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Hi

h Fide

erforlnaltce

with

Over-cll viow ol

lLe "on-ot" switch

dt top cad

foroera cnd tlter

polPer cEplifier. The lhree luses

dle lrounted on ihe lett floDgo

while

appears oa the dqht llqrEe. Tbe lcrge housins (shicl i! veated

bottom) direclly behind the tubes coveE tLe output ;nd powe! trqns-

chote. The other coEponents are eounted belog the chassis.

The original British-designed power amplilier was

conservatively rated at 20 watts. Actual tests

showed an o.utput ol 36 watts with .2 /o harmonic

distortion. /Aaximum output is with .3 volt input.

nONSfDERABLE international at-

lr

v

tention

audio

has been focused on a new

output

pentode,

the EL34,

introduced

in England by

many

amplifier designs

tube.

The cir-

Ltd., in view of the

power

recently

Mullq.rd,

American

based around this new

cuit described in this articte is basical-

ly

an

"Ultra-Linear" design

worked

up by

that was

originally

and

Mulktrd Ltd,,

World,,,'

published i^

"Wiretess

According

rated

at

to published

data. it was

20 watts with a total har-

monic distortion

out-

put. Actual tests by American stand-

of .05qa

at rated

ards resulted

performance

watts

in a rather

in

surprising

of

20

that, instead

output,

we were able to obtain

up to

36 watts with a total harmonic

.27,.

into the actual

details

distortion of

Before going

of this power amplifier, let us review

the basic

signs

tions

Briefly,

1.

requirements

of amplifier de-

considera-

that are

for

important

high-fidelity

reproaluction,

they

are as follows:

Low

harmonic and intermodula-

tion distortion

2. Linear

throughout the

frequency

audible range

response

TABIJE I.

THE MULLARD EIJ34 TUBE UNDER VARIOUS OPERATING CONDITIONS

g

MODE OF

OPERATION

OPERATING CONDITIONS

Es'!

Rk

Impedance

ohrne)

(ohrns) (P-P,

IM DISTORTION

(in

per-cent at)

Ep

R"" (oh;rs) low. l4w. 36w.

(volts) (volts)

Triodc-connected 400

Disai-buted-load 400

" Ultr-a - Idnear" )

Pcatodc-connccted 330

push-pull)

470 loK

(each)

400

330

470

(each)

130

(cornmon)

6.6K

3.4K

.4

1000 .5

(each)

470

(cornrnon)

1.5

.6

.6

.8

2.O 4.0

By E. J' PORTO*

3. Good response to transient sig-

nals

4. Low phase shift

5. Low hum and noise level

6. Enough power output to allow

peaks to be reproduced without over-

loading

7.

Low output resistance to proviale

electrical damping for the loudspeaker system

8. Stability under feedback condi-

tions

Amplifier Designs

A low level of inherent distortion

can be obtained in a push-pull triode

output

Class

stage operating

A conditions.

It

25-\Matt

as triodes,

under virtually

is found

that

with

wired

pentodes or tetrodes,

a

power output of

easily ob-

levels

a supply voltage of

output and the

vary appre-

impeal-

per-

high

from 12-15 watts can be

using

from 430-450 volts.

The maximum power

corresponding

ciably with

distortion

tained with harmonic distortion

below 7E,

the value of loaal

illustrates typical

EL34

ance. Fig. 2

formance

slope

in

of t}j.e Mulktl'd,

output

pentode, triode-connected,

stage operating

slightly

of 25

dissipation

a push-pull

below its rated plate

watts.

in

Increasing

circuits

ing

interest is being shown

employing distributed toad-

operation) of the

1),

These circuits

the output

(r'Ultra-Linear"

output stage (Fig,

apply negative

stage

itself.

screen

feedback in

The

In the simplest form, the

output tubes are primary of the

stage can be

negative

grids of the

taps

on the

feal from

output transformer,

considereal

feedback

as one in which

is applied in

a non-linear

manner oio the

acteristics

of the distributeal loaal

screen

grids.

