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Difference Between Counseling and Psychotherapy Counseling- defined as use of an interactive helping process focusing on the needs, problems,

or feelings of the patient and significant others to enhance or support coping, problem solving, and interpersonal relationships. Psychotherapy- is the treatment of mental and emotional problems through the use of psychological techniques designed to encourage communication of conflicts and insight into problems, with the goal being personality growth and behavior modification A counseling session usually takes place in a non-medical setting such as an office and school.Counseling is shorter in duration than psychotherapy. The time spent in counseling is determined by goals set by the client and the counselor. Once these goals are met the client should then be able to go back on their own. It is sometimes called talk therapy, is a conversation or series of conversations between a counselor and client. It usually focuses on a specific problem and taking the steps to address or solve it. Problems are discussed in the present-tense, without too much attention on the role of past experiences. Psychotherapy takes place in a medical setting such as a clinic or hospital. Psychotherapy tends to last a while longer. Sessions range from two to five yearsPsychotherapyis based on a healing relationship between a health care provider and client. During psychotherapy, the therapist is looking into the unconscious or past.Instead of narrowing in on individual problems, psychotherapy considers overall patterns, chronic issues, and recurrent feelings. Counseling deals mainly with basic life problems that most people experience at one time or another. Examples include work stress, relationship problems or difficult life transitions such as the loss of a loved one. In contrast the word psychotherapy suggests a greater focus on improving problems with a person's underlying thoughts, beliefs or emotions. Obviously the best benefit for most people involves a mix of both approaches. A counselor is also likely to give lots of supportive suggestions or advice while a psychotherapist is generally less directive. A psychotherapist is looking for a connection of past to deal with problems which are now present in the real world. Donald Arbuckle states, "There is a further distinction to be made. This involves the nature or content of the problem which the client brings to the counselor. A distinction is attempted between reality-oriented problems and those problems which inhere in the personality of the individual" Counseling and psychotherapy also differentiate when it comes to the level of adjustment or maladjustment of the client. Counseling holds an emphasis on "normals". One could classify "normals" as those without neurotic problems but those who have become victims of pressures from outside environment. The emphasis in psychotherapy however is on "neurotics" or other severe emotional problems. While counseling deals with problem solving, psychotherapy on the other hand deals with the analytical view. Here the therapist would determine the cause of ones behavior from the results of that behavior. In counseling a client may have a situation where they do not have any idea how to handle it. There are two types of problems, solvable and unsolvable. If the problem is a solvable one, a therapist may help that client by looking at the problem with them and helping the client draw out solutions. When thinking of solutions one must also think of the consequences. The counselor develops a close personal relationship with the client, but he does not encourage or allow strong transference feelings as does the psychotherapist. The counselor tends to find this transference as interfering with his or her counseling effectiveness. A psychotherapist might feel that this transference is helpful and the client may be able to see what he is trying to do with the therapist relationship. A counselor may look at transference as "manifestations in an incomplete growing up process"(Brammer & Shostrom 1977), where the psychotherapist interprets these transference feelings as an unconscious nature of feelings. Counseling is a learning-oriented process, carried on in a simple, one to one social environment, in which a counselor, professionally competent in relevant psychological skills and knowledge, seeks to assist the client by methods appropriate to the latter's needs and within the context of the total personnel program, to learn more about himself, to learn how to put such understanding into effect in relation to more clearly perceived, realistically defined goals to the ` end that the client may become a happier and more productive member of his society. In lay terms counseling can be described as a face to face relationship, having goals to help a client to learn or acquire new skills which will enable them to cope and adjust to life situations. The focus is to help a person reach maximum fulfillment or potential, and to become fully functioning as a person. Psychotherapy is the process in which a therapist assists the client in re-organizing his or her personality. The therapist also helps the client integrate insights into everyday behavior. Psychotherapy can be defined as "more inclusive re-education of the individual" Leona Tyler attempts to differ between counseling and psychotherapy by stating,"to remove physical and mental handicaps or to rid of limitations is not the job of the counselor, this is the job of the therapist which is aimed essentially at change rather than fulfillment (Arbuckle 1967).

Dimension of Confidentiality: Confidentialityis an age-old feature of health care, particularly in the Western tradition: what is said or done within the therapeutic encounter should remain between patient and provider. In modern times, medical confidentiality has been regulated either by deontological rules, in the Anglo-Saxon tradition, or by public law (Criminal Code), as with the French secret mdical. A third orientation is now to see confidentiality as a dimension of human rights (public health in general is going in this direction). Confidentiality has as its first goal protecting the interests of the patient: the patient is the master/ruler of that secrecy; that is, he or she decides freely whether t o disclose whatever data related to his or her health or treatment. Confidentiality normally means that anything discussed during a counseling session is held as absolutely private and not discussed elsewhere. This is essential to the client feeling safe in speaking about intimate and painful matters. Secular counselors have a legal duty to break confidentiality when there is danger that the client will harm self or others. Legally, religious counselors may be exempt from this requirement, especially in those states which have major Catholic political power. Our religious tradition forbids revealing that anyone else is a Pagan or Witch, and normally requires that we avoid discussing whatever happens within a cast Circle with those who were not there. So, we would have a thealogical basis for invoking the absolute protection of religious confidentiality, but may not have the resources for the major test case that might follow. Beyond that, we may not in conscience want to stand back and allow harm to be done. Perhaps the Wiccan Rede mandates limited whistle-

