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PHASE CONSIDERATION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CODE FOR STRUCTURES IN NEPAL

RISHI RAM PARAJULI

OUTLINE

Introduction Worldwide trend in change of codes Consideration of phase for design ground motion Discussion Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

Population Economy

Development

URBANAIZATION

INTRODUCTION
POPULATION AND DISTRIBUTION SCENARIO OF NEAPL

Population Distribution
Urban 17%

Rural 83%

INTRODUCTION

MEGA CITY ???????


Population >10 million Density >2000/sq.Km.

UN projects for 60% of world population will be in cities by 2030. We have now just 17% of our population are in urban areas. Hence we must have to step for big cities.

INTRODUCTION

EXPECTATION !!!!!!

Who have to own this??

INTRODUCTION

What we (Engineers) have to do


Obviously Perception of needs to society. Planning and execution Maintenance and operation

What we must consider


Safety Cost

Major Earthquakes in Himalaya N

Are we in safe zone????


Obviously Perception of needs to society. Planning and execution Maintenance and operation

Brahmaputra River

What we must consider


Safety Cost Indian plate moving toward north at a rate of 2 to 5 cm per year and the occurrence
of frequent seismic activities along the Himalaya and its surroundings During past 120 years, five great earthquakes occurred along the Himalayan front

INTRODUCTION

Can we stand like this??

INTRODUCTION

What can we do.


For Public facilities owned by Government, Safety first. Specific Design and Construction guidelines. Quality of result Private owned Public Facilities, Strict regulations and monitoring on guidelines. Private owned, Awareness about disasters.

INTRODUCTION
Can we make structures earthquake proof ???
No!!!!! We can make it safe against life of people to some limit but not for life of structure in all case.

What we consider
Damage Demand Death

WORLDWIDE TREND IN CHANGING DESIGN CODES AFTER DISASTER

TRENDS .

Japan
1923
Kanto earthquake (142,000 Fatalities) They start to consider seismic design as seismic coefficient 0.2
Kobe earthquake (5100 + death) Devastating structural damage Propose new independent seismic design code

1995

2011

Great East Japan earthquake Structures performance was considerably good but death toll high due to tsunami.

TRENDS .

USA
1971
San Fernando Earthquake They start to consider seismic design.

Loma Prieta earthquake 1989 Change in design codes

TRENDS .

NEW ZEALAND
1992
They prepare seismic design code for building.

1994

Prepare seismic design code for bridges


Canterbury earthquake Changing in seismic design codes.

2010

TRENDS .

INDONESIA
1970
They have seismic design code for main islands. Seismic coefficient 0.1g for PADANG City

1987

Change in seismic design code, for Padang City 0.28-0.36 g

Sumatra earthquake 2002 Changing in seismic design codes as 0.8g seismic coefficient.

Padang earthquake 2009 Changing in seismic design codes as 1.9g seismic coefficient.

TRENDS .

Main Causes in revision (case of Indonesia)


Less researches cause not much data to analyze and make accurate design methodologies. Design is mostly ok but construction methodologies and quality of construction. Thought of economical only not about safety.

TRENDS .

Constraints in our door .


Same as Indonesia, less researches and data records, so no much data to analyze and make accurate design methodologies. Construction industry is not even fully enter in to professionalism. Initial cost of well designed structure is obviously expensive but life cycle cost is cheaper than now a days practice. So we have to force.

Consideration of phase for design ground motion

Phase angle of wave is most useful.


We can see the ground motion in to summation of sinusoidal waves. X(t)= Asin(t+) Phase of wave can represent the characteristic of ground motion on that area. Hence we can consider phase angle of recorded dataset and can simulate the ground motion.

acceleration (m/s2)

Consideration of phase for design ground motion


Time Series Plot:unnamed 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

We can see .
-0.2 0 5 10 15
acceleration (m/s2) acceleration (m/s2)

acceleration (m/s2)

1 0.4

20 25 30 Time (sec) Time Series Plot:unnamed Time Series Plot:unnamed

35

40

45
Time Series Plot:unnamed 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2

0.5 0.2 0

-0.5 -0.2 -1 0 -0.4

10 10

15 15

acceleration (m/s2) acceleration (m/s2)

Kobe Earthquake
1
acceleration (m/s2)

20 25 30 Time 20 (sec) 25 30 Time (sec) Time Series Plot:unnamed

35 35

40

45

10

15

40

45
1

El Centro Earthquake Time Series Plot:unnamed

20 25 30 Time (sec) Time Series Plot:unnamed

35

40

45

0.4
0.5

0.2
0

0.5

-0.5

-0.2 -1
0

10

15

-0.5

10

15

20 25 Time (sec)

30

35

40

45

-0.4

20 25 Time (sec)

30

35

40

45

10

15

Amplitude Kobe phase El Centro


ation (m/s2)

Amplitude El Centro phase Kobe 1


0.5

20 25 30 Time (sec) Time Series Plot:unnamed

35

40

45

Discussion

How can we use .


We can simulate the design ground motion according to the design response spectra too when we can collect and analyze ground motion data. Source of earthquake and soil properties with bed rock depth are influential for phase of ground motion. After getting phase of data we can generate design ground motion keeping phase as constant and changing amplitude.

Conclusion

Beneficial for us.


We are in benchmark of development phase, hence for Urban development we have to move toward safe structures against earthquake too. For major cities we can prepare different design ground motion if more irregularities considering soil type and possible source of earthquake.

Future work

To be continue.
We are starting to do some research in phase and its relations to site specific condition. Hence hope we will success to deliver better result in making design ground motion. Research in its early phase, these are preliminary way outs.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION