Proceedings of the Eleventh (2001)International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference Stavanger, Norway, June 1722, 2001 Copyright © 2001 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers ISBN 1880653516 (Set); ISBN 1880653559 (Vol. IV); ISSN 10986189(Set)
Dynamic Analysis of Mooring Lines by Using Three Different Methods
Xiaohong Chen and dun Zhang
Texas A&M University College Station, TX, USA
Peter Johnson and Mehernosh Irani
Offshore Technology Research Center College Station, TX, USA
ABSTRACT
Springs are often used in the deepwater mooringline model tests in the wave basin of the Offshore Technology Research Center. The efficacy of numerical schemes used for simulating mooring lines inserted with springs were exam ined through the comparison of their respective simulation with measured falrlead tension and trajectory of tracking points of two mooringline models. It is found that the rela tively large elongation induced by the inserted spring can sig nificantly change the dynamics of a mooring llne. Numerical schemes that fail to model the large elongation may hence
result in significant errors in their simulations. Although only limited numerical schemes were examined in thisstudy, the basic findings may have implications to more numeri cal schemes used by the offshoreindustry because of similar principlesinvolved them.
KEY WORDS:
spring, deep water
large elongation element, mooring line,
1
Introduction
The recent development of oil exploration and produc tion in deep water sparks research interests in the develop ment of design and test methods for deepwater mooringfine systems. This study attempts to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of three numerical schemes for simulating the tension and trajectory of a mooring line when the motion of its fairlead is prescribed. In particular, it is important to find out whether or not they are applicable to mooring lines with inserted springs, which are often used in mooringline models though not commonly in prototype mooring lines. The use of springs in a mooringllne model is mainly for two reasons. First, it is difficult to find a cable or rope whose
635
elasticity modulus and submerged weight can simultaneously match with those of the prototype mooring line based on the Froude number scaling. The insertion of springs in a mooring line allows for a significant adjustment of its overall stiffness. Secondly, springs are needed especially in the ease of a truncated mooringline model, which is a compromise between a large water depth required based on model sealing and a limit water depth in a wave basin. The three numerical schemes are the two different versions of Cable3d, and a commercial software, known as Orcaflex. The reason for choosing them is solely based on the avail ability. The original numerical scheme of Cable3d (origi nal Cable3d) was developed by Ma & Webster (1994). It employs a giobalcoordinatebased nonlinear Finite Element Method (FEM). The principles of the FEM were introduced by Garret (1982) for an inextensible rod, and later extended by Paulling & Webster (1986) and Ma g: Webster (1994) to allow for a small elongation of the rod and the support of the sea bottom. Considering that the springs inserted in a mooring llne may have relatively large elongation, we recently revised and extended the original Cable3d to add large elongation elements in modeling a mooring line and to allow for bottom friction (Chen et al. 2000). The newly modified version is hence named as the modified Cable3d. The modified Cable3d includes two kinds of elements: small elongation elements with bending stiffness which were also used in the original Cable3d and large elongation elements without bending stiffness which are able to model the soft components, such as springs, inserted in a mooring llne. The modified Cable3d is found very robust and efficient because relatively large time step can be adopted in computation without the deterioration of numerical stability. It can be used for static and dynamic analysis of risers, mooring lines, tethers, etc. Orcaflex is a commercial numerical software de veloped by Oreina (2000). It has been used as a design tool
by the offshore industry. It employs a threedimension (3D) nonlinear finite element method. The mass of each element is lumped at its center. An explicit Euler integration tech nique is employed for dynamic analysis. Because of its poor numerical stability, the time step required for integration is severely limited, typically around 0.001s (Orcina, 2000). Two special mooringfine models: a uniform fight weighted chain and a heavyweighted chain with a spring inserted in the middle, were made and tested in the wave basin of the Offshore Technology Research Center (OTRC) at Texas A&M university. The measured fairlead tension and trajectory of tracking points of the two mooringfine models were used to examine the numerical simulations ob tained respectively by these three numerical schemes. Based on the comparison of the simulations and the corresponding measurements, it is found that all three numerical schemes can accurately simulate the dynamics of the uniform chain. However, only the modified Cable3d and Orcafiex axe able to match the measurements of the chain with an inserted spring. The modified Cable3d is ten to hundred times more efficient than Orcaflex, which may become a significant ad vantage in simulating a mooringline system consisting of a large number of individual mooring lines.
2 
Formulation 
Since Orcaflex is a commercial software, its formulation 