blowing? Although the basic question must remain with the individual priest/ess counselor's conscience, the counseling dimension of genuineness requires an open discussion with the client, before receiving their confidences, of the counselor's position regarding confidentiality. Confidentiality can only be breached if the information is required by a court of law, the patient (employee) consents either implicitly for the sake of their own care or expressly for other purposes or it is justified in the greater interest of the individual or the public. The common law of confidentiality reflects that people have a right to expect that information given to a health professional is only used for the purpose for which it was given and will not be disclosed without permission. This covers situations where information is disclosed directly or is obtained from others. REPUBLIC ACT NUMBERED NINETY-TWO AND FIFTY-EIGHT (R.A. No. 9258), KNOWN AS THE "GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING ACT it is the licensure of guidance counselors. Pursuant to Section 5 (i), Article II and Section 32, Article V of Republic Act No. 9258: "AN ACT PROFESSIONALIZING THE PRACTICE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING AND CREATING FOR THIS PURPOSE A PROFESSIONAL REGULATORY BOARD OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES," known as the "GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING ACT OF 2004," the Professional Regulatory Board of Guidance and Counseling hereby promulgates, subject to the approval of the Professional Regulation Commission, the following rules and regulations to effectively carry out the provisions of R.A. No. 9258. Confidentiality and Counseling Confidentiality within counselling refers to the premise that what you say to your counsellor stays with your counsellor. You do not expect a counsellor to discuss your case sat in a restaurant with friends. Indeed it may be this confidential relationship that attracts people to counselling. Counsellors should make efforts to protect and respect their client's privacy. This will include looking after personal details as well as records of counselling sessions. Confidentiality is taken seriously by counsellors. However, there is no such thing as absolute confidentiality and it is misleading for a counselling service to imply this. There are a number of limitations that prevent total confidentiality which clients and potential clients should be aware of. Counsellors have legal and ethical obligations which could cause a break in confidentiality. Legally, records can be subpoenaed if it is required by law. Also, there are some laws which demand reporting of child abuse or suspected child abuse. Here in South Australia, mandatory reporting is in place as part of the Children's Protection Act, 1993. Ethical decisions may have to be made when a counsellor feels other agencies need to be involved. For example, if a client is at a high risk of suicide. Such occurrences are rare and would be discussed with the client first, as long as this is feasible.

Education is defined as the knowledge and development resulting from an educational process. ESSENTIAL PROGRAM ELEMENTS IN COUNSELOR EDUCATION (Identified by APGA, ACES, and APA.) Background in the social and biological sciences Practical experience (practicum, internship) Principles and practices of guidance Counseling theory and techniques Organization and administration of a guidance program Knowledge of tests and measurements Knowledge of statistics and research Knowledge of individual analysis Knowledge of occupational information Knowledge of group work APGA - American Personnel and Guidance Association now the American Association for Counseling and Development ACES Association for Counselor Education and Supervision APA American Psychological Association Credentialing A credential is an attestation of qualification, competence, or authority issued to an individual by a third party with a relevant or de facto authority or assumed competence to do so. SUGGESTED NEEDS OF FILIPINOS BASED ON FOREIGN STUDIES (cited by Ros) The need to clarify the philosophy and objectives of the counselor education programs, that will be consonant with institutional goals; The need to evaluate the curricula for the masters and doctoral levels, for the purpose of eventually prescribing a common set of core s ubjects; The need to include content areas on the biological and social bases of behavoir, as well as on Filipino psychology; The need for better supervised and better planned practicum; The need for more significant research topics for exploration; The need for certification standards for counsellor selection, training, and practice; The need for strong administrative support, especially in the development of human and material resources; The need for an expanded study on the status of counsellor education in the whole country, and of related study on the status of counsellors in the Philippines. Training programs are included in the list of recommendations offered by Myers. Counselor training does not end with the completion of a course of studies but it should be an on -going process which must continue as long as the counselor practices his [or her] profession. Paz M. Ros

Informed Consent- is an ethical and legal requirement that is an integral part of the therapeutic process. -. It is a positive approach that helps clients become active partners and true collaborators in their therapy. - Waiver Aspects of the informed consent process 1. General goals of counseling 2. The responsibilities of the counselor toward the client. 3. The responsibilities of clients 4. limitations of and exceptions to confidentiality 5. legal and ethical parameters that could define the relationship 6. The qualifications and background of the practitioner 7. The fees involved 8. The services the client can expect 9. The approximate length of the therapeutic process. Further areas might include the benefits of counseling 1. The risks involved 2. The possibility that the clients case will be discussed with the therapists colleagues or supervisors Counseling the elements of informed consent 1. Informing the client of the nature of the treatment.2. 2. Possible alternative treatments 3. The potential risks and benefits of the treatment. Informed Consent in the Counseling Relationship Informed Consent: Clients have the freedom to choose whether to enter into or remain in a counseling relationship and need adequate information about the counseling process and the counselor. Counselors have an obligation to review in writing and verbally with clients the rights and responsibilities of both the counselor and the client Types of InformationNeeded: Counselors explicitly explain to clients the nature of all services provided. They inform clients about the following: the purposes, goals, techniques, procedures, limitations, potential risks, and benefits of services; the counselors qualifications, credentials, and relevant experience; continuation of services upon the incapacitation or death of a counselor; and other pertinent information. Developmental and Cultural Sensitivity: Counselors communicate information in ways that are both developmentally and culturally appropriate. In Collaboration with Clients: counselors consider cultural implications of informed consent procedures and, where possible, counselors adjust their practices accordingly. Inability to Give Consent: When counseling minors or persons unable to give voluntary consent, counselors seek the assent of clients to services, and include them in Decision Making as Appropriate. Counselors recognize the need to balance the ethical rights of clients to make choices, their capacity to give consent or assent to receive services, and parental or familial legal rights and responsibilities to protect these clients and make decisions Clients Served by Others: When counselors learn that their clients are in a professional relationship with another mental health professional, they request release from clients to inform the other professionals and strive to establish positive and collaborative professional relationships Multiple Clients: When a counselor agrees to provide counseling services to two or more persons who have a relationship, the counselor clarifies at the outset which person or persons are clients and the nature of the relationships the counselor will have with each involved person. Confidentiality, Privileged Communication & Privacy Respecting Client Rights 1. Explanation of Limitations 2. Responsibility to Parents and Legal Guardians 3. Release of Confidential Information 4. Records

