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Proceedings of the Eleventh (2001)International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference Stavanger, Norway, June 17-22, 2001 Copyright © 2001 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers ISBN 1-880653-51-6 (Set); ISBN 1-880653-55-9 (Vol. IV); ISSN 1098-6189(Set)

Dynamic Analysis of Mooring Lines by Using Three Different Methods

Xiaohong Chen and dun Zhang

Texas A&M University College Station, TX, USA

Peter Johnson and Mehernosh Irani

Offshore Technology Research Center College Station, TX, USA

ABSTRACT

Springs are often used in the deep-water mooring-line model tests in the wave basin of the Offshore Technology Research Center. The efficacy of numerical schemes used for simulating mooring lines inserted with springs were exam- ined through the comparison of their respective simulation with measured falrlead tension and trajectory of tracking points of two mooring-line models. It is found that the rela- tively large elongation induced by the inserted spring can sig- nificantly change the dynamics of a mooring llne. Numerical schemes that fail to model the large elongation may hence

result in significant errors in their simulations. Although only limited numerical schemes were examined in thisstudy, the basic findings may have implications to more numeri- cal schemes used by the offshoreindustry because of similar principlesinvolved them.

KEY WORDS:

spring, deep water

large elongation element, mooring line,

1

Introduction

The recent development of oil exploration and produc- tion in deep water sparks research interests in the develop- ment of design and test methods for deep-water mooring-fine systems. This study attempts to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of three numerical schemes for simulating the tension and trajectory of a mooring line when the motion of its fairlead is prescribed. In particular, it is important to find out whether or not they are applicable to mooring lines with inserted springs, which are often used in mooring-line models though not commonly in prototype mooring lines. The use of springs in a mooring-llne model is mainly for two reasons. First, it is difficult to find a cable or rope whose

635

elasticity modulus and submerged weight can simultaneously match with those of the prototype mooring line based on the Froude number scaling. The insertion of springs in a mooring line allows for a significant adjustment of its overall stiffness. Secondly, springs are needed especially in the ease of a truncated mooring-line model, which is a compromise between a large water depth required based on model sealing and a limit water depth in a wave basin. The three numerical schemes are the two different versions of Cable3d, and a commercial software, known as Orcaflex. The reason for choosing them is solely based on the avail- ability. The original numerical scheme of Cable3d (origi- nal Cable3d) was developed by Ma & Webster (1994). It employs a giobal-coordinate-based nonlinear Finite Element Method (FEM). The principles of the FEM were introduced by Garret (1982) for an inextensible rod, and later extended by Paulling & Webster (1986) and Ma g: Webster (1994) to allow for a small elongation of the rod and the support of the sea bottom. Considering that the springs inserted in a mooring llne may have relatively large elongation, we recently revised and extended the original Cable3d to add large elongation elements in modeling a mooring line and to allow for bottom friction (Chen et al. 2000). The newly modified version is hence named as the modified Cable3d. The modified Cable3d includes two kinds of elements: small elongation elements with bending stiffness which were also used in the original Cable3d and large elongation elements without bending stiffness which are able to model the soft components, such as springs, inserted in a mooring llne. The modified Cable3d is found very robust and efficient because relatively large time step can be adopted in computation without the deterioration of numerical stability. It can be used for static and dynamic analysis of risers, mooring lines, tethers, etc. Orcaflex is a commercial numerical software de- veloped by Oreina (2000). It has been used as a design tool

by the offshore industry. It employs a three-dimension (3D) nonlinear finite element method. The mass of each element is lumped at its center. An explicit Euler integration tech- nique is employed for dynamic analysis. Because of its poor numerical stability, the time step required for integration is severely limited, typically around 0.001s (Orcina, 2000). Two special mooring-fine models: a uniform fight- weighted chain and a heavy-weighted chain with a spring inserted in the middle, were made and tested in the wave basin of the Offshore Technology Research Center (OTRC) at Texas A&M university. The measured fairlead tension and trajectory of tracking points of the two mooring-fine models were used to examine the numerical simulations ob- tained respectively by these three numerical schemes. Based on the comparison of the simulations and the corresponding measurements, it is found that all three numerical schemes can accurately simulate the dynamics of the uniform chain. However, only the modified Cable3d and Orcafiex axe able to match the measurements of the chain with an inserted spring. The modified Cable3d is ten to hundred times more efficient than Orcaflex, which may become a significant ad- vantage in simulating a mooring-line system consisting of a large number of individual mooring lines.