is 
omitted for brevity. Detailed information of Orcaflex can 
be found in Orcina (2000). Hence, our attention focuses only on the formulation of the original and modified Cable3d. The dynamic equations for a slender rod of non or small extensi bility were derived in many previous studies (e.g. Love 1944,
Nordgren 1974, Garrett 1982, Paulfing & Webster 1986, and Ma & Webster 1994) and hence are briefly given below for completeness and later comparison with the equations for mooring lines with relatively large extensibility.
In a fixed Cartesian coordinate system, the configuration
of a slender rod can be described by a vector, r(s, t), which
starts from the origin of the coordinates to a point along the rod, where s is the distance along the arc length of the rod, measured from the end of the rod to the point and t denotes time (see Fig.l). When the rod is assumed to be inextensible, the arc length s is independent of the deformation of the rod
and time. In the absence of external torque and moment applied on
a slender rod, the governing equation for its motion can be expressed as

(Br")"
4 (Ar')'
+
q =
p~
(1)
Bt~2 is a scalar
known as the Lagrange multiplier; ~ stands for the curvature
of the slender rod; T(s, ~) is the tension; q is
force per unit length; p is the mass of a slender rod per unit
where B is the bending stiffness;
A =
T

the external
^{Y}
~)
b~~.ex(el)/
/rls,t)
Figure I: Coordinate System
length; r'  or h7, is the inclination of the rod and ~ = ~,°~ris the acceleration. In the above derivation, the assumption of the inextensi bilitycondition given below was implicitlyinvoked,
r'
.r'
1
(2)
In the case ofan extensible rod, Equation (2) is modified to
636
r'.
rt = (1 + e)2
(3)
where e =
the relative extension, e, is very small, Equation (1) for the motion and the above expression for the Lagrange multiplier
A remains valid. However, when e is not small, both need to
be modified to account for relatively large extensions. In studying an extensible chain or cable, the bending stiff ness and shear stress are negligible and only internal force
considered in the equation for the motion is the tension T which is parallel to the local tangent. The equations of mo tion of a cable in the Cartesian coordinates were derived by Lindahl and SjSberg (1983). They were written in terms of the unstretched length s, measured along the cable from the end point (s = 0) to a material point. Letting ds be
a small element of the cable measured in an instantaneous
configuration. The conservation of linear momentum leads
to,
~
and EA
is the axial stiffness of the rod. When
p~
a(Tt)
(4)
where q the external force applied on per unit unstretched length, and p the mass per unit unstretched length, t =
vector along the cable. ~ denotes
the corresponding stretched length. Considering the relation between the unstretched and stretched lengths, we have
as
q
=
0
or
is
a
unit
tangential
d£=(l+e)ds
(5)
rl
 0s~~(l+¢)=t(l+e)
ar
ar
(6)
For significant relative extension in the rod, the Lagrangian multiplier is redefined as,
T 

 
(1 + 
¢~ 
(7) 
and therefore the equation for the motion of a flexible and extensible rod becomes
(8)
Equation (8) has the same form as (1) except for the absence
of bending stiffness in (8). In the context of chains or cables
used for mooring lines, the external forces consist of gravity force, buoyancy forces, drag forces, inertia forces and added
mass forces. The last three are calculated using the Morison equation. Noticing Equation (7), we have
(~r')' +
q
:
pi~
¢
=
T
EA
:
A
EA
A
1g
(9)
where
=
_{A}
EA
(10)
The constraint equation expressed in terms of i becomes,
r'. r'(1 
are
(11)
in space using
They are solved using a Newton's
=
1
discretized
The governing equations
method.
a Galerkin's
method for static problems and using a Nemark~ Scheme
in the time domain for dynamic problems.
3
Experiment
Setup
Model tests of a chain of uniform density and stiff
ness and a chain with an inserted spring were conducted in the 3D wave basin at the OTRC. The basin is 45.7 m long,
30.5 m
model scale is 1:40. The main particulars of a uniform light
weighted chain and a heavyweighted chain with a spring inserted in the middle are given in prototype scale,as shown in Table.1.
model was forced to oscil
late horizontally,driven by a servocontrolledhydraulic pis ton which was anchored to the bridge over the wave basin. The horizontal displacement of the fairlead was recorded based on the position feedback of the hydraulic piston. Hori zontal and verticalforcesat the fairleadwere measured using straingauged shear load cellsand the linetension at the fair lead was measured using a straingauged ring cell.Inplane horizontal and verticalmotions at selected points along the mooring line were recorded by an optical tracking system employing underwater video cameras. All data axe given in prototype scalefollowing the Froude number scaling.
wide, and has a uniform water depth of 5.8 m. The
The falrleadof the mooringline
Table I: Main Particulars of Mooring Lines Heavy Chain Uniform Light
with Spring 
Chain 