Becoming an Effective Multicultural Counselor How to become an effective multicultural counselor? Becoming an effective counselor is not an easy task. There are things that we have to consider like learning how to recognize diversity issues and shaping ones counseling practice to fit the clients worldview. It is an ethical obligation for counselors to develop sensitivity to cultural differences if they hope to make interventions that are consistent with the values of their clients. The therapists role is to assist clients in making decisions that are congruent with the clients worldview, not to live by the therapists values. Diversity in the therapeutic relationship is a two-way street. As a counselor, you bring your own heritage with you to your work, so you need to recognize the ways in which cultural conditioning has influenced the directions you take with your clients. Unless the social and cultural context of clients and counselors are taken into consideration, it is difficult to appreciate the nature of clients struggles. Counseli ng students often hold values such as making their own choices, expressing what they are feeling, being open and self-revealing, and striving for independence that differ from the values of clients from different cultural backgrounds. Clients may be very slow to disclose and have different expectations about counseling than the therapist has. It is essential that counselors become aware of how clients from diverse cultures may perceive them as therapists, as well as how clients may perceive the value of formal helping. It is the task of counselors to determine whether the assumptions they have made about the nature and functioning of therapy are appropriate for culturally diverse clients.

Clearly, effective counseling must take into account the impact of culture on the clients functioning, including the clients degree of acculturation. Culture is, quite simply, the values and behaviors shared by a group of individuals. It is important to realize that culture refers to more than ethnic or racial heritage. Culture also includes factors such as: Age Gender Religion Sexual orientation Physical and mental ability Socioeconomic status Acquiring competencies in multicultural counseling Effective counselors understand their own cultural conditioning, the conditioning of their clients, and the sociopolitical system of which they are a part. Acquiring this understanding begins with counselors awareness of the cultural origins of any values, biases , and attitudes they may hold. A major part of becoming a diversity-competent counselor involves challenging the idea that the values we hold are automatically true for others. We also need to understand how our values are likely to influence our practice with diverse clients who embrace different values. Furthermore, becoming a diversity-competent practitioner is not something that we arrive at once and for all rather, it is an ongoing process. Dimensions of competency involve three areas: 1. Beliefs and Attitudes First, effective counselors have moved from being culturally unaware to ensuring that their personal biases, values, or problems will not interfere with their ability to work with clients who are culturally different from them. They believe cultural self-awareness and sensitivity to ones own cultural heritage are essential for any form of helping. Counselors are aware of their positive and negative emotional reactions toward persons from other racial and ethnic groups that may prove detrimental to establishing collaborative helping relationships. They seek to examine and understand the world from the vantage point of their clients. They respect clients religious and spiritual beliefs and values. They are comfortable with differences between themselves and others in terms of race, ethnicity, culture, and beliefs. Rather than maintaining that their cultural heritage is superior, they are able to accept and value cultural diversity. They realize that traditional theories and techniques may not be appropriate for all clients or for all problems. Culturally skilled counselors monitor their functioning through consultation, supervision, and further training or education. Knowledge Second, culturally effective practitioners possess certain knowledge. They know specifically about their own racial and cultural heritage andhow it affects them personally and professionally. Because they understand thedynamics of oppression, racism, discrimination, and stereotyping, they are in aposition to detect their own racist attitudes, beliefs, and feelings. They understandthe worldview of their clients, and they learn about their clients culturalbackground. They do not impose their values and expectations on their clientsfrom differing cultural backgrounds and avoid stereotyping clients.


Culturallyskilled counselors understand that external sociopolitical forces influence allgroups, and they know how these forces operate with respect to the treatmentof minorities. These practitioners are aware of the institutional barriers that preventminorities from utilizing the mental health services available in their communities.They possess knowledge about the historical background, traditions,and values of the client populations with whom they work. They know aboutminority family structures, hierarchies, values, and beliefs. Furthermore, theyare knowledgeable about community characteristics and resources. Those whoare culturally skilled know how to help clients make use of indigenous supportsystems. In areas where they are lacking in knowledge, they seek resources to assistthem. The greater their depth and breadth of knowledge of culturally diversegroups, the more likely they are to be effective practitioners.


Skills and Intervention Strategies Third, effective counselors haveacquired certain skills in working with culturally diverse populations. Counselorstake responsibility for educating their clients about the therapeutic process,including matters such as setting goals, appropriate expectations, legalrights, and the counselors orientation. Multicultural counseling is enhancedwhen practitioners use methods and strategies and define goals consistent withthe life experiences and cultural values of their clients. Such practitioners modifyand adapt their interventions to accommodate cultural differences. They donot force their clients to fi t within one counseling approach, and they recognizethat counseling techniques may be culture-bound. They are able to send andreceive both verbal and nonverbal messages accurately and appropriately. Theybecome actively involved with minority individuals outside the office (communityevents, celebrations, and neighborhood groups). They are willing to seekout educational, consultative, and training experiences to enhance their abilityto work with culturally diverse client populations. They consult regularly withother multicultural sensitive professionals regarding issues of culture to determinewhether referral may be necessary.

