Sunteți pe pagina 1din 30
Recommended Changes in Future Design Vehicles for Purposes of Geometric Design of U.S. Highways and
Recommended Changes in Future Design Vehicles for Purposes of Geometric Design of U.S. Highways and

Recommended Changes in Future Design Vehicles for Purposes of Geometric Design of U.S. Highways and Streets

Authors:

Darren J. Torbic Douglas W. Harwood

June 21, 2006 9 th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions

Objectives • NCHRP Report 505: Review of Truck Characteristics as Factors in Roadway Design –

Objectives

• NCHRP Report 505: Review of Truck Characteristics as Factors in Roadway Design

– Ensure that geometric design criteria for trucks can reasonably accommodate the dimensions of current and future trucks using the U.S. highway system

– Recommend appropriate modifications and/or additions to the AASHTO Green Book

– Focus on Design Vehicle Fleet

Outline • Overview of design vehicles • Future changes to the U.S. truck fleet •

Outline

• Overview of design vehicles

• Future changes to the U.S. truck fleet

• Single-unit trucks

• Single-trailer combinations

• Double-trailer combinations

• Triple-trailer combinations

• Summary of design vehicle recommendations

Overview of Design Vehicles • Physical characteristics and proportions of vehicles represent key controls in

Overview of Design Vehicles

• Physical characteristics and proportions of vehicles represent key controls in highway geometric design

• 2004 AASHTO Green Book presents design vehicle dimensions and characteristics for 19 design vehicles

– 8 trucks

• Design vehicles:

– Represent categories of vehicles

– Do not represent typical vehicles, but largest vehicles in class

– Selected or chosen by designer

Future Changes to U.S. Truck Fleet • Charged with assessing effect on geometric design of

Future Changes to U.S. Truck Fleet

• Charged with assessing effect on geometric design of both current and future truck populations

• Current truck fleet assessed using 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and field data

• Future truck population hypothesized based upon:

– Current truck population

– Trends in current truck population

– Likelihood of changes in size and weight laws and regulations

– Economics of trucking industry

– TRB Special Report 267 - Regulation of Weights, Lengths, and Widths of Commercial Motor Vehicles (2002)

– North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

Recommendations

Recommendations

Single-Unit Trucks • Current SU design vehicle – 2 axles – Overall length – 9.15

Single-Unit Trucks

Single-Unit Trucks • Current SU design vehicle – 2 axles – Overall length – 9.15 m

• Current SU design vehicle

– 2 axles

– Overall length – 9.15 m (30 ft)

– Wheelbase – 6.10 m (20 ft)

• Recommend retaining current SU design vehicle and adding a second larger SU design vehicle

– Based on numbers and VMT

Single-Unit Trucks (cont) • New recommended SU design vehicle [SU-8 (SU-25)] – 3 axles –

Single-Unit Trucks (cont)

Single-Unit Trucks (cont) • New recommended SU design vehicle [SU-8 (SU-25)] – 3 axles – Overall

• New recommended SU design vehicle [SU-8 (SU-25)]

– 3 axles

– Overall length – 12.04 m (39.5 ft)

– Wheelbase – 7.62 m (25 ft)

Single-Trailer Combinations • Green Book includes 4 classes of single-trailer combination design vehicles: – WB-12

Single-Trailer Combinations

• Green Book includes 4 classes of single-trailer combination design vehicles:

– WB-12 (WB-40) [10.1 m (33 ft) trailer]

– WB-15 (WB-50) [13.0 m (42.5 ft) trailer]

– WB-19 (WB-62) [14.6 m (48 ft) trailer]

– WB-20 (WB-65 or WB-67) [16.2 m (53 ft) trailer]

Single-Trailer: WB-12 (WB-40) • Rarely seen today on highways • May be appropriate for design

Single-Trailer: WB-12 (WB-40)

Single-Trailer: WB-12 (WB-40) • Rarely seen today on highways • May be appropriate for design of

• Rarely seen today on highways

• May be appropriate for design of local roads and streets

• Appropriate as container-carrying vehicle

• Retain as design vehicle but indicate:

– Appropriate for local streets not used by larger combination vehicles and for access roads to ports and train yards where container traffic might predominate

Single-Trailer: WB-15 (WB-50) • Rarely seen today on highways • Prior to 1982 Surface Transportation

Single-Trailer: WB-15 (WB-50)

Single-Trailer: WB-15 (WB-50) • Rarely seen today on highways • Prior to 1982 Surface Transportation Assistance

• Rarely seen today on highways

• Prior to 1982 Surface Transportation Assistance Act (STAA), trailer size quite common

– STAA mandated use of 14.6 m (48 ft) trailers on NN

– Today 12.2 – 13.7 m (40 – 45 ft) trailers have largely disappeared

• 8 % of single-trailer combinations

• Very limited use as design vehicle

• Recommend eliminating as design vehicle in Green Book

Single-Trailer: WB-19 (WB-62) • Nearly largest tractor-semitrailer c ombination on highway at one time –

Single-Trailer: WB-19 (WB-62)