Water Depth(R) 
733.3 
733.3 
Total Mooring Line Length(it) Mass per Unit 
2243.3 
2500 
Length(lbs/it) 560 
235.2 

Elastic Stiffness (EA)(kips) Inserted spring 
6.68 x 108 
4.95 x 10s 
unstretched length(it) Inserted spring 
160 
no spring 
elasticity(lbs/in) 
322 
no spring 
Pretension(kips) 
1000 
350 
Table 2: Target Periods end Amplitudes of Motion
_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{d}_{(}_{s}_{)} 
stroke (ft) 
stroke (ft) 
stroke (ft) 
(L) 
(M) 
(s) 

4s 
3 
1.5 
0.75 
5s 
3 
1.5 
0.75 
6s 
3 
1.5 
0.75 
8s 
15 
7.5 
3.75 
10s 
20 
10 
5 
12s 
30 
15 
7.5 
14s 
30 
15 
7.5 
16s 
30 
15 
7.5 
25s 
30 
15 
7.5 
50s 
120 
60 
30 
150s 
120 
60 
30 
In the regular oscillation tests, the falrlesd was forced to oscillate at a constant period and amplitude in the x direction. The target periods of all regular oscillations are summarized in Table 2. At each period, there are three runs with different target strokes. According to their rela tive magnitudes, they are named as large, medium and small strokes, respectively, and denoted by the capital letters 'L', 'M' and 'S'.
In addition to the regular oscillations,
the oscillation of
fairlead was subjected to two different irregular signals. They
respectively correspond to the surge motions of:
(a) a semlsubmersible experiencing a 100 year return pe
riod hurricane in the Gull of Mexico (the spectrum of the
signal is denoted as 'YR'), and
(b) a semisubmersible in the sea states of a 20foot sig
nificant wave height (the spectrum is denoted 'WN'). These two spectra are plotted in Fig.2. Both lowfrequency (representing slow surge motion) and wavefrequency re sponses of a semisubmersible can be identified in these two spectra.
637
0.0~
0,04
0.06
0.06
Fmquen~C#z)
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
~o
~
o
ons~m
5o
,00
Figure 2: Spectra of Fairlead Motion 
Figure 
3: Comparison of Line tension for Uniform Light 
Chain 
_{4} Comparisons between Numerical Simulations and Experiment Re sults
Numerical simulations are made respectively using three differentnumerical schemes: the originalCable3d (also denoted by small elongation simulation), the modified Ca
ble3d (large elongation simulation) and Orcaliex. In the case of the uniform light chain, comparisons were made only for the static and regular oscillations of large strokes. In the case of the heavy chain with an inserted spring, all com parisons of static,regular and irregular oscillationsare pre sented. In simulating the uniform chain, the resultsobtained using either original or extended Cable3d are virtually iden tical,which is expected because the extension of the uniform
chain is negligible. Thus these results were simply
by 'Cable3d'. In the case of the heavy chain with an inserted
spring, the small elongation simulation (obtained using the originalCable3d) and the large elongation simulation (using the modified Cable3d) are found to be quite different and both simulations are given in the related figures. The inputs to all three numerical schemes were the same, that is,the time seriesof measured fairleadmotion. Noticing that the x axis is parallel to the motion of the piston and the yaxis points upwards, the motion of the mooring line induced by the moving falrlead is hence mainly in the xy plane. All results are presented in prototype scale.
denoted
4.1 Tensions and Trajectory of Static tests
In the static tests, the fairlead of a mooring line was moved slowly to a prescribed position in the xdirection. Af ter the motion of the mooring line completely stopped, the line tensions near the faixlead and the trajectory at the point
880 feet from the
The measured and computed line tensions as a function of
the offsetat its fairlcad was plotted in Fig.3 for the uniform
light chain and in Fig.4 for the heavy chain with an
inserted
fairlead of the mooring line were recorded.
160C
150C
140C
~130C
~'120C
11(X
co
100C
9(X
80C
50
0
I
50
100
Figure 4: Comparison of Line tension for Heavy Chain with Spring
spring. Fig.3 shows excellent agreement among the measure ments and all numerical results predicted respectively by Ca ble3d or Orcaflex. The two predicted line tension curves are almost coincident. Fig.4 shows that the static line tensions predicted by the large elongation simulation (the modified Cable3d) or Orcaflex are in excellent agreement with the corresponding measurements, while the results of the small elongation simulation (the original Cable3d) is much steeper than the measurement. The trajectories of a tracking point with respect to a range of static offsets at the fairlead are shown in Fig.5 for the uniform light chain and in Fig.6 for the heavy chain with an inserted spring. Because Orcaflex is not available to the output for the tracking point, no re sults of Orcaflex are shown in these two figures. It is shown in Fig.5 that both original and modified Cable3d predicted the trajectories of the tracking point very well in the case of a uniform chain. However, Fig.6 shows that the agreement between the large elongation simulation and measurement remains excellent and the agreement between small elonga tion simulation and measurement is rather poor, which is consistent with the comparison observed in Fig.4.
638
150
100
5O
0
50
^{}^{1}^{(}
50
0
x(~t)
50
P
I
100
150
Figure 5: Trajectory of Tracking Point for Uniform Light
Chain
4.2
Oscillations
Strokes
of
Constant
Periods
and
In using the Morison equation to compute hydrody namic forces on a mooring line, accurately determining the drag and addedmass coefficients are crucial to the dynamic simulation of the mooring line. However, at this stage we made no effort in this regard and adopted the drag and addedmass coefficients empirically. The normal drag coeffi cient of a chain was set to be 3.2, tangential drag coefficient = 0.6, normal addedmass coefficient = 2.8, tangential added mass = 0.6, which are close to those used by Wichers and Huijsmans (1990). The chain drag and addedmass coeffi cients are based on the nominal diameter, which is defined as the wire diameter of a shackle. The same coefficients were also used in the numerical simulations of irregular oscillations described later. Although the empirical coefficients are used in our current study, it is important to point out that further studies for determining accurate drag and addedmass coef ficients are necessary and should be conducted in the future. The comparisons of time series of line tension in the uni
120 
o 
E.v,pedrner~ 
100 
   
