedicadas aos estudantes, o Akatu
Mirim apresenta tambm contedos para pais e educadores, como dicas mobilizadoras e
planos de aula.
! Com o novo portal, o Instituto ampliou o acesso aos contedos de consumo
consciente a crianas de todo o Brasil e j acumula, at agosto de 2012, 420 mil pginas
visitadas.
! Entre os temas abordados, esto as cadeias produtivas de petrleo, sacola plstica,
garrafa dgua, celular e bala.
! 3. Novo Olhar sobre o Plstico
Em 2001, foi criado o projeto de incentivo ao consumo consciente do plstico e aumento de
repertrio sobre sua cadeia produtiva. A inciativa produziu e distribuiu materiais pedaggicos
sobre consumo consciente e o ciclo de vida do plstico para 1.577 escolas pblicas e privadas
em 23 dos 27 Estados brasileiros. O Novo Olhar sobre o Plstico estimulou a gerao de
115 projetos locais nas escolas e comunidades do entorno.
! 4. Edukatu
Conforme descrito acima, unindo o aprendizado dos projetos anteriores, ampliando a oferta
de contedos e material de apoio, diversificando os meios de interao e absorvendo o Akatu
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Mirim, o Instituto trabalhou no planejamento do Edukatu durante o ano de 2012, uma
plataforma a ser lanada at dezembro o Edukatu.
! Mais que um portal de educao, o Edukatu ser um sistema de promoo e
estmulo ao professor e aos alunos por meio de uma ampla base digital interativa de
aprendizagem para o consumo consciente.
Aprendizados e Concluses
O investimento em educao - formal e no formal tem-se mostrado um poderoso
instrumento de ampliao de conscincia e mobilizao sobre os impactos do consumo na
sustentabilidade da vida no planeta. Tem tido um papel destacado para as crianas e jovens
na educao, e, alm deles mesmos, para suas famlias e sua comunidade.
! Com isso, o programa de educao contribui tambm para o objetivo do Akatu de
maximizar a escala e a velocidade da sensibilizao e mobilizao das pessoas e seus
grupos de referncia para o consumo consciente.
! Tambm se constatou que a implantao de projeto temticos transversais sobre o
tema do consumo consciente e sustentabilidade, nas vrias disciplinas, facilitada quando
a escola j possui experincia no desenvolvimento de projetos dessa natureza.
! O modelo formativo utilizado o semipresencial, subordinado existncia de um
formador local e de uma ferramenta funcional para gerar resultados mais positivos e com
melhor possibilidade de expanso em escala, frente ao modelo presencial ou virtual.
! Usar o consumo consciente como tema transversal tende a ser muito bem aceito
pelas escolas, porque contribui tambm para o sucesso do processo educativo e para o
engajamento de alunos, professores e comunidade escolar.
! O uso das Metodologias Pedaggicas do Akatu um elemento estruturante muito
adequado para a construo dos projetos temticos e para a elaborao dos materiais de
apoio para os professores e para os alunos.
! A experincia com o Akatu Mirim mostrou que a interatividade, seja presencial ou
virtual, foi fator essencial na motivao das crianas e adolescente no processo de
aprendizagem. E o uso de internet em sala de aula foi muito bem aceito pelos professores
por ampliar os recursos didticos e oferecer uma fonte de pesquisa diversificada.
! Um novo olhar sobre o plstico mostrou que os projetos que envolvem toda a
escola e o tema do consumo consciente como componente transdisciplinar apresentam
maior consistncia metodolgica e levam a aes de longo prazo. E que os professores tm
interesse em conhecer boas prticas de outras escolas que possam gerar novas ideias para
sua atuao.
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NOTAS
(I) Worlwatch Institute, State of the World, 2010.
(II) WWF, Living Planet Report, 2012.
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Abstract: Since its Independence, in 2002, Timor-Leste search how to solve its challenges,
as to create income and jobs, improve health conditions, education and governamental status.
The country has been many international aid. At the educational field, the main contribution
come from the named Lusophone countries which has the Portuguese language as official,
specially Portugal and Brazil. In this paper, we present our experiences report at the 2012
first semester as visiting professors at the National University of Timor-Leste.
Key Words: East Timor, Education, International Cooperation, Self-Determination,
Portuguese.
73
The International Cooperation at the National University of
Timor Leste: Contributions to the Progress of the Timoreses
Education and Eevelopment
A Cooperao Internacional na Universidade Nacional de
Timor-Leste: contribuies para a melhoria da educao e
desenvolvimento timorense
Resumo: Desde sua independncia, em 2002, Timor-Leste busca solucionar vrios desafios,
como a gerao de renda e empregos, melhoria nas condies de sade, educao e
administrao pblica. O pas tem recebido diversas cooperaes internacionais. No campo
da educao, a principal contribuio vem dos pases chamados lusfonos, que tm a lngua
portuguesa como oficial, especialmente Portugal e Brasil. Neste artigo, apresentamos o relato
de nossas experincia no primeiro semestre e 2012, como professores-visitantes na
Universidade Nacional de Timor-Leste.
Palavras-chave: Timor-Leste, Educao, Cooperao Internacional, Autodeterminao,
Lngua Portuguesa.
Valdir Lamim-Guedes
Universidade Estadual Paulista Jlio de Mesquita Filho, Instituto de
Biocincias de Rio Claro
e-mail: dirguedes@yahoo.com.br
Carlos Junior Gontijo-Rosa
Universidade de So Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Cincias
Humanas, Departamento de Letras Clssicas e Vernculas.
e-mail: carlosgontijo@gmail.com
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"Educar impregnar de sentido o que fazemos a cada instante!
Paulo Freire (1921 -1997)
Timor-Leste: um pouco da histria de sua autodeterminao
Timor-Leste um pequeno pas do sudeste asitico, localizado entre a Indonsia e Austrlia,
que tem pouco mais de 1 milho de habitantes. Alcanou a independncia unilateral de
Portugal em 1975 e alguns dias depois foi invadido pela Indonsia, que instalou um violento
regime ditatorial. Em 30 de agosto de 1999, foi realizado um referendo, organizado pela
ONU, para decidir sobre a independncia ou integrao Indonsia. O resultado do
referendo - mais de 97% de participao popular; 78,5% pela independncia - foi seguido por
uma onda de violncia a que se chamou Setembro Negro. Algumas regies do pas tiveram
mais de 75% das casas destrudas em setembro de 1999.
! Como relata a jornalista brasileira Rosely Forganes, que chegou em Dli algumas
semanas aps o referendo, apesar do cenrio de destruio, ouvia-se pelas ruas queimado,
queimado, mas agora nosso! (Forganes, 2002, p. 28). A ocupao, mantida fora pelo
governo do general Suharto causou, relativamente, um dos maiores genocdios do sculo XX
- com mais de 30% de timorenses mortos direta ou indiretamente pelo conflito (Sakamoto,
2006).
! O referendo no foi um acontecimento isolado. Na dcada de 1980 e incio da dcada
de 1990, a situao parecia caminhar para um desfecho em que a comunidade internacional
acabaria por aceitar, como fato consumado, a integrao do territrio timorense Indonsia
(Cunha, 2001). No entanto, a guerrilha armada e a presso da diplomacia exercida pelos
timorenses no exlio, alm do governo portugus e a participao dos outros pases lusfonos
foram foras contrrias ao processo de anexao. Assim como a resistncia da populao,
tanto por contribuir com os guerrilheiros, fornecendo abrigo e comida, como por insistir em
manter-se culturalmente diferenciada da Indonsia, por exemplo, falando portugus e sendo
catlicos.
! Dois fatos importantes no processo que levou a independncia foram o Massacre de
Santa Cruz (12 de novembro de 1991), represso violenta da polcia indonsia a uma
passeata pr-independncia, com mais de 270 timorenses foram mortos, que fez ser hasteada
a bandeira em defesa dos direitos humanos. E em 1996, a entrega do Prmio Nobel da Paz ao
Bispo Catlico Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo e Jos Ramos-Horta, pelo trabalho em direo
a uma justa e pacfica soluo para o conflito em Timor-Leste (Nobel Prize, 1996).
! O referendo de 1999 foi o fim da dominao indonsia e o incio de um perodo de
transio para a autonomia. Entre 1999 e 2002, o pas foi administrado pela ONU, com a
Misso das Naes Unidas em Timor-Leste (UNAMET), sendo restabelecida a
Independncia em 20 de maio 2002.
! Apesar da instabilidade inicial, com incidentes em 2006 e 2008, os ltimos anos tm
sido mais tranquilos, com o crescimento econmico impulsionado pela extrao de petrleo.
Em 20 de maio de 2012, o Presidente Ramos-Horta passou o controle do pas ao general Taur
Matan Ruak, ex-chefe das Foras Armadas timorenses. Aps o resultado das eleies
parlamentares (julho de 2012), houve a formao do novo governo. Durante alguns dias, a
populao evitou sair de casa e carros foram destrudos. Apesar da tenso, a tranquilidade foi
retomada.
! Desde 1999, o pas tem convivido com a presena da ONU e a cooperao de
diversos pases, como Portugal, Austrlia, Cuba, Japo, China e Brasil em diversas reas,
como infraestrutura, sade, desenvolvimento agrrio e educao. A cooperao internacional
tem sido essencial em Timor-Leste, por falta de recursos, tanto financeiros, como humanos,
para exercer muitas funes, desde administrativas do Governo, at de formao e
implementao de formas de subsistncia no pas.
A cooperao Brasileira na rea educacional em Timor-Leste
O cenrio criado pela colonizao portuguesa, invaso indonsia, presena australiana e uma
cultura riqussima em termos lingusticos fez com que no Timor-Leste convivam muitas
lnguas: as oficiais portugus e ttum, alm de mais 31 lnguas nativas, ingls e indonsio.
No entanto, at o presente momento, nenhuma dessas lnguas falada por toda a populao
(Pazeto, 2011). O portugus foi escolhido como lngua oficial, junto ao ttum, por sua
importncia histrica e poltica - pelo perodo de colonizao e pela resistncia contra a
ocupao indonsia -, e favorecer a insero do pas no cenrio internacional. Por estes
motivos, tem sido estimulada a reintroduo da lngua portuguesa (Lamim-Guedes e Gontijo-
Rosa, 2011). A autodeterminao do povo timorense tem-se configurado com a proteo e
estmulo cultura tradicional e ao incentivo ao uso da lngua portuguesa.
! A primeira cooperao na rea educacional entre Brasil e Timor-Leste se concretizou
em 2003, com seis professores enviados oficialmente pela Coordenao de Aperfeioamento
de Pessoal de Nvel Superior (CAPES), agncia do governo brasileiro de fomento a pesquisa
cientfica e ensino superior e ps-graduao. Esta misso objetivou a estruturao de um
currculo nacional, a redao da Lei Bsica de Educao Nacional e assistncia estruturao
de uma poltica de treinamento de professores (Bormann e Silveira, 2007).
! A primeira constatao desta misso foi o reduzido domnio do portugus por parte
dos professores de escolas secundrias, problema especialmente srio porque, como j dito, o
portugus foi reconhecido como lngua oficial ao lado do ttum (Bormann e Silveira, 2007).
Isto se deve essencialmente a dois motivos: primeiro, a presena portuguesa no perodo
colonial foi reduzida, sendo a lngua mais utilizada o ttum; segundo, e mais importante, a
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Indonsia proibiu o uso da lngua portuguesa durante o perodo de ocupao. Desta forma, a
gerao com menos de 35 anos, em 2002, no falava ou falava pouco portugus. Soma-se a
isto, a educao de baixa qualidade no pas, assim como na Indonsia, com prtica
conservadoras e pouco didticas.
! As dificuldades das misses sempre esbarram na comunicao, dado o pequeno
domnio do portugus e, muitas vezes, a resistncia dos timorenses presena de
estrangeiros (Bormann e Silveira, 2007). Estas dificuldades foram relatadas como comuns
s diferentes misses brasileiras na rea educacional em Timor-Leste (Santos, 2011). Alm
disto, a instabilidade em Timor-Leste tambm foi um complicador, como aconteceu em
2006 e 2008(Pazeto, 2011), ou no caso de julho de 2012, pelas tenses aps a formao do
novo governo.
Co o p e r a o t c n i c o -
cientfica com a UNTL
Em fevereiro deste ano, chegamos
em Timor-Leste com um grupo de
30 brasileiros e 4 portugueses,
pr of es s or es convi dados na
Universidade Nacional de Timor-
Leste (UNTL), a nica instituio
pblica dedicada ao ensino superior
no pa s. Um dos pri nci pai s
objetivos inserir o ensino em
lngua portuguesa nos primeiros
a n o s d o s c u r s o s d e s t a
Universidade, alm de melhorias
no mbito tcnico e cientfico.
! Faremos uma apresentao geral do que observamos na UNTL e, a seguir, uma
descrio de nossas atividades. Ressaltando que, diferentemente dos grupos enviados pela
CAPES, esta no era uma cooperao brasileira oficial, mas um projeto que partia da
prpria Universidade, ou seja, ramos trabalhadores estrangeiros contratados pela UNTL.
! Mesmo com aulas de lngua portuguesa em toda sua formao escolar, os alunos
ainda encontram grandes dificuldades no uso do idioma. O portugus visto como lngua
erudita, restrita ao espao escolar acadmico - ainda assim, com ressalvas -, e pouco voltada
para a comunicao cotidiana, mesmo nos ptios da UNTL. O mais surpreendente, no
entanto, que os alunos sabem muito da gramtica da lngua, mas, de modo geral, no so
capazes de, satisfatoriamente, interpretar o que leem ou comunicar um pensamento mais
elaborado. Isso pde ser constatado durante as atividades desenvolvidas com os alunos da
Faculdade de Educao Artes e Humanidades da UNTL (FEAH-UNTL).
! Isto, provavelmente, indica uma abordagem pedaggica autoritarista, voltada para a
memorizao de informaes desconexas com a realidade dos alunos - chamada de
concepo bancria da educao pelo educador brasileiro Paulo Freire (1987). Segundo
esta abordagem, o professor o nico detentor da informao e est disponibilizando parte
de seu conhecimento para os alunos, sendo estes meros aprendizes. Pudemos observar que a
posio adotada pelos professores timorenses em sala de aula enquadra-se nesta concepo.
Alm disto, o conhecimento do docente tido como absoluto, no sendo levada em conta a
diversidade de opinies sobre um mesmo assunto. Com isto, a aprendizagem d-se
basicamente pela memorizao de informao, com menor destaque para o
desenvolvimento de opinio crtica e de pensamento lgico e abstrato. Somado a isto, boa
parte dos docentes utiliza a lngua indonsia nas atividades acadmicas.
! O nosso grande desafio em Timor-
Leste, portanto, foi tentar ajudar para que os
alunos pudessem interpretar os textos que
leem, independentemente da disciplina, e
analisar de forma livre e crtica a informao
disponvel. Alm disto, buscamos uma
relao de dilogo com os alunos, que
favorecesse o exerccio do debate, exercendo
uma abordagem contrria a concepo
bancri a, ou sej a, uma concepo
libertadora da educao (Freire, 1987).
! Al m da abor dagem educat i va
opressora, h ainda uma grande carncia de
material didtico, especialmente livros, quer
didticos, tcnicos ou paradidticos. A maior
parte do que existe est em lngua indonsia
e , geralmente, pouco atualizado. Assim,
preparar aulas e material didtico que atenda s necessidades e ao domnio do idioma
portugus pelos alunos, constitui outro desafio a ser superado. Apesar do trabalho realizado
pelas cooperaes portuguesa e brasileira na produo de material didtico para o ensino
das crianas e jovens, este ainda raro no ensino superior.
! Ao todo, trabalhamos com cerca de 235 alunos dos Departamentos de Qumica e
Fsica da FEAH-UNTL, distribudos em duas turmas do primeiro ano e duas do segundo
ano do curso de Licenciatura em Qumica (cerca de 120 e 50 alunos, respectivamente), em
uma turma do primeiro ano do curso de Licenciatura em Fsica (17 alunos) e em cinco
grupos dos Encontros de Intercmbio Cultural em Lngua Portuguesa (cerca de 50
participantes entre alunos e professores). Passado um semestre letivo, nossa observao e
convvio com os alunos e docentes da UNTL trouxe algumas questes, que gostaramos de
compartilhar.
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Lngua Portuguesa para a formao do estudante
O primeiro objetivo da Cooperao na UNTL era
apresentado no edital de seleo dos docentes para esta
cooperao, da seguinte forma: difundir a lngua portuguesa
como veculo de ensino, por meio da ampliao do corpo
docente lusfono e da paulatina capacitao dos seus quadros
no referido idioma (Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie,
2011). Ao chegar em sala de aula, percebemos que a situao
dada era um tanto diferente da proposta inicial do projeto.
Particularmente nas aulas de Lngua Portuguesa, havia
apenas uma professora escalada para quase todas as turmas
da FEAH-UNTL, professora esta que tambm ministrava
todas as aulas da Faculdade de Cincias Sociais e Polticas,
ao menos oficialmente. Na prtica, estvamos em sala de
aula s ns e os alunos.
! Entre os alunos que conhecem muito bem a Lngua
Portuguesa e aqueles que mal conseguem estabelecer uma comunicao bsica, a grande
maioria possui um domnio relativo da lngua, sabendo muito bem a parte gramatical, mas
tendo srias deficincias em aplicao na prtica de sala de aula e no cotidiano.
! Assim, nas aulas de Lngua Portuguesa ministradas aos primeiros anos dos
Departamentos de Qumica e Fsica da FEAH-UNTL, priorizamos a questo do Portugus
como instrumento de ensino e aprendizagem, uma vez que, teoricamente, todas as aulas
destas turmas seriam ministradas nesta lngua. O enfoque, neste semestre, foi sobre a
questo da leitura e da interpretao de textos, pois se buscava a facilitao no acesso s
informaes, e na redao em trabalhos, provas e TPCs (Tarefas Para Casa). Ao mesmo
tempo, por lidar com uma parte da lngua mais familiar aos estudantes, a saber, questes
semnticas e sintticas mas sempre extrapolando-as , buscou-se deix-los mais seguros e
confiantes, neste primeiro contato com um mundo de novidades, inclusive a prpria didtica
dos professores brasileiros.
! Em sala de aula, trouxemos baila textos cientficos ou paracientficos e textos
narrativos, especialmente fbulas. Assim, pensamos que pudemos iniciar um trabalho com
as duas principais vertentes interpretativas: a busca da verdade e a mentira contida num
texto ficcional. Ao lidar com o texto cientfico, iniciamos o processo de entendimento dos
pontos de vista contidos nos discursos cientficos, a sua busca pela verdade, a sua
incompletude enquanto discurso, por ser um ponto de vista especfico, e o papel do leitor, no
caso estudante, ao ler um texto desse tipo, buscando contribuir para a formao dos alunos
enquanto leitores crticos. Ao lanar mo do texto ficcional, buscou-se a autonomia
imaginativa do leitor/aluno perante o texto narrativo. Desta forma, tentamos libertar os
alunos da literalidade na leitura dos textos, quer cientficos, quer ficcionais, legitimando o
seu prprio pensamento, instigando e incentivando a
tambm eles serem produtores de conhecimento.
A busca da autonomia no processo de ensino-
aprendizagem
Ao comentar a didtica dos professores brasileiros, quase
diametralmente oposta dos professores timorenses com
que os alunos tiveram contato no ensino primrio e
secundrio, no podemos nos esquecer das discusses
desenvolvidas em sala de aula na disciplina Pedagogia do
Ensino, ministrada ao primeiro ano do curso de
Licenciatura em Fsica da FEAH-UNTL.