The

char-

stage are intermediate between those

pentode and triode operation,

triode operation as the per-

proaching

for

ap-

.Iniernational ElectroniCorDorarion. E1 gpring

gtreet, Nes York. NeF York.

RADIO & IELEYII|OI| l{EW5

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c

ntage

mon to

increases,

timum

us-ed

of the

primary winaling Com-

screen-grid circuits

that

under otrr-

;f

plate and

It

is found

conditions

about two-thirds

the power-handling

corresponding

capacity of the

slage

can be

distortion,

pentode

with greauy

while at power levels

to lriode

distortion

reduced

a similar

corresponding

;rder

of

same

operation,

is obtained. At the

output impedance

approaching

time, tbe

to a level

when

is reduced

that obtained

a conventional push-pull triode

a stage

can, there-

penlodes of the 25_

amplifiers

in ex_

Dower

slage is used. Such

lore. be used with

watt class

designed

cess

for

in high-qualilJ

power

outputs well

over-all

of 30 watls, the

efficiency

with

triode

Table 1 is

eration

seen that

more

with triode

with a

a

being much greater than

operation.

a comparison

of triode,

opera-

pentode, and dislributedload

tion

EL34

for the EL34. For tubes oi the

type,

is

comparison

of

most

with triode

interest. It will

op-

be

dislribuledJoad

than double

operation

th;t

operation

capaeity

possible

while, at the

very

siage can

low level. Alihoueh

enables lhe power-handling

10 be

same lime, distortion in the

be held to

common windihg ralio of 0-.2

level is

ob_

to 1 the distortion

1o

that

tained at higher

common winding

comparable

triode conditions, it has been found

appreciable improvement is

power

outputs

if the

ratio is further in-

creased-

Fig.

l. Theoretical desier

circuitry

uled

ir

lor

,,Uhrc-

Liuea!"

omplitier.

The percertdge

ligure is tuIns rc:io.

From the

advantage

by

further

tions. There

advahtages

40"o

of

with the

figures of Tabte l. tit

would

e

appear to be gained

approaching lriode iondi-

are. however, at least lwo

at about

ih

using

a tap

primary

turns.

particutarly

a iigh

In

power

first

the

EI-34 where

output is still available.

to Class A triode

power

dependent

load impedance. With

place,

obtaihed uhder cathode and fixed

conditions since

almost identical performance is

bias

wilh a closer approach

operation, variations

grid

currents are

slage

is

driven. Sec_

are less

of the

tap

a primary

in plate and screen

reduced when the

ondly, as with normal triode operalioh,

output anal distortion

on the

precise

value

Fig. 2, Pe ortbalce curaes ode{onrccred EL3a tubes tn

!el6r

ot trro td.

puBh.DuI.

to t6xt lor complete dt3cusrlo!.

of about

40qo

s1

1l't turns, little

is produced

by

load im_

change in performance

tion t_he output

is still further

change in the plate-to-plate

a

pedance

of

6000 to 9000 ohms. In addi_

impedance of

reduced

the stage

use of

by the

the larger common winding ratio.

Circuil Arrangemenls

The

plifier

next-to-thelast-stage of the am-

be capable oI providing a

musl

Flg' 3' sch.'oclic ol Mullatd 520 obPlifier. All Pq,l! are cvailqble ar bcal patl" robbers. Maxiium cu' nr drai! lo! plec.p is {0 Dd.

R\ Rs-t mesoh-, t/1 *- tat.

R., Ri-a7oo

Rt, Ra, Rt*22o0

ohn,

t/; ,.

ohn,

R\-1OO

ohn, t/1 ,.

ohm,

rcr.

th

R6-100,OOO

R-Jgo,oOo ohm,

R*820o

t/,

V2

*

ohm, lh t

ohm,

RIF27O,OoO

R ,

Rt*t8o,ooo

:L,q'o,

RA.

Iodd

Rn,

)

rc,- *-rcr.

y)

t.