~(Large Cab4e3dSmall 
80 
411
ElongaUo,'tSimuta~on)I
UonSimulaHon
/
0
20
4O
6O
8O
/
/
^{}^{1}^{~}^{~}
0
50
100
Figure 6: Trajectory of Tracking Point for Heavy Chain with Spring
639
(4s) 
(,~) 

A 

~;[ 
:05 
~"f 110 1 
30~00 
105 
1;0'1'5 

(ss) 
(ea) 

V 
, 

30~)001111()5' 
110 
5 

~ne(s) 
Time(s) 
Figure 7: Dynamic Line Tension for Uniform Light Chain (Large stroke, 4s, 5s, 6s, 8s) (solid line: measttred; dash line:
Cable3d; ...: Orcaflex)
(10e)
(12s)
(14e)
I:IAA,A,
.
.
450
100
110
120
(16s)
130
ntis)
TIm~s)
Figure 8: Dynamic Line Tension
Chain(Large stroke, 10s, 12s, 14s, 16s) (solid line: measured; dash line: Cable3d; ...: Orcaflex)
for
Uniform
Light
form light chain are plotted in Fig.7Fig.9 for various periods of oscillations. The amplitude ratios of the line tension to fairlead motion are plotted in Fig.10 but limited to the large stroke. The amplitude ratio is defined as the average of peak to peak line tension divided by the average peak to peak fair lead motion (stroke) and its unit is kips/ft. In these simula tions, the time step was set as 0.158s in using either Cable3d
numerical schemes, which is equal to the sampling rate used in our measurements. When using Orcaflex~ the time step is reduced to 0.001s. Hence, the simulation conducted using ei ther Cabled3d is almost 10 times faster than using Orcaflex in the case of the uniform chain. By comparing the time series of the simulations, it is seen that simulations by all three numerical schemes are virtually identical, except that the simulations by either Cable3d are much smoother than those by Orcaflex. In the case of the heavy chain with an inserted spring, the comparisons of the amplitude ratios of the line tension to fairlead motion axe plotted in Fig.llFig.13." These figures
~0
(25s)
v
"
(50s)
.
100 
120 
140 
160 
100 
150 
200 
250 
6O0 
(15~) 
A A /
':IV Y v,
100
200
300
400
500
Figure 9: Dynamic Line Tension for Uniform Light Chain(Large stroke, 25s, 50s, 150s) (solid line: measured; dash line: Cable3d; ...: Orcaflex)
demonstrate that the largeelongation simulations by the modified Cable3d and Orcaflex consistently agree with the corresponding measurements in the entire frequency range. The simulations by Orcaflex are almost identical to those by the modified Cable3d. On the other hand, the simulation
by the original Cable3d overpredicts the tension in the low frequency range (< 0.08 HZ) but underpredicts the tension
4o
*
~pedment
* ~
35 ~
Orcallex
. 25
.~
I
J
105 js,
0 0 ~
0.05
0.1
0.15
Fm{Hz)
IP"
0.2
sl ~,
0.25
Figure 10: Dynamic Line Tension per Unit Amplitude for Uniform Light Chain (Large stroke)
~20 i
Figure 11:
•
"•
"
t

*
4
0.05
o.
~
0.1
_
.rs
.of
Fre(Hz)
¢fs f
¢¢¢¢"
s ~
0.15
o~
f
,~¢• ss I
¢#
j4
0.2
0.25
Dynamic Line Tension per Unit Amplitude for
in 
the (wavefrequency) range (> 0.1Hz). The time step used 
Heavy Chain with Spring (Large stroke) 
in 
the simulations of either Cable3d remains 0.158 s. In the 
