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Unit II Transmission, Multiplexing, Modulation, Multiple Access & Coding FDMA Kishore R Assistant Professor/ECE

Unit II Transmission, Multiplexing, Modulation, Multiple Access & Coding

FDMA

Kishore R Assistant Professor/ECE

Unit II Transmission, Multiplexing, Modulation, Multiple Access & Coding FDMA Kishore R Assistant Professor/ECE

2/18

Objective

At the end of the session students will be able to understand

Frequency Division Multiple Access Types of FDMA

SPADE system

session students will be able to understand • Frequency Division Multiple Access • Types of FDMA
session students will be able to understand • Frequency Division Multiple Access • Types of FDMA

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FDMA

3/18 FDMA
3/18 FDMA

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FDMA

SHARE THE FREQUENCY

TIME IS COMMON TO ALL SIGNALS

DEVELOP A FREQUENCY PLAN FROM USER CAPACITY REQUESTS

TRANSPONDER LOADING PLAN USED TO MINIMIZE IM PRODUCTS

TRANSPONDER LOADING PLAN

PLAN FROM USER CAPACITY REQUESTS • TRANSPONDER LOADING PLAN USED TO MINIMIZE IM PRODUCTS TRANSPONDER LOADING
PLAN FROM USER CAPACITY REQUESTS • TRANSPONDER LOADING PLAN USED TO MINIMIZE IM PRODUCTS TRANSPONDER LOADING
PLAN FROM USER CAPACITY REQUESTS • TRANSPONDER LOADING PLAN USED TO MINIMIZE IM PRODUCTS TRANSPONDER LOADING

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FDMA TRANSPONDER LOADING PLAN

Four medium-sized FM signals

FDMA TRANSPONDER LOADING PLAN Four medium-sized FM signals One large and four small digital signals Available

One large and four small digital signals

FM signals One large and four small digital signals Available transponder bandwidth typically 27 to 72
FM signals One large and four small digital signals Available transponder bandwidth typically 27 to 72
FM signals One large and four small digital signals Available transponder bandwidth typically 27 to 72

Available transponder bandwidth typically 27 to 72 MHz

digital signals Available transponder bandwidth typically 27 to 72 MHz IMPORTANT TO CALCULATE INTERMODULATION PRODUCTS
digital signals Available transponder bandwidth typically 27 to 72 MHz IMPORTANT TO CALCULATE INTERMODULATION PRODUCTS
IMPORTANT TO CALCULATE INTERMODULATION PRODUCTS
IMPORTANT TO CALCULATE
INTERMODULATION PRODUCTS

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INTERMODULATION

INTERMODULATION

WHEN TWO, OR MORE, SIGNALS ARE PRESENT IN A CHANNEL, THE SIGNALS CAN “MIX” TOGETHER TO FORM SOME UNWANTED PRODUCTS

WITH THREE SIGNALS, 1 , 2 AND 3 , PRESENT IN A CHANNEL, IM PRODUCTS CAN BE SECOND-ORDER, THIRD-ORDER, FOURTH-ORDER, ETC.

ORDER OF IM PRODUCTS

 3 , PRESENT IN A CHANNEL, IM PRODUCTS CAN BE SECOND-ORDER, THIRD-ORDER, FOURTH-ORDER, ETC. ORDER
 3 , PRESENT IN A CHANNEL, IM PRODUCTS CAN BE SECOND-ORDER, THIRD-ORDER, FOURTH-ORDER, ETC. ORDER
 3 , PRESENT IN A CHANNEL, IM PRODUCTS CAN BE SECOND-ORDER, THIRD-ORDER, FOURTH-ORDER, ETC. ORDER

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IM PRODUCT ORDER

Second-order is 1 + 2 , 2 + 3 , 1 + 3

Third-order is 1 + 2 + 3 , 21 - 2 , 22 -

1

Usually, only the odd-order IM products fall within the passband of the channel

Amplitude reduces as order rises

Only third-order IM products are usually important

3-IM products very sensitive to small signal changes. Hence, IM ‘noise’ can change sharply with output amplifier back-off

products very sensitive to small signal changes. Hence, IM ‘noise’ can change sharply with output amplifier
products very sensitive to small signal changes. Hence, IM ‘noise’ can change sharply with output amplifier