2

Formulation

Since Orcaflex is a commercial software, its formulation

is

omitted for brevity. Detailed information of Orcaflex can

be found in Orcina (2000). Hence, our attention focuses only on the formulation of the original and modified Cable3d. The dynamic equations for a slender rod of non or small extensi- bility were derived in many previous studies (e.g. Love 1944,

Nordgren 1974, Garrett 1982, Paulfing & Webster 1986, and Ma & Webster 1994) and hence are briefly given below for completeness and later comparison with the equations for mooring lines with relatively large extensibility.

In a fixed Cartesian coordinate system, the configuration

of a slender rod can be described by a vector, r(s, t), which

starts from the origin of the coordinates to a point along the rod, where s is the distance along the arc length of the rod, measured from the end of the rod to the point and t denotes time (see Fig.l). When the rod is assumed to be inextensible, the arc length s is independent of the deformation of the rod

and time. In the absence of external torque and moment applied on

a slender rod, the governing equation for its motion can be expressed as

-

(Br")"

-4- (Ar')'

+

q =

p~

(1)

Bt~2 is a scalar

known as the Lagrange multiplier; ~ stands for the curvature

of the slender rod; T(s, ~) is the tension; q is

force per unit length; p is the mass of a slender rod per unit

where B is the bending stiffness;

A =

T

-

the external

Y

~)

b~~.ex(el)/

/rls,t)

Figure I: Coordinate System

length; r' -- or h-7, is the inclination of the rod and ~ = -~-,°~ris the acceleration. In the above derivation, the assumption of the inextensi- bilitycondition given below was implicitlyinvoked,

r'

.r'

----1

(2)

In the case ofan extensible rod, Equation (2) is modified to

636

r'.

rt = (1 + e)2

(3)

where e =

the relative extension, e, is very small, Equation (1) for the motion and the above expression for the Lagrange multiplier

A remains valid. However, when e is not small, both need to

be modified to account for relatively large extensions. In studying an extensible chain or cable, the bending stiff- ness and shear stress are negligible and only internal force

considered in the equation for the motion is the tension T which is parallel to the local tangent. The equations of mo- tion of a cable in the Cartesian coordinates were derived by Lindahl and SjSberg (1983). They were written in terms of the unstretched length s, measured along the cable from the end point (s = 0) to a material point. Letting ds be

a small element of the cable measured in an instantaneous

configuration. The conservation of linear momentum leads

to,

~

and EA

is the axial stiffness of the rod. When

p~

a(Tt)

(4)

where q the external force applied on per unit unstretched length, and p the mass per unit unstretched length, t =

vector along the cable. ~ denotes

the corresponding stretched length. Considering the relation between the unstretched and stretched lengths, we have

as

q

=

0

or

is

a

unit

tangential

d£=(l+e)ds

(5)

rl

-- 0s--~-~(l+¢)=t(l+e)

ar

ar

(6)

For significant relative extension in the rod, the Lagrangian multiplier is redefined as,

 

T

-

(1 +

¢----~

(7)

and therefore the equation for the motion of a flexible and extensible rod becomes

(8)

Equation (8) has the same form as (1) except for the absence

of bending stiffness in (8). In the context of chains or cables

used for mooring lines, the external forces consist of gravity force, buoyancy forces, drag forces, inertia forces and added-

mass forces. The last three are calculated using the Morison equation. Noticing Equation (7), we have

(~r')' +

q

:

pi~

¢

=

T

EA

:

A

EA-

A

1--g

(9)

where

=

A

EA

(10)

The constraint equation expressed in terms of i becomes,

r'. r'(1 -

are

(11)

in space using

They are solved using a Newton's

=

1

discretized

The governing equations

method.

a Galerkin's

method for static problems and using a Nemark-~ Scheme

in the time domain for dynamic problems.