Personal Characteristics of Effective Counselors Counselors have an identity. They know who they are, what they are capable of becoming, what they want out of life, and what is essential. respect and appreciate.They can give and receive help and love out of their own sense of self-worth and strength.They feel adequate with others and allow others to feel powerful withthem. Open to change. They exhibit a willingness and courageto leave the security of the known if they are not satisfied with theway they are. They make decisions about how they would like to change,and they work toward becoming the person they want to become. make choices that are life oriented. They are aware of earlydecisions they made about themselves, others, and the world. They are committed to living fully rather than settling for mereexistence. Authentic, sincere, and honest. They do not hide behindmasks, defenses, sterile roles, or facades. have a sense of humor. They are able to put the events oflife in perspective. They have not forgotten how to laugh, especially attheir own foibles and contradictions. make mistakes and are willing to admit them. They do notdismiss their errors lightly, yet they do not choose to dwell on misery. Generally live in the present. They are not riveted to the past, nor are they fixated on the future. They are able to experience and bepresent with others in the now. appreciate the influence of culture. They are aware of theways in which their own culture affects them, and they respect the diversityof values espoused by other cultures. They are also sensitive to the uniquedifferences arising out of social class, race, sexual orientation, and gender. have a sincere interest in the welfare of others . This concernis based on respect, care, trust, and a real valuing of others. possess effective interpersonal skills. They are capable of enteringthe world of others without getting lost in this world, and they strive tocreate collaborative relationships with others. They do not present themselvesas polished salespersons, yet they have the capacity to take another personsposition and work together toward consensual goals. Passionate.They have the courage to pursue theirpassions, and they are passionate about life and their work. Able to maintain healthy boundaries. Although theystrive to be fully present for their clients, they dont carry the problems oftheir clients around with them during leisure hours. They know how tosay no, which enables them to maintain balance in their lives. The RA 9258: What is this all about? How are we affected? By now, a good number must have heard of the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004 or the Republic Act 9258. Yet how many of us are truly aware of its implications on all current and would be psychologists here in the Philippines? How well do we understand the impact of such a law on our current practice and future endeavors? There might even be some who are not fully conscious of the laws existence. Given the current stance we as a community find ourselves in, this article is therefore written with the hopes of helping us understand better the law, and with the desire to spread a greater sense of awareness regarding its effects on all of us concerned. What is the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004? RA 9258, more popularly known as the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004, is a law crafted and designed to professionalize the practice of guidance and counseling in the Philippines. The law also entails the creation of a Professional Regulatory Board of Guidance and Counseling who will then be mandated by this very law to formulate the necessary rules and regulations that will implement the provisions contained within, in coordination with the accredited professional organization. The interim accredited professional organization happens to be the PGCA or the Philippine Guidance and Counseling Association, Inc. This law basically states that No person shall engage in the practice of guidance and counseling without a valid Certificate of Registration and a valid Professional Identification Card or a Special Permit and thatno corporation, partnership, association or entity shall operate a guidance and counseling office, center/clinic, testing center, rehabilitation center, or otherwise engage in the practice of guidance and counseling without first securing a permit from the Board. The permit shall be issued only after it has satisfied the Board that such establishment is properly staffed by duly Registered and Licensed Guidance Counselors. What are the most important points of the Guidance Act? Given that the Guidance Act was created to regulate and professionalize counseling in the country, terms must first be clarified and well defined to understand how this law comes into play. First of all, how is Guidance and Counseling itself defined under RA 9258? According to this law, guidance and counseling is the profession that involves the use of an integrated approach to the development of a well -functioning individual primarily by helping him/her to utilize his/her potentials to the fullest and plan/his/her present and future in accordance with his/her abilities, interests and needs. The authors of the law continued to define it further by saying that it includes functions such as counseling, psychological testing (i.e. personality, career, interest, aptitude, mental ability, achievement), learning and study orientation, research placement, referral and group processes. It includes the teaching of guidance and counseling subjects particularly those covered in the Licensure Examinations and necessary in other human development services.

Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Twelfth Congress Third Regular Session

Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday, the twenty-second day of July, two thousand three. Republic Act No. 9258 March 2, 2004

AN ACT PROFESSIONALIZING THE PRACTICE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING AND CREATING FOR THIS PURPOSE A PROFESSIONAL REGULATORY BOARD OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: Article I Section I (Title) Known as the Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004. Section II (Declaration of Policy) To promote the improvement, advancement, and protection of the guidance and counseling profession by undertaking and instituting measures that will result in professional, ethical, relevant, efficient, and effective guidance and counseling services for the development and enrichment of individuals and group lives. Section III (Definition of Terms) Following terms shall mean: Guidance and Counseling A profession that involves the use of an integrated approach to the development of a well-functioning individual primarily by helping him utilize his potentials to the fullest. Guidance Counselor Natural person who has been registered and issued a valid Certificate of Registration and a valid Professional ID. Article II Section IV (Creation of the Professional Regulatory Board of Guidance and Counseling) - There shall be created a board under the administrative control and supervision of the PRC. Section V (Powers, Function, Duties and Responsibilities of the Board) Professional Regulatory Board shall have specific powers, duties and responsibility. Section VI (Qualification of the Professional Regulatory Board Members) The chairman and members of the PRB shall be: A citizen of the Republic of the Philippines. A resident of the country for at least 5 years prior to his appointment. Be of good moral character and must not have been convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude; Be a qualified guidance counsellor holding a valid Certificate of Registration. Be a holder of a doctoral degree in Guidance and Counseling from a reputable college or university. Have at least 10 years of continuous professional practice as a guidance counselor or counselor educator. Not be a member of the faculty of any school, college, or university where regular and/or review courses in guidance counseling education is taught nor have any pecuniary interest in such institution; Not be an official of the integrated and accredited national professional organization. Section VII (Term of Office) The members of the Board shall hold office for a term of 3 years or until their successors shall have been appointed or qualified. Section VIII (Administrative Supervision of the Board, Custodian of its Records, Secretariat and Support Services) All the records of the Board, including application for examination and administrative and other investigative cases shall be under the custody of the Commission. Section IX (Compensation and Allowances of the Board) Chairman and members of the Board shall receive compensation and allowances comparable to the compensation and allowances received by the chairman and members of the existing regulatory boards. Section X (Grounds for Suspension or Removal of the Board Members) The President of the Philippines may remove and suspend any member on the following grounds: Neglect of duty or incompetence Violation or tolerance of the violation of this Act or the Code of Ethics and Code of Professional and Technical Standard for guidance counsellors Conviction by final judgement of crimes involving moral turpitude Manipulation or rigging of the licensure examination results, disclosure of secret information or the examination question prior to the conduct of the said examination or tampering of the grades therein; Conviction by final judgement of any criminal offense by the courts. Section XI (Annual Report) After the close of the fiscal year, the Chairman of the board shall submit an annual report to the Commission. Article III Section XII (Examination Required) All applicants for registration for the practice of Guidance and Counseling shall be required to undergo a licensure examination. Section XIII (Qualification for Examination) A citizen of the Philippines or a foreigner whose country has reciprocity with the Philippines in the practice of Guidance and Counseling. Has not been convicted of an offense involving moral turpitude by a competent court Holder of a Bachelors Degree in Guidance and Counseling or in other alliance disciplines and a masters degree in Guidance a nd Counseling from an institution in the Philippines or abroad recognized and accredited by the CHED.

Section XIV (Registration without Taking Licensure Examination) Had been doctoral and masters degree holders in Guidance and Counseling with at leats 3 years of teaching experience in Guidance and Counseling courses and/or full-time counseling practice for the same period Had been passed at least 18 units of Masters level courses in Guidance and Counseling Had completed academic requirements for a masters degree in guidance and counseling and have 5 years experience as full-time guidance counsellors. Section XV (Scope of Examination) Philosophical, Psychological and Sociological Foundations of Guidance Counseling Theories, Tools and Techniques Psychological Testing Organization and Administration of Guidance Services Group Process and Program Development Section XVI (Reports of Ratings) - The Board shall report the ratings within 10 days after the examination. Section XVII (Ratings in the Examination and Re-examination) A candidate must obtained a weighted general average of 75% with no grade lower than 60% in any given subject. Section XVIII (Oath-Taking) All successful examinees shall require taking a professional oath before any member of the Board or any officer of the Commission authorized by the PRC, or any officer authorized by law.

Section 19. Issuance of Certificates of Registration and Professional Identification Card. - A Certificate of Registration as a guidance counselor shall be issued to any applicant who passes the examination or who is registered without examination, bearing the signature of the Commission Chairperson and Chairman and members of the Board, and official Seal of the Board. A professional identification Card bearing the registration number, date of issuance, expiry date, duly signed by the Commission Chairperson shall likewise be issued to every registrant who has paid the prescribed fee. Section 20. Roster of Guidance Counselors. - The Board, In coordination with the accredited professional organization, shall kept a roster of the names, residence and office addresses of all registered and licensed guidance counselors and the said roster shall be made available to the public upon request. Section 21. Integration of Guidance Counselors. - All registered/licensed Guidance Counselors whose names appear in the roster of guidance counselors shall be united and integrated to their automatic membership in a one (1) and only registered and accredited national organization of registered/licensed Guidance Counselor which the Board, subject to approval by the Commission, shall recognized and accredit after consultation with all existing organizations of registered and licensed Guidance Counselors and, if possible with all those who are not members of any of the said organizations. The members in the said integrated and accredited national organizations shall received benefits and privileges appurtenant thereto upon payment of required fees and dues. Membership integrated organization shall not be a bar to membership in any association of Guidance Counselors. Section 22. Indication of Certificate of Registration Number and Professional Tax Receipts (PTR). - The Guidance Counselors shall be required to indicate his/her Certificate of Registration number, the date of issuance, the period of validity of the license, including the professional tax receipt number on the documents he/she signs, uses or issues in connection with the practice of his/her profession. Section 23. Practice Through Special/Temporary Permit. - Special/Temporary Permit maybe issued by the Board, subject to the approval of the Commission and payment of the fees the latter has prescribed and charged thereof, to the following persons: (1) Licensed Guidance Counselors from foreign countries/states whose services are either for a fee or free; (a) If they are internationally well-known counselors or outstanding experts in any branch or specialty of Guidance and Counseling; and (b) If their services are urgently and importantly necessary for lack of, or inadequacy of available local specialists/experts for the promotion or advancement of the practice of guidance and counseling through transfer of technology. (2) Licensed Guidance Counselors from foreign countries/states whose services shall be free and limited to indigent patients in a particular hospital, center or clinic; (3) Licensed Guidance Counselors from foreign countries/states employed as exchange professors in branch or specialty of Guidance and counseling in schools, colleges, universities offering the course of guidance and counseling. The permit shall, among other things, include these limitations and conditions for a period of not more than one (1) year subject to renewal, the branch or specialty of guidance and counseling, and the specific place of practice such as clinic, hospital, center, school/college/university offering the course of guidance and counseling. The Board, subject to approval by the Commission, shall prescribe rules and regulations on the implementation of this particular section. Section 24. Denial, Suspension, Revocation of a Certification of Registration, Cancellation of Special Permit. - The application for registration and the issuance of a Certificate of Registration may be denied for any of these causes:

(a) (b) (c)

Conviction of an Offense involving moral, turpitude by a competent court; Finding of Guilt by the Professional Regulatory Board for immoral and/or dishonorable conduct; and Declaration by the court of the applicant as being insane

