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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013

ISSN 2278-6856

Performance Evaluation of proposed RBR algorithm with AODV algorithm for the determination of optimized energy techniques

Lalit Kumar Saraswat 1 , Dr. Sachin Kumar 2

1 Research Scholar, Department of CSE, Bhagwant University, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India

2 Professor, Department of IT, AKG Engineering College, Ghaziabad,UP, India

Abstract: The most important issue that needs to be solved for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to save sensor node energy as the sensor nodes are battery limited. In order to maximize the lifetime of these nodes, most of the routing algorithms in wireless sensor networks uses the energy efficient route. But a single best route causes additional load to a specific sensor node which reduces the lifetime of wireless sensor network. This paper proposes an energy efficient routing algorithm and compares the proposed protocol with AODV protocol. The Simulation results demonstrate that proposed Resource Biased Routing (RBR) algorithm significantly minimizes energy consumption of each node and balanced the energy for entire network as well as extend the network lifetime.

Keywords:

Castalia Simulator

AODV,

RBR,

Wireless Sensor

Networks,

1.INTRODUCTION

A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of light-

weight, low power, small size of sensor nodes. Sensor

nodes are constrained in energy and bandwidth. Routing

of sensor data has been one of the challenging areas in

wireless sensor networks. Present research on routing in wireless sensor networks mainly focused on protocols that are energy aware in order to maximize the lifetime of the network, scalable for large number of sensor nodes and

tolerant to battery exhaustion. There are various possible routes between any two nodes over which the data can flow. Any node in WSN can easily transmit their data packet to a sink node, if it has enough battery power. If any node is far from its neighbor node then large amount

of energy is required to transmit the data to sink node.

After every transmission, remaining energy of this node decreases and after some transmission, this node will be eliminated from the network because of empty battery and overall lifetime of the network will decreases. Network lifetime is defined as the time until the first node in the network dies. In order to maximize the network lifetime, data should be routed such that energy consumption is fair among the nodes in proportion to their energy

reserved, instead of routing the data to a path that minimize consumed power.

2. RELATED WORK

Efficient utilization of energy is very important for the WSNs. The sensors are extremely energy bounded, hence the network formed by these sensors are also energy constrained. The communication devices on these sensors are small and have limited power and sensing ranges. A routing protocol coordinates the activities of individual nodes in the network in order to achieve global goals and in an efficient manner. Hence lifetime of network depends on appropriate routing protocol.

There are four main types of routing protocols in wireless sensor network. They can be classified as data- centric, hierarchical, location-based [1] and multipath: In data-centric routing, the base station sends queries to certain areas and waits for data from the sensors located in the selected areas. The main data centric algorithms are SPIN [2] in which meta-data negotiation solves the problems of flooding, overlapping of sensing areas and resource blindness, Directed Diffusion [3][4] in which each node disseminate the date interest in receive. In Gradient-Based Routing, a packet is forwarded on a link with the largest gradient [5] and CADR is a protocol [6], which is a general form of Directed Diffusion. In Hierarchical algorithms clusters are formed in order to segregate the areas of monitoring environment as LEACH, PEGASIS. The main purpose of hierarchical routing is to efficiently maintain the energy consumption of sensor nodes by involving them in multi-hop communication within a specific cluster and by performing data aggregation and fusion in order to reduce the number of transmitted messages to the sink. Cluster formation is based on the energy reserve of sensors and sensor’s proximity to the cluster head [7] [8]. Location- Based algorithm GAF [9]) is based on the use of routing protocols for sensor networks require location information

use of routing protocols for sensor networks require location information Volume 2, Issue 3 May –
use of routing protocols for sensor networks require location information Volume 2, Issue 3 May –

Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013

Page 395

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013

for sensor nodes. Location information is needed in order to calculate the distance between two particular nodes so that energy consumption can be determined. Location information can be used in routing data in an energy efficient manner. Multipath algorithms are based on classic on-demand single path routing methods [10] [11], such as AODV and DSR. They differ from each other on how to forward multiple route requests and how to select multiple routes.

3. ASSUMPTIONS

proposed system model has the following

assumptions.