Single-Trailer: WB-19 (WB-62) • Nearly largest tractor-semitrailer c ombination on highway at one time – WB-20

• Nearly largest tractor-semitrailer combination on highway at one time

– WB-20 (WB-65 or WB-67) with 16.2 m (53 ft) trailer perhaps more common today

• Retain because it represents:

– Vehicle size limit specified by law

– Very closely the offtracking performance of longer trucks with rear axles pulled forward to meet kingpin to center of rear tandem (KCRT) distance requirements

• Slightly modify KCRT

– Current KCRT distance on WB-19 (WB-62) is 12.3 m (40.5 ft)

– KCRT distance of 12.5 m (41 ft) more common (19 states)

Single-Trailer: WB-20 (WB-65) • Can operate in most states on NN and state routes •

Single-Trailer: WB-20 (WB-65)

Single-Trailer: WB-20 (WB-65) • Can operate in most states on NN and state routes • VIUS

• Can operate in most states on NN and state routes

• VIUS data indicate 22.4 % of VMT by trucks are single-trailers with 16.2 m (53 ft) trailers or more

• Trucks with 16.2 m (53 ft) trailers constitute 47 % of all combination trucks

Single-Trailer: WB-20 (WB-67) • Identical to WB-20 (WB-65) except rear tandem is positioned closer to

Single-Trailer: WB-20 (WB-67)

Single-Trailer: WB-20 (WB-67) • Identical to WB-20 (WB-65) except rear tandem is positioned closer to rear

• Identical to WB-20 (WB-65) except rear tandem is positioned closer to rear of trailer

– KCRT of WB-20 (WB-65) is 13.26 m (43.5 ft)

– KCRT of WB-20 (WB-67) is 13.87 m (45.5 ft)

• No good reason to include both vehicles in Green Book

• Recommend including only WB-20 (WB-67):

– Has greater turning radius, offtracking, and swept path width

• If designer is considering the offtracking and swept path of a single-trailer combination with a 16.2 m (53 ft) trailer and 12.5 m (41 ft) KCRT

– WB-19 (WB-62) should be used

Single-Trailer: WB-22 (WB-71) • 8 states permit trucks with trai ler lengths > 16.2 m

Single-Trailer: WB-22 (WB-71)

Single-Trailer: WB-22 (WB-71) • 8 states permit trucks with trai ler lengths > 16.2 m (53

• 8 states permit trucks with trailer lengths > 16.2 m (53 ft) to operate on NN

• Not recommended for inclusion as design vehicle at present time

• Appropriate design vehicle developed for future consideration should numbers and proportions increase

– Designated WB-22 (WB-71)

– Represents incremental increase in size to WB-20 (WB-67)

Single-Trailer: 6 Axle Combination • Future legislation may allow states to issue permits for 6

Single-Trailer: 6 Axle Combination

• Future legislation may allow states to issue permits for 6 axle (i.e., single steering, tandem drive, and tridem rear axles) tractor-semitrailers with maximum weights up to 35,400 kg (90,000 lb)

– Recommendation provided in TRB Special Report 267

• 6 axle tractor-semitrailers allowed to operate now

– No advantage over 5 axle combinations with current GVW and axle limits

• 6 axle tractor-semitrailers would impact pavement and bridge design, but would not impact geometric design

– Not recommended for inclusion in Green Book

Double-Trailer Combinations • Green Book includes 2 classes of double-trailer combination design vehicles: – WB-20D

Double-Trailer Combinations

• Green Book includes 2 classes of double-trailer combination design vehicles:

– WB-20D (WB-67D) with twin 8.7 m (28.5 ft) trailers

– WB-33 (WB-109D) with two 14.6 m (48 ft) trailers

Double-Trailer: WB-20D (WB-67D) • Permitted to operate on NN since 1982 • Common on intercity

Double-Trailer: WB-20D (WB-67D)

Double-Trailer: WB-20D (WB-67D) • Permitted to operate on NN since 1982 • Common on intercity roads

• Permitted to operate on NN since 1982

• Common on intercity roads

• Circumstances where WB-20D (WB-67D) would be the appropriate design vehicle are limited

– Has less offtracking and swept path width than WB-19 (WB-62) and WB-20 (WB-65 and WB-67) which operate on similar roads

• Retain because represents maximum vehicle size limit specified in Federal law

Double-Trailer: WB-23D (WB-77D) • If current freeze on size and we ight limits were lifted,

Double-Trailer: WB-23D (WB-77D)

Double-Trailer: WB-23D (WB-77D) • If current freeze on size and we ight limits were lifted, a

• If current freeze on size and weight limits were lifted, a combination with 10.1 m (33 ft) trailers could be legalized

– TRB Special Report 267 recommends such a combination

• Not recommended for inclusion as design vehicle at present time

– Appropriate design vehicle developed for future consideration should such a truck become legal and common

Double-Trailer: WB-33D (WB-109D) • Also referred to as turnpike double • Consists of tractor with

Double-Trailer: WB-33D (WB-109D)