The Certificate of Registration may be revoked or suspended, or the special permit may be cancelled for any of the above- enumerated causes including the following: fraudulent acquisition of Certificate of Registration and/or special permit; abetment or tolerance of illegal practice by unqualified person through the use by the latter of Guidance Counselor's Certificate, or special permit; Violation of any provision of this Act, Rules and Regulations of the Board and Commission and other policies thereof, including the Code of Ethics, and Code of Technical Standards or Guidance Counselors; unethical, immoral, dishonorable or unprofessional conduct; malpractice; guilty of drug or alcohol abuse impairing his/her ability to practice his/her profession; and practice of the profession during period of suspension by one whose Certificate of Registration had been suspended by the Board. No certificate shall be denied, revoked or suspended or any of the reason herein provided, until after sworn complaint in writing against the applicant or holder thereof shall have been filed and heard in a public hearing or upon request, behind close doors. Section 25. Reinstatement. - A person may apply to the Board for reinstatement of a certificate the issuance of which has been duly revoked at any time after the expiration of one (1) year from the date of revocation of the said certificate. The application shall be in writing and shall conform to requirement provided by the Board. No certificate shall be reinstated unless the Board is satisfied that a good cause exists to warrant such reinstatement. Section 26. Appeal. - The decision on the denial or refusal to issue Certificate of Registration, the revocation or suspension of the Certificate of Registration, or cancellation of special permit by the Board shall be final unless appealed to the Commission within fifteen (15) days from receipt of the decision. The decision of the Board and/or Commission may be appealed to the Court of Appeals. ARTICLE IV PRACTICE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING Section 27. Prohibition Against the Practice of Guidance and Counseling. - No person shall (a) engage in the practice of guidance and counseling without a valid Certificate of Registration and the valid Professional Identification Card or a special permit; (b) make representations to the public or to third person as a licensed Guidance Counselor during the time that the licensed has been revoked or suspended, and, (c) allow anybody to use his/her license as guidance counselor to enable such unqualified individual to engage in the practice of guidance and counseling. No corporation, partnership, association or entity shall operate a guidance and counseling office or center, or otherwise engage in the practice of guidance and counseling without securing a permit from the Board, which shall be issued only after it has satisfied itself that such establishment is properly staffed by duly licensed Guidance Counselors Any unethical practice of guidance and counseling as may be defined in a Code of ethics and Code of Technical Standards to be prepared by the Board in consultation with Guidance Counselors, is prohibited Section 28. Right to Privilege Communication for Guidance Counselor. - A certified guidance counselor who is allowed to practice guidance and counseling in accordance with this Act, without the consent of the client, be examined as to any communication or information which has been acquired while attending to such client. The protection accorded herein shall also extend to the records and secretary or clerk of a license guidance counselor, who may not be examined concerning any fact, the knowledge of which has been acquired in such capacity. Any evidence obtained in violation of this provision shall be inadmissible for any purpose and any proceeding

Section 29. Foreign Reciprocity. - No foreign Guidance Counselor shall be admitted to the examinations, or be given a certificate of Registration, or be entitled to any of the rights and privileges under this Act unless the country or state of which he/she is a subject or citizen permits Filipino Guidance Counselors to Practice within its territorial limits on the same basis as the subjects or citizen of said country or state: Provided, that the requirement for certification of Guidance Counselors in said foreign state or country are substantially the same as those required and contemplated under this Act: Provided, further, That the laws such states or country grant the same privilege to Filipino Guidance Counselors on the same basis as the subjects or citizens of such foreign state or country Section 30. Funding Provisions.- The Chairperson of the Commission shall include in the Commission's Programs the implementation of this Act, the funding of which shall be included in the General Appropriations Act. Section 31. Assistance of Law Enforcement Agency. - Any law enforcement agency shall, upon call or request of the Commission or the Board, render assistance in enforcing this Act, including all the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder by prosecuting the violators thereof in accordance with law and the Rules of Court. Section 32. Implementing Rules and Regulations. - Within sixty (60) days after the effectivity of this Act,

Subject to the approval of the Commission, the Board shall promulgate the necessary rules and regulations, in coordination with the integrated and accredited professional organization, to implement the provisions of this Act, which shall be effective after fifteen (15) days following its publication in the Official Gazette or newspaper of general circulation. Section 33. Penalty Clause. - Any person who violates any provision of this Act and the rules and regulations issued by the Board and the Commission or commits fraud in the acquisition of Certificate of Registration or Special Permit, shall be punished with imprisonment of not less that six (6) months but not more that eight (8) years, or a fine of not less that Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) but not more than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) or both in the discretion of the court. Section 34. Separability Clause.- If any part of this Act is declared unconstitutional, the remaining parts not affected thereby shall continue to be valid and operational Section 35. Repealing Clause. - All laws, decrees, orders, circulars, rules and regulations and other issuances, which are inconsistent with this Act, are hereby repealed, amended or modified accordingly. Section 36. Effectivity. - This Act shall take effect one (1) month after its publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines.

Approved, FRANKLIN DRILON President of the Senate JOSE DE VENECIA JR. Speaker of the House of Representatives

This Act which a consolidation of House Bill No. 5253 and Senate Bill No. 2126 was finally passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate on January 20, 2004 and February 19, 2004 respectively. OSCAR G. YABES ROBERTO P. NAZARENO Secretary of Senate Secretary General House of Represenatives Approved: March 2, 2004 GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines

Ethics mean moral principles that control or influence a persons behavior a philosophical discipline that is concerned with human c onduct and moral decision making. There are a number of ethical and legal considerations to be made by any person functioning in the capacity of a counselor. Lack of awareness or misunderstanding of an ethical standard is not itself a defense to a charge of unethical conduct. Ethic code is intended to provide specific standards to cover most situations encountered by counselors. It has as its goals the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with whom counselors work and the education of members, students and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline. The Ethics Code is intended to provide guidance for psychologists and standards of professional conduct that can be applied by the APA and by other bodies that choose to adopt them. The Ethics Code is not intended to be a basis of civil liability. Whether a psychologist has violated the Ethics Code standards does not by itself determine whether the psychologist is legally liable in a court action, whether a contract is enforceable or whether other legal consequences occur.The modifiers used in some of the standards of this Ethics Code (e.g., reasonably, appropriate, potentially) are included in the standards when they would (1) allow professional judgment on the part of psychologists, (2) eliminate injustice or inequality that would occur without the modifier, (3) ensure applicability across the broad range of activities conducted by psychologists, or (4) guard against a set of rigid rules that might be quickly outdated. As used in this Ethics Code, the term reasonable means the prevailing professional judgment of psychologists engaged in similar activities in similar circumstances, given the knowledge the psychologist had or should have had at the time. In the process of making decisions regarding their professional behavior, psychologists must consider this Ethics Code in addition to applicable laws and psychology board regulations. In applying the Ethics Code to their professional work, psychologists may consider other materials and guidelines that have been adopted or endorsed by scientific and professional psychological organizations and the dictates of their own conscience, as well as consult with others within the field. If this Ethics Code establishes a higher standard of conduct than is required by law, psychologists must meet the higher ethical standard. Two dimensions of ethical decision making; Virtue Ethics A form of ethical theory that makes the concept of virtue and virtuous action its primary or fundamental concepts. While most prevailing ethical theories make either the principle of the good or the principle of the right fundamental, virtue ethics gives these principles only a derivative status. In virtue ethics, then, the emphasis is more on ones character, the states of character from which actions flow, and actions that are in accordance with these states of character, rather than on any foundational principles from which practical judgments can be deduced. Rather than deducing what it is good to do, an agent must be practiced in the performance of virtuous action in order to be able to judge right and wrong, good and bad.

In this way, the order of moral knowledge is reversed in virtue ethics, insofar as we must first do what is good in order to be able to recognize what is good. For this reason, virtue ethics often is accused of relying on circular reasoning. Principle ethics- a minimum standard of conduct usually within ones profession. Ethical issues that influence clinical practice:

Confidentiality-It means keeping information safe and private. This includes: o anything you say o information someone writes about you, and o Details of any treatment you have had. Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person. A health care provider may ask a patient to consent to receive therapy before providing it, or a clinical researcher may ask a research participant before enrolling that person into a clinical trial. Informed consent is collected according to guidelines from the fields of medical ethics and research ethics. An informed consent can be said to have been given based upon a clear appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and future consequences of an action. In order to give informed consent, the individual concerned must have adequate reasoning faculties and be in possession of all relevant facts at the time consent is given.

Dual relationship is where therapist and client are also friends or have some other type of social relationship. Social multiple relationships can be in person or online. Having a client as a Facebook 'friend' on a personal, rather than strictly professional basis, may also constitute social dual relationships. Other types of therapist-client online relationships on social networking sites may also constitute social dual or multiple relationships. A professional dual relationship or multiple relationships is where psychotherapist or counselor and client are also professional colleagues in colleges, training institutions, presenters in professional conferences, co-authoring a book, or other situations that create professional multiple relationships. Sexual dual relationship is where therapist and client are also involved in a sexual relationship. Sexual dual relationships with current clients are always unethical and often illegal. When to break confidentiality?-Theres a limitations about confidentiality. That might include disclosure of abuse or neglect, or it could relate to serious physical or mental health problems, or it could relate to their support needs. You need to consider in advance what could arise and at what level of concern it might be appropriate to act. You should check the guidelines of your own professional association to see their guidance in relation to confidentiality. However, in general, the following principles are a useful starting point:As part of the consent procedure, the researcher should explain that if (s) he hears or sees something that gives cause for concern, (s) he has a duty to act, but will talk with the participant (adult or child) first about what to do. That might mean that the researcher should first encourage the person to talk to someone who could help, or agree that the researcher should talk to someone else on their behalf.In exceptional circumstances if someone would be put at greater risk by consulting in this way with the participant it may be necessary for the researcher to breach confidentiality without first talking to the participant.This means that when seeking consent and in your consent form and information sheet you need to explain the limits of confidentiality. For example, you might say: We will not tell anyone what you tell us unless we think someone might be hurt. If so, we will talk to you first about the best thing to do. Privileged Communication-Typically, privileged communications refer to communications between attorney and client, accountant and client, doctor or therapist and patient, priest and parishioner or husband and wife (and, in some states, reporters and their sources). The recipient of the information must keep the communication private, unless the privilege is waived by the discloser of the information. Interaction between two parties in which the law recognizes a private, protected relationship. Whatever is communicated between these pairs of parties shall remain confidential, and the law cannot force disclosure of these communications. The individual that initially makes the privileged communication legally has the ability to prevent the other party in the relationship from disclosing the content of the privileged communication. Legal Issues and Managed Care-Counselors have a duty to continue treatment and are not supposed to abandon a client just because the client does not have the financial means to pay for services. malpractice is an "instance of negligence or incompetence on the part of a professional. Many kinds of behavior can result in malpractice for a therapist, including negligence, breach of contract, intentional misconduct, invasion of privacy, failure to prevent injury, and defamation. The major causes for successful malpractice because of: sexual impropriety; incorrect treatmente.g., using treatments the therapist/counselor was not qualified to perform by lack of training or experience); improper evaluation; or breach of confidentiality or privacy. Suggestions to avoid malpractice Maintain confidentiality. Seek consultations when necessary. Maintain good client records. Take proper action when a client poses a clear and imminent danger to themselves or others. Comply with the laws regarding child abuse and neglect. Be sensitive to the clients feelings regarding termination.

Initiate termination when the client is not benefiting from services. Address the client's post-terminations concerns. Evaluate the efficacy of the counseling services.