3

Experiment

Set-up

Model tests of a chain of uniform density and stiff-

ness and a chain with an inserted spring were conducted in the 3D wave basin at the OTRC. The basin is 45.7 m long,

30.5 m

model scale is 1:40. The main particulars of a uniform light-

weighted chain and a heavy-weighted chain with a spring inserted in the middle are given in prototype scale,as shown in Table.1.

model was forced to oscil-

late horizontally,driven by a servo-controlledhydraulic pis- ton which was anchored to the bridge over the wave basin. The horizontal displacement of the fairlead was recorded based on the position feedback of the hydraulic piston. Hori- zontal and verticalforcesat the fairleadwere measured using strain-gauged shear load cellsand the linetension at the fair- lead was measured using a strain-gauged ring cell.In-plane horizontal and verticalmotions at selected points along the mooring line were recorded by an optical tracking system employing underwater video cameras. All data axe given in prototype scalefollowing the Froude number scaling.

wide, and has a uniform water depth of 5.8 m. The

The falrleadof the mooring-line

Table I: Main Particulars of Mooring Lines Heavy Chain Uniform Light

 

with Spring

Chain

Water Depth(R)

733.3

733.3

Total Mooring Line Length(it) Mass per Unit

2243.3

2500

Length(lbs/it) 560

235.2

Elastic Stiffness (EA)(kips) Inserted spring

6.68 x 108

4.95 x 10s

unstretched length(it) Inserted spring

160

no spring

elasticity(lbs/in)

322

no spring

Pretension(kips)

1000

350

Table 2: Target Periods end Amplitudes of Motion

period(s)

stroke (ft)

stroke (ft)

stroke (ft)

(L)

(M)

(s)

4s

3

1.5

0.75

5s

3

1.5

0.75

6s

3

1.5

0.75

8s

15

7.5

3.75

10s

20

10

5

12s

30

15

7.5

14s

30

15

7.5

16s

30

15

7.5

25s

30

15

7.5

50s

120

60

30

150s

120

60

30

In the regular oscillation tests, the falrlesd was forced to oscillate at a constant period and amplitude in the x- direction. The target periods of all regular oscillations are summarized in Table 2. At each period, there are three runs with different target strokes. According to their rela- tive magnitudes, they are named as large, medium and small strokes, respectively, and denoted by the capital letters 'L', 'M' and 'S'.

In addition to the regular oscillations,

the oscillation of

fairlead was subjected to two different irregular signals. They

respectively correspond to the surge motions of:

(a) a seml-submersible experiencing a 100 year return pe-

riod hurricane in the Gull of Mexico (the spectrum of the

signal is denoted as 'YR'), and

(b) a semi-submersible in the sea states of a 20-foot sig-

nificant wave height (the spectrum is denoted 'WN'). These two spectra are plotted in Fig.2. Both low-frequency (representing slow surge motion) and wave-frequency re- sponses of a semi-submersible can be identified in these two spectra.

637

0.0~

0,04

0.06

0.06

Fmquen~C-#z)

0.1

0.12

0.14

0.16

-~o

~

o

ons~m

5o

,00

Figure 2: Spectra of Fairlead Motion

Figure

3: Comparison of Line tension for Uniform Light

Chain

4 Comparisons between Numerical Simulations and Experiment Re- sults

Numerical simulations are made respectively using three differentnumerical schemes: the originalCable3d (also denoted by small elongation simulation), the modified Ca-

ble3d (large elongation simulation) and Orcaliex. In the case of the uniform light chain, comparisons were made only for the static and regular oscillations of large strokes. In the case of the heavy chain with an inserted spring, all com- parisons of static,regular and irregular oscillationsare pre- sented. In simulating the uniform chain, the resultsobtained using either original or extended Cable3d are virtually iden- tical,which is expected because the extension of the uniform

chain is negligible. Thus these results were simply

by 'Cable3d'. In the case of the heavy chain with an inserted

spring, the small elongation simulation (obtained using the originalCable3d) and the large elongation simulation (using the modified Cable3d) are found to be quite different and both simulations are given in the related figures. The inputs to all three numerical schemes were the same, that is,the time seriesof measured fairleadmotion. Noticing that the x- axis is parallel to the motion of the piston and the y-axis points upwards, the motion of the mooring line induced by the moving falrlead is hence mainly in the x-y plane. All results are presented in prototype scale.

denoted

4.1 Tensions and Trajectory of Static tests

In the static tests, the fairlead of a mooring line was moved slowly to a prescribed position in the x-direction. Af- ter the motion of the mooring line completely stopped, the line tensions near the faixlead and the trajectory at the point

880 feet from the

The measured and computed line tensions as a function of

the offsetat its fairlcad was plotted in Fig.3 for the uniform

light chain and in Fig.4 for the heavy chain with an

inserted

fairlead of the mooring line were recorded.