'. rc,

rc'.

rc,.

tu'.

oh . V2 |.

re,. t Mdt.hed

R,,

=5/.

Rn to be et.dt.t th46

R -47o,OOo ohn, y, ,- re,. (Mdt.hed

R^-8200 ohm, t/r a. re'. +5q. (tot t6-ohn

RF+7O

(.titi.at

ohn, t 4 *ire'ound rer.

rdtrc)

Atril, lt56

Rn-15,OOO

Rtt,

RQ-tooo

MJ.I.

!1.1.,

.litc

12 ,,

C*8

ttl.l.,4Oo

r.

pld.,45o

at.!.,4OO

ald., 4oo

u--;"

cr-47

C-tO

C*.o'

C,

ct-.25

Ch C1-.05

C*220 rtt.t.

lnai

l

ohn, V)

oh

y2

1, rcr,

rc'.

.etuni.

ete

,

,.

.and.;t-,

.dnd.itot

.dtd.itot

r. elec dba.itor

t, .dodcitot

,.

.doa.it.t

"oi*it",

ttot t6-ohn

Ctu,

cB,

IF&

CL-50 trld

C'*a

t/ft!.,

md.,

hr, t80

5o

ioo '. v. tlj

ete

ohn

Mba.it.t

etec- cioacir.,

frtir chohe tTho,-

.,dtron T-20-C-54

F', F*2

dno lu'e

or aJTC H-62)

S)-D.p.'.t.

Tt-Poeer

( po,et

oa.6i"

',n.h

na"s.

t

2oo ne.:

4oo-o-4oo ,. 6

6.t '

.cui,-)

0t

bdn'.

t /n.,

,do Ptottl.t'

4.a-j6

Corp.

ohm,j

Ttdn'lotmq

4-8.16

'

Drnd

,,to-p,8-t6

66o0:hn

M/rrd;.t)

t

@ t dnpr.t

'.

PM-8412

T*Outpu!

te,-ikd:

6600 ohnB pno.p,

stdnd&.!

ohmt pro.p.

A-42O.6600 ohmt

,,j"rt

v-Ecc1

{i t ilf

;

t'be (

t.be

Yr Y!-EL14

vr-cZt2

,t.

@ 5 enDt. tstdn.ot

o! the

lo\ori,s

t-so72.

n.r

Conpaq

ohnt

T6.too,

Chi.d,o-

TioO

ConD.n,

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ohn, p.rr-

oh6,)

pao.p.4.16

tlldt.t)

ot GZJ4 tcbe

( Muudt.!)

6f

looD Iccdtra.k

slaLility

llom

oulpul inpul

loop

[ol

in-

gain ex-

which

will occur iI the

al

+

+

9+

z

tr

,.-.a* ti"ltv

it',.

lrequencies

shill

alound

a phase change

rorat pt't"se

either'

thc loop

0' or 360" and so ren-

becomcs

ieris ine

t.eatacx signal in-phase

Tho condilions

for

i-prv

with

iL" inpur.

if"a-rri"t

.n-if-t^t.

^aiiiionur

i"i l]

-

the

negali\e

of

180'

as the

amplifier

to

180"'

conlrol

over a

excess ol

i".t.uliitv is approached

phase shitt in

the

i""ao"ir.

nellvolk approaches

necessary

i

amptificr

itt"."rot",

r^"a

ranse

characteristics

s'eallY

in

tr

lr

lr

i;;";;;;

iil'i

workinc

band As thp dc-

is

tt"J"i T""Arr""t

i"-1. ii-ir"d

-o."

increases conlrol be-

usually

induclance'

induc-

PHASE SI]IFT (V/ITIi

F EDBACK

dimcult and

lcakage

and

tv the

u n""

lr'to outpul

in

primary

".ii-""ou"ir

iun""lr

translormer' Tt is

lo

proride a

feedback

rn

th' maln

.a

praclice

tKc.