1. Each node performs sensing task periodically and always has some data to send to the base station.

2. All nodes are stationary and energy constrained.

3. Geographic Location of each node is known.

4. There is no energy hole in the network.

5. Base station is externally powered and has high storage

The

and computation capability

6. All the nodes use multi-hop routing method to forward the data to the closest relay node.

7. Relay nodes carry the sensory data to the base station.

8. There is only one transmission range fixed for all the nodes.

4. PROPOSED ROUTING ALGORITHM

The proposed system consists of a network model consisting of source node S, a number of intermediate nodes and a destination base station D .All the intermediate nodes have limited energy. Each sensor node consists of a set of 3 parameters representing (Available Energy Indicator, Hop Count Indicator, and Node Usage Indicator). The Node Usages indicator (NUI) specifies how many times a specific sensor node has been used during the routing purpose. Available Energy indicator (AEI) specifies the remaining available energy at the

node. Hop Count Indicator (HCI) specifies the distance of

a specific sensor node from the base station in terms of

Hops. The base station is initialized with the hop value “0” while all other sensor nodes are initialized with infinite hop value. The base station is also has unlimited energy available as it is externally powered. All the other nodes have an initial energy level E initial (in Joule). All the sensor nodes in the proposed network are assigned with a unique ID and all the nodes are participating in the network and forward the given data. The proposed Routing algorithm is used for selecting the neighbor nodes to which the data is to be forwarded. According to the proposed algorithm, ideally a sensor node is selected as next hop in which the available energy level indicator is high, having low value of hop count indicator as

well as having the low value of node usage indicator. Each node maintains a Sensor Node Information (SNI) table for the

routing function to perform. The SNI table consists of entries

of all the neighbor nodes through which the node can transfer

ISSN 2278-6856

data. A minimum Energy threshold level (E th ) will be required

to be maintained at each sensor nodes, and if due to any reason

the energy threshold value will drop below E th, the node will die. In the route formation phase, the source node sends the data to the base station by the formation of route using the proposed RBR routing algorithm. The energy consumed by

a specific sensor node depends upon the amount of data

transfer by that node. If there is a high volume of data, the energy depleted on that node is high and if the amount of data transfer through that node is low then there is low degradation of energy through that node. Initially the source node determines the size of data that is to be transfer to the base station. The size of data will depends upon the number of data packets transferred. After that it calculates the amount of energy required by each intermediate node depending upon the data size. The amount of energy required will vary during each iteration

as the total number of data packet will vary.

The current remaining energy level of a sensor node after relaying one packet of m bits can be calculated by deducting the initial or previous energy value from the value of the energy dissipated by the sensor node. Source` ID is the node ID of the sensor node who wants to transfer data. Base Station ID is the node ID of the sensor node where the data will be received. E rq (m) is the amount of energy required by each intermediate node for transferring data of size m. E th is the minimum energy threshold level required by each intermediate node to live. Present Node ID is the ID of the current Node and the Next Node ID is the ID of the next hop. As soon as the next hop is selected, its ID will be written in the Next Node ID field of the route formation packet .The source will write its ID in the source ID field and in the present Node ID field, just as information for the node that detected the event, after which the source ID field will be fixed, but the present Node ID field will change according to the present node. The Hop Count of the next node will be written in the Hop Count Indicator Field.

Steps to create energy efficient optimal path

1. First of all, find all the neighbor nodes having AEI >= (E rq

(m) + E th ) using SNI table of the sensor nodes. If

there is no node having AEI> (E rq (m) + E th ), then drop the data packet as the transfer of packet is not possible, else add all such sensor nodes having AEI>= (E rq (m) + E th ) to the present Neighbor list and go to step 2.

2. Now from all the neighbor nodes, find the node having highest value of AEI and consider it as next hop node. However if there are more than one nodes having the same highest value of AEI, then go to step 3.

3. Find the node having lowest value of HCI and consider it as next hop node. If there are more than one node having same highest value of AEI and same lowest value of HCI, then go to step 4. 4. Find the node in which the value of NUI is lowest and use it as next hop node.

the node in which the value of NUI is lowest and use it as next hop
the node in which the value of NUI is lowest and use it as next hop

Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013

Page 396

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013

5. If there are more than one node having same highest value of AEI and same lowest value of HCI and same lowest value of NUI, then go to step 6.