COUNSELOR COMPETENCE: Skilled counselors seek out educational, consultative, and training experiences to Improve their understanding and effectiveness in working with culturally different populations. Being able to recognize the limits of their competencies, they (a) seek consultation, (b) seek Further training or education, (c) refer out to more qualified individuals or resources, or (d) engage In a combination of theseSkilled counselors are aware of their negative and positive emotional reactions Toward other racial and ethnic groups that may prove detrimental to the counseling relationship. They are willing to contrast their own beliefs and attitudes with those of their culturally different clients in a nonjudgmental fashion. Overview of Contemporary Counseling Models Psychoanalytic Therapy Sigmund Freud. A theory of personality development, a philosophy of human nature, and a method of psychotherapy that focuses on unconscious factors that motivate behavior. Attention is given to the events of the first 6 years of life as determinants of the later development of personality. It is also based largely on insight, unconscious motivation, and reconstruction of the personality. The reason for including the Psychoanalytic model (and placing it first) is its major influence on all of the other formal systems of Psychotherapy. Some of the therapeutic models are basically extensions of Psychoanalysis. Many theories of counseling and psychotherapy have borrowed and integrated principles and techniques from psychoanalytic approaches. Adlerian therapy Alfred Adler. Following Adler, Rudolf Dreikurs is credited with popularizing this approach in United States. This is a growth model that stresses assuming responsibility, creating one's own destiny, and finding meaning and goals to create a purposeful life. Key concepts are used in most other current therapies. Adlerian therapy differs from psychoanalytic theory in many respects, but it can broadly be considered an analytic perspective. Adlerian focus on meaning, goals, purposeful behavior, conscious action, belonging and social interest.Although Adlerian theory accounts for present behavior by studying childhood experiences. It does not focus on unconscious dynamics. Existential therapy Viktor Frankl, Rollo May, and Irvin Yalom. Reacting against the tendency to view a therapy as a system to well defined techniques . This model stresses building therapy on the basic conditions of human existence, such as choice, the freedom and responsibility to shape one's life, and selfdetermination. It focuses on the quality of the person-to-person therapeutic relationship. It is also stresses a concern for what it means to be fully human. It suggests certain themes that are part of the human condition, such as freedom and responsibility, anxiety, guilt, awareness of being finite, creating meaning in the world, and shaping ones future by making active choices. This approach is not a unified school of therapy with a clear theory and a systematic set of techniques. Rather, it is a philosophy of counseling that stresses the divergent methods of understanding the subjective world of the person. Person-centered therapy Founder: Carl Rogers This approach was developed during the 1940s as a nondirective reaction against psychoanalysis. Based on a subjective view of human experiencing, it places faith in and gives responsibility to the client in dealing with problems and concerns. Which is rooted in a humanistic philosophy ,places emphasis on the basic attitude of the therapist. It maintains that the quality o the client-therapist relationship is the prime determinant of the outcomes of the therapeutic process. Philosophically, this approach assumes that client have the capacity for selfdirection without active intervention and direction on the therapists part. It is in the contex of a living and authentic re lationship with the therapist that this growth force within the client is released. Gestalt therapy Founders: Fritz and Laura Pearls. An experiential therapy stressing awareness and integration; it grew as a reaction against analytic therapy. It integrates the functioning of body and mind. Gestalt also offers a range of experiment to help clients focus on what they are experiencing now. Behavior therapy Key figures: B. F. Skinner, Arnold Lazarus, and Albert Bandura. This approach applies the principles of learning to the resolution of specific behavioral problems. Results are subject to continual experimentation. The methods of this approach are always in the process of refinement. It also puts a premium on doing and on taking steps to make concrete changes. A current trend in behavior therapy is toward paying increased attention to cognitive factors as an important determinant of behavior. Cognitive behavior therapy Key figures: Albert Ellis founded rational emotive behavior therapy. A highly didactic, cognitive, action-oriented model of therapy that stresses the role of thinking and belief systems as the root of personal problems. A. T. Beck Founded Cognitive Therapy. Cognitive therapy highlight the necessity of learning how to challenge dysfunctional beliefs and automatic thoughts that lead to behavioral problems. These cognitive behavioral approaches are uses to help people undermine their faulty and self-defeating assumptions and to develop new patterns of acting.

Reality therapy Founder: William GlasserThis short term approach based on choice theory and focuses on the client assuming responsibility in the present. Through the therapeutic process, the client is able to learn more effective ways of meeting her or his needs. Feminist therapy This approach grew out of the efforts of many women. A central concept is the concern for the psychological expression of women. focusing on the constraints imposed by the sociopolitical status to which women have been relegated, this approach explores women's identity development, selfconcept, goals and aspirations, and emotional well-being. Postmodern Approaches A number of key features are associated with the development of these various approaches to therapy. Social of constructionism, solution-focused brief therapy, and narrative therapy all assume that there is no single truth; rather, it is believed that reality is so socially constructed through human interaction. These approaches maintain that the client is an expert in his or her own life. Social constructionism, solution-focused brief therapy, and narrative therapy. These newer approaches challenge the basic assumptions of most of the traditional approaches described here. Family Systems therapy A number of significant figures have been pioneers of the family systems approach. A systematic approach is based on the assumption that the key to changing the individual is understanding and working with the family.

COUNSELOR'S VALUES VALUES >Important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by a member of a culture about what is good or bad. BELIEFS and ATTITUDES >Culturally skilled counselors respect clients' religious and/or spiritual beliefs and values, including attributions and taboos, because they affect worldview, psychosocial functioning, and expressions of distress. HOW COUNSELORS INFLUENCE THEIR CLIENTS >Many psychotherapy or counseling clients are, indeed, distressed, traumatized, anxious, depressed and therefore vulnerable. Many also are very young, impaired and vulnerable and can be easily influenced by their therapist.