case of using Orcaflex, the corresponding time step has to be reduced to as small as 6.8e5 s, consistent with the rec ommendation given by Orcaflex. Consequently, the modified Cable3d is about one hundred times faster than Orcaflex.
4.3 Irregular Oscillations
Using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the ampli
tudes of the line tensions and displacements can be expressed
as a function of the frequency. The Response Amplitude Op
erator (RAO), defined as the ratio of mooringline tension to
the displacement at the fairlead, can thus be calculated as a function of the frequency. For brevity, only the results of the heavy chain are presented here. The measured and predicted RAOs are plotted in Fig.14 for the case of the oscillation of
a 'WN' spectrum and in Fig.15 for the 'YR' spectrum, re
spectively. These two figures show that the simulations by the modified Cable3d and Orcaflex remain in excellent agree ment with the measurement in all frequencies although both simulations are slightly smaller than the measurement in the wavefrequency range. The simulation by the original Ca ble3d, nevertheless, is qualitatively different from the corre
640
sponding measurement. It greatly overpredicts the line ten sion in the low frequency range (<0.08Hz) and greatly under predicts the tension in the wavefrequency range (>0.1Hz). These trends are consistent with those observed in the com parisons of the regular oscillations. The total duration for both irregular oscillations are 3 hours. It takes the modified Cable3d about 1 hour to finished each simulation on a 166 megaHz PC, while it takes Orcafiex more than 110 hours to finished the same simulation.
5
Conclusion
The measurements of forced oscillations of two mooring line models (with or without an inserted spring) were used to examine the efficacy of three different numerical schemes: the original and modified Cable3d and Orcafiex. Based on the comparisons between measurements and the corresponding simulations, the following findings were made, which may have important implications to the design of a mooringline system, especially for the model test of a moored offshore structure in deep waters.
!
5O
'J~" _~Ca~m~rge
45
0 
Cable,~(Sml Elon~Uon ,~xiatio.) 
I 
, 
Orcllox 
J 
4O
=
25
~o
0o~/ "
I
10
5
^{0} 0
0.0S
°*J.J~.'".~
0.1
0.15
Fre(Hz)
0.2
0.25
Figure 12: Dynamic Line Tension per Unit Amplitude for Heavy Chain with Spring (Medium stroke)
5O
45
4O
15O
~5
,!i~o
1(
o
I
* Cabl~(U~rle Bongalion Simula~o) I
a
~
•.t, Expedmem
"
"
~(Smalt
Orcaflex
o"
0.05
~
EI~
S~kdion)
.:,.,i," "
s~
ss~s j
0.15
Io.
.@.
0.1
.,¢."
0.2
Fre{Hz)
J
0.25
Figure 13: Dynamic Line Tension per Unit Amplitude for Heavy Chain with Spring (Small stroke)
12
~,0
't'
2
/
r~oo
o
o
oo
0°%ooo0o0o0
°o
.*t,'~
o
o *~,
~°
,9~o%~
.'No
ll*;ll it
0o%ooo %o°0
0~$~o8~o
oo
"°
oo°
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
Fr~Hz)
0.1
0.12
o
o
0.14
t
i
/
/
Figure 14: RAO of Dynamic Line Tension(WN)
641
14
12
~1o
j o[
=~,L
°' 
~m~ 
' 
" 