! Nesta disciplina, que enfoca as questes de Filosofia
da Educao e perpassa a Histria da Educao, tivemos
por opo as aulas expositivo-dialogadas. Mesmo que, por
vezes, no consegussemos nos aprofundar muito nos
assuntos tratados em aula, acreditamos ter sido nesta disciplina que melhor atingimos nosso
objetivo. Nosso maior interesse era fazer com que eles criassem e expressassem a sua
opinio sobre dar aulas.
! No incio, criamos um programa de ensino que abordaria princpios bsicos, mas de
difcil compreenso, como pedagogia, filosofia, educao. Nestas aulas, mais expositivas,
houve sempre de nossa parte uma instigao ao dilogo. Quando j havia uma familiaridade
maior conosco, mudamos o direcionamento das discusses para assuntos mais concretos: o
que o professor?, qual o papel do aluno?, o que ensinar? Sempre estabelecendo a
discusso a partir do material dado, mas tambm a partir do prprio pensamento dos alunos
sobre os temas, ainda de forma geral.
! Seguindo a ementa da disciplina, que prev a aplicao de tais conceitos nas
atividades pedaggicas realizadas em sala de aula, iniciamos o dilogo sobre as suas
opinies acerca da nossa forma de ensinar. Qual no foi a nossa surpresa quando, pela
primeira vez, houve uma opinio contrria em sala de aula. Uma das alunas decididamente
no concordava com a nossa didtica. Evidentemente que ela no disse isso com todas as
palavras, pois o medo que eles tinham da figura do professor ainda era muito grande, mas
ela deu a entender, muito claramente, isto. A partir de ento, legitimando a posio da
opositora, conseguimos comear a estabelecer as discusses sobre autonomia.
! Ao final da disciplina, que foi satisfatrio para ambas as partes, a mensagem a que
chegamos, juntos, foi de que o professor deve fazer aquilo que for melhor para que o seu
aluno aprenda. No houve grandes mudanas de pensamento ou de vida, mas uma ideia foi
plantada. Este era nosso objetivo.
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Aes educativas sobre meio ambiente e qumica
Em 2006, foi elaborada a Carta de Braslia pelos pases membros da Comunidade de Pases
de Lngua Portuguesa (CPLP), documento que prope um pacto de cooperao para superar
os desafios dos problemas ambientais. Segundo o documento, imprescindvel a formao
de profissionais para atuarem no enfrentamento de desafios como mudanas climticas,
fontes renovveis de energia, desastres ambientais, biodiversidade, recursos hdricos, gesto
de zonas marinhas e costeiras, ameaas ambientais sade humana, desertificao e efeitos
da seca, todos apontados na Carta. A educao ambiental foi definida como a primeira das
prioridades.
! Prope-se, portanto, desenvolver a formao em educao ambiental numa
perspectiva histrico-crtica atravs de atitude dialgica e com uma abordagem terico-
prtica sobre os problemas ambientais de Timor-Leste e as suas relaes com o mundo
globalizado. Seguimos, portanto, a concepo de temas transversais proposta pelos
Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais (Brasil, 1997). tica, meio ambiente, orientao sexual,
pluralidade cultural, trabalho, consumo e sade, os temas transversais, expressam conceitos e
valores bsicos democracia e cidadania. Trat-los de forma transversal quer dizer que eles
devem permear todas as discusses travadas em sala de aula.
! Neste sentido, durante as aulas de Portugus Especfico disciplina do segundo ano
do curso de Licenciatura em Qumica, voltada para a melhora na compreenso do portugus
tcnico eram lidos e debatidos textos sobre problemas ambientais que afetam a comunidade
timorense, como mudanas climticas e o aumento de eventos extremos, poluio da gua,
saneamento ambiental, produo de alimentos, problemas que fazem parte do cotidiano dos
alunos. Por exemplo, na capital Dli, o esgoto corre em valas a cu aberto, fator que gera
poluio da gua e risco de transmisso de doenas.
! Na disciplina Qumica Geral, ministrada aos alunos do primeiro ano do curso de
Licenciatura em Qumica, o debate sobre meio ambiente foi um pouco mais complicado, pelo
contedo da disciplina, mas realizado quando possvel. Parte importante nesta disciplina foi
dedicada alfabetizao cientfica dos alunos, ou seja, o estmulo apropriao do
conhecimento, entendimento e habilidade requeridos para uma atuao efetiva na vida
cotidiana, em funo da importncia do papel da cincia, da matemtica e da tecnologia na
vida moderna (CAZELLI et al., 2003, p. 84). Foram realizadas leituras, debates e atividades
nas quais ressaltava-se como a cincia feita, sua natureza dinmica e que o conhecimento
constantemente alterado e testado.
! Ao fim do perodo, foi possvel discutir de forma mais concreta com os alunos a
importncia que eles podero ter para desenvolver a nao Timor-Leste frase muito
repetida por eles. Acreditamos que boa parte disto foi possvel atravs da troca de opinies
dos alunos com os professores em sala de aula. Com isto, estimulamos a opinio crtica dos
estudantes, essencial para o amadurecimento da recm-estabelecida democracia timorense.
Atividades voluntrias
A atividade que mais suscitou questionamentos sobre a nossa atuao dentro da comunidade
acadmica timorense foi o convite feito pela Associao Discente do Departamento de
Qumica (ADDQ) para ministrar aulas aos alunos dos demais anos, interessados em aprender
portugus. Como j dito, nosso contrato previa apenas o ensino nos primeiros anos dos
cursos de Graduao da referida Universidade.
! O convite, feito aos professores brasileiros do Departamento de Qumica, era para que
ministrssemos aulas de portugus. Mas, com a nossa formao e os mais diferentes nveis de
aprendizado da lngua entre os alunos, buscamos mtodos alternativos para trabalhar aquilo
que sentamos importante para o melhor aproveitamento dos alunos. Iramos falar em
portugus (atividade pouco praticada pelos timorenses), para melhorar a comunicao, e ler,
para aprender a interpretar um texto, de forma que o discurso dos alunos no se tornasse
mera reproduo de frases ou, pior, uma compreenso errnea do contedo dos textos.
! A organizao das oficinas, a que chamamos de Encontros de Intercmbio Cultural
em Lngua Portuguesa, foi pensada tendo em vista as nossas capacidades e pontos de vista
em relao ao uso da lngua, mas tambm visando os objetivos explicitados pelos alunos,
especialmente na figura do ento Chefe da ADDQ, Joanico da Costa Soares. Parafraseando o
estudante, o pedido foi direcionado aos professores brasileiros porque, em breve, os ento
estudantes seriam professores do ensino primrio e secundrio, onde as aulas tem que ser
ministradas em portugus, sabiam que o ensino em lngua portuguesa importante para
firmar o pas e gostariam de fazer o melhor possvel, para o desenvolvimento da nao. O
discurso, por vezes parecendo decorado, est arraigado no falar de todos os alunos com que
tivemos contato. Se verdadeiro ou falso, legtimo ou forado, fato que o pensamento existe
e se tenta coloc-lo em prtica mesmo que de forma discutvel, em alguns casos.
! Ao longo destes encontros, que teve um nmero varivel de participantes, pudemos
deixar os contedos mais maleveis, trabalhando a produo de textos e, sempre, a
autonomia do pensamento. Por serem atividades no curriculares, buscamos uma abordagem
mais leve, para facilitar e suscitar o dilogo entre alunos, professores brasileiros e professores
timorenses, que tambm se dispuseram a participar, como alunos, dos encontros.
! Nestes Encontros, nas aulas de Qumica Geral e Portugus Especfico, lanamos mo
da utilizao da msica no processo de aprendizagem, com a inteno primeira de mostrar
aos alunos que qualquer elaborao discursiva deve conter, em si, um vasto conjunto de
conhecimento, articulado de acordo com uma linha de raciocnio. Assim, por exemplo, nos
Encontros, atravs da msica Fogo e Gasolina, cantada por Lenine e Roberta S, pudemos
vislumbrar quanto conhecimento (mesmo que bsico e, para ns, comum ou at banal) de
cincias esteve envolvido na elaborao da poesia e da msica, atravs das metforas de
conjuntos explosivos elencadas na letra da cano.
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! O clima de descontrao da atividade, em nossa avaliao, no prejudicou a prtica
da lngua. Alm do que, com os dilogos mais abertos, pudemos exercer a verdadeira funo
de uma sala de aula, que a troca de saberes entre os envolvidos na prtica, ou seja, tambm
ns ganhamos muito, por aprendermos um pouco sobre a cultura timorense. Por outro lado,
pudemos contribuir para a desmistificao da lngua portuguesa, tida entre os timorenses
como lngua culta, de elite e acadmica. Aproximando a lngua de sua funo primordial, a
comunicao, quisemos contribuir, tambm ns, para a autodeterminao deste povo atravs
dos seus veculos culturais.
! Sentimos a obrigao de sempre reforar que apenas corroboramos a questo da
autodeterminao demonstrada por parte dos estudantes e tambm professores dos
Departamentos em que lecionamos e comentada acima. Buscamos contribuir, com admirao
e respeito, para que a cultura local fosse valorizada pelos estrangeiros e pelos prprios
timorenses. Acreditamos que o esprito de cooperao pressupe a troca de informaes e
expectativas sobre os nossos pases, mas repudiamos tentativas, conscientes ou inconscientes,
de qualquer tipo de dominao ou imposio cultural.
Desafios timorenses
Os indicadores sociais preocupam: a taxa de crescimento populacional a mais elevada na
regio e a incidncia da mortalidade infantil, embora tenha melhorado, continua alta em
relao a outros pases da regio. O pas no produz alimentos suficientes para satisfazer o
consumo mnimo dirio, estimando-se que aproximadamente 350 mil pessoas esto na faixa
de insegurana alimentar. A situao de determinados segmentos da populao tambm foi se
deteriorando: as disparidades de gnero e na educao esto aumentando e as oportunidades
para a juventude urbana so particularmente limitadas, com o desemprego dos jovens
urbanos em 44%. Alm disto, novos problemas batem a porta, como as mudanas climticas,
que trazem alteraes ao clima da regio.
! O cenrio riqussimo em termos lingusticos fez com que no Timor-Leste convivam
muitas lnguas. Neste sentido, a preservao da cultura do povo timorense outro desafio
para as prximas dcadas. Muitos criticam a poltica lingustica timorense, militando em
favor do ingls como lngua oficial. A estas, Ramos-Horta (2012) responde que a utilidade
regional ou global de um idioma no conduz concluso de que devemos abandonar as
nossas razes histricas e culturais, adotando-o como lngua oficial.
! A concluso que tiramos que, independente da rea do conhecimento, a melhor
cooperao que talvez possamos exercer ser contribuir para que os alunos possam ser
senhores de seus destinos, que sejam crticos, at mesmo para decidirem se querem ou no
estudar em portugus.
O povo timorense um exemplo de persistncia e coragem pela busca de sua
autodeterminao. E este povo ter que permanecer muito corajoso e unido para conseguir
melhorar as condies de vida e desenvolver a economia, de forma que o pas possa ser mais
independente da renda do petrleo.
! A gente pobre daquela esquina do mundo enfrentou por um quarto de sculo um dos
maiores exrcitos do planeta sem o apoio de quase ningum e venceu. possvel tirar
algumas lies de l para a nossa realidade. A periferia do mundo enfrenta um perodo
decisivo. Se puder se unir em torno de um mesmo inimigo a pobreza, suas causas e
causadores conseguir tambm se libertar e ser realmente independente (Sakamoto, 2012).
Vida longa ao Timor independente!
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Referncias Bibliogrficas
Bormann, A., Silveira, M. (2007). Primeira misso de especialistas brasileiros em educao em Timor-
Leste: desafios e impasses. In: Silva, K. C.; Simio, D. S. Timor-Leste por trs do palco: cooperao
internacional e a dialtica da formao do Estado (p. 234-254). Belo Horizonte. Editora da UFMG.
Brasil. (1997). Parmetros curriculares nacionais: introduo aos Parmetros curriculares nacionais.
Braslia. Secretaria de Educao Ambiental.
Cazelli, S., Marandino, M., Studart, D. C. (2003). Educao e comunicao em museus de Cincia:
aspectos histricos, pesquisa e prtica. In: Gouva, G.; Marandino, M., Leal, M. C. Educao e Museu:
a construo social do carter educativo dos museus de cincia (p. 83-103). Rio de Janeiro. Access.
Cunha, J. S. C. (2001). A questo de Timor-Leste: origens e evoluo. Braslia. Fundao Alexandre de
Gusmo.
Declarao de Braslia. (2006). III Reunio de Ministros de Meio Ambiente dos Pases da CPLP.
Braslia. MMA-Brasil. Retrieved in http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/educamb/_arquivos/dec_bsa.pdf
Forganes, R. (2002). Queimado queimado, mas agora nosso! Timor: das cinzas liberdade. So Paulo.
Labortexto editorial.
Freire, P. (1987). Pedagogia do Oprimido. Rio de Janeiro. Paz e Terra.
Lamim-Guedes, V.; Gontijo-Rosa, C. J. (2011). Desafios da docncia no ensino superior por
p r o f e s s o r e s b r a s i l e i r o s e m Ti mo r - Le s t e . J o r n a l d a Ci n c i a . Re t r i e v e d i n
http://www.jornaldaciencia.org.br/Detalhe.jsp?id=81843
No b e l P r i z e . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . Th e No b e l P e a c e P r i z e , 1 9 9 6 . Re t r i e v e d i n
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1996/
Pazeto, A. E. (2011). Desafios da educao superior em Timor-Leste: da colonizao restaurao da
independncia. In: Santos, M. A. Experincias de Professores Brasileiros em Timor-Leste: cooperao
internacional e educao timorense (p. 223-236). Florianpolis. Editora da UDESC.
Ramos-Horta, J. (2012). Apesar de falhanos e crticas, balano "francamente positivo". Agncia
Lusa. Retrieved in http://10anosindependencia.blogs.sapo.tl/4014.html
Sakamoto, L. (2012). Timor completa dez anos de independncia com novo presidente. Blog do
Sakamoto. Retrieved here
Sakamoto, L. (2012). Timor-Leste. Carta Maior, 01 jun. 2006. Retrieved here
Santos, M. A. (2011). Experincias de Professores Brasileiros em Timor-Leste: cooperao
internacional e educao timorense. Florianpolis. UDESC.
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie. (2011). Programa para a Seleo de Docentes Temporrios para
At u a o e m Cu r s o s d e Gr a d u a o n a UNTL Ti mo r - Le s t e . Re t r i e v e d i n
http://www.mackenzie.br/docentes_temporarios_untl0.html
Abstract: This article discusses the work of education cooperation in the African context,
stressing the importance of learning with the South as a cultural, pedagogical, and
educational challenge. The idea is to reflect upon three different cooperation experiences and
to emphasize the main lessons regarding innovation, agendas, actors and difference in the
context of global education and international cooperation. Firstly, we examine the process of
the creation of a resource center network within the Education Without Borders Program.
Secondly, we reflect upon the partnership with the Angolan NGO ADRA and our
participation in an educational project for rural education called Onjila. Thirdly, we describe
our involvement in the Project for Enhancing Linguistic Capacities of Primary Education
Teachers in Zaire Province in Angola, a partnership with Save the Children. These three
cases illustrate different philosophies, ideologies and practices of development cooperation
which have been important to rethink, in our view, the role of education in development,
particularly from the point of view of those who are marginalized.
Key Words: Development Cooperation, International Education, NGO, Angola, Cape Verde,
Guinea-Bissau.
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International Cooperation and Education: Some Learning
Lessons With the South
Cooperao e Educao Internacional: algumas lies da
aprendizagem com o Sul
Resumo: Este artigo discute o trabalho de cooperao na rea da educao em contexto
africano, ressaltando a importncia da aprendizagem que o Sul nos tem lanado como
desafio cultural, pedaggico e educativo. A reflexo incide sobre trs experincias,
enfatizando algumas lies importantes para a inovao, agendas, atores, contexto e
diferena no mbito da educao global e da cooperao na rea da educao. A primeira
examina o processo da criao da rede de centros de recursos do Programa Educar sem
Fronteiras. A segunda refere-se parceria com a ONG angolana ADRA, debruando-se
sobre o Programa Onjila de educao no meio rural. A terceira diz respeito ao papel da ESE-
IPVC no Projeto de Aumento das Capacidades Lingusticas dos Professores do Ensino
Primrio da ONG Save the Children e do Ministrio da Educao de Angola. Estes casos
espelham diferentes filosofias, ideologias e prticas de educao e cooperao que so
fundamentais para, na nossa opinio, repensar o papel da educao no contexto do
desenvolvimento, em particular para a situao dos mais marginalizados.
Palavras-Chave: Cooperao para o desenvolvimento, Educao internacional, ONG,
Angola, Cabo Verde, Guin-Bissau.
Jlio Gonalves dos Santos
Escola Superior de Educao do Instituto
Politcnico de Viana do Castelo. Centro de
Estudos Africanos da Universidade do
Porto
e-mail: jgsantos@ese.ipvc.pt
www.globaleducationmagazine.com
Rosa Silva
Escola Superior de Educao do Instituto
Politcnico de Viana do Castelo. Centro de
Estudos Africanos da Universidade do
Porto
e-mail: rosasilva@ese.ipvc.pt
Rui da Silva
Escola Superior de Educao do Instituto
Politcnico de Viana do Castelo. Centro de
Estudos Africanos da Universidade do
Porto
e-mail: rdasilva@ese.ipvc.pt

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Contextualizao
A Escola Superior de Educao do Instituto Politcnico de Viana do Castelo (ESE-IPVC),
atravs do seu Gabinete de Estudos para a Educao e Desenvolvimento (GEED) vem
acumulando, ao longo dos ltimos doze anos, uma experincia e conhecimento aprofundado
dos valores, conceitos e prticas inerentes educao para o desenvolvimento e cooperao
atravs de projetos de cooperao, mobilidade e internacionalizao no contexto dos pases
do sul. Estas abordagens esto a reforar, no s o seu papel de instituio de plataforma
entre o Norte e o Sul, mas tambm com preocupaes de impulsionar a relao Sul-Norte e
Sul-Sul, numa tentativa de crescente integrao de novos conhecimentos e do
reconhecimento da existncia de outros atores e agendas no campo da educao
internacional.
! A cooperao para o desenvolvimento, em particular na rea da educao, afirmou-se
como uma rea de importncia crucial na instituio. A sua cada vez maior apropriao tem
surgido, atravs de iniciativas concretas de conhecimento e apoio aos sistemas de educao
nos pases africanos (de acordo com os contextos e de forma diversa com atores e instituies
a vrios nveis) e, tambm, atravs de linhas orientadoras para a sensibilizao da
comunidade educativa sobre os pases e sistemas sociais do Sul e sobre a compreenso da
temtica do desenvolvimento, da interdependncia e da pobreza numa tica da aprendizagem
global. Por isso, o IPVC elegeu no seu Plano Estratgico (PE) a cooperao para o
desenvolvimento como um valor e consagrou esta rea na sua misso para o perodo de
vigncia do PE - 2008-2013.
! Este domnio de interesse, de interveno e de investigao reporta-se sobretudo
implementao de programas e projetos na rea do ensino bsico e do desenvolvimento
humano no quadro de agendas locais, nacionais e internacionais da cooperao, atravs do
incentivo a uma educao bsica de qualidade para todos, atravs da construo de uma rede
de parcerias estratgicas com os governos e com a sociedade civil. So exemplos desta
tentativa de firmar uma rede de parcerias (e de partilhar boas prticas e interiorizar conceitos
de apropriao e parceria), as experincias que se analisam neste artigo, sejam elas a
implementao de uma rede de Centro de Recursos no quadro do Programa Educar sem
Fronteiras, a parceria de dilogo, a troca de experincias e de aprendizagem com a ONG
angolana Aco para o Desenvolvimento Rural e Ambiente (ADRA), com especial relevncia
para a educao no meio rural e o desafio da conjugao de agendas de trabalho e de
internacionalizao em educao que surgiu do trabalho realizado com a ONG internacional
Save the Children. Estas experincias de parceria colaborativa, descritas mais frente com
algum detalhe, constituem, entre outras, j por isso, importantes lies de cooperao e de
educao global, visto que constituem perspetivas educativas que decorrem da constatao de
que os povos contemporneos vivem e interagem num mundo cada vez mais globalizado
(Centro Norte-Sul, 2010). Estas continuaro, de forma crtica, a influenciar a agenda da
educao internacional e da cooperao para o desenvolvimento da ESE-IPVC.