160C

150C

140C

~130C

~'120C

11(X

co

100C

9(X

80C

-50

0

I

50

100

Figure 4: Comparison of Line tension for Heavy Chain with Spring

spring. Fig.3 shows excellent agreement among the measure- ments and all numerical results predicted respectively by Ca- ble3d or Orcaflex. The two predicted line tension curves are almost coincident. Fig.4 shows that the static line tensions predicted by the large elongation simulation (the modified Cable3d) or Orcaflex are in excellent agreement with the corresponding measurements, while the results of the small elongation simulation (the original Cable3d) is much steeper than the measurement. The trajectories of a tracking point with respect to a range of static offsets at the fairlead are shown in Fig.5 for the uniform light chain and in Fig.6 for the heavy chain with an inserted spring. Because Orcaflex is not available to the output for the tracking point, no re- sults of Orcaflex are shown in these two figures. It is shown in Fig.5 that both original and modified Cable3d predicted the trajectories of the tracking point very well in the case of a uniform chain. However, Fig.6 shows that the agreement between the large elongation simulation and measurement remains excellent and the agreement between small elonga- tion simulation and measurement is rather poor, which is consistent with the comparison observed in Fig.4.

638

150

100

5O

0

-50

-1(

-50

0

x(~t)

50

P---------

I-

100

150

Figure 5: Trajectory of Tracking Point for Uniform Light

Chain

4.2

Oscillations

Strokes

of

Constant

Periods

and

In using the Morison equation to compute hydrody- namic forces on a mooring line, accurately determining the drag and added-mass coefficients are crucial to the dynamic simulation of the mooring line. However, at this stage we made no effort in this regard and adopted the drag and added-mass coefficients empirically. The normal drag coeffi- cient of a chain was set to be 3.2, tangential drag coefficient = 0.6, normal added-mass coefficient = 2.8, tangential added- mass = 0.6, which are close to those used by Wichers and Huijsmans (1990). The chain drag and added-mass coeffi- cients are based on the nominal diameter, which is defined as the wire diameter of a shackle. The same coefficients were also used in the numerical simulations of irregular oscillations described later. Although the empirical coefficients are used in our current study, it is important to point out that further studies for determining accurate drag and added-mass coef- ficients are necessary and should be conducted in the future. The comparisons of time series of line tension in the uni-

120

o

E.v,pedrner~

100

--

-

-

~(Large

Cab4e3dSmall

80

411

ElongaUo,'tSimuta~on)I

UonSimulaHon

/

0

-20

-4O

-6O

-8O

/

/

-1~~

0

50

100

Figure 6: Trajectory of Tracking Point for Heavy Chain with Spring

639

 

(4s)

(,~)

 

A

 

~;[

:05

~"f 110 1

30~00

105

1;0'1'5

 

(ss)

(ea)

 

V

,

30~)001111()5'

110

5

~ne(s)

Time(s)

Figure 7: Dynamic Line Tension for Uniform Light Chain (Large stroke, 4s, 5s, 6s, 8s) (solid line: measttred; dash line:

Cable3d; .-.-.-: Orcaflex)

(10e)

(12s)

(14e)

I:IAA,A,

.

.

450

100

110

120

(16s)

130

ntis)

TIm~s)

Figure 8: Dynamic Line Tension

Chain(Large stroke, 10s, 12s, 14s, 16s) (solid line: measured; dash line: Cable3d; .-.-.-: Orcaflex)

for

Uniform

Light

form light chain are plotted in Fig.7-Fig.9 for various periods of oscillations. The amplitude ratios of the line tension to fairlead motion are plotted in Fig.10 but limited to the large stroke. The amplitude ratio is defined as the average of peak to peak line tension divided by the average peak to peak fair- lead motion (stroke) and its unit is kips/ft. In these simula- tions, the time step was set as 0.158s in using either Cable3d

numerical schemes, which is equal to the sampling rate used in our measurements. When using Orcaflex~ the time step is reduced to 0.001s. Hence, the simulation conducted using ei- ther Cabled3d is almost 10 times faster than using Orcaflex in the case of the uniform chain. By comparing the time series of the simulations, it is seen that simulations by all three numerical schemes are virtually identical, except that the simulations by either Cable3d are much smoother than those by Orcaflex. In the case of the heavy chain with an inserted spring, the comparisons of the amplitude ratios of the line tension to fairlead motion axe plotted in Fig.ll-Fig.13." These figures

~0

(25s)

v

"

(50s)

.

