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Origin of Soil and Grain Size

I n g c n e r a l .s o i l sa r c l ' o r r n c d b v w c a t l " r c r i no gf r o c k s .T h e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e sc l l a s o i l a r c d i c l a t c d p r i n l a r i l y b y t h e m i n c r a l st h a t c o n s t i t u t ct h e s o i l p l r t i c l e s a n d . h c n c c , thc rock I'rorr which it is dcrivccl.This chaptcr proviclcsan outline of the reck cvclc a n c lt h c o r i g i n o l ' s o i l a n c lt h c g r a i n - s i z c d i s t r i b u t i o no f p a r t i c l c si n a s g i l l r r r s s .

2.1

Rock Cycle and the Origin of Soil


T h c n l i n c r a l g r a i n st h a t l i l r r n t h e s o l i c lp h a s co l ' a s o i l a g g r c g i l t c arc thc product1;l rock wcatherinc.'l'lrc s i z c t l l ' t h c i n d i v i c l u ag l r a i n sv a r i c s< l v c ra w i c l er a n g c .M a n y o f t h c p h y s i c a lp r o p c r t i c so l ' s t t i l a r c c l i c t a l c cb l y t h e s i z e .s h a p c ,a n c lc h c m i c l l c o m p e 'fo s i t i t l no l ' t h c g r a i n s . bcttcr undcrstand t h c s cl a c t o r s . onc mustbc I'amiliar with the b a s i ct y p c s o l ' r o c k t h a t l o r n ' rt h c c a r t h ' . s c r u s t ,t h c * r c k - l i r r r r i ' g m i ' c r a l s . a n d t h e w c i r t h c r i n gp t ' ( ) c c \ \ . On thc basisol their ntttclcol'origin, rocks car'r bc cliviclecl into three basictypes: il4trcrttt's, scdintentury, artdrtretumorphit'. F igurc 2. I showsa cliagramof the fclrmalion 'fhis c y c l co l ' d i l l c r e n t t y p e so l ' r o c k a n d t h c p r o c e s s c a sssociatew c li t h t h e m . iscallecl L h er o c ' kc v c l c .B r i e l ' d i s c u s s i o no sl ' c a c h c l e m c n t o l ' t h c r o c k c v c l c f o l l o w . lgneous Rock Igncous rocks are forr.ncdby thc solidilication of n.rolten mullnlu cjectcd from deep within the earth'.s mantle. Al'ter cjection by either,Ttssure erttption or vttlt.LtrtiL crupI i o r i ,s o m c o f t h e r n c l l t e n m a g m ac o o l so n t h e s u r f a c co f t h e e a r t h .S o m e t i m e s magma ceiises its mobility below thc carthlssurlacc and cclolsto form intrusiveigneousrocks that are calledplutons. Intrusive rocks krrmeclin the past may be exposcdat the surface as a result of the continuous processo1'erosionof the materials that once covcred them. 'rhe typcs of igneousrock ftrrmed by the cooling of magma depend on factors such as the composition of the magma and the rate ol cooling associated with it. After conductingseverallaboratory tests,Bowen (1922)was ablc to cxplain the relation of the rate of magma cooling to the formation of different types of rock. This explanation - known as Bowen's reaclittn principle* describes the sequence by which new

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