Princpios orientadores em cooperao
Tem sido dada uma nfase especial s questes da implementao de iniciativas no quadro de
projetos e programas no terreno. Assim, podemos afirmar que a conceo conjunta e, muito
especialmente, o apoio implementao de projetos de cooperao no contexto dos pases do
sul e, nomeadamente, nos Pases Africanos de Lngua Oficial Portuguesa (PALOP) , constitui
um desafio tico, pedaggico, cultural e cientfico para a instituio. Os exemplos que
estamos a discutir nesta comunicao permitem-nos uma anlise bastante profunda dos
contextos, do pathos da implementao (Fullan, 1992), de mudanas, muitas vezes,
fabricadas moda ocidental, veiculadas atravs de agendas poderosas. Este conhecimento
autoriza-nos, de alguma forma, uma leitura das periferias e daqueles que se situam nas
margens dos sistemas sociais. Isto deve-se ao facto de ter havido um investimento terico-
prtico consistente que permitiu um modelo de parcerias que privilegia uma agenda que
inclua os excludos: educao para grupos nas margens do sistema educativo (grupos
perifricos, longe das capitais ou em situao de ps-conflito); educao bsica em meio
rural e o papel das Tecnologias da Informao e Comunicao (TIC), que beneficie
populaes em situao de desvantagem social e econmica. Este campo de reflexo e
interveno tem por base princpios como o da humanizao da globalizao e a crena de
que o investimento em educao, se estiverem criadas determinadas condies, poder
contribuir para a reduo da pobreza.
! Ao mesmo tempo, este tipo de abordagem em cooperao, potencialmente mais
prxima dos atores e dos contextos, pe em relevo a autenticidade de outras vozes (Crossley
e Watson, 2003), assim como pode permitir a valorizao do conhecimento local e fazer
despertar para o entendimento e compromisso entre prticas e polticas de desenvolvimento e
a(s) cultura(s) (Eade, 2002).
! Alm disso, tem havido uma preocupao na compreenso da relao (complexa e
no-linear) entre educao e desenvolvimento e na reflexo sobre os benefcios que o
investimento na educao de qualidade poder ter, por exemplo, na participao, na boa
governao e nos retornos a nvel social e privado. Neste sentido, torna-se igualmente
importante descortinar em que circunstncias que a educao poder efectivamente
contribuir para o desenvolvimento e para a reduo da pobreza (De Grawe, 2007). Ao
promover a causa pela educao, um dos princpios que o GEED sempre afirmou, foi o seu
compromisso e contributo (ainda que modesto) nos desafios da Educao para Todos, tanto
ao nvel de iniciativas de Educao Global, como atravs da conceo, implementao e
participao em diversos projectos e programas de cooperao.
! Estes pressupostos nortearam, em grande medida, o trabalho de cooperao realizado,
no mbito das trs experincias que a seguir se resumem.
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Centros de Recursos: uma aposta de cooperao descentralizada
O programa Educar sem Fronteiras (ESF) nasceu no seio do GEED (Gabinete de Estudos
para a Educao e Desenvolvimento) da ESE-IPVC e beneficiou de um importante apoio
financeiro do Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior, tendo tido uma dimenso
de terreno muito consistente entre os anos 2004 a 2008 em Angola, em Cabo Verde e na
Guin-Bissau. Este programa em muito contribuiu para o reforo e melhoria dos processos de
cooperao, internacionalizao e cidadania global existentes, gerando e potenciando outras
atividades de interveno e investigao na rea da cooperao para o desenvolvimento e da
educao global.
! Tendo sido desenvolvido entre 2004 e finais de 2008, foi notria a aposta numa
abordagem que se pode caracterizar como inovadora, ousada, descentralizada e que traduz
uma filosofia prpria de implementao que enfatiza, por um lado, o papel dos atores a nvel
local (sejam eles, crianas, jovens, docentes, autoridades locais e ONG) e, por outro lado, uma
ateno permanente aos contextos e a outras agendas que, efetivamente, conferiram uma
centralidade s periferias. Alm disso, tem havido uma permanente chamada de ateno para a
sustentabilidade e para a incorporao de novas dinmicas de cooperao a ttulo
experimental, tendo o Programa sido convertido num conscientemente assumido laboratrio
de experincias de cooperao em que se assumiu o risco da inovao.
! Uma das principais aes deste Programa (I) foi a consolidao do GEED, enquanto
centro de recursos sobre educao no contexto dos pases do sul, possibilitando a construo
de respostas coerentes s solicitaes dos parceiros envolvidos na implementao de projetos.
O GEED depositrio em Portugal das publicaes do Instituto Internacional de Planeamento
da Educao da UNESCO. Ainda no mbito desta ao, foi lanada uma rede de Centros de
Recursos Educar sem Fronteiras em Angola na provncia de Malanje, em Santa Catarina no
interior rural da ilha de Santiago em Cabo Verde e em Gab no leste da Guin-Bissau. Foram
implementados em espaos fsicos j existentes dos parceiros do GEED, tendo evoludo
segundo as especificidades e os ritmos prprios dos contextos. O equipamento base definido
consistiu em dez computadores, dois scanners, duas impressoras, duas mquinas fotogrficas
digitais, um computador porttil e bibliografia diversa.
! A rede dos Centros de Recursos assumiu um papel relevante em todo o Programa,
tanto na receo de tcnicos cooperantes, como de voluntrios e de estudantes em mobilidade,
criando-se, assim, linhas de continuidade e de sustentabilidade de iniciativas inovadoras em
mobilidade internacional e em cooperao para o desenvolvimento.
! Pensamos que estes Centros podero constituir uma base conceptual e operativa para
modelos de Centro de Recursos em contexto africano, pois foram implementados numa
perspetiva de facilitar o acesso s TIC para o desenvolvimento educativo, social e para o
acesso ao conhecimento. Foram igualmente pensados na perspetiva da animao e
participao comunitria. Algumas das suas especificidades (geogrficas, na construo das
parcerias, na definio de modelos e na apropriao e primeiros impactos (estes centros so
processos em construo) descritos a seguir.
! Em Angola, o equipamento destinou-se a reforar o Centro de Formao e
Treinamento (CFT) da ONG angolana ADRA e a sua ligao ao Programa Onjila na provncia
de Malange. O objetivo principal foi proporcionar acesso s TIC e a materiais bibliogrficos a
toda a populao da rea envolvente, mas tendo como grupo-alvo os alunos e professores das
escolas da rea de interveno do Programa Onjila e, em particular, da Zona de Influncia
Pedaggica do Lombe, foco do trabalho deste Programa no momento de vigncia do ESF.
Atualmente este Centro diluiu-se nas atividades do CFT e o espao utilizado maioritaria-
mente por associaes locais para acesso informtica.
! Em Cabo Verde, o Centro de Recursos foi instalado na Delegao de Educao do
Ministrio da Educao e Ensino Superior de Santa Catarina (DESC). Desde 2007 possui
ligao Internet via VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) e um telefone Voip com ligao
direta ao GEED (instalada pelo ESF), servindo todos os tcnicos e divises da DESC. O
equipamento informtico foi sendo reforado ao longo do decorrer do Programa e est
direcionado para o apoio pedaggico, metodolgico e cientfico aos professores e gestores
educativos em TIC e materiais bibliogrficos. Foram criados dois centros satlite, em dois
polos educativos, que abrangem um conjunto de escolas em Mancholy e Achada Leito, a uma
distncia de 6 e 7 km, respetivamente, da DESC. Desta forma, pretendeu-se iniciar a
descentralizao do acesso s TIC, tendo sempre como referncia o centro principal, instalado
na DESC.
! Os utilizadores so, na sua maioria, professores, gestores educativos e coordenadores
da DESC e pontualmente alunos da escola de formao de professores e outros interessados.
As palavras de Joaquim Furtado, professor do Instituto Pedaggico e ex-delegado da
educao, so reveladoras sobre o impacto do Centro:
[] muito procurado pelos professores e gestores, sobretudo os que nunca
tiveram acesso s novas tecnologias. [...] os Plos passaram a ter mais igualdade em
termos de benefcios das novas tecnologias [] para muitos o centro de recursos
uma das melhores coisas que surgiram na educao no concelho nos ltimos anos
(Furtado, 2006, p. 9).
! Na Guin-Bissau, o Centro de Recursos est instalado no Centro Multifuncional da
Juventude (CMJ) de Gab, na zona leste do pas. Os parceiros so o Instituto Guineense da
Juventude, o Fundo das Naes Unidas para a Populao (FNUAP), o Governo Regional e a
Delegao de Educao. Apesar do pblico-alvo inicial ser a Delegao de Educao e os
professores, o espao evoluiu para apoio aos jovens. Proporciona cursos de informtica para
os professores, jovens e populao em geral, contando desde meados de Agosto de 2008 com
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ligao Internet (com o apoio do FNUAP). Houve a preocupao de se consolidarem
processos de sustentabilidade ao longo da implementao do centro, atravs da formao e
acompanhamento de uma equipa local de formadores, que se foi apropriando do Projeto.
Segundo um dos responsveis do FNUAP da Guin-Bissau, este espao com TIC e a parceria
com a ESE-IPVC tem dado mais vitalidade ao CMJ e contribudo para a preveno da
emigrao dos jovens desta regio.
A parceria com a ADRA Angolana
A parceria com a ONG Angolana ADRA surgiu no incio
das iniciativas de cooperao para o desenvolvimento, no
mbito do Programa ESF. A ADRA, no seu todo,
considerada um projeto educativo podendo ser entendida
como um processo de educao para a cidadania
(Pacheco, 2006). Atua nas provncias de Benguela,
Huambo, Hula, Luanda/Bengo e Malanje, em 730 aldeias,
55 comunas e 20 municpios Foi fundada no incio da
dcada de 90, tendo um amplo espectro de atuao que
vai desde a ao comunitria influncia sobre as
polticas pblicas em domnios como a agricultura,
segurana alimentar, desenvolvimento rural, direito
terra, poder e desenvolvimento local, educao, direitos
humanos e cidadania. Alm disso, tem contribudo de
forma ativa para a ampliao da sociedade civil com o
apoio criao de novas organizaes, algumas delas
nascidas dentro dela prpria. Afinal, a ADRA procura
contribuir para que existam novos horizontes em Angola,
como o seu smbolo pretende expressar (II) (Pacheco,
2006, p. 16).
O foco da parceria foi (atualmente esto envolvidas outras
reas) o Programa de educao, intitulado Onjila (III),
vocacionado para as crianas em idade escolar centrado
em trs eixos:
Reposio da escolaridade;
Construo de modelos pedaggicos e didticos alternativos adequados realidade vivida
pelos alunos;
Promoo de atividades extraescolares e outras que estivessem ancoradas no
desenvolvimento comunitrio.
! Na filosofia desta organizao, o desenvolvimento comunitrio entendido como
um modelo de educao no-formal, um processo pedaggico de interao entre mulheres,
homens e crianas, por um lado, e as equipas de terreno da organizao, por outro, que visa o
desenvolvimento das comunidades, a sua autonomia, o seu empoderamentoe o exerccio da
cidadania (...) (Pacheco, 2006, p. 16).
! Tendo como pano de fundo os citados eixos de interveno, o
foco direto desta parceria centrou-se no segundo, atravs do apoio
conceptual s Zonas de Influncia Pedaggica experimentais e aos
Centros de Recursos, na produo de trs documentrios e na
participao em cursos de curta durao sobre educao,
cooperao e desenvolvimento, enquanto boas prticas de ligao
norte-sul, mas tambm sul-sul. Esta interao possibilitou 10
misses conjuntas (a Portugal e a Angola) de 17 tcnicos quer da
ADRA, quer da ESE-IPVC (a maior parte tcnicos da ADRA) aos
dois pases para troca de experincias e trabalho de sistematizao
e aprofundamento de conceitos e prticas. A colaborao tambm
foi estendida aos projetos de voluntariado para a cooperao com a
integrao de cinco voluntrios nas atividades na ADRA, que
forneceram apoio tcnico em reas especficas, como, por exemplo,
a sistematizao das informaes e incio da realizao de
investigaes em pequena escala, nas provncias de Malanje e
Cunene.
! Como ambas as instituies no possuem financiamento
inteiramente destinado operacionalizao da parceria, tem havido
uma oscilao de atividades. As verbas destinadas parceria
resultam da sua integrao nos vrios projetos em cursos nas
organizaes. No obstante, a colaborao continua, mesmo que
distncia, atravs da partilha de materiais, troca de impresses,
opinies/pareceres, produo de documentos e filmes sobre a
problemtica da educao, da participao e do desenvolvimento
comunitrio. Desta parceria resultaram ganhos importantes para a
ESE-IPVC, em termos de integrao de novo conhecimento sobre,
por exemplo, o conceito de ZIP (Zona de Influncia Pedaggica) e
sobre inovaes, que o Programa Onjila tentou implementar nos
meios rurais (ex. metodologia CAT Compreender, Analisar, Transformar), assim como o
incio da criao de um centro de recursos suscetvel de vir a apoiar as ZIP, enquanto rede de
escolas para o meio rural.
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Educar nas margens - Projecto de Capacitao Lingustica De Professores
na Provncia do Zaire
O Projeto de Aumento das Capacidades Lingusticas dos Professores do Ensino Primrio
surge, devido identificao, por parte do Ministrio da Educao de Angola (MEA), de
dificuldades lingusticas, sentidas aquando de uma visita provncia. Verificada a
necessidade de ensinar Portugus como Lngua Segunda, apenas em 2006, foi possvel iniciar
um projeto para capacitar professores linguisticamente. O referido Projeto enquadrava-se no
Programa Global Challenge Rewrite the Future (IV), da ONG Save the Children e visava
atingir as metas de Dakar, em particular a Meta 6 (V).
! Em Angola foi implementado em trs provncias (Kuanza Sul, Uge e Zaire). A ESE-
IPVC foi convidada, em finais de 2006, pelo MEA para dar continuidade ao lanamento do
Programa na provncia do Zaire, tendo preparado as fases de diagnstico, de formao, de
monitorizao e de avaliao do Curso de Aumento das Capacidades Lingusticas dos
Professores do Ensino Primrio. Curso este que teve a durao de dois anos, com o apoio
logstico da Save the Children, nos municpios de Kuimba e Nki em 2007, aos que se juntou
Mbanza Kongo em 2008, contribuindo para que o nmero de professores beneficirios
duplicasse (de 200 para 400).
! No primeiro de funcionamento do curso, formaram-se 16 formadores e 4
supervisores, com base na metodologia de ensino de uma lngua segunda proposta pelo
manual adotado para o Curso. Contudo, como o incio das formaes nos municpios foi
notria a desadequao do manual ao contexto de formao, uma vez que a realidade nele
exposta (a portuguesa) no era de todo coincidente com a que os formadores lidavam todos
os dias. Tal implicou que no segundo ano do projeto fosse adotado um novo manual para o
ensino da Lngua Portuguesa como lngua segunda, que sublinhasse a aplicao de
metodologias prticas e centradas nos formandos, incentivando a produo de materiais com
recursos locais. Todavia, as condies habitacionais e os salrios nem sempre atempados
contriburam para a desmotivao de alguns formadores que optaram por abandonar o projeto
no primeiro ano e outros por no reintegr-lo no segundo.
! Para grande parte dos formadores este projeto funcionou como enriquecimento
pessoal e como fator de promoo social, uma vez que em 2008, dois de dezasseis
ingressaram na universidade e quatro obtiveram emprego em estruturas governamentais.
! Em cada ciclo de implementao do Projeto foi realizada uma avaliao intermdia e
uma avaliao final, que tentou abranger diversas facetas: desempenho dos supervisores, dos
formadores dos professores e dos alunos, considerando as caractersticas do contexto. O que
vai ao encontro do definido para a Avaliao do Programa Rewrite the Future, executada pela
Save the Children:
! The evaluation has focused on teacher professionalism and investigated how Save the
Children has worked together with local education authorities and community bodies
such as parent associations, child protection committees and children to improve teacher
professionalism through training, supervision, support and monitoring. Due to the
nature of the partnership between Save the Children and the local education authorities,
it is difficult to attribute aspects of progress exclusively to Save the Children. The
findings of this evaluation represent the successes and challenges of the provincial
education systems as well as those of Save the Children (Save the Children, 2009, p. iv).
! Dos 2 anos de formao no mbito deste Projeto realamos o -vontade e gosto pela
prtica letiva de formadores, que no tinham formao pedaggica, e o domnio lingustico
alcanado, quer a nvel oral quer na escrita. Aspetos verificveis nos progressos alcanados
na evoluo lingustica dos formandos, que se repercutia no arriscar novas estratgias
didticas. As mudanas lingusticas apontadas foram constatadas pelas entidades locais, no
contacto com os professores, pois antes estes fugiam com receio de se expressarem em
Portugus.
! Todavia, resta continuar a percorrer o caminho do ensino da Lngua Oficial, em
particular nas provncias fronteirias, uma vez que os resultados positivos alcanados com os
professores, ainda no so visveis nos alunos.
Algumas lies aprendidas
Depois desta primeira anlise (ainda preliminar) das trs experincias de cooperao, existem
algumas lies que valer a pena considerar. Em primeiro lugar, podemos caracteriz-las por
serem abordagens prximas dos atores, tentando cultivar um conceito de desenvolvimento
centrado nas pessoas, nas suas aspiraes e partindo de uma perspetiva das periferias.
Enfatizam a centralidade das vozes e de outras agendas, muitas vezes, nas margens do
sistema educativo. Neste sentido, autores como Crossley e Watson (2003) chamam a ateno
para o papel e significado dos fatores locais e culturais para os processos de mudana em
educao. A ateno s questes do contexto e diferena, ambos localizados no tempo e
espao parecem ganhar cada vez mais terreno de reconhecimento no discurso sobre o
desenvolvimento e sobre a cooperao onde se celebram a diversidade, a diferena, o
conhecimento local e a voz dos outros.
! Reforando o que foi dito acima, o Relatrio de Monitorizao Global da Educao
para Todos, intitulado Reaching the Marginalized (UNESCO, 2010) chama a ateno para a
situao educativa dos grupos mais vulnerveis e recomenda a integrao nos sistemas de
educao de iniciativas e projetos que tenham tido sucesso junto de grupos em situao de
desvantagem. Muitas dessas iniciativas foram, semelhana dos exemplos discutidos,
promovidas pelas ONG e por outras organizaes da sociedade civil em contextos de
ruralidade, de repatriamento e em situao de reconstruo ps-conflito, onde o acesso
educao ainda negado a muitas crianas.
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! Em segundo lugar (e esta parece ser uma lio recorrente no campo da cooperao e
dos sistemas de parceria), torna-se urgente a necessidade de coordenao das iniciativas de
cooperao, sobretudo quando estamos presentes perante projetos, muitas vezes,
desarticulados e um conjunto de agendas que competem entre si, so complexas e necessitam
de clarificao e de adequao aos contextos. O nosso papel tem sido, em vrias situaes, de
mediao intercultural entre actores da cooperao internacional e as agendas locais e
nacionais no sentido da sua clarificao e possvel apropriao.