6. Consider any neighbor node as next hop node

randomly.

7. Repeat from step 1 to step 6 till all the data packets

either reaches to the base station or data packet finally being dropped due to not satisfying the condition given in step 1 by all the neighbor nodes. Each node will re-calculate the value of AEI after the data transfer. Similarly the value of NUI will be increased by one each time a specific node will be used for data transfer. The same algorithm will be used for all the source nodes interested to send data to the base station. The uniform energy level degradation among all sensor nodes causes an enhancement in the lifetime of the sensor nodes.

5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

We have evaluated the performance of the proposed algorithm using simulation and compared its performance with AODV protocol [12]. The AODV protocol is one of the reactive routing protocols that can construct the route when data transmission is required. In this protocol, a source node broadcasts the route request (RREQ) packet to the entire network, and all the nodes rebroadcast the received RREQ packet immediately. Therefore, we use the AODV protocol as the basic protocol Simulation experiments were used to analyze the performance of RBR algorithm using the Castalia Simulator [13], which is a widely used network simulator for WSNs based on OMNET++ [14].The various Simulation Parameters are as given

Parameter

Value

Simulation Area

100

m * 100 m

Total Sensor Nodes

10

to 50

Simulation Time

100

sec

Remote Site

Base Station

Transmission Range

10

m

Packet Size

2KB

Average Packet Rate

0.5

Packets/sec

Node initial Energy

100

Joule

Energy Threshold Level

0.5

Joule

ISSN 2278-6856

6. SIMULATION RESULTS

In this section, the performance of proposed algorithm is analyzed and compared with AODV routing protocol.

6.1 Remaining Node Energy

The remaining node energy of all sensors (10 nodes) at the end of simulation has been plotted in figure 1. The graph shows that proposed algorithm has distributed overall energy over the entire network in a more balanced way. From the results, the remaining battery capacity of nodes in AODV decreases very early. This is because the sensor nodes near the sink nodes consume a large amount of battery power to forward data packets from a sensor node which is located far from the sink node. Therefore, the sensor nodes far from the sink nodes cannot find the route to the sink node. If the route is not found, each sensor node tries to find it again. As results, many sensor nodes consume a large amount of battery power to find the route to the base station nodes.

battery power to find the route to the base station nodes. Figure 1: Comparison of RBR

Figure 1: Comparison of RBR algorithm with AODV protocol for 10 Nodes

 

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Node

Protocol

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

RBR

67

56

85

48

62

67

51

44

74

60

AODV

46

74

73

35

28

51

30

58

36

39

Table 1: Remaining Energy of different nodes for RBR algorithm and AODV protocol

6.2 Energy Consumption

The graph for energy consumption vs. number of nodes of two routing algorithms is shown in Figure 2. The total energy consumption of two routing algorithms increases as number of nodes or increases. However, proposed algorithm performs better than AODV protocol. Energy consumption of the network is the sum of energy consumption of all the nodes in the network

the network is the sum of energy consumption of all the nodes in the network Volume
the network is the sum of energy consumption of all the nodes in the network Volume

Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013

Page 397

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013

ISSN 2278-6856

Energy

Residual Energy)

consumption

(Joules)

=

Σ

(Initial

energy

Figure 3 : Packet delivery ratio in RBR algorithm and AODV for different number of nodes

in RBR algorithm and AODV for different number of nodes Figure 2: Energy consumption comparison for

Figure 2: Energy consumption comparison for RBR and AODV for different number of nodes

Node

         

Count

10

20

30

40

50

RBR

0.025

0.031

0.041

0.049

0.056

AODV

0.032

0.036

0.048

0.057

0.067

Table 2: Energy Consumption for RBR and AODV for

different number of nodes

6.3 Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR)

Node

         

Count

10

20

30

40

50

RBR

0.991

0.983

0.954

0.911

0.883

AODV

0.972

0.965

0.927

0.896

0.855

Table 3: Packet delivery ratio in RBR algorithm and AODV

7. CONCLUSIONS

The proposed RBR algorithm balance the energy consumption rates among the nodes in proportion to their energy reserved. The performance of proposed RBR algorithm is compared with AODV algorithm. The performance of these protocols is compared on the basis of packet delivery ratio, energy consumption and remaining node energy.