• Also referred to as turnpike double

• Consists of tractor with two 14.6 m (48 ft) trailers

• Operate under permit on specific roads

• May be appropriate design vehicle on roads where they operate in substantial numbers

• Current design vehicle uses a cab-over tractor

– Conventional tractor would be more realistic

– Larger wheelbase of conventional tractor would have minimal effect on offtracking

– No recommended changes to current WB-33D (WB- 109D) design vehicle

Double-Trailer: WB-37D (WB-120D) • If current freeze on size and we ight limits were lifted,

Double-Trailer: WB-37D (WB-120D)

Double-Trailer: WB-37D (WB-120D) • If current freeze on size and we ight limits were lifted, a

• If current freeze on size and weight limits were lifted, a combination with 16.2 m (53 ft) trailers could be of interest

– Economically advantageous to move low density commodities

• Not recommended for inclusion as design vehicle at present time

– Appropriate design vehicle developed for future consideration should such a truck become legal and common

Double-Trailer: WB-28D (WB-92D) • Rocky Mountain doubles are fairly common in 20 states – Cross

Double-Trailer: WB-28D (WB-92D)

Double-Trailer: WB-28D (WB-92D) • Rocky Mountain doubles are fairly common in 20 states – Cross between

• Rocky Mountain doubles are fairly common in 20 states

– Cross between the twin-trailer and turnpike double

• May offtrack more than other relatively common truck types

• Recommended for inclusion in Green Book

Double-Trailer: WB-23BD (WB-75BD) • B-train double-trailers trucks are fairly common in Canada and northern tier

Double-Trailer: WB-23BD (WB-75BD)

Double-Trailer: WB-23BD (WB-75BD) • B-train double-trailers trucks are fairly common in Canada and northern tier of

• B-train double-trailers trucks are fairly common in Canada and northern tier of U.S.

– Hitching mechanism differs from common double trailers in U.S.

– Rear trailer in a B-train double is a semitrailer rather than a full trailer

– Can carry heavier loads where legal

• Not recommended for inclusion as design vehicle at present time

– Appropriate design vehicle developed for future consideration should such a truck become legal and common

• Based on Canadian design vehicle dimensions

Triple-Trailer: WB-30T (WB-100T) • Consists of three 8.7 m (28.5 ft) trailers – One semitrailer

Triple-Trailer: WB-30T (WB-100T)

Triple-Trailer: WB-30T (WB-100T) • Consists of three 8.7 m (28.5 ft) trailers – One semitrailer and

• Consists of three 8.7 m (28.5 ft) trailers

– One semitrailer and two full trailers

• Represents most common triple-trailer combination on road

• No recommended changes to this design vehicle

Summary of Design Vehicle Recommendations

Summary of Design Vehicle Recommendations

Single Unit Trucks • Retain current 2 axle SU – Designate as SU-6 (SU-20) •

Single Unit Trucks

• Retain current 2 axle SU

– Designate as SU-6 (SU-20)

• Add longer 3 axle SU

– Designate as SU-8 (SU-25)

Single-Trailer Combinations • Retain current WB-12 (WB-40) with 10.1 m (33 ft) trailer for container

Single-Trailer Combinations

• Retain current WB-12 (WB-40) with 10.1 m (33 ft) trailer for container trucks and local streets

• Eliminate WB-15 (WB-50) with 13.0 m (42.5 ft) trailer

– No longer common

• Retain WB-19 (WB-62) with 14.6 m (48 ft) trailer

– Configuration specified in Federal law

– Increase KCRT distance from 12.3 to 12.5 m (40.5 to 41 ft)

• Eliminate WB-20 (WB-65) with 16.2 m (53 ft) trailer

– Represents an “in-between” axle placement that is neither a best nor a worst case for design

• Retain WB-20 (WB-67) with 16.2 m (53 ft) trailer

– Increase KCRT distance from 13.3 to 13.9 m (43.5 to 45.5 ft) to represent worst case condition

• WB-22 (WB-71) with 17.37 m (57 ft) trailer developed for future consideration

• No 6 axle tractor semitrailer needed

Double-Trailer Combinations • Retain current WB-20D (WB-67D) with 8.7 m (28.5 ft) trailers – Configuration

Double-Trailer Combinations

• Retain current WB-20D (WB-67D) with 8.7 m (28.5 ft) trailers

– Configuration specified in Federal law

• WB-23D (WB-77D) with 10.1 m (33 ft) trailers developed for future consideration

• Retain current WB-33D (WB-109D) with 14.6 m (48 ft) trailers (i.e., turnpike double)

• WB-37D (WB-120D) with 16.2 m (53 ft) trailers developed for future consideration

• Add WB-30D (WB-92D) with 14.6 m (48 ft) semitrailer and 8.7 m (28.5 ft) full trailer (i.e., Rocky Mountain double)

• WB-23BD (WB-75BD) developed for future consideration (i.e., B-train double)

Triple-Trailer Combinations • Retain current WB-30T (WB-100T) with 8.7 m (28.5 ft) trailers

Triple-Trailer Combinations

• Retain current WB-30T (WB-100T) with 8.7 m (28.5 ft) trailers

Questions???

Questions???