! Em terceiro lugar, urge igualmente refletir sobre a importante questo da
sustentabilidade e integrao ou instituicionalizao de inovaes: a questo qual devemos
poder responder a de perceber qual a capacidade de absoro do sistema educativo, perante
inovaes que so, em muitos casos, introduzidas como elementos exgenos e de forma
acrtica. Tal levanta questes relacionadas com a apropriao e institucionalizao de
inovaes e mudanas que so estranhas para os sistemas educativos e que no integram
mudanas endgenas j adotadas. De facto, como refere Atchoarena (2006) muitas das
inovaes, que tm a ver com participao comunitria, por exemplo, ocorrem nos meios
rurais, desfavorecidos onde ainda se investem poucos ou escassos recursos em educao.
nosso papel, enquanto educadores globais, perceber e estar conscientes de outras agendas,
que apontam para solues locais.
! Em quarto lugar, uma outra lio aprendida diz respeito valorizao do contexto e
da diferena e que pressupe, no caso de projetos de ensino da lngua oficial, o
reconhecimento de outras culturas, das lnguas maternas e/ou da lngua de contexto das
comunidades (Zau, 2006). Tal , particularmente, evidente na experincia de trabalho que
decorreu na provncia fronteiria do Zaire pela sua singularidade geogrfica e humana de
contexto de repatriamento em situao de ps-conflito. Torna-se fundamental que no se
marginalize o conhecimento local em cooperao (que tem, a nosso ver, com a ateno
permanente s necessidades e aspiraes locais e participao das pessoas e das instituies
nacionais, tentando inverter as relaes desiguais de poder nas relaes de cooperao).
Consequentemente, no nos parece estranho o falhano de muitas iniciativas de apoio
educao inspiradas a nvel internacional.
! Finalmente, uma quinta lio importante para o GEED que esteve presente nestes trs
cenrios, mas com maior acuidade nos contextos de ps-conflito e reconstruo, a
apropriao do conceito e prticas de educao como resposta humanitria e como pilar
importante na ao humanitria. Esta abordagem tem sido integrada ao longo dos ltimos
anos na instituio e tem-se revelado extremamente pertinente em situao de fragilidade
educativa e de reconstruo ps-conflito. Tem-nos feito levantar questes do gnero: O que
deve ser reconstrudo? Qual o papel dos professores na reconstruo ps-conflito? O que
significa reconstruo ps-conflito? Ser um retorno normalidade ou oportunidade para
profundas inovaes? No de estranhar, neste caso, o investimento realizado na capacitao
da prpria ESE-IPVC, enquanto interlocutora da Rede Inter-Institucional para a Educao em
Situao de Emergncia na procura de novos modelos de colaborao e de cooperao e de
boas prticas para contextos educativos marcados pelo conflito e fragilidade educativa. Alm
disso, tem procurado influenciar a cooperao oficial portuguesa para a integrao na sua
agenda a educao como resposta humanitria, em especial no quadro de pases frgeis.
Concluses
Longe dos centros de deciso da cooperao portuguesa, o GEED, em articulao com os
parceiros, foi construindo a sua agenda de cooperao centrada em discursos e prticas de
cooperao assentes numa cultura de dilogo, de valorizao do conhecimento local,
respeitando os ritmos de implementao e tentando estabelecer um compromisso entre as
prticas e as polticas de desenvolvimento e a cultura. Tal como denota a parceria
estabelecida com a ONG angolana ADRA, que teve como pano de fundo o desenvolvimento
de um modelo de colaborao gerador de prticas educativas de responsabilizao e
geradoras de autonomia, com o apoio conceptual definio das ZIP e criao de um
centro de recursos, que se pretendia aberto comunidade e disseminador do conhecimento
local.
! A mediao, o ousar dizer e a construo de novas relaes internacionais so fatores
de suma importncia para o atuar no palco da cooperao, o que implica planificar, estudar,
implementar e avaliar em conjunto, como se verificou no modus actuandi no Projecto de
Aumento das Capacidades Lingusticas dos Professores do Ensino Primrio, na provncia do
Zaire, em que com a Save the Children e com o MEA a nvel central, provincial e comunal se
redefiniu o uso e implementao de materiais de formao que tentavam responder s
caractersticas do terreno (municpios que reintegravam populaes deslocadas) e contribuir
para a melhoria da qualidade da educao.
! A resposta a constantes adaptaes a contextos socioculturais e educativos distintos
s se tornou possvel, devido ao caminho percorrido pela ESE-IPVC ao longo de dez anos a
experimentar cooperao, quer a nvel local, quer a nvel internacional com os projetos de
voluntariado para a cooperao e com os projetos de mobilidade que possibilitam
comunidade em geral e aos estudantes e docentes do IPVC o contacto com a riqueza,
diversidade e complexidade de agendas, atores e contextos de cooperao.
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NOTAS
(I) As outras aes foram: Ao 2: Mobilidade de tcnicos, de docentes e discentes no
quadro do reforo do espao lusfono; Ao 3: Documentrios - Percees e
realidade da educao e desenvolvimento em contexto africano; Ao 4 - Produo
de materiais e estudos relevantes sobre cooperao.
(II) O smbolo da ADRA uma espcie de cegonha migrante, que aparece nas regies
planlticas centrais de Angola, representado para o povo a ideia de que possvel
voar, sonhar. Em lngua Umbundu conhecida por Humbi-Humbi, que d ttulo e
contedo a uma bela pea do cancioneiro popular dessas regies (Pacheco, 2006).
(III) Palavra que em lngua Umbundu significa caminho.
(IV) Surgiu em 2007 com o objetivo de promover a escolarizao de crianas afetadas
por conflitos armados (em pases como o Afeganisto, Angola, Nepal, Repblica
Democrtica do Congo, Sri Lanka, Sudo e Uganda) para que beneficiassem de
proteo, estabilidade e melhores oportunidades de vida, tal como consagra a
Declarao dos Direitos da Criana.
(V) Melhorar a qualidade da educao, obtendo resultados reconhecidos e mensurveis,
em especial na literacia, na numeracia e nas competncias bsicas essenciais para a
vida.
Uma verso anterior deste artigo foi publicada nas atas do Congresso CoopEdu I -
Portugal e os PALOP: Cooperao na rea da Educao.
Referncias bibliogrficas
Atchoarena, David (2006). The evaluation of International Cooperation in Education: A rural
perspective. Journal of International Cooperation in Education, 9 (1): 59-70.
Banco Mundial (2005). Reshaping the Future Education and Postconflict Reconstruction.
Washington DC: Banco Mundial.
Centro Norte-Sul (2010) Guia Prtico para a Educao Global, Um manual para compreender e im-
plementar a educao Global, Lisboa: Centro Norte-Sul, Conselho da Europa.
Charlot, Bernard (2007). Educao e Globalizao: uma tentativa de colocar ordem no debate.
Ssifo, 4: 129-136.
Costa, Antnio Fernandes da (2006). Rupturas Estruturais do Portugus e Lnguas Bantu em
Angola para uma anlise diferencial. Luanda: Universidade Catlica de Angola (UCAN).
Crossley,Michael, Watson, Keith (2003). Comparative and International Research in Education.
London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Davies, Lynn (2004). Education and Conflict Complexity and Chaos. Londres: RoutledgeFalmer.
De Grauwe, Anton (2007). Education, poverty and development. IIEP newsletter 26(3): S 6-7.
Eade, Deborah. (org.) (2002). Development and Culture. Londres: OXFAM.
Fullan, Michael (1992). The new meaning of educational change. Londres: Cassell Educational
Limited.
Furtado, Joaquim. (2006). Centro de Recursos de Educao de Assomada. Boletim Educar sem
Fronteiras, 3: S 8-9.
Grilo, Lusa. (2006). A Educao em Angola Desafios da Reconstruo. Boletim Educar sem
Fronteiras, 3: S 11-14.
Ministrio da Educao de Angola (s/d). Plano Mestre de Formao de Professores em Angola,
2008-2015. Repblica de Angola: Ministrio da Educao.
Pacheco, Fernando (2006). O caminho faz-se a caminhar. Boletim Educar sem Fronteiras, 3: S pp.
15-20.
UNESCO (2010). Reaching the Marginalized. Paris: UNESCO.
Zau, Filipe (2006). O papel da cooperao cultural educacional. Boletim Educar sem Fronteiras, 3:
S 1-10.
Consulta de Rewrite the Future Global Evaluation, Angola Midterm Country Report. Save the
Children.
Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies Annual Report 2008.
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Transversal Studies
SECTION 3
Section for:
! I n v e s t i g a t i o n s ,
innovative and creative
ideas for improving social
r i g h t s , e d u c a t i o n ,
environment, international
relations, role of the states,
globalization consequences,
inclusive education, curricu-
l um r e f or ms , t e ac he r
training, political science,
sociology, linguistics, an-
thropology, information
science, law and economics,
psychology, physic, music,
etc.
Ningum educa ningum,
ningum se educa a si mesmo,
os homens se educam entre si,
mediatizados pelo mundo.
Pedagogia do Oprimido, Paulo
Freire
N1
Abstract: The article analyzes the current situation of youth in Uruguay, showing the
structural factors that are related to poverty and inequality in two areas: education and work.
The first argument is that although poverty among youths has recently declined, inequality
appears to be growing. The second argument is that this situation results from a combination
of three structural processes that have been present in the country for many years: age
inequality and bias, socioeconomic inequality and gender inequality. The article analyzes
data from household and national youth surveys to prove how the distances between richer
and poorer youths are becoming increasingly high. The analysis also points out the weak
position of Uruguay relative to other Latin American countries, in particular, regarding
poverty and inequalities among the youngest. The article confirms what many other studies
have concluded: present inequalities among youths are rooted in historical long-term
processes that cannot be modified in the short or medium term. It also demonstrates that the
present debate on unequal youth trajectories and the negative configurations of the transitions
to adulthood among the poorest, cannot be separated from a debate regarding Uruguays
distribution of welfare benefits, social transfers and social expenditure among different age
groups.
Key Words: Youth, Poverty, Inequality, Education, Work, Uruguay, Structural factors,
Intergenerational inequality.
87
Structural Origins of Todays Youth Poverty and
Inequality in Youth Transitions: the Emblematic Case
of Uruguay
Orgenes estructurales de la pobreza juvenil y la desigualdad
en la transicin a la adultez: el emblemtico caso de Uruguay
Resumen: El artculo analiza la actual situacin de la juventud en Uruguay, mostrando los
factores estructurales relacionados con la pobreza y desigualdad en dos reas: educacin y
empleo. El primer argumento es que si bien la pobreza entre los jvenes ha disminuido
recientemente, la desigualdad estara aumentando. El segundo argumento es que esta
situacin es el resultado de una combinacin de tres procesos estructurales que han estado
presentes en el pas desde hace varios aos: la inequidad y sesgo de edad, la desigualdad
socioeconmica y de gnero. El artculo analiza los datos de encuestas de hogares y
encuestas juveniles, representativas a nivel nacional, para demostrar cmo las distancias
entre los jvenes ms ricos y los ms pobres son cada vez mayores. El anlisis tambin
seala la dbil posicin de Uruguay en relacin a otros pases de Amrica Latina, en
particular, en relacin con la pobreza y las desigualdades entre los ms jvenes. El artculo
confirma lo que otros estudios han concluido: las desigualdades actuales entre los jvenes
tienen sus races histricas en procesos de largo plazo que no pueden ser modificados en el
corto o mediano plazo. Tambin demuestra que el debate actual sobre la desigualdad en las
trayectorias juveniles y las configuraciones negativas de la transicin a adultez entre los ms
pobres, no se puede separar de un debate en Uruguay sobre la distribucin de las
prestaciones sociales, las transferencias sociales y el gasto social entre los diferentes grupos
de edad.
Palabras clave: Juventud, Pobreza, Inequidad, Educacin, Trabajo, Uruguay, Factores
Estructurales, Inequidad Intergeneracional.
Denisse Gelber
Phd. Candidate in Sociology (University of Texas at Austin, Population
Research Center)
e-mail: denisse.gelber@gmail.com
Cecilia Rossel
Phd in Political Sciences (Instituto Ortega y Gasset-Universidad
Complutense). Independent Researcher and consultant, CEPAL
e-mail: mcrossel@gmail.com
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Introduction
The transition to adulthood is composed of four events: school dropout, integration to the
workforce, household emancipation and formation of a new family (Casal, Garcia, Merino, &
Quesada, 2006; Ciganda, 2008; C. Filgueira, 1998). Present and future wellbeing of young
people is largely affected by the timing and order of each of these events. Therefore, a better
grasp of the transition to adulthood is crucial to understand the reproduction of social
exclusion in early stages (Filardo, 2010; C. Filgueira, Filgueira, & Fuentes, 2001; Sarav,
2009).
! This study is focused on the case of Uruguay, mainly known in the region by its
egalitarian and high human development indexes, but less known by the disadvantaged
situation of youth in terms of education and employment (ANEP, 2005, 2010; Diez de
Medina, 2001; ECLAC, 2001, 2010; ECLAC-OIJ, 2004). In order to shed light on the
precarious situation of youth in Uruguay, we argue that Uruguayan youths decisions on their
transition to adulthood are strongly determined by structural factors such as intergenerational
and gender inequality. In consequence, the uncomfortable place of the country in the region
cannot be modified in the short or medium term.
! In the first section, we
present a literature review of three
structural factors that affect
youths transitions in Uruguay:
age bias in well-being distribution
or intergenerational inequality,
gender inequality and socio-
economic inequality. We argue
t hat t he anal ysi s of yout h
t ransi t i ons t o adul t hood i n
Uruguay should consider these
aspects under the scope of the
countrys distribution of well-
bei ng and t ol erance t o t he
disadvantaged situation of the
youngest generations.
! In the second section, we
provide a comparative analysis of
several dimensions in which
inequalities in youth transitions to
adulthood are visible. The data
illustrates the paradox of a country
with a relative high development in the region and, at the same time, with the highest
distances in different dimensions between poorer and richer or less educated/more educated
young people.
! In the third section, we explore the evolution of some of these distances in the last
two decades, with a special focus on gender inequality. We use data from household and
youth surveys carried out in the early nineties and the late 2000s.
! In the final section we summarize the main findings and conclusions. We also discuss
the relevance of considering the structural roots of inequality in youth transitions, suggesting
an agenda for policy recommendations.
Structural chains in youth poverty and inequality: intergenerational, socio-
economic and gender inequality roots
! In the late nineties, several studies focused on identifying the main features of poverty
in Latin America. The overrepresentation of children and youth among the poor, revealed the
existence of an age bias in the distribution of wellbeing in the region. In the 2000s, ECLAC
(ECLAC, 2000) evidenced that the economic achievements reached by the region in the first
half of the 90s were translated, for
the first time, in an important
reduction of the proportion of the
population living under the
poverty line. However, there were
clear differences by age. The
general poverty reduction was
much higher among older people
and in households with no youths
or children. The report also
accounted for an incipient rise of
the poverty rate, due to the
economic crisis the region was
f aci ng, whi ch was most l y
a f f e c t i n g t h e y o u n g e s t
generations. At the beginning of
the 2000s, the Latin American
c o u n t r y wi t h t h e l a r g e s t
concentration of children and
teenagers among the poor was
Uruguay. Today, more than ten
years later, Uruguay maintains its
u n d e s i r e d p o s i t i o n . Th e
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contribution of children and teenagers to the indigent and highly vulnerable to indigence
population is 2.1 higher than their contribution to the total population (see Graph 1). At the
same time, the gap between child poverty and poverty among the elderly has widened between
1990 and 2010. While two decades ago there were 4 poor children for every poor elder (aged
over 65), in 2000 this number was above 9 and in 2010 was over 12. Uruguay occupies the
worst regional place far from its neighbors- in age inequality (see Graph 2). The data
presented below, clearly reflects what some authors have defined as poverty infatilization
(Kaztman & Filgueira, 2001), demonstrating the relevance of studying age biases not only in
comparative terms but also within time, in order to account for its systematic growth.
Based on the evidence, Uruguay faces a paradoxical situation. Even though it is part of a
selected group of countries with the lowest poverty rate and income concentration in Latin
America (e.g. Gini: 0.44 in 2010), it presents the largest age inequality in the region. Several
factors are behind this. The first explanation is related to demographic variables. In the last
decades, fertility rates have drastically reduced in Latin America. The number of children per
women today is much lower than the number registered 30 or even 20 years ago. But this
decrease has been extremely stratified, being much higher among educated and wealthier
women and less noticeable among low-income women (ECLAC, 2010 & 2012). This process
was closely connected to the increasing vulnerability of large families, result of a combination
of more children living in households with fewer bread-winners caused by: (i) worse and
more intermittent- labor trajectories, (ii) younger heads of the household and (iii) lower
participation of women in the labor market, due to difficulties to conciliate paid and unpaid
work basically care of children-. The third factor that completed the equation were profound
changes in sexual behavior, divorce rates and family conformation patterns, which changed
the shape of Latin American families. One of the main signs of this process is the growing
numeric relevance of single-parent households (Arriagada, 1998; ECLAC, 2000 & 2010; Rico
& Maldonado, 2011). Following this argument, there is no doubt that gender inequality and
the fact that only women with more income, education and other resources are able to move
forward and narrow the gap with men- largely explains this structural configuration.
But these factors are not enough to explain the strong age bias with which poverty has been
evolving. The missing piece refers to the welfare models and, more specifically, to the extent
and orientation of public social protection matrixes operating in each country. In some cases,
like Uruguay, this matrix seems to be progressively divorced from the populations structure
of risks (F. Filgueira, Rodriguez, Rafaniello, Lijtenstein, & Alegre, 2005). This divorce
suggests that the accumulation of risks during childhood limits wellbeing opportunities in the
following stages of the life cycle. Based on this, educational development would be threatened
and adolescent pregnancy would find space to deepen the already important gaps between
more and less educated sectors. In the longer term, the exclusion of children and youths
-second or even third generation living in poverty- would create a complex context. Not only
will they represent an important part of the labor force in the near future, but they will also be
the parents of an important proportion of the new generation of citizens.
Youth i nequal i ti es i n a
relatively developed country:
different faces of the paradox
There are three dimensions from the
transition to adulthood which serve
to illustrate the inequality among
y o u t h s i n Ur u g u a y. Fi r s t ,
pa r e nt hood a nd r e s i de nt i a l
emancipation is largely related to
poverty in Uruguay. While there are
15 poor households with children
-headed by youths- for every poor
household without children, the
regional average is less than 4
(Graph 3). This clearly reflects the
di s a dva nt a ge d s i t ua t i on of
Uruguayan low-income young
parents.
! Regarding the exit from the
educational system, Uruguayan
youths are in a worse situation as
well. While on average less than one
third of young people complete
Secondary education (12 years), the
completion of this level is highly
stratified. Less than two out of ten
low income youths complete this
level compared to eight out of ten
from the wealthiest income quintile
(Ministerio de Educacin y Cultura,
2010). Compared to the region and
less developed countries, Uruguayan
low-income youths face an alarming
situation (Graph 4).
! Thi r dl y, t he di sadvant aged
situation of youths in the labor
market is common in the region.
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Half of the total unemployed in Latin
Ameri ca are young and yout h
unempl oyment t r i pl ed adul t s
unemployment in 2007 (16% and 5%
respectively) (International Labor
Office, 2008). In the Southern Cone,
Brazil and Paraguay, unemployment
among teenagers (15-19) was four
times larger than adults unemployment
rate and 2.5 times larger than youths
unemployment rate (Diez de Medina,
2001). Recent data evidences that,
different from other indicators,
Uruguayan youths present the same
employment and participation rate than
their Latin American peers, but
unemployment is higher (Graph 5).
! Due to the high educational
inequality evidenced in the previous
section, Uruguayan youths face
different situations in the labor market
accor di ng t o t hei r educat i onal
attainment, being the most educated
more protected from unemployment.