100

120

140

160

100

150

200

250

6O0

(15~)

A A /

':IV Y v,

100

200

300

400

500

Figure 9: Dynamic Line Tension for Uniform Light Chain(Large stroke, 25s, 50s, 150s) (solid line: measured; dash line: Cable3d; .-.-.-: Orcaflex)

demonstrate that the large-elongation simulations by the modified Cable3d and Orcaflex consistently agree with the corresponding measurements in the entire frequency range. The simulations by Orcaflex are almost identical to those by the modified Cable3d. On the other hand, the simulation

by the original Cable3d over-predicts the tension in the low- frequency range (< 0.08 HZ) but under-predicts the tension

4o

--*-

~pedment

-* ~

35 -~

Orcallex

.- 25

.~

I

J

105 js,

0 0 ~

0.05

0.1

0.15

Fm{Hz)

IP-"

0.2

sl ~,

0.25

Figure 10: Dynamic Line Tension per Unit Amplitude for Uniform Light Chain (Large stroke)

~20 i

Figure 11:

"•

"-

t

-

*

4

0.05

o.

~

0.1

_

.rs

.of

Fre(Hz)

¢fs f

¢¢¢¢"

s ~

0.15

o~

f

,~¢• ss I

¢#

j4

0.2

0.25

Dynamic Line Tension per Unit Amplitude for

in

the (wave-frequency) range (> 0.1Hz). The time step used

Heavy Chain with Spring (Large stroke)

in

the simulations of either Cable3d remains 0.158 s. In the

case of using Orcaflex, the corresponding time step has to be reduced to as small as 6.8e-5 s, consistent with the rec- ommendation given by Orcaflex. Consequently, the modified Cable3d is about one hundred times faster than Orcaflex.

4.3 Irregular Oscillations

Using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the ampli-

tudes of the line tensions and displacements can be expressed

as a function of the frequency. The Response Amplitude Op-

erator (RAO), defined as the ratio of mooring-line tension to

the displacement at the fairlead, can thus be calculated as a function of the frequency. For brevity, only the results of the heavy chain are presented here. The measured and predicted RAOs are plotted in Fig.14 for the case of the oscillation of

a 'WN' spectrum and in Fig.15 for the 'YR' spectrum, re-

spectively. These two figures show that the simulations by the modified Cable3d and Orcaflex remain in excellent agree- ment with the measurement in all frequencies although both simulations are slightly smaller than the measurement in the wave-frequency range. The simulation by the original Ca- ble3d, nevertheless, is qualitatively different from the corre-

640

sponding measurement. It greatly over-predicts the line ten- sion in the low frequency range (<0.08Hz) and greatly under- predicts the tension in the wave-frequency range (>0.1Hz). These trends are consistent with those observed in the com- parisons of the regular oscillations. The total duration for both irregular oscillations are 3 hours. It takes the modified Cable3d about 1 hour to finished each simulation on a 166 mega-Hz PC, while it takes Orcafiex more than 110 hours to finished the same simulation.

5

Conclusion

The measurements of forced oscillations of two mooring- line models (with or without an inserted spring) were used to examine the efficacy of three different numerical schemes: the original and modified Cable3d and Orcafiex. Based on the comparisons between measurements and the corresponding simulations, the following findings were made, which may have important implications to the design of a mooring-line system, especially for the model test of a moored offshore structure in deep waters.

!

5O

-'J~" _~Ca~m~rge
45

-0-

Cable,~(Sml Elon~Uon ,~xiatio.)