* 
Cable3d(I.~rge ~ 
Slmulal~n) 

o 
~Ca~eSd(Sm" Be,,~ 
Simutation) 

:OOo 

2° 
o.';;~%;o°° 

0.02 
0.04 
0.06 
0.08 
0.1 
0,12 

Fre(Hz) 
i
0.14
Figure 15: RAO of Dynamic Line Tension(yr)
I. When the elongation along the whole mooring line is insignificant,allthree numerical schemes render almost iden tical simulations as long as the input to them are the same. Their results are in satisfactory agreement with the corre sponding measurements.
2. In the case of a chain with an inserted spring, the elon
gation is significantat the location of the spring. The numer icalsimulations obtained using eitherthe modified Cable3d
or Orcaflex remains almost identical and are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements, while the simulations given by the originalCable3d can not match the measurements qualitatively. The failure of the original Ca ble3d results from the approximation of neglecting the rela tive extension made in the dynamic equation even though it
is explicitly considered
in the length restrain condition.
3. Although both modified Cable3d and Orcaflex render
almost identical simulations, the former is more much effi cient than the latter. The CPU times used by these two schemes for the same computation are differentby a order of ten to hundred times. The huge amount CPU time consumed by Orcaflex resultsfrom the use of a tiny time increment is re quired to maintain the numerical stability. Considering that a mooringline system used for an offshorefloatingstructure, such as Spar or FPSO, usually consists of tens or more single mooring lines, a fast numerical scheme may be a necessity. In this regard, the newly developed modified Cable3d has a significantadvantage over Orcaflex.
Acknowledgment This study was supported by the OTRC at Texas A&M University.
References
Chen, XH, Zhang, J, Johnson, P and Ixani, M
(2000).
"Dynamics Analysis of Mooring Lines with Inserted Springs," submitted to Applied Ocean Res
Garrett,
DL (1982).
"Dynamic analysis of slender rods,"
J. of Energy Resources Technology, Trans.
Vol.104, pp302307.
of ASME,
Lindahl, L and Sj~3berg, A (1983).
"Dynamic analysis of
Mooring Cables," the Second International Symposium on Ocean Engineering and Ship Handling, pp281319.
Love, AEH (1944). "A Treatise on the Mathematical The ory of Elasticity," 4th Edition, Dover Publications, New York.
Ma, W and Webster,WC (1994). "An AnalyticalApproach to Cable Dynamics: Theory and User Manual," SEA GRANT PROJECT R/OE26, September.
Nordgren, RP (1974).
"On Computation of the Motion
of Elastic Rods," ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics,
pp777780.
Orcina, (2000). "Visual Orcaflex User Manual, Version 7.4c," Orcina Limited, Daltongate, Ulverston, Cumbria, LA12 7AJ, U.K.
Panllng, JR and Webster, WC (1986). "A Consistent Largeamplitude Analysis of the Coupled Response of a TLP and Tendon System," Proc. 5th OMAE Conf., Tokyo, Vol.3, pp126133.
Wichers, JEW, and Huijismans, RIIM (1990). "The Contri bution of Hydrodynamic Damping Induced by Mooring Chains on LowFrequency Vessel Motions, " Offshore Tech Con.f,Houston, OTC6218, pp171182.
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