Young peopl e wi t h i ncompl et e
Secondary level (9 to 11 years of education) have 15% lower chances of being unemployed
compared to those with lower educational attainment, while youths who completed
Secondary level or more have lower chances of unemployment than the least educated
(Bucheli, 2006). In Uruguay there are almost 2 low-educated unemployed youths for each
high-educated unemployed young, ratio that doubles the regional one (Graph 6).
! Finally, even though young people mostly work in low-paid, unstable jobs and
without social security protection (ECLAC-OIJ, 2004; International Labor Office, 2010),
educational attainment reduces youths chances of working in informal jobs. While, on
average, there are 5 low-educated youths working in the informal sector for every high-
educated, in Uruguay the ratio reaches almost 13. This implies that Uruguayan youths face a
similar situation to their peers from some of the least developed countries in the region.
Considering that low-income and low-educated youngsters mostly access informal and
temporary jobs that do not provide any learning skills opportunity, their chances of
improving their labor market opportunities are scarce, and therefore, their chances of social
mobility (Schkolnik, 2006).
! To sum up, the evidence reveals
t hat l ow-i ncome yout hs face a
compelling situation in Uruguay, worse
than that faced by their Latin American
peers. Their early residential
emancipation and parenthood are
largely related to poverty. Since their
educational attainment is low, they have
higher chances of unemployment,
access to low-quality jobs and low
salaries, with scarce possibilities of
social mobility. Considering that these
youths are second or third generation in
poor households and that they cope
with the burden of the countrys
reproduction, the inter-generational
reproduction of poverty and exclusion
is here to stay.
Uruguay in the last decades:
widening and crystallizing
gender and socioeconomic gaps
among youth
The disadvantaged situation of young
people in Uruguay is not recent, neither
the high inequality within this population. Several studies have identified different transitions
to adulthood by gender and socio-economic level (Ciganda, 2008; C. Filgueira, 1998; C.
Filgueira et al., 2001; Rossel, 2009). By gender, boys tend to overlap school dropout and
entrance into the labor market, while girls tend to emancipate and form a new family earlier
than boys (Filardo, 2011; Filardo, Cabrera, & Aguiar, 2009). By socio-economic level, low-
income boys tend to drop out earlier from the educational system and enter into the labor
market sooner than their wealthier peers even though they face higher unemployment rates,
lower income and worse employment conditions (Amarante, 2011; Bucheli, 2006). Low-
income girls tend to start a new family earlier and bear more children than their wealthier
peers (Varela, Pollero, & Fostik, 2008). Different from boys, low-income girls do not tend to
participate in the labor market (Cardozo & Iervolino, 2009). Wealthier youths, on the other
hand, tend to delay their entrance into the labor market and parenthood due to their higher
investment in education. Based on the literature, there are unequal patterns of transitions to
adulthood by gender and socio-economic level. However, it is not clear whether inequality
within women and men by socio-economic level has increased or not. In order to shed light
on this aspect, we analyze data from the two national representative surveys of the
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Uruguayan young population (1990 and 2008) (note1) and several national household
surveys.
! We focus on gender because young women face more obstacles to study/ work than
men, in part, due to their higher domestic burden and the unequal distribution of non-paid
work by sex. This explains why, between 1990 and 2009, men present similar employment
rates regardless income- while women from low income households barely participate in the
labor market, not only in comparison to their female peers but to men as well. Regarding
unemployment, mens gap by income level has been decreasing, while the gap between
women has
n o t .
I nf or mal i t y
has increased
f o r b o t h
i n c o m e
levels, but the
gap is larger
a m o n g
women and
has increased
much more
than among
m e n ( s e e
Graph 8).
! In 1990 and 2008, youths were asked about their agreement with the phrase It is
preferable that women take care of their family and children instead of working.
Considering that the support to this phrase is a proxy to youths perspective on gender
equality, and that the traditional distribution of roles by gender clearly affects low-income
young women, one would expect a general reduction of the agreement with this phrase.
However, while highly educated men and women (Tertiary education and more) disagree
more with this phrase within time, low-educated young (Primary education) are increasingly
in favor. More than half of low-educated men do not support gender equality, compared to
40% of low-educated women and 15% of highly educated women. Based on this, the
traditional distribution of roles by gender, which is partly reflected in the disadvantaged
situation of low-educated women in the labor market, is increasingly supported by low-
educated men and women and the opposite occurs among high-educated youths (Graph 9).
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! To sum up, comparable data for 1990 and 2009 on youth reveals that low-educated
women are in more disadvantage than in the past while low-educated men are worse in the
quality of jobs they access to but not in terms of unemployment. The unequal situation of
low-educated youths has been growing within time, in particular for women. Considering
that, as mentioned above, they bear a large part of the countrys reproduction, this situation
requires immediate attention.
Concluding remarks
The article analyzed youth trajectories and identified the structural roots of the deep
inequalities that are present in the main indicators of the transition to adulthood. It is clear
that Uruguay distributes very unequally between its youngest population and its older one,
between the richer and the poorer and also between men and women.
! These inequalities seem to be reinforced when considering adolescence and youth.
The evidence presented in this article shows that, in the regional context, Uruguay is
worsening its position in terms of educational and labor inequality among youth. The dia-
chronic data also bring negative news. And it is very important to acknowledge that this is
occurring at a moment when the country is having historical achievements in reducing
poverty and income concentration.
! If the structural processes are not modified with structural policies, there are no real
odds for the country to improve the situation of adolescents and young people, even when
there could be strong efforts in developing specific policies for the youth. And if structural
policies do not operate together -and assuming that these processes are interrelated-,
governmental efforts could have less impact than what could be expected.
! This situation leads us to argue that Uruguay needs to readdress a structural agenda
for structural problems. This implies, in the first place, to keep investing in the first
childhood, childhood and adolescence. The country is far from paying that debt and being
able to start paying another one. Secondly, it should be kept in mind that putting youth first
means, precisely, putting the earlier stages of the life cycle first too. Thirdly, gender
inequality -and its reflection in labor market participation of poorer women- should be in the
center of the debate about youth policy, urgently focusing on the development of a care
system.
! On the other hand, it is necessary to offer policies to contribute with the delay or
support- of youths transition to adulthood in low-income households. Part of this support,
might be provided through labor market regulations, promoting the hiring of first-job seekers
and low educated youth through tax waivers.
! Finally, but not least, Uruguay requires a strong approach to reduce inequality in the
educational system not only by redistributing resources between schools, but also between
levels, giving more relevance to Secondary education where most dropout takes place. In this
aspect, it is worth mentioning that Uruguayans government had several debates and policy
initiatives but either there are no available evaluations of these policies or the policies have
been truncated before time due to political disagreements.
! All in all, the situation of youth in Uruguay is compelling and it has worsened within
time. Evidence reveals there is no time to wait and adequate action should take place soon, in
order to promote equality among new generations in the medium and long term.
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NOTES
(1) For information regarding the youth surveys used for the analysis, check: Filardo,
Cabrera, & Aguiar, 2009; Rama & Filgueira, 1991.
Presentado parcialmente como comunicacin al Seminario Internacional 2025: Juven-
tudes con una mirada estratgica realizado en Montevideo, Uruguay, los das 14 y 15 de
Agosto de 2012.
Filgueira, C., Filgueira, F., & Fuentes, A. (2001). Critical Choices at a Critical Age:
Youth Emancipation Paths and School Attainment in Latin America (Working Paper
No. 432). Washington, DC: Interamerican Deveolpment Bank.
Filgueira, F., Rodriguez, F., Rafaniello, C., Lijtenstein, S., & Alegre, P. (2005).
Estructura de riesgo y arquitectura de proteccin social en el Uruguay actual: crnica de
un divorcio anunciado. Prisma, 21, 742.
International Labor Office. (2008). Decent work and youth in Latin America (p. 108).
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International Labor Office. (2010). Panorama Laboral 2010. Amrica Latina y el
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familias latinoamericanas interrogadas. Hacia la articulacin del diagnstico, la
legislacin y las polticas. Serie Seminarios y Conferencias Nro 61. Santiago de Chile:
CEPAL.
Rossel, C. (2009). Adolescencia y juventud en Uruguay: Elementos para un
diagnstico integrado. Viejas deudas, nuevos riesgos y oportunidades futuras ( No. 5).
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Sarav, G. (2009). Transiciones vulnerables. Juventud, desigualdad y exclusin en
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Varela, C., Pollero, R., & Fostik, A. (2008). La fecundidad: evolucin y
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Ciganda, D. (2008). Jvenes en transicin hacia la vida adulta: el orden de los
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5). Serie Divulgacin. Montevideo, Uruguay: Fondo de Poblacin de las Naciones
Unidas.
Filardo, V. (2011). Transiciones a la adultez y educacin. Jvenes en trnsito
Oportunidades y obstculos en las trayectorias hacia la vida adulta. Montevideo,
Uruguay: UNFPA-Rumbos.
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Uruguay: CEPAL, Oficina de Montevideo.
Resumen: La prevencin de las conductas adictivas en el mbito escolar sufre desde hace
mucho tiempo de la falta de un verdadero enfoque educativo hacia estos temas. La
prevencin de las drogas siendo a menudo fuera del currculo oficial, muchos responsables
de escuelas se limitan a invitar oradores para hablar una vez al ao o ms de los peligros de
las drogas, sin ningn criterio de evaluacin o eficiencia. Este articulo presenta la iniciativa
implementada por la ONG Dianova en la Centro de Educacin Integral (CEID) Esther del
Rio-Las Maras, en Nicaragua, con el programa de prevencin del uso indebido de drogas,
NEOVIDA, cuya principal caracterstica es integrar transversalmente la prevencin de
conductas adictivas en el currculo formal, con la participacin activa de los profesores,
asesorados y acompaados por especialistas de adicciones, educadores y psiclogos. Un
segundo factor clave de la eficacia del programa, es que apunta no solo a proporcionar a los
jvenes una informacin objetiva sobre alcohol, tabaco y otras drogas, sino que tambin a
desarrollar en ellos las habilidades que les permitan hacer frente al problema, incluyendo
entre otros la comunicacin, el aprendizaje de habilidades sociales y relacionales y las
actitudes positivas frente la salud, el estilo de vida, etc. Por ltimo, el articulo hace hincapi
en la necesidad, antes de implementar el programa NEOVIDA, de una definicin precisa de
los valores y principios que sirven de base al programa.
Palabras clave: Escuela, Educacin, Prevencin, Drogas, Aprendizaje, Dianova, Nicaragua.
94
Educacin y prevencin de las drogas
Mejores prcticas: El programa NEOVIDA, Dianova en Nicaragua
Education et prvention des drogues
Meilleures pratiques: le programme NEOVIDA, de Dianova au Nicaragua
Rsum: La prvention des conduites addictives en milieu scolaire souffre depuis longtemps
de labsence dune approche rellement ducative de ces questions. La prvention des
drogues tant le plus souvent hors programme, nombre de responsables dinstitutions
continuent de se contenter dinviter des confrenciers pour voquer, une fois par an ou
davantage, les dangers de la drogue, sans aucun critre dvaluation ni defficacit. Le
prsent article prsente linitiative mise en uvre par lONG Dianova au sein du Centre
dEducation Intgrale (CEID) Esther Del Rio-Las Maras, au Nicaragua, avec le programme
de prvention de labus de drogues NEOVIDA, dont la caractristique principale est
dintgrer transversalement la prvention des conduites addictives dans le programme
scolaire officiel, avec limplication active des professeurs titulaires, conseills et
accompagns par des intervenants en toxicomanie, ducateurs et psychologues. Un
deuxime facteurs cl de lefficience du programme NEOVIDA est de viser autant
transmettre aux jeunes une information objective sur lalcool, le tabac et les autres drogues,
qu dvelopper chez eux les habilets qui leur permettront dy faire face, dont entre autres
la communication, lapprentissage des habilets sociales et relationnelles, celles des attitudes
positives vis--vis de la sant et de lhygine de vie, etc. Enfin, larticle insiste sur la
ncessit, avant la mise en uvre du programme NEOVIDA, de dfinir prcisment les
valeurs et les principes qui serviront de fondations au programme.
Mots cls: cole, Education, Prvention, Drogues, Apprentissage, Dianova, Nicaragua.
Rafael Delgado Guerrero
Director General, Fundacin Dianova en Nicaragua
e-mail: r.guerrero@dianovanicaragua.org.ni
web: www.dianovanicaragua.org.ni
Pierre Bremond
Intervenant en toxicomanie, charg des communications (Dianova
International)
e-mail: pierre.bremond@dianova.org
web: www.dianova.org
www.globaleducationmagazine.com


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Desde hace casi veinticinco aos los alumnos de educacin primaria y secundaria tienen
que regularmente or conferencias sobre el tema de las drogas y sus consecuencias, o bien
participar a talleres de reflexin y debates sobre estos temas. La Prevencin de las drogas
entr en las escuelas con un objetivo definido: modificar los comportamientos, presentes o
futuros, de los alumnos. Con qu eficacia?
! En realidad, desde hace ms o menos el mismo tiempo, un gran nmero de
educadores y especialistas de las adicciones se han puesto a cuestionar no slo la eficacia del
mtodo, sino tambin su propsito. De hecho, no es suficiente hablar de los peligros de las
drogas para garantizar que los estudiantes se alejen de las sustancias ahora o en unos
cuantos aos. Ahuyentar a un adolescente no sirve para alejarle de un comportamiento
transgresivo (y por lo tanto necesariamente atractivo). Adems, estas mismas voces se
elevaron para exigir que se apliquen verdaderos enfoques educativos en las acciones de
prevencin en las escuelas, cuya misin no es de remediar o prevenir todos los males de la
sociedad.
! El tema de la prevencin escolar ha sufrido durante mucho tiempo de un
malentendido relacionado con la buenas intenciones de algunos. Desarrollar una iniciativa de
prevencin eficaz, no es (o no lo es solamente) hablar de los peligros de las drogas o el
alcohol. Adems, la escuela no puede imponer una determinada visin de cules son los
buenos o los malos comportamientos, porque ese el rol de los padres. Sin embargo, la escuela
puede aspirar a influir en el comportamiento de los jvenes, centrndose en el desarrollo de
sus conocimientos y un pensamiento crtico, cultivando su sentido de los valores, sus
competencias, su autoestima. Simplemente, luchando contra la ignorancia.
El programa NEOVIDA: presentacin
Un abordaje similar de promocin de la salud (como se define en la Carta de Ottawa, que
establece: La promocin de la salud es un proceso que consiste en proporcionar a los
pueblos los medios para mejorar su salud y ejercer un mayor control sobre la misma) se lleva
a cabo desde abril 2003 en el Centro de Educacin Integral Dianova (CEID) Esther del Ro -
Las Maras, gestionado por la organizacin Dianova, en Nicaragua, con el programa
NEOVIDA. El colegio de Dianova se ocupa cada ao de alrededor de 400 estudiantes, la
mayora viviendo en las zonas rurales del pas, donde la tasa de pobreza es hasta cinco veces
superior a la de las reas urbanas. A esta pobreza endmica se le aade a menudo la violencia
que afecta en primer lugar a nios y adolescentes ya sea como vctimas o bien como los
autores de la misma una de las pocas riquezas de este pas, ya que el 47% de la poblacin
tiene menos de diecinueve aos.
! De hecho, una parte significativa de los nios y nias que se incorporan al CEID
estn expuestos a dificultades similares: muchos de ellos viven en hogares disfuncionales
(violencia, alcoholismo, etc.) y/o en situacin de inseguridad financiera, mientras que
algunos de ellos ya se han visto obligados a trabajar para mantener a la familia. Muchos
tienen una autoestima muy baja, as como un estilo de vida y hbitos que no son apropiados.
! La organizacin Dianova en Nicaragua, consciente de esta realidad y altamente
sensibilizada en el fenmeno de las adicciones, pretende con su equipo de formadores
intervenir con estrategias ya planteadas y estudiadas, para reducir de forma razonable la
probabilidad de que aparezcan problemas relacionados con el consumo de drogas o de
alcohol. Por eso, desde hace casi diez aos, el programa NEOVIDA no solamente est
dirigido a los estudiantes del CEID, a sus familias, sino tambin a la comunidad en general,
la cual beneficia indirectamente de las formaciones impartidas en el programa.
! Por un lado el programa NEOVIDA apunta a proporcionar a los participantes la
informacin y los conocimientos que necesitan (ya sea en las aulas o bien a travs de talleres
de prevencin con las familias), y por otro lado, a favorecer el desarrollo de actitudes,
aptitudes y habilidades (autoestima, comunicacin, actitudes hacia la salud y el consumo de
drogas, toma de decisin, etc.), aprovechando de todos los recursos de la persona, a nivel
individual y social.
! Al nivel conceptual, hay que destacar que la parte del programa llevada a cabo con las
familias es al menos tan importante como la del trabajo con los estudiantes. En el marco
global del enfoque de promocin de la salud, es en efecto imprescindible actuar no solo a
escala individual, sino tambin tratando de influir positivamente los dems factores que son
esenciales a su desarrollo, especialmente el marco familiar. La participacin activa de las
familias en los diferentes talleres de prevencin del programa NEOVIDA responde a varios
objetivos, incluyendo: permitir a los padres reencontrar los enlaces afectivos basados en la
comunicacin y la confianza; reforzar la capacidad de las familias para abordar los factores
de riesgos y fortalecer los factores de proteccin de sus hijos e hijas; contribuir a la
formacin de todos los miembros de la familia y promover su reflexin sobre los problemas
que afectan a sus hijos/as, a su comunidad y sus posibilidades de contribuir a su solucin.
Implementacin del programa
El programa NEOVIDA permite proporcionar a los estudiantes las herramientas necesarias
para su desarrollo personal y permite a los padres reencontrar los enlaces afectivos basados
en la comunicacin y la confianza. El programa se desarrolla en estrecha colaboracin con el
personal docente del colegio Esther del Ro - Las Maras (reconocido por el Ministerio de
Educacin MINED) y es cada ao objeto de una planificacin detallada para garantizar la
integracin transversal de los objetivos de prevencin en todas las asignaturas, sin perjudicar
los objetivos del plan de estudios establecido por el Ministerio.
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! Cada profesor es invitado a revisar el contenido de sus cursos con el objetivo de incluir
en estos los mdulos del programa NEOVIDA. Estos diferentes mdulos estn concebidos
para hacer eco con algunos temas planteados en el currculo oficial, con el fin de despertar el
inters de los estudiantes.
! Por ejemplo en el curso de Ciencias Naturales, los estudiantes de sexto grado deben
estudiar los cambios fsicos y hormonales durante la pubertad, al mismo tiempo que estn
invitados a reflexionar sobre el carcter transgresivo del consumo de drogas, la influencia de
los pares a esta edad, o bien sobre el rechazo de la autoridad de la adolescencia.
! Todos los mdulos del programa NEOVIDA estn integrados al currculo, segn un sin
nmero de variables las cuales estn enfocadas a la prevencin y a la promocin de la salud
individual, tales como: la autoestima, el modelo familiar, las habilidades de comunicacin, de
toma de decisin y de resolucin de conflictos, los
comportamientos hacia la salud, el estilo de vida, la violencia,
las drogas lcitas o ilcitas, las habilidades sociales, los valores,
etc. Cada una de estas variables son los puntos de partida para
la creacin de los contenidos imaginados por los profesores,
asesorados y acompaados por psiclogos, especialistas de
adicciones o educadores.