We have determined the performance of RBR algorithm for different number of nodes and concluded that a routing protocol with more routing overhead would consume more energy than the routing protocol with less routing overhead means AODV routing algorithm has higher energy consumption than proposed RBR algorithm because of higher routing overhead. Finally we can say that packet delivery ratio in proposed routing algorithm is more than that using AODV routing, and energy consumption of nodes is also balanced in the proposed RBR algorithm.

REFERENCES

[1] A.K. Akkaya, and M. Younis, "A Survey on Routing

Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks", Elsevier Ad Hoc Network Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp 325-349,

2005.

Packet Delivery Ratio is the proportion to the total amount of packets reached the receiver and amount of packet sent by source. If the amount of malicious node increases, PDR decreases. PDR (%) = Number of packets successfully delivered to destination /Number of packets generated by source node Figure 3 gives the percentage packets delivered in each round using proposed algorithm and AODV approach for WSNs. The proposed algorithm gives higher percentage of packets delivered as compared to AODV algorithm. As shown in figure, proposed algorithm performs better as compared to the AODV because of limited congestion. The percentage of packets delivered in proposed algorithm routing is slightly more than that in AODV routing.

routing is slightly more than that in AODV routing. [2] W. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H.

[2] W. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, “Adaptive protocols for information dissemination in wireless sensor networks,” in the Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom‟99), Seattle, WA, August 1999.

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2000.

[4] D. Estrin, et al., “Next century challenges: Scalable Coordination in Sensor Networks,” in the Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom‟99), Seattle, WA, August 1999. [5] C. Schurgers and M.B. Srivastava, “Energy efficient routing in wireless sensor networks,” in the MILCOM Proceedings on Communications for Network-Centric Operations: Creating the Information Force, McLean, VA, 2001.of the First Workshop on Sensor Networks

Information Force, McLean, VA, 2001.of the First Workshop on Sensor Networks Volume 2, Issue 3 May
Information Force, McLean, VA, 2001.of the First Workshop on Sensor Networks Volume 2, Issue 3 May

Volume 2, Issue 3 May – June 2013

Page 398

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org, editorijettcs@gmail.com

Volume 2, Issue 3, May – June 2013

ISSN 2278-6856

and Applications (WSNA), Atlanta, GA, October

2002.

[6] M. Chu, H. Haussecker, and F. Zhao, "Scalable Information-Driven Sensor Querying and Routing for ad hoc Heterogeneous Sensor Networks," The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, Vol. 16, No. 3, August 2002. [7] A. Buczak and V. Jamalabad, "Self-organization of a Heterogeneous Sensor Network by Genetic Algorithms," Intelligent Engineering Systems through

Artificial Neural Networks, C.H. Dagli, et. (eds.), Vol. 8, pp. 259-264, ASME Press, New York, 1998. [8] C.R. Lin and M. Gerla, "Adaptive Clustering for Mobile Wireless Networks”, IEEE Journal on Selected areas in Communications, Vol. 15, No. 7, September

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[9] Y. Xu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, "Geography- informed energy conservation for ad hoc routing," in the Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom‟01), Rome, Italy, July 2001. [10] M.K. Marina, and S.R. Das, “On-demand multipath distance vector routing in ad hoc networks,” Proc. 9th IEEE Int. Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), 2001, pp.

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[11] S.J. Lee and M. Gerla, "Split multipath routing with maximally disjoint paths in ad hoc networks," Proc. IEEE Int. Con. Communications (ICC),2001, Vol.10, pp. 3201-3205. [12] Charles E. Perkins and Elizabeth M. Royer. "Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing." Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, New Orleans, LA, pp. 90- 100, February 1999. [13] http://castalia.research.nicta.com.au/index.php/en/ [14] http://www.omnetpp.org

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