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Espaol (Spanish)

Licdo. Arqumedes Velsquez E.P.B.I. Euxebio Caripe



a e i o u C

ah ay ee oh oo

as in father as in met as in machine as in north as in rule

butaca (boo-tahkah), armchair Mesa (maysah), table Primo (preemoh), cousin Esposo (ays-pohsoh), husband Duda (doodah), doubt


As k in key before a, o, u. or before a consonant. Example: cada (kahda), each. As s in see before e and i. Example: cena (saynah) Cruz (kroos), cross. As g in go before a, o, u or before a consonant. Example: gato (gahtoh), cat. As h in hue, before e and i: example: gente (hayntay), people. Is never pronounced: hacer (ahsayr), to do. As h in hue: jugar (hoo-gahr) to play. As y in yes (in Latin-American Spanish): calle (kahyay), street. As n in canyon: nio (neenyoh), child. (as r in British very) is a trilled r: pero (payroh), but As single Spanish r, but much more strongly trilled: perro (payrroh), dog. As y in yes: yo (yoh), I. As s in see. Zapato (sah-pahtoh).

Gender and number

1. THE ARTICLE 1.1.The definite article in Spanish has the following forms: Singular Masculine el (the) Feminine la (the) Plural Los (the) Las (the)

1.2.Contractions of the masculine singular definitive article are formed with the prepositions a and de: al (a + el) hombre (to the man) del (de + el) hombre (of the man). 1.3.The definite article Spanish is used more often than in English. 1.4.The forms of the indefinite article in Spanish are: Singular Masculine un (a or an) Feminine una (a or an) Plural unos (some) unas (some)

1.5.The indefinite article is not used in Spanish so often as in English. 1.6.Both the definite and indefinite articles agree in gender and number with the noun they modify. 1.7.The neuter article lo is used with participles and adjectives, as lo dicho (what has been said), lo til (that which is useful). 2. THE NOUN 2.1. All nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine. Nouns ending in o are generally masculine; those ending in a (except ma and ta), -dad, -tad, -tud, -in, umbre, -ez, and -ie are generally feminine. Gender Masculine Nouns ending in o a, -dad, -tad, tud, -in, umbre, -ez, -ie Examples Libro, carro, vaso, perro, hombre, pueblo, mano. Cancin, leccin, mansedumbre, amistad, casa, taza, sensatez.


2.2. The plural of nouns of both genders ending in a unstressed vowel is formed by adding s and of noun ending in a consonant or a stressed vowel by adding es: Example: Singular El caballo (the horse) La flor (the flower)

Plural Los caballos (the horses) Las flores (the flowers)

2.3. In Spanish, possession is always expressed by the preposition de preceding the noun which designates the possessor: el libro de Jorge (Georges book). 2.4. If the object (direct or indirect) denotes a person, it is preceded by the preposition a, which is the called the personal a. Compare the following examples: Espero a mi ta Busco mi abrigo (I wait for my aunt) (I am looking for my overcoat)

This personal a is omitted when the object denoting a person is not identified: Llame un polica (Call a [=any] policeman) 2.5. Spanish speakers use a great number of diminutives (which express smallness or affection) and augmentatives (which usually express large size or awkwardness), especially in colloquial speech. These diminutives and augmentatives make the speech more colorful and add various connotations to the basic meanings of the words from which they are

derived. One whose native tongue is not Spanish has to be careful in the use of these forms because he may use a diminutive or augmentative formed with a certain suffix which has a basic connotation but which in certain forms may have additional connotations. Examples: Nouns Pan (bread) Ana (Ann) Mano (hand) Pueblo (town) Libro (book) Hombre (man) Practice: Use el, la, los, las 1. 2. 3. 4. _______ camisa _______ disco _______ calle _______ pjaros _______ regalo _______ piso _______ pollos _______ nubes _______ hombres _______ ros _______ colegio _______ puerta ______ mujeres ______ agua ______escuela ______sol Diminutive Augmentative Panecito (roll) Anita (Anny) Manecita (pretty little hand) Pueblecillo, pueblito (tiny town) Librito (booklet) Librote (large old book) Hombrecito (little man) Hombrn (big man)

Use un, una, unos, unas. 5. 6. 7. 8. ______ cambur ______ pera ______ guantes ______ pinturas ______ lminas ______ pelcula ______ rbol ______ peridicos ______ calle ______ polica ______ monedas ______ libros ______ muchachas ______ cuchillo ______ rboles _____ pelota

Use diminutive 9. Amigo ____________ 10. Hermana __________ 11. rbol _____________ 12. Calle _____________ 13. Pollo _____________ 14. Pjaros ____________ 15. Lpiz _____________ 16. Casa 17. Vaso 18. Carro _______________ _______________ ________________

Use augmentative