Definir nuestros valores
Durante mucho tiempo, la prevencin en el mbito escolar ha
sufrido de una falta de coherencia, especialmente en trminos
de valores. Por ejemplo, para algunos participantes, la
prevencin de las drogas solo se refiere a las drogas ilcitas, y
para otros, el nico objetivo posible es asegurar que nunca los
estudiantes toquen las drogas. Esta falta de coherencia siempre
genera confusin, en los estudiantes, y a la hora de evaluar el
impacto de estos programas. Por esta razn, el programa NEOVIDA insiste en la necesidad de
un trabajo preliminar de definicin de los valores y de los principios en relacin con el
programa y con sus facilitadores, incluyendo:
Cada facilitador del programa NEOVIDA debe considerar su papel como el de un docente,
incluyendo durante los mdulos del programa
El facilitador debe centrarse en los resultados de aprendizaje, claramente definidos de
antemano y en el contexto del programa oficial de su asignatura
El facilitador debe mantener una actitud de neutralidad hacia algunos de los debates
sanitarios, ticos o polticos en relacin con las drogas, para que los estudiantes adquieran
los conocimientos que generaran su espritu crtico (debates sobre despenalizacin/
legalizacin, diferencias entre alcohol y drogas, peligros del cannabis, etc.)
El facilitador debe utilizar siempre que sea posible tcnicas interactivas de enseanza, sobre
la base de debates, talleres o juegos de rol que favorecen el desarrollo de las habilidades de
los alumnos y su participacin activa
De la misma manera que el abuso de alcohol y drogas es un fenmeno multidimensional, la
educacin preventiva debe estar abierta a temas de importancia para los jvenes, tales como
la sexualidad, las relaciones interpersonales y familiares, el proceso de cambio en la
adolescencia, etc.
La educacin preventiva debe ser implementada en un entorno sano y protegido, propicio al
aprendizaje, y con servicios de apoyo sanitario adecuados
Cada facilitador debe favorecer la participacin de las familias
y de la comunidad durante la planificacin y la ejecucin del
programa
Al igual que todas las iniciativas de educacin preventiva, el
programa debe ser peridicamente evaluado en trminos de
resultados de aprendizaje y de percepcin de sus beneficiarios.
! En conclusin, el hecho de haber transversalmente
insertado el programa NEOVIDA dentro de un plan formal de
estudios, con objetivos de aprendizaje definidos, y basado en
principios y valores aceptados por todos, ha permitido
desarrollar una prctica de educacin preventiva mucho ms
eficaz que las conversaciones tradicionales anuales sobre el
tema de la droga.
Impacto de los programas: Centro de Educacin Integral Dianova (CEID) y
programa NEOVIDA
Con el objetivo de conocer el impacto de los programas educativos y sociales, se realiz una
evaluacin con ex alumnos del CEID, con una muestra de treinta y seis padres de familia y
cuarenta de los doscientos cuarenta y siete egresados en el perodo 2002-2010.
! Los resultados obtenidos en la evaluacin realizada a los familiares indican que el
100% de ellos recomendaran el CEID a otras personas, porque brinda una enseanza de
calidad y el 55% lo considera mejor que otros colegios. Tambin afirmaron que gracias a
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Dianova se beneficiaron con la atencin psicolgica y con un ahorro gracias a las becas para
la matricula, la mensualidad y la alimentacin en el Programa Residencial.
! La evaluacin realizada a los ex alumnos del CEID, mostr que el 90% termin el
quinto ao y un 75% continu sus estudios despus de salir del centro; un 15% form una
familia, un 8% comenz a trabajar y slo un 2% dej de estudiar al salir del CEID.
! Todos los alumnos han realizado el programa de prevencin de Dianova. El 53%
asegur que adquiri informacin para su desarrollo personal, el 18% expres que le ayud a
mejorar sus relaciones personales, otro 18% dijo que le ayud a mejorar su nivel educativo y
el 11% manifest que el haber estudiado en Dianova le ayud, tanto en la prevencin del
consumo de drogas, como en la adquisicin de becas para seguir sus estudios universitarios.
! El 75% de los egresados, afirm que los talleres con los padres les ayudaron a
mejorar sus relaciones familiares y humanas. En sntesis, la mayora de los ex alumnos
afirmaron haber recibido una educacin de calidad y expresaron su plena confianza en el
personal docente y administrativo del CEID.
! El CEID se ha convertido en un espacio para el abordaje de los factores de riesgo y
el fortalecimiento de los factores de proteccin del alumnado. Se les ha brindado a los nios,
nias y adolescentes informacin realista y adecuada a su edad, sobre los riesgos que
conlleva el consumo de drogas legales e ilegales. Se han fomentado en ellos las relaciones
sociales y una buena comunicacin con sus familias. Adems, se ha beneficiado con beca
completa a los jvenes que ms la han necesitado, ya sea por su situacin econmica, por la
lejana de un centro de estudios o por problemas emocionales.
! Voil sans doute prs dun quart de sicle que les lves dducation primaire ou
secondaire se voient rgulirement proposer dcouter des confrences sur les drogues et
leurs consquences, ou de participer des ateliers de rflexion sur ces mmes thmes. La
prvention des drogues a ainsi fait son entre dans les coles dans un objectif de
modification des comportements des lves, quils soient prsents ou venir. Pour quelle
efficacit?
! A vrai dire, depuis peu prs autant de temps, bon nombre dducateurs et de
spcialistes des addictions ont remis en cause non seulement lefficacit de la mthode, mais
galement sa finalit. En effet, il ne suffit pas de discourir sur les dangers de la drogue
pour assurer que les lves sen dtourneront, aujourdhui ou dans quelques annes. Il ne
suffit pas de faire peur un adolescent pour lloigner dun comportement jug dviant (donc
forcment attractif). Par ailleurs, ces mmes voix se sont leves pour exiger la mise en
uvre dapproches rellement ducatives de laction prventive en milieu scolaire, lcole
nayant sans doute pas vocation rparer ou prvenir tous les maux de la socit
! La question de la prvention en milieu scolaire a longtemps souffert dun malentendu
li aux bonnes intentions de quelques-uns. Engager une relle action prventive, ce nest pas
(ou pas seulement) discourir sur les dangers de la drogue ou de lalcool. De la mme faon, il
nappartient pas lcole dimposer une certaine vision des bons et des mauvais
comportements cest l le rle des parents. En revanche, lcole peut esprer influencer les
comportements des jeunes, en misant sur le dveloppement de leurs connaissances et de leur
sens critique, en cultivant leur sens des valeurs, leurs comptences et leur estime deux-
mmes. Tout simplement en luttant contre lignorance.
Le programme NEOVIDA: prsentation
Une approche similaire de promotion de la sant (au sens de la charte dOttawa, selon
laquelle: "La promotion de la sant est un processus qui confre aux populations les moyens
d'assurer un plus grand contrle sur leur propre sant et d'amliorer celle-ci") est mise en
uvre depuis avril 2003 au sein du Centre Educatif Intgral Esther Del Rio - Las Maras,
gr par lorganisation Dianova, au Nicaragua, avec le programme NEOVIDA. Le collge
de Dianova accueille chaque anne environ 400 lves, dont la majorit sont issus des
rgions rurales, soit les plus pauvres du pays, le taux de pauvret y tant jusqu cinq fois
suprieur celui des rgions urbaines. A cette pauvret endmique, il faut souvent ajouter
toutes les expressions dune violence qui touche en premier lieu les enfants et les adolescents
(quils en soient les victimes ou les auteurs) et met ainsi en danger lavenir dun pays dont
47% de la population est ge de dix-neuf ans et moins.
! Une partie importante des garons et des filles qui rejoignent le CEID sont ainsi
exposs des difficults du mme ordre: nombre dentre eux vivent dans des foyers
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CONTACTO
Centro de Educacin Integral Dianova (CEID) Esther Del Ro - Las Maras
Escuela asociada de la UNESCO (redPEA)
Miembro de la red Dianova - www.dianova.org
Km. 51 , carretera sur Jinotepe-Nandaime. Municipio de Santa Teresa, departamento
de Carazo (Nicaragua)
Telfono: +505 2268-2132
Email:info@dianovanicaragua.org.ni
Websites: http://www.dianovanicaragua.org.ni/ / http://www.dianova.org/
dysfonctionnels (violence, alcoolisme, etc.) et/ou en grande prcarit financire, tandis que
certains dentre eux ont dj t contraints de travailler pour subvenir aux besoins du foyer.
Beaucoup ont une faible estime deux-mmes, ainsi quune hygine de vie et des habitudes
inappropries.
! Lorganisation Dianova au Nicaragua tant hautement sensibilise aux questions
relatives au phnomne des dpendances, son quipe de formateurs et denseignants a dcid
de faire appel des stratgies de prvention qui ont dj fait leur preuve, dans le but de
rduire la probabilit de voir apparatre des problmes lis labus de drogues. Ainsi, depuis
prs de dix ans, le programme NEOVIDA sadresse aux lves du CEID, leurs familles,
mais galement la communaut au sens large, laquelle bnficie de manire indirecte des
diffrentes formations imparties au sein du programme.
! Le programme NEOVIDA vise dune part fournir aux participants les lments
dinformation et les connaissances dont ils ont besoin (soit depuis la salle de classe, soit au
sein dateliers de prvention avec les familles) et dautre part favoriser le dveloppement
des attitudes, des aptitudes et des habilets (estime de soi, communication, attitudes vis--vis
de la sant et des drogues, prise de dcision, etc.), en misant sur lensemble des ressources de
la personne, au plan individuel et social.
! Au plan conceptuel, il faut souligner que la partie du programme effectue auprs des
familles est au moins aussi importante que le travail ralis avec les lves. Dans le cadre
global dune approche de promotion de la sant, il apparat en effet indispensable dagir non
seulement au plan individuel, mais galement en tentant dinfluencer positivement les autres
facteurs essentiels son dveloppement, en particulier le cadre familial. La participation
active des familles aux diffrents ateliers de prvention du programme NEOVIDA rpond
ainsi diffrents objectifs, notamment: permettre aux parents de retrouver des liens affectifs
bass sur la communication et la confiance; de renforcer la capacit des familles faire face
aux facteurs de risques et renforcer les facteurs de protection de leurs enfants; et enfin, de
contribuer leur propre formation et leur rflexion vis--vis des difficults rencontres par
leurs enfants, des problmes qui affectent leur communaut et de la faon dont ils peuvent
contribuer les rsoudre.
Mise en uvre du programme
Le programme est dvelopp en troite collaboration avec lquipe enseignante du collge
Esther del Rio - Las Maras (agr par le ministre de lducation MINED) et il fait chaque
anne lobjet dune planification dtaille, afin dassurer lintgration transversale des
objectifs de prvention dans toutes les matires, sans nuire aux objectifs du cursus ducatif
tabli par le ministre.
! Chaque professeur est ainsi amen rviser les contenus de ses cours afin dy intgrer
les modules du programme NEOVIDA. Ces diffrents modules ont par consquent vocation
faire cho certaines questions souleves par le programme scolaire traditionnel, de
manire veiller lintrt des lves.
! A titre dexemple, en Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre les lves de sixime anne
doivent tudier les changements physiques et hormonaux propres la pubert, en mme
temps quils sont amens rflchir sur le caractre transgressif de la consommation de
drogues, linfluence des copains cet ge, ou bien sur le rejet de lautorit.
! Tous les modules du programme NEOVIDA sont ainsi intgrs au programme, en
fonction dune multitude de variables orientes vers la prvention et la promotion de la sant
individuelle, dont: lestime de soi, le modle familial, la communication, les habilets de
prise de dcision et de rsolution des conflits, les comportements vis--vis de la sant, de
lhygine de vie, de la violence, des drogues licites ou illicites, les habilits sociales, les
valeurs, etc. Chacune de ces variables tant la base dune cration de contenus, laisss
limagination des professeurs, conseills et accompagns par des intervenants qualifis,
ducateurs et psychologues.
Dfinition des valeurs
! La prvention en milieu scolaire a longtemps souffert dun manque de cohrence,
notamment en termes de valeurs. Par exemple, pour certains intervenants, la prvention des
drogues ne saurait concerner que les drogues illicites, pour dautres, le seul objectif possible
est de faire en sorte que les lves ne touchent jamais aux drogues. Ce manque de cohrence
cre seulement de la confusion, parmi les lves, et lheure dvaluer limpact des
programmes. Cest pourquoi le programme NEOVIDA insiste sur une ncessaire dfinition
des valeurs et des principes relatifs au programme et ceux qui laniment, parmi lesquels:
Chaque intervenant doit considrer son rle comme celui dun enseignant, y compris
durant les modules du programme;
Lintervenant doit miser avant tout sur des rsultats dapprentissage clairement dfinis
lavance et dans le contexte du programme dtude dont il est charg;
Lintervenant doit maintenir une attitude de neutralit vis--vis de certains dbats
sanitaires, thiques ou politiques relatifs aux drogues, afin de permettre aux lves
dacqurir les connaissances qui forgeront leur esprit critique (dbat sur la dpnalisation/
lgalisation, diffrence entre alcool et drogues, dangers du cannabis, etc.)
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Lintervenant doit privilgier quand cest possible des techniques interactives
denseignement, sur la base de dbats, dateliers de groupe, ou de jeux de rle susceptibles
de favoriser de dveloppement des comptences et la participation active des lves;
De la mme faon que labus dalcool/drogues est un phnomne multidimensionnel,
lducation prventive doit tre ouverte aux questions importantes pour les jeunes, comme
la sexualit, les relations interpersonnelles et familiales, le changement ladolescence,
etc.
Lducation prventive doit tre mise en uvre dans une environnement scolaire protg et
sr, propice lapprentissage et disposant de services de soutien sanitaire appropris;
Chaque intervenant doit autant que possible favoriser la participation des familles et de la
communaut la planification et la mise en uvre du programme;
Comme tout autre initiative dducation prventive, le programme doit tre rgulirement
valu, en termes de rsultats dapprentissages et de la perception de ses bnficiaires.
! En dfinitive, le fait davoir insr transversalement le programme NEOVIDA au sein
dun cursus ducatif classique, avec des objectifs dapprentissage dfinis, et reposant sur des
principes et des valeurs accepts par tous ses intervenants, a permis de dvelopper des
pratiques dducation prventive bien plus efficaces que les traditionnelles causeries
annuelles sur le thme des drogues.
Impact des programmes Centre dducation intgrale Dianova (CEID) et
programme NEOVIDA)
! Afin de me mesurer l'impact des programmes ducatifs et sociaux mis en uvre par
Dianova au Nicaragua, l'quipe a effectu une valuation des anciens lves du CEID, avec
un chantillon de 36 parents et 40 lves parmi les 247 qui ont obtenu leur diplme l'issue
de leur scolarit entre 2002 et 2010.
! L'valuation effectue auprs des familles montre que 100% d'entre-elles jugent
l'enseignement du CEID de qualit et recommandent le CEID d'autres personnes; 55%
estiment que l'cole Dianova est de meilleure qualit que les autres coles. Ils notent que
l'cole leur a permis de bnficier d'un suivi psychologique et que le programme rsidentiel
leur a permis de faire des conomies en termes de bourses, de frais de scolarit et de frais
d'alimentation.
! L'valuation effectue auprs des anciens lves du CEID montre que 90% d'entre
eux ont termin leur 5me anne et que 75% ont poursuivi leurs tudes aprs qu'ils ont quitt
le centre. 15% ont fond une famille, 8% ont commenc une activit professionnelle et 2%
ont totalement abandonn leurs tudes au sortir du CEID.
! Tous les lves ont effectu le programme de prvention de Dianova. 53% ont affirm
avoir acquis des informations utiles leur dveloppement personnel; 18% que le programme
les avaient aids amliorer leurs relations personnelles et de nouveau 18%, qu'il avait
permis d'amliorer leur niveau ducatif. 11% ont soulign que leur parcours scolaire avait t
bnfique, en termes de prvention de l'abus des drogues et en termes d'acquisition de
bourses en vue d'tudes universitaires.
! 75% des lves diplms indiquent que les ateliers avec les parents les ont aids
amliorer leurs relations humaines et familiales. Les lves ont affirm avoir reu une
ducation de qualit et qu'ils avaient eu une totale confiance dans le personnel enseignant et
administratif du CEID.
! Le CEID est devenu un lieu d'enseignement qui permet d'aborder les facteurs de
risques et de renforcer les facteurs de protection des lves. Les enfants et les adolescents se
sont vu offrir une information raliste et adapte leur ge, sur la question des risques lis
l'usage de drogues lgales et illgales. Le centre leur a permis d'amliorer leurs relations
sociales et leur communication avec leur famille. De plus, ceux qui en avaient le plus besoin
ont pu bnficier de bourses compltes, soit en raison de leur situation financire, de
problmes motionnels, ou de leur loignement de l'cole la plus proche.
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CONTACTER
Centre dducation intgrale Dianova (CEID) Esther Del Rio-Las Maras
cole associe de lUNESCO (rSEAU)
Membre du rseau Dianova(www.dianova.org
Km. 51 , carretera sur Jinotepe-Nandaime. Municipio de Santa Teresa, departamento
de Carazo (Nicaragua)
Telfono: +505 2268-2132
Email: info@dianovanicaragua.org.ni
Website: http://www.dianovanicaragua.org.ni//http://www.dianova.org/
Abstract: The present work seeks to explore the role of the nations about their sovereignty
against an economy under the rules of the globalize capitalism. One of their consequences
are the vulnerability of the indigenous people against the multinationals' power. Exactly in
this case, it will be analyzed the company Benetton and its affairs in Argentina, and how this
is changing the mapuches communities of the region.
Key Words: Argentinian Government, transnational corporations, indigenous development,
globalization, neoliberalism.
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The Role of the States Against the Multinationals: Argentina
and the Benetton Case
El rol de los estados frente a las multinacionales: Argentina y
el caso Benetton
Resumen: El presente trabajo pretende explorar el papel de los estados y su soberana frente
a una economa subordinada al capitalismo globalizado teniendo como una de sus
consecuencias la falta de defensa de los pueblos indgenas frente a los expolios de las
grandes multinacionales. En este caso en concreto se analizar a la empresa Benetton y su
negocio de la tierra en Argentina y como esto est afectando a las comunidades mapuches de
la regin.
Palabras clave: Gobierno Argentina, corporaciones transnacionales, desarrollo indgena,
globalizacin, neoliberalismo.
Carlos Bentez Trinidad
Mestre en Estudios Iberoamericanos por la Universidad de Sevilla
(Espaa)
e-mail: carlos.bt.86@gmail.com
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Introduccin
Las grandes empresas transnacionales han ido adquiriendo cada vez ms influencia y poder
con el avance del capitalismo global durante el ltimo siglo. Hoy, las 500 mayores
corporaciones controlan una cuarta parte de la produccin y la mitad del comercio mundial, y
su capacidad econmica supera a la de muchos pases, teniendo ms capital y potencial las
empresas que la suma del PIB de varios pases juntos. Ya que las compaas multinacionales
han sido las principales beneficiarias del proceso de globalizacin neoliberal y, por ello, en el
actual modelo socioeconmico, los derechos sociales de la mayora de hombres y mujeres del
planeta queden sometidos a la lgica de un mercado dominado por las corporaciones
transnacionales.
! En este contexto, resulta oportuno desvelar la existencia de los conflictos que estn
siendo causados por la expansin de estas empresas multinacionales: daos
medioambientales, desplazamientos de comunidades, alzas de tarifas y deficiencias de los
servicios pblicos privatizados, deterioro de los derechos laborales, expolio de los recursos
naturales, persecuciones a las organizaciones sociales y sindicales y, en general, una sucesin
de abusos cometidos y de violaciones de los derechos humanos.
La multinacional Benetton en Argentina
En 1896, el presidente argentino Uriburu, otorg a ciudadanos britnicos cerca de 900.000
hectreas de tierra, a pesar de la legislacin que prohbe las donaciones tan extensas y la
concentracin de tierra, de ms de 400.000 hectreas, para una sola persona o empresa. Poco
despus las tierras se vendieron a la Argentinian Sur Land Company Ltd, violando una vez
ms la ley que prohbe la venta con fines de lucro de los terrenos donados.