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IM EXAMPLE

There are two 10 MHz signals at 6.01 GHz and 6.02 GHz centered in a 72 MHz transponder

2-IM product is at 12.03 GHz

3-IM products are at [2(6.01) - 6.02] = 6.00 and [2(6.02) - 6.01] = 6.03 GHz

3-IM products
3-IM products
product is at 12.03 GHz • 3-IM products are at [2(6.01) - 6.02] = 6.00 and

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FDMA LIMITATIONS

Intermods cause C/N to fall

Back-Off is needed to reduce IM

Parts of band cannot be used because of IM

Transponder power is shared amongst carriers

Power balancing must be done carefully

Frequencies get tied to routes

must be done carefully • Frequencies get tied to routes Patterned after terrestrial analog telecoms and

Patterned after terrestrial analog telecoms and so does not confer the full benefit of satellite “broadcast” capabilities

after terrestrial analog telecoms and so does not confer the full benefit of satellite “broadcast” capabilities
after terrestrial analog telecoms and so does not confer the full benefit of satellite “broadcast” capabilities

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Single Access-Preassigned FDMA

10/18 Single Access-Preassigned FDMA
10/18 Single Access-Preassigned FDMA
10/18 Single Access-Preassigned FDMA

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Preassignment also may be made on the basis of a single channel per carrier (SCPC)

single voice (or data) channel per carrier, not a transponder channel, which may in fact carry some hundreds of voice channels by this method.

The carriers may be frequency modulated or phase-shift modulated

earth station may be capable of transmitting one or more SCPC signals simultaneously

or phase-shift modulated • earth station may be capable of transmitting one or more SCPC signals
or phase-shift modulated • earth station may be capable of transmitting one or more SCPC signals

Example: Fixed Assignment

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Example: Fixed Assignment 12/18
Example: Fixed Assignment 12/18
Example: Fixed Assignment 12/18

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Demand Assignment

Demand assignment may be carried out in a number of ways

In the polling method, a master earth station continuously polls all the earth stations in sequence

if a call request is encountered

Frequency slots are assigned from the pool of available frequencies

The polling delay with such a system tends to become excessive as the number of participating earth stations increases

The polling delay with such a system tends to become excessive as the number of participating
The polling delay with such a system tends to become excessive as the number of participating

Instead of using a polling sequence, earth stations may request calls through the master earth station as the need arises

centrally controlled random access

The requests go over a digital orderwire, which is a narrowband digital radio link or a circuit through a satellite transponder reserved for this purpose.

Frequencies are assigned, if available, by the master station, and when the call is completed, the frequencies are returned to the pool

If no frequencies are available, the blocked call requests may be placed in a queue

or a second call attempt may be initiated by the requesting station.

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call requests may be placed in a queue • or a second call attempt may be
call requests may be placed in a queue • or a second call attempt may be

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Instead of centrally controlled random access, control may be exercised at each earth station

this being known as distributed control random access

A good illustration of such a system is provided by the Spade system operated by INTELSAT on some of its satellites.

• A good illustration of such a system is provided by the Spade system operated by
• A good illustration of such a system is provided by the Spade system operated by

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Channeling Scheme for SPADE

16/18 Channeling Scheme for SPADE
16/18 Channeling Scheme for SPADE
16/18 Channeling Scheme for SPADE

SPADE System

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SPADE System 17/18
SPADE System 17/18
SPADE System 17/18

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Summary

Preassigned FDMA

Demand Assignment FDMA

SCPC - SPADE

18/18 Summary • Preassigned FDMA • Demand Assignment FDMA • SCPC - SPADE
18/18 Summary • Preassigned FDMA • Demand Assignment FDMA • SCPC - SPADE