I

-,-

Orcllox

J

4O

=

25

~o

0o~/ -"

I

10

5

0 0

0.0S

°*J.J~.'".~

0.1

0.15

Fre(Hz)

0.2

0.25

Figure 12: Dynamic Line Tension per Unit Amplitude for Heavy Chain with Spring (Medium stroke)

5O

45

4O

15O

~5

,!i~o

1(

o

I

-*- Cabl~(U~rle Bongalion Simula~o) I

-a-

-~-

•.-t,- Expedmem

"

"

~(Smalt

Orcaflex

o"

0.05

~

EI~

S~kdion)

.:,.,i," "

s~

ss~s j

0.15

I-o.

.@.

0.1

.,¢."

0.2

Fre{Hz)

J

0.25

Figure 13: Dynamic Line Tension per Unit Amplitude for Heavy Chain with Spring (Small stroke)

12

~,0

't'

2

/

r-~oo

o

o

oo

0°%ooo0o0o0

°o

.*t,'~

o

o *~,

,9~o%~

.'No

ll*;ll it

0o%ooo %o°0

0~$~o8~o

oo

oo°

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

Fr~Hz)

0.1

0.12

o

o

0.14

t

i

/

/

Figure 14: RAO of Dynamic Line Tension(WN)

641

14

12

~1o

j o[

=~,L

°'

~m~

'

"

*

Cable3d(I.~rge ~

Slmulal~n)

o

~Ca~eSd(Sm" Be,,~

Simutation)

 

:OOo

 

o.';;~%;o°°

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0,12

 

Fre(Hz)

i

0.14

Figure 15: RAO of Dynamic Line Tension(yr)

I. When the elongation along the whole mooring line is insignificant,allthree numerical schemes render almost iden- tical simulations as long as the input to them are the same. Their results are in satisfactory agreement with the corre- sponding measurements.

2. In the case of a chain with an inserted spring, the elon-

gation is significantat the location of the spring. The numer- icalsimulations obtained using eitherthe modified Cable3d

or Orcaflex remains almost identical and are in satisfactory agreement with the corresponding measurements, while the simulations given by the originalCable3d can not match the measurements qualitatively. The failure of the original Ca- ble3d results from the approximation of neglecting the rela- tive extension made in the dynamic equation even though it

is explicitly considered

in the length restrain condition.

3. Although both modified Cable3d and Orcaflex render

almost identical simulations, the former is more much effi- cient than the latter. The CPU times used by these two schemes for the same computation are differentby a order of ten to hundred times. The huge amount CPU time consumed by Orcaflex resultsfrom the use of a tiny time increment is re- quired to maintain the numerical stability. Considering that a mooring-line system used for an offshorefloatingstructure, such as Spar or FPSO, usually consists of tens or more single mooring lines, a fast numerical scheme may be a necessity. In this regard, the newly developed modified Cable3d has a significantadvantage over Orcaflex.

Acknowledgment This study was supported by the OTRC at Texas A&M University.

References

Chen, XH, Zhang, J, Johnson, P and Ixani, M

(2000).

"Dynamics Analysis of Mooring Lines with Inserted Springs," submitted to Applied Ocean Res

Garrett,

DL (1982).

"Dynamic analysis of slender rods,"

J. of Energy Resources Technology, Trans.

Vol.104, pp302-307.

of ASME,

Lindahl, L and Sj~3berg, A (1983).

"Dynamic analysis of

Mooring Cables," the Second International Symposium on Ocean Engineering and Ship Handling, pp281-319.

Love, AEH (1944). "A Treatise on the Mathematical The- ory of Elasticity," 4th Edition, Dover Publications, New York.

Ma, W and Webster,WC (1994). "An AnalyticalApproach to Cable Dynamics: Theory and User Manual," SEA GRANT PROJECT R/OE-26, September.

Nordgren, RP (1974).

"On Computation of the Motion

of Elastic Rods," ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics,

pp777-780.

Orcina, (2000). "Visual Orcaflex User Manual, Version 7.4c," Orcina Limited, Daltongate, Ulverston, Cumbria, LA12 7AJ, U.K.

Panllng, JR and Webster, WC (1986). "A Consistent Large-amplitude Analysis of the Coupled Response of a TLP and Tendon System," Proc. 5th OMAE Conf., Tokyo, Vol.3, pp126-133.

Wichers, JEW, and Huijismans, RIIM (1990). "The Contri- bution of Hydrodynamic Damping Induced by Mooring Chains on Low-Frequency Vessel Motions, " Offshore Tech Con.f,Houston, OTC6218, pp171-182.

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