! En 1975 un grupo de inversores argentinos compr un paquete de acciones de esa
empresa, que inverta en el campo de la agricultura y la cra de animales, cuyo nombre
cambi en 1982, tras la nacionalizacin, en la Compaa de Tierras Sud Argentino SA
(CTSA). En 1991, la empresa italiana Benetton lo compr por 50 millones de dlares para el
control a travs de la celebracin de la CTSA Estate Edition Real, convirtindose en el mayor
terrateniente del pas, con 900.000 hectreas de tierra, de los cuales 884.000 estn en la
Patagonia.
! Benetton cra en esa tierra 260 000 cabezas de ganado vacuno, ovino y caprino para la
produccin de casi 600.000 kilos de lana para la exportacin a Europa cada ao, ms de
16.000 cabezas de ganado vacuno son sacrificados.
! La compaa italiana tambin invirti 80 millones de dlares en otros activos,
incluyendo dominar a la polica para controlar la zona, la construccin de un centro turstico
y la creacin del Museo Leleque que pretende contar y preservar la memoria de la Patagonia
y los indgenas Mapuche. Tambin la multinacional controla todas las instituciones locales y
tiene fuerte influencia en las instituciones nacionales. Para su plan de inversiones, que
incluye proyectos de reforestacin, sobre todo de pino, a un ritmo de 400 hectreas por ao,
Benetton recibe subvenciones del gobierno de Argentina.
! La adquisicin de tierras por parte de Benetton implica el desarraigo de la comunidad
mapuche, todos los das desalojados de sus tierras ancestrales, con serias amenazas a sus
medios de subsistencia basada en la agricultura y la ganadera.
! El plan de reforestacin del Grupo Benetton no tiene en cuenta el impacto de la
plantacin de rboles no nativos y exticos, como el pino, que alteran la biodiversidad del
territorio Mapuche. Los pinos, siendo rboles de rpido crecimiento, consumen gran cantidad
de agua que sale de la tierra, secando el suelo y no contribuyen a mejorar el efecto
invernadero, ya que para este propsito las que realmente sirven son los rboles de
crecimiento lento. Por otro lado el cierre de caminos rurales dificulta la comunicacin entre
los diferentes lugares y es imposible acceder a los cursos de agua y a varias reservas
mapuches.
! El empleo que Benetton ofrece a los habitantes de la zona no cumple con las
condiciones mnimas de trabajo y facilita el fenmeno de la discriminacin laboral contra los
mapuches (Hacher, 2003). La labor de esta multinacional constituye una violacin
sistemtica de la propia Constitucin argentina, que el Estado no aplica en su totalidad. La
Constitucin de la Repblica Argentina, de hecho, reformada en 1994, en el artculo 75,
reconoce no slo la diversidad tnica y cultural, la preexistencia de los pueblos indgenas,
sino tambin la posesin de las tierras que tradicionalmente ocupan, la personalidad jurdica
de la comunidad que se identifican como tales y la participacin en la gestin de los recursos
naturales. Adems, la ley de la Provincia de Chubut 3657, art. 34: "Se respeta la existencia de
los pueblos indgenas en su territorio, garantizando el respeto de su identidad () se
reconoce la posesin y propiedad comunitaria de las tierras que tradicionalmente han
ocupado."
! Por tanto se ve que hace falta instaurar mecanismos para el control de las operaciones
de las compaas multinacionales. Esto quiere decir, por una parte, someter a Derecho todas
las prcticas que atenten contra los derechos civiles, polticos, econmicos, sociales y
culturales, y, por otra, ajustar sus actividades al derecho al desarrollo y a la soberana de los
pueblos y naciones. Sin embargo, la realidad parece transcurrir justamente en sentido
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contrario: el cuerpo normativo relacionado con la mercantilizacin del sistema neoliberal se
ha ido perfeccionando cuantitativa y cualitativamente, a la vez que el control de las grandes
empresas se ha ido vinculando con los sistemas voluntarios y unilaterales que han ido
penetrando en las instituciones internacionales.
! Con todo ello, se hace evidente la profunda asimetra que existe entre los derechos de
las empresas transnacionales, que se protegen mediante los mltiples acuerdos que forman el
nuevo Derecho Corporativo Global que se concreta en una serie de normas y acuerdos
bilaterales, multilaterales y regionales promovidos desde instancias como la Organizacin
Mundial del Comercio, el Banco Mundial y el Fondo Monetario Internacional, y sus
obligaciones a nivel ambiental, laboral y social, que en buena medida se dejan en manos de la
tica empresarial y de los acuerdos voluntarios. Dicho de otro modo: mientras la seguridad
jurdica de los contratos y de los negocios de las compaas multinacionales se tutela desde la
fortaleza de la lex mercatoria, la ciudadana no dispone de sistemas normativos y de
mecanismos de control eficaces para verificar el cumplimiento de los derechos humanos.
! Esto se ve en la impunidad de Benetton a la hora de violar el derecho, basndose en el
derecho a la propiedad privada, desconociendo (convenientemente) la legislacin vigente que
reconoce los derechos a los Pueblos Originarios. Estos derechos estn consagrados y
establecidos en el Artculo 75, inciso 17 de la Constitucin Nacional, en el Convenio 169 de
la OIT y en el artculo 34 de la Constitucin de Chubut.
Historia del caso
El caso comenz cuando en agosto de 2002, el matrimonio compuesto por Atilio Curianco y
Rosa Ra Nahuelquir, indios mapuches, ocuparon el lote Santa Rosa, de 535 hectreas, a raz
de un comunicado enviado por un empleado del Instituto Autrquico de Colonizacin (IAC,
fundada en 1957, que trabaja en la promocin de la colonizacin y el desarrollo de la tierra
en la regin de Chubut), informndoles de que se trata de tierras fiscales no explotadas. Ese
mismo ao, en septiembre, la empresa italiana Benetton denuncia al matrimonio Curianco
por ocupacin ilegal de la tierra y ejerce presin sobre otras familias que viven en el territorio
comprado por Benetton. Al mes siguiente la polica (comprada y financiada por Benetton)
desaloja por la fuerza a las familias, demoliendo sus hogares.
! A pesar de las protestas y de la toma de tierra, un juez dictamina en mayo de 2003
que las familias deben abandonar las tierras. El caso salta a la opinin pblica internacional
de mano de la Organizacin Mapuche Internacional, por una carta enviada por el Premio
Nobel de la Paz Adolfo Prez Esquivel a Luciano Benetton que fue publicada en la prensa
italiana en julio de 2004.
! A lo largo de 2004 y 2005, Benetton intent un acercamiento a las comunidades
ofrecindole tierras dentro de sus dominios, como en noviembre de 2004 con el ofrecimiento
de la donacin de 2500 hectreas que los mapuches rechazaron alegando que Benetton no
puede dar algo que no le pertenece. Otro intento de la multinacional italiana fue la
concesin de 7500 acres de terreno un ao despus al Gobierno de la Provincia de Chubut
para concretar un proyecto sustentable en beneficios de las familias aborgenes de la
regin (Agosto y Briones, 2006).
! A lo largo de estos dos aos (2004/05) los enfrentamientos entre las fuerzas del orden
y las comunidades sern continuos, como cuando ocuparon muchos activistas mapuches las
carreteras que conectaban la regin con las tierras, impidiendo las comunicaciones, esto
supuso la fuerte intervencin policial, la detencin de activistas mapuches y la expulsin de
varias familias que vivan en esas tierras (Benetton Group. 8 diciembre 2006).
! El ao de 2007 supuso un punto de inflexin en la lucha de las comunidades
mapuches por la recuperacin de la tierra (Agosto, 2007). Ya que el 14 de febrero de ese ao,
la Comunidad Mapuche de Santa Rosa de Chubut recuper 625 hectreas apropiadas por
Benetton animando a las comunidades que denunciaron por usurpacin a la empresa Tierras
del Sud Argentino, del grupo Benetton. A pesar de los logros, la justicia y las autoridades
argentinas siempre favorecieron a la multinacional, vindose esto en el dictamen en marzo de
ese ao, del fiscal Omar Magallanes, de que las comunidades mapuches no pueden encender
fuego, construir edificios, u otras prcticas de negocios en el territorio recuperado en febrero
de 2007 (Ibid.). Presionando as a las comunidades. Dictamen que retir al ao siguiente tras
una inspeccin, ya que segn Benetton las actividades de las comunidades eran perjudiciales
para la tierra, situacin que el fiscal comprob que no era cierta.
! El 24 de mayo de 2009 (Ibid.)los representantes de las comunidades indgenas de
todo el mundo se renen en la sede de la ONU en Nueva York para denunciar la explotacin
de los recursos y territorios indgenas, en contra del derecho internacional, incluido en la
Declaracin de las Naciones Unidas sobre los Derechos Humanos y sobre los Derechos de
los Pueblos Indgenas, adoptada por la Asamblea General en septiembre de 2007. La
declaracin afirma que los gobiernos y las empresas para iniciar la cosecha en los territorios
indgenas slo pueden hacerlo con el consentimiento previo de las comunidades residentes.
Tambin requiere que las negociaciones se basen en el principio de igualdad entre las partes.
! El problema lejos de terminar, sigue en pie, con la lucha entre la multinacional y las
comunidades. En marzo de este mismo ao se orden el desalojo a la Comunidad Mapuche
Santa Rosa Leleque a poco tiempo de celebrarse los 4 aos de reafirmacin territorial.
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! Una vez ms la justicia, a travs del juez Omar Higinio Magallanes, responde a los
pedidos del magnate italiano Luciano Benetton, quin a travs de la Compaa Tierras del
Sud Argentino lo venan solicitando.
! Sealar una curiosa declaracin de una mujer mapuche llamada Rosa Rua Nahuelquir
que dijo al diario El Chubut que ms all de que la justicia huinca diga que le pertenece a
Benetton, nosotros vamos a seguir ah, porque es una tierra ancestral de nuestros antepasa-
dos y ah viviremos. Esperamos que una vez en su vida la justicia determine que es una causa
justa para el Pueblo Mapuche. Si dicen lo contrario una vez ms vamos a seguir creyendo
que la justicia no existe, porque lamentablemente si llegaran a fallar en contra: la justicia no
existe, existe la injusticia (Diario el Chubut 14-02-2011).
! La lucha por la recuperacin de tierras es algo que afecta tambin a los grandes
estancieros argentinos que ven peligrar sus propiedades. El caso ms paradigmtico en la
misma regin fueron los estancieros de Chubut que iniciaron una campaa donde descalifica-
ron a las comunidades Mapuche-Tehuelche por recuperar tierras, a la vez "solicitaban" a la
justicia tener en cuenta el sagrado derecho civil a la propiedad privada. Los terratenientes ven
como un problema lugares como Leleque, Gan Gan y la zona de la cordillera.
! En declaraciones al diario El Patagnico, Ernesto Siguero, presidente de la Federacin
de Sociedades Rural del Chubut consider que pseudo comunidades aborgenes se han in-
stalado en campos de algunos de los asociados de esa entidad ruralista. Segn su denuncia, se
trata de gente que dice ser de pueblos originarios, pero no lo sera (Diario El Patagnico,
03-03-2011). No deja de ser curioso cuando entra dentro de la descalificacin la no
pertenencia completa al ttulo de aborigen.
! A causa de la apropiacin salvaje por parte de grandes terratenientes y multinacionales
de las tierras y los recursos pertenecientes a ellas de las comunidades mapuches, que la
habitan desde tiempos remotos, mucho antes que esas compaas existiesen, antes de la
creacin del estado argentino e incluso antes de la llegada de los europeos, el pueblo Mapuche
se organiza. Ante las estrategias utilizadas por estos agentes que defienden sus intereses
capitalistas, el pueblo Mapuche ha construido espacios de encuentro entre comunidades y con
organizaciones no mapuches que enfrentan similares amenazas y saqueos. La necesidad de
compartir las diferentes experiencias de lucha, intercambiar las distintas visiones del mundo,
genera el respeto por la diversidad y construye las estrategias colectivas que forman la base de
la red de resistencia, en las que las voces del pueblo Mapuche se va expresando desde la
memoria histrica de sus luchas ancestrales.
Conclusin
La justificacin que han utilizado los Estados y las empresas multinacionales para intimidar,
desplazar y, prcticamente, eliminar del mapa a muchas comunidades indgenas ha sido la
necesidad de explotar los recursos naturales que albergan sus territorios, para incorporarlos a
la maquinaria de produccin y consumo del sistema econmico global. Pero la visin que de
estos hechos han ido teniendo las sociedades y las instancias internacionales ha ido
cambiando. Especialmente, a lo largo de las tres ltimas dcadas.
! Con todo y con ello, a pesar de que se trate de afianzar el mito de que los
pueblos indgenas son atrasados y se oponen al progreso, y de que se contraponga
de manera artificial el derecho de los pueblos indgenas con el inters nacional,
las organizaciones y redes internacionales de solidaridad van a seguir
denunciando los impactos sociales, ambientales y culturales de las actividades de
las empresas transnacionales sobre los pueblos indgenas. Porque, despus de
ms de treinta aos de polticas neoliberales, no parece que toda esta
modernizacin forzada de nuestras sociedades est sirviendo para paliar las
desigualdades y resolver los conflictos sociales. Y, en ese sentido, lo que se
continuar demandando es, sencillamente, el derecho de los pueblos indgenas a
decidir sobre su propio futuro (Moro, 2010).
! Una de las herramientas utilizadas en la bsqueda de justicia alternativa han sido las
audiencias del Tribunal Permanente de los Pueblos (TPP). Y es que el rgimen de
permisividad, ilegalidad e impunidad en el que se enmarca la actuacin generalizada de las
corporaciones transnacionales en relacin al derecho indgena hace necesarios mecanismos
adicionales a los de la justicia ordinaria. As, en las diferentes sesiones del TPP (nota 1)
realizadas en los ltimos cuatro aos, los representantes de los pueblos afectados por las
violaciones de los derechos humanos cometidas, de manera directa o indirecta, por las
multinacionales no slo encuentran un espacio para expresar sus demandas, sino que asumen
adems un papel de agentes de la justicia.
! En definitiva, sta y otras experiencias de denuncia del poder corporativo confirman
que las poblaciones y los movimientos sociales de la regin estn inmersos en largo proceso
para rehabilitar la accin poltica como un ejercicio de los pueblos y, a travs de ella, defender
la primaca de los derechos y bienes universales y comunales contra su apropiacin por parte
de las compaas multinacionales. Todo ello cobra sentido para que podamos reflexionar
acerca de cmo los seres humanos, que nacen libres e iguales en dignidad y derechos
recuperan, en el marco de una sociedad democrtica y participativa, el poder de decisin
sobre sus propios destinos. Y poder lograr as, en definitiva, evitar la vulneracin de los
derechos humanos que sufren las mayoras sociales del planeta.
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! El tema que est debajo de todo el conflicto entre Benetton y los Curianco-
Nahuelquir, es la soberana nacional del estado. Un gobierno necesita tener la habilidad de
controlar lo que pasa en su propio territorio con sus propios recursos naturales y ver como
esto afecta los derechos de la poblacin, especialmente los que son minoras. Esto es difcil
cuando el mercado internacional y el poder econmico empiezan a estar involucrado pero el
trabajo del gobierno es ser intermediario entre los grupos domsticos y forneos (Bayer,
2006). La presencia fuerte de los extranjeros en la Patagonia no es algo que va a desaparecer
en el futuro, pero seguramente va a crecer ms con la falta mundial de petrleo. Este
conflicto entre lo moderno y lo tradicional no existe solamente en la Patagonia, est
ocurriendo en todos los pases que se estn desarrollando y no hay solucin fcil. Es
inevitable que el mercado mundial va a ganar esta lucha entre los dos sistemas salvo que el
estado intervenga y proteja a su propia gente desde este proceso.
! El rol del estado nacional ha cambiado mucho en el siglo de globalizacin. El papel
del estado no es simplemente proteger a su poblacin de las fuerzas de otros pases, tambin
de las fuerzas de la economa que ahora amenazan a los derechos de cualquier pas. La
soberana del estado, tambin incluso el poder de controlar lo que pasa en su territorio y la
fuerte presencia extranjera muestra que esto no es la realidad en la Argentina. Las leyes y las
prcticas para proteger los derechos indgenas en Argentina no son iguales porque el estado
no ejerce su soberana nacional, en vez de eso, el mercado est manejando las acciones y
decisiones del gobierno argentino. Como en el caso del matrimonio Curianco y las otras
familias, los indgenas no pueden regresar a sus tierras ancestrales que todava estn
explotadas por el estado y los extranjeros para sus propias ganancias. Benetton y los otros
ricos que son dueos de la Patagonia siguen disfrutando de los recursos naturales all con el
apoyo del gobierno al precio de la violacin de los derechos de los indgenas. La
sobrevivencia de las comunidades indgenas en el futuro depende del rol que el estado tome
para defender a su propia gente de los poderes econmicos y muestre su soberana en su
propio territorio.
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NOTAS
(1) Entre 2006 y 2010 se han llevado a cabo diversas audiencias del Tribunal
Permanente de los Pueblos (TPP) dedicadas a investigar y sistematizar los impactos de
las empresas transnacionales en Amrica Latina, especialmente de las europeas. Cabe
destacar las tres sesiones organizadas en conjunto con la Red Birregional Europa,
Amrica Latina y Caribe Enlazando Alternativas que se celebraron en Viena (2006),
Lima (2008) y Madrid (2010).
Referencias bibliogrficas
Anaya, J. S. (2005) Los pueblos indgenas en el derecho internacional, Trotta, Madrid.
Clavero, B. (1994) Derecho indgena y cultura constitucional en Amrica, Siglo XXI
Editores, Mxico DF.
Harvey, D. (2004) El nuevo imperialismo, Akal, Madrid.
Hacher, S. (2003). Corporacin Italiana Benetton: Los Colores Unidos de la
Usurpacin. Peridico Mapuche AZkintuWE Kyen, No. 2. Bariloche: Noviembre de
2003.
Agosto, P. y Briones, C. (2007) Luchas y resistencias Mapuche por los bienes de la
naturaleza en OSAL (Buenos Aires: CLACSO) Ao VIII, N 22, septiembre 2007.
Agosto, P. (2007) Cronologa de los conflictos mapuche en Puelmapu, Argentina 2003-
2007 en OSAL (Buenos Aires: CLACSO) Ao VIII, N 22, septiembre 2007.
Moro, A. (2010) Amrica Latina, a propsito de las resistencias contra las
transnacionales, Pueblos, n 43, julio de 2010.
Bayer, O (2006). La ocupacin Efectiva de la regin Patagnica por parte del
Gobierno Argentino: la Conquista del Desierto y las Exploraciones por Perito
Moreno. 10 diciembre 2006.
Abstract: The aim of Project Pathfinder, to be implemented in ISICANA (Salteo Institute
of Argentinean-North American Cultural Interchange) is to design an english course in the
initial level, with blind teachers (with the help of no blind assistants) for blind students. The
methods to offer this course will be based in Internet and multimedia. The experience
obtained will be shared through ISICANAs the web page, to have feedback with others
educative communities around the world. On the other hand, the experience include a
volunteer staff of professors of English spread around Argentina, who will participate in a
forum to help with their own the experience, because some of them taught to blind children
in the past. The project will be improved according to monitoring and evaluation of
outcomes.
Key Words: Argentina, blind, english, multimedia, internet, teaching.
105
Pathfinder Project: New Ways To Access English for Blind
Students in Argentina
Proyecto Pathfinder: nuevos caminos de acceso al ingls para
estudiantes ciegos en Argentina
Resumen: El proyecto Pathfinder propone el diseo de un curso de ingls para ciegos,
usando tecnologas multimedia e Internet. Es innovador porque ser dictado por profesores
ciegos con la ayuda de auxiliares videntes. La experiencia educativa se volcar a una pgina
web donde se abrir un blog de discusin para obtener retroalimentacin con otras
comunidades educativas. Incluye un staff de profesores voluntarios de distintos puntos de
Argentina que participarn a travs de Internet con aportes y sugerencias para un mejor
desarrollo del curso, que ser dictado en el primer nivel de ingls en un principio, pero con
perspectivas de abarcar todos los cursos que ofrece ISICANA (Instituto Salteo de
Intercambio Cultural Argentino-Norteamericano), ubicado en la ciudad de Salta, Argentina.
El proyecto ser mejorado de acuerdo con los resultados del monitoreo y evaluacin de la
experiencia.
Palabras clave: Argentina, ciego, ingls, multimedia, internet, enseanza.
Francisco Ramn Barbarn
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientficas y Tcnicas de Argentina
e-mail: frbarbaran@yahoo.com.ar
web: www.conicet.gov.ar
Guadalupe Eulalia Giroto Requejo
Instituto Salteo de Intercambio Cultural Argentino-Norteamericano
e-mail: guada_greq@hotmail.com
web: www.isicana.org.ar
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Introduction:
Blind students of English in the Salteo Institute of Argentinean-North American Cultural
Interchange (ISICANA) in the Salta Province, Argentina, cannot translate or understand
Braille and other teaching materials. Without the appropriate equipment and resources such
tasks take many hours of hard work, producing frustration and failure because it is
impossible to further ones learning.
! In 2009 a student reached the last year of studies but she was unable to take the
Michigan Exam (Examination for the Certificate of Competency in English) because she did
not have the needed learning materials in time to prepare. Despite that, blind students ask for
tuition in ISICANA, demonstrating a concrete demand for the teaching of English.
! Considering that situation, ISICANA contacted the U.S. Embassy Press Office in
Buenos Aires, obtaining grants to buy software and a voice digital text scanner, as well as a
Braille typing device. ISICANA owns a high-speed Internet connection and functioning com-
puters, but a Braille printer is also necessary to complete all the equipment needed to develop
teaching material for this special case.
! In Salta there are many institutions devoted to formal education of the blind, but a
low socio-economic background prevents some from attaining a higher education. Here, a
population of about 130 students aged 5-18 cannot afford necessary English classes.
Proposal
! Considering the problem described above and the fact that ISICANA already has
most of the equipment to implement English classes for blind students, the proposal is:
1. The design of English course curriculum for the blind in the Initial Level, using the
bibliographic material and equipment donated by the United States Embassy, and
adding a Braille printer.
2. The teacher in charge of this course will be a blind ex-alumnus of ISICANA, with the
permanent support of non-blind teachers, whom are already part of the permanent staff
of the English school.
3. Taking into account the low socio-economic level of the blind population in Salta, this
project will provide grants to students with economic problems. On the other hand,
ISICANA s General Manager will approach local companies and gain support through
a special grants program to provide opportunities for students in disadvantage.
4. An affordable tuition will be established for students with capacity to pay for their
classes.
5. The training of two blind teachers as well as two no blind teaching assistants, will be
covered by ISICANA.
! During the project implementation, blind and no blind teachers will share and
communicate current learning and teaching methodologies through ISICANAs website,
which would allow for communication and feedback from other teachers and the academic
community. The teachers will develop a blog and forum through the website for the academic
community, and will write an academic articles detailing her work in Argentina.
! On the other hand, an academic team will follow the project and participate in it
through the internet as volunteers. All of the team members received grants to study in USA
thanks to the Fulbright Program and most of them are teachers of English. They were
recruited through the web, thanks to the State Alumni Network of ex-alumni created by The
U.S. Department of State.
! The team is composed as follows: Director: Francisco Ramn Barbarn Fulbright
Visiting Scholar Program (2008). Team: Ines Carmen Acerbi, Fulbright Administrators
Exchange Program (2008 - 2009); Rita Aldorino, Fulbright Student Program (1999 - 2001);
Paula Bello, Teaching Excellence and Achievement (TEA) Program (2010); Marcela B.
Gamallo, Fulbright Student Program (2004 - 2006); Daniel Kirschbaum, Fulbright Student
Program (2001 - 2005); Edith Luna Villanueva, Texas Intensive English Program (TIEP)
(2008); Cecilia Soledad Vargas, Fulbright Foreign Language Teaching Assistant (FLTA)
Program (2009 - 2010).
! This project was presented for funding to Alumni Engagement Innovation Fund
contest in 2012, which is organized financed by the U.S. Department of State.
On the other hand, ISICANA will look funds to support grants.
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Location:
The project will be developed in Salta city (N.W. Argentina) in the Salteo Institute of
Argentinean-North American Cultural Interchange (ISICANA), that was opened forty
years ago. This institute approved this project in a meeting of its Directive Commission in
October 2011. ISICANA has been teaching english continuously in Salta for more than
forty years. Is a non-profit organization acting as a bi-national center (Argentina-USA)
with 1300 students of english language and a strong and continuous relationship with the
USA Embassy in Buenos Aires.
Innovation:
ISICANA will be the first bi-national center in Argentina to implement educational
services designed specifically for the blind, providing a much-needed service to them. The
Initial Level Course of English as a Second Language for blind students will start in April
2013 on the basis of continuing teaching classes along the years, as a part of ISICANAs
permanent academic offer.
! Blind people will have complete access to English, so new opportunities for social
inclusion will be open for them. Opportunities include but are not limited to better work
opportunities and social lives, their own intellectual growth, personal satisfaction, and
increased self-confidence.
! Four new permanent teaching jobs will be created, and the new teaching strategies
will be shared through the Internet, promoting the implementation of similar courses
around the world.
! The web site to be created, will be keep alive for ever, to share the experience of
this project and to offer it as a resource for other institutions with the willingness to open
english courses for blind people around the world.
! Agreements will be signed with education institutions devoted to the blind,
demonstrating that ISICANA is sensitive to social inclusion and thereby creating and
offering concrete contributions to disadvantaged students that would better their lives.
! Despite the courses to be implemented in the Initial Level, this project can be
expanded to all teaching levels in the future, according to the availability of teachers
trained in differential learning strategies complemented with Internet and multimedia,
optimizing the use of the technology already donated by the U.S. Embassy to ISICANA.
! According to well documented experience, most of aid projects in the Third World
finish when they run out of money. This project will provide the way to sustain itself
through the time, so it is continuity is sustainable in the long term, due to the academic and
implementation capacity of the team involved in this project and ISICANAs institutional
prestige in Salta city.
! On the other hand, a set of indicators will be defined to make possible the
monitoring, evaluation and continuous improvement of this project.
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NOTES
Presented in part as a conference paper in: ABLA-ELT Conference 2012
Envisioning ELTs Future Santo Domingo, Repblica Dominicana. November 16-17,
2012.
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Montessoris famous words, the
hand is the organ of the mind seemed to
resonate large at Magnificent Hill, a
teaching and learning farm in Haliburton
Ontario. Every autumn, we take our junior
high class on a nature odyssey and, for the
second time, we found ourselves immersed
in the incredible beauty, cyclic work, and
inspiring camaraderie of living sustainable
choices. Our students camp on the land,
cook for themselves, clear pastures, entwine
with needs of chickens, ducks, pigs and
goats in a series of chores that give story to
consumer habits. Where do you think our
eggs come from our bacon our milk
soaphoneyvegetables???? These
questions are answered through a serious of
practical life activities that link necessity
with survival and invention.
!
! In the beginning, the stars of the
experience are the goats who are kids
themselves; playful, adventurous, insistent,
demanding. The students are charmed by
the non-verbal nuances of communing with
other-than-human species in a dance that
expands the notion of agriculture into
relationship.
Goats Await Water
! The ancestor project (an exploration
of family through dramatis persona) follows
the farm immersion experience that offers a
sensorial understanding of what it was like
to live without electricity, to lug water, to
clear the land for pasture, to nurture animals
that, in turn, end up on the table to nurture
the family.
!
Wrestling a Boulder
! It seemed to take a day or so before
the rhythm of the farm found its way into
all our hearts. Sometimes, there were
questions from students that hinted at the
desire for instant gratification. These were
lovingly deflected into the dependence of
product on process and a delightful
culmination was our gourmet pizza night.
To illustrate the seemingly magical
transformation of sweat into sweet the
students rolled dough, harvested vegetables
and edible flowers and baked their own
pizzas in the womb-like outdoor oven.
Dessert Pizza with Nasturtiums
! A general sense of wellbeing and
collective reliance became quickly palpable.
When one of the pigs refused to climb the
ramp for the truck bound for glory she
was listened to by Forest, our host. There
was no forcing - but patience, postponement
and a change in strategy. All creatures of the
farm, from bees to chicks, were seen as
participants in the mind of matter.
Utilitarian distinctions were always
tempered with compassion and respect for
interconnections of physical, emotional and
global survival.
! As we sat by the campfire listening
to our wonderful guide Cedar playing her
didgeridoo, the students reflected, and
boundaries between earth and human
seemed to take a subtle shift. Im thankful
for the animals, said someone and it
seemed to come from a new place that we
had created, all together, with our hands.
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Feeding The Ducks A Cornucopia of Touch
The Hand is the Organ of the
Mind of Matter
by Wendy Agnew
wagnew@rocketmail.com
We s t u d y t h e
agricultural revolution
in the abstract, and this
experi ence hel ps t o
ground our perspectives
in time and space.
Website for Magnificent Hill: http://magnificenthill.wordpress.com
Sustainability Frontiers: http://www.sustainabilityfrontiers.org


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The International Day for the Eradication of
Pover t y pr ovi des a much needed
opportunity for reflection amongst the
global community involved in the fight
against poverty. We must not let such
opportunities pass, without assessing the
success of the relevant battles thus far and
addressing what needs to be done to win the
war.
This time next year, the UN will have just
held its summit to review the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) and to plan for
the post MDG framework from 2015
onwards. This represents a significant
opportunity for the global development
community to shape the future of their work
in improving the lives of the worlds poorest
people.
In this context, a significant opportunity is
also set to arise for Ireland to help shape
this future. In January 2013, Ireland takes
over the Presidency of the European Union.
Dchas, the Platform for Development
NGOs in Ireland, is determined not to let
this opportunity pass at such a crucial
moment in global campaign to eradicate
poverty.
This is the opportunity to think about the
world we want. A world without poverty. A
world where principles such as fairness,
justice and equality are highly valued but
also acted upon.
The Missed Opportunity of Rio+20
Rio+20, the UN Conference on Sustainable
Development which took place in June of
this year, was another opportunity - in this
case, a missed one.
The theme of the Rio Summit was The
Future We Want. Unfortunately however,
Ri o+20 was wi del y regarded as a
disappointment in terms of both visualising
that future and planning for it. There was a
failure on the part of the worlds leaders to
deliver for the planet, for the worlds poor-
est people or for future generations.
The Outcome Document produced at the
Summit was long on lofty, idealistic
language and short on any real vision or
goals. Crucially for example, there was no
reference to the fact that current levels of
consumption both exceed the planets
physical capacity and leave millions of
people below a threshold of minimum
human dignity.
Hans Zomer, who as Director of Dchas
represented 49 Irish NGOs at the Rio
Summit, said that while the text to come out
of Rio was disappointing, it should be a
call to arms for civil society to ensure that
the good points from the document are
implemented.
Two such good points included the
reaffirmation of a commitment to making
every effort to accelerate the achievement
of the internationally agreed development
goa l s , i nc l udi ng t he Mi l l e nni um
Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 and
explicit inclusion of the need for a set of
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
and the potential for these SDGs to provide
a basis for a new, internationally agreed
Development framework, to succeed the
MDGs.
A New Opportunity - the Review of the
MDGs
The September 2013 Summit to review the
MDGs is now an important target for many
development NGOs and NGO platforms,
such as Dchas, globally.
This is what makes the timing of the Irish
Presidency of the European Union, which
lasts from January to June 2013, so crucial.
Dchas is determined not to let this moment
pass. Our website dedicated to the Irish
Presidency of the EU sets out the three
opportunities, as we see them, to create a
better Ireland and a better world.
1. Ireland is in crisis. In many ways, we
need to reinvent our country, and
ourselves. We need a new vision for our
future.
2. The Irish Presidency of the EU puts us
in the driving seat, just as the EU needs
to set new priorities for itself for the
next 7 years and for its role in the
world.
3. The United Nations need to agree a new
set of sustainable development goals
in September 2013. This means we have
a chance to create a vision that puts first
the needs of poor people and the planet.
Both Ireland and the EU are overcoming
periods of severe economic difficulty.
Despite this the European Union remains
the worlds biggest aid donor. In Ireland,
attitudes to overseas development aid
remain strong despite the current economic
di ffi cul t i es. A publ i c opi ni on pol l
commissioned by Dchas in May of this
year showed that 85% of Irish people rated
overseas aid as important or very
important.
A new and unified European approach was
needed to tackle the economic crisis. There
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The World We Want - Seizing
Opportunities
By Cliona Doyle
Cliona@dochas.ie
Development, Ireland, EU Presidency, World we want

N1
is no reason why we cannot bring such an
approach to our reassessment of what
Development Cooperation means. If the
current global economic and ecological
crises provide the driver, then the Review
of Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) provide the opportunity for
change.
The Irish Presidency of the EU-
Understanding the Opportunity
The Irish Government already seems to
understand this opportunity for the fight
against global poverty in the same way
that we in Dchas do. Ministers have
made statements on the importance of
prioritising Development Issues and the
potential for Ireland to make a positive
contribution to the eradication of global
poverty.
According to Minister for Europe
Lucinda Creighton, the EU Presidency
will allow us to find ways of advancing
policies that will improve the lives of
people in Ireland and abroad.
The Irish Government plans to host a
meeting of EU Development Ministers
early on in the Presidency period, and it is
also proposed to organise a high-level
conference on issues relating to Hunger,
Nutrition and Climate Change.
According to Joe Costello, Minister for
Trade and Development, The Review of
the White Paper, and the Irish Presidency
of the EU in the first half of 2013, present
us with an opportunity to draw from [the
Busan, Rio+20 and MDG Review]
processes, and critically to bring the
various strands together breaking down
any artificial barriers that exist between
sustainable development, hunger, climate
change, human rights, gender and other
priority issues.
Both the Irish and the EU overseas aid
programmes are at an interesting
crossroads. The Irish Government intends
to publish its Review of the Irish Aid
Programme, just weeks before the start of
the EU Presidency. The European
Commission has also indicated that it
wants to change the direction of EU aid,
by publishing its Agenda for Change
document. In addition, it has proposed
that the EUs new budget should see a 9%
increase in funding for external
relations, which includes overseas aid.
The Dchas EU Presidency Project-
Seizing the Opportunity to Effect
Change
The Dchas EU Presidency Project will
lead the way in encouraging the Irish
Government to have a positive influence
during its Presidency of the EU at this
critical moment when the EU is shaping
its position in advance of the UN MDG
Review Summit next year.
With 2013 to be the European Year of
Citizens, it is imperative that we seek to
involve Irish citizens in this process.
Dchas has begun a national dialogue
about the priorities of Irelands civil
society organisations, for a better Ireland,
a better Europe and a better world. The
discussion is taking place through a series
of events, seminars and also through
i n t e r a c t i o n o n o u r we b s i t e :
www.worldwewant.ie
This dialogue will culminate in the
production of a "manifesto", to be
presented to the May meeting of the EU
Council of Foreign Affairs Ministers.
The Dchas EU Presidency Project will
be working to ensure that the post-MDG
framework does not simply articulate an
extension of current practice, but rather
captures an inclusive, sustainable and just
set of solutions to some of the biggest
global challenges that are facing
mankind: economic inequality, social
instability, environmental degradation,
resource scarcity, climate chaos and
political exclusion of vast numbers of
people.
It is time for Ireland to seize the
opportunity to help shape the World We
Want.
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NOTES
Formed in 1993, Dchas is the asso-
ciation of Irish Non-Governmental
Development Organisations. Dchas
provides a forum for consultation
and co-operat i on bet ween i t s
members and helps them speak with
a single voice on development
issues.
Cliona Doyle is Coordinator of the
Dchas EU Presidency Project.
Institutional Filiation (University,
Faculty and Department, if case):
Dchas
Address: 1-2 Baggot Court, Lower
Baggot Street, Dublin 2, Ireland
Phone number: 003531 4053801!
e-mail: Cliona@dochas.ie
web: www.dochas.ie
TWO EDUCATION GROUPS PARTNER
FOR AN EXTRAORDINARY WEEK OF GLOBAL COLLABORATION
NOVEMBER 12 - 16, 2012
The 2012 worldwide virtual Global
Education Conference as well as the iEARN
International Conference and Youth Summit
are slated to take place simultaneously during
International Education Week (November 12-
16, 2012). These educational events are free
of charge to all participants and will be held
completely online in Blackboard Collaborate
virtual rooms. Sessions are scheduled around
the clock over the course of five days to
accommodate multiple time zones. The main
conference website and network is located at:
http://globaleducationconference.com.
The Global Education Conference (GEC) is a
collaborative and world-wide community
event designed to reduce participation barriers
and significantly increase opportunities for
globally-connecting educators (primary,
secondary and tertiary levels), students, and
organizations. General session strands will
focus on teachers, students, curricula, poli-
cies, professional development and leader-
ship. Keynote speakers for this years
conference include Tony Wagner of Harvard,
Andrew Revkin of the New York Times, Ki-
ran Bir Sethi of Indias famed Riverside
School, and social media expert Beth Kanter.
Last years conference consisted of over 300
general sessions, 18 keynote addresses, and
over 10,000 participant logins. 100 plus
part ner organi zat i ons and dedi cat ed
volunteers have been involved in the
planning, promotion and execution of this
event over the past two years as well. The
Global Education Conference represents a
special opportunity for those involved with
global education to network and learn from
each other.
In 2012, the conference will be a unique
global collaboration between GEC and
i EARN (Int ernat i onal Educat i on and
Resource Network). iEARN will hold its 2012
annual conference virtually in partnership
with the GEC and attendees will have the
opportunity to participate in sessions
facilitated by members of both organizations.
Having online collaborative education
programs in over 130 countries, iEARNs
involvement will enable the entire conference
to be truly global in scope and size.
Proposals to present for both the Global
Education Conference and for the iEARN
International Conference and Youth Summit
will be accepted through October 29, 2012.
The intention is to be inclusive, meaning that
any professional or student with an idea or
project related to our mission is encouraged
to present. We will provide training and
support to those new to the world of online
conferences.
Schools and non-profits are encouraged to
partner with the GEC to help publicize the
conference. In exchange for promoting the
event to your organizations network, the
GEC will post your logo and a link to your
web site on our partner web page. We want to
acknowledge the support of like-minded
groups who encourage participants to engage
in our network and conference.
Additionally, non-profit educational and
commercial organizations can become
sponsors, and both recognition and
authentic appreciation for financial support
will be given to those who choose to sponsor
and support our work. Potential sponsors
should contact either Steve Hargadon at
steve@hargadon.com or Ed Gragert at
ed@us.iearn.org.
Please follow us on Facebook and Twitter for
the latest news. Our conference hashtag on
Twitter is #globaled12. For additional
information about this very special event,
please visit the following links:
Global Education Conference November
12-16, 2012.
CONNECTING EDUCATORS AND
ORGANIZATIONS WORLDWIDE
Welcome
Mission
GEC Call for Proposals
GEC Current Submissions
GEC Accepted Sessions
Conference Groups
Film Exhibition
International Advisory Board
Partners and Sponsors
Volunteers
Press Materials

iEARN Annual Conference & Youth Summit


N o v e m b e r 1 2 - 1 6 , 2 0 1 2
Some sessions will be open to iEARN
members only. This conference and summit
runs in tandem to the regular Global
Education Conference.
iEARN Welcome
iEARN Call for Proposals
iEARN Current Submissions
iEARN Youth Submissions
iEARN Presenters' Group
International Advisory Board
Partners and Sponsors
Press Materials
112

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