FREOUENCY IN CPS

nuiic oimcurr

IJn.l"ni

over

"nO

"uii

ii"ouut"

una hish

rnu.gin

it

levet of

Fiq. 4. Loop sdin,

;i':r;;

-';.;*

SUMMARY OT

lrequencY lesPonse'

dr 36 wdl

PERFORMANCE

dnd Phcse chdroclerislics' OveFall tre'

lhe whole audible range

amplifier

loop

tft"

$

here

oPeldtion is nqr' 30 to 20'000 cYcles'Per'second'

TABI,E 2.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE

30 to 20'000 cPs

3- or 4-stage

foP.lback

jncludcs lhe uholc clr-

oulpul

transformer' An

in

such

of slability

verv dimcull lo ob-

Ii."i,-iiun""""it

iri".

POWER AMPI,IFIER 36 watts;

irt""

is more usual 1o find

ihat thc efTeclive feedback decreases

il*u"0"

ii

rn" upper

iie

and lower audible

Mullord 520 circuil

and enginFered

ol feed-

ltnn"i"

i.'J.p""iurrv designed

i" -ii"i"iti

a conit.nt degree

back throughout

--ine

oerf6r-ance

i"tt "

fn"

conditions

tial rcouiremPnl of

po"onf; on lhe

'

*,iir.- w"

io"J

i"'"".io"-n" may

""-p"t"tt i.i-^rv

ouipLri

rrieit-qultirv

no$ei

handling

aucc ttre

ihe audible lange'

of any high-qucl-

itv amplifier is, ullimately dependenl

.ri tlie quatiry of the ouiput trans-

use of dis I ribu ted-load

does not modily the essen-

a first_class com-

the

output

conlrary

be

a

more critical

precise balance of

since

*inding.

"un

'o

"p"t"tion

musi be maintained'

bY

slatinq

lhal

dislributed-

summarize

itti roduct

ion ot

capacilies

using the Mxild'd EL34

design

efficienl

with vcry higi

1o

repro_

pentoac we can

amplifiers

range of mod-

widesiaynamic

ern program sources.

Gonstruction De{ails

Thc Dtale-to-Plale Ioading

nrriout

i.J

itug"

vottae"

is 6600 ohms

ot

the center-tap

in"-""

pti.in

,'a.creen-erid

oui t,rbes is zs

oarticular

i^rio used,

il

oroved

of the

and \\'iih a

ube wii h the

- lurns

thai im-

approximalely

of

the

output

dissipalion

*atts

per I

440 at

trans-

the combined anode

of the ouf-

screen- grid_to-plate

has been tound

linearily is obtained at power

walis when resislors on

1000 ohms are inserted in

lecds. The slight re-

to limit thp oul-of-

lur_

in

ievels above 15

ii"-L.J". ot

irr. screen-grid

duclion in peak po$er-handling capac-

is not siSnificant in

oiact ice. Separate caihode_bias re-

Ir"-*tti"ft ipsults

!iJ.t.-.,"

used

Lutun"" ,t." currenl in lhe outpul

i.an.totm"t

primar): lhe use of

ir'r.,i J.", ttui^n"inq arrangPmenls

it',. nutput stage has nol heen consid_

i6- lli"essarl:

primarilv b.causc of

of

lhe

itr" unitor m characleli-lics

",

taalli

ed o

Pqgc 139\

Power output:

Frequency

Harmonic

resPonse: (at 36 watts)

ilistortion: (at 400 cPs)

within I db frorn 20 to 20,000 cPs

.05% at 20 watts, .2fi at 36 watts

.87" with peak corresPonding watts sine-wave Power

db (relative to 36 watts)

-gg

volt lor 36 watt outPut

.3

s0

to 36

of negative

feedback is in the main

roltage

IM ilistortion: (40 to 10,000 cps, 4:l ratio)

Hum and nofue:

Sensitivity:

DatYtping factor:

well balanced push-pull

quate

c.ntent.

amplitude

With

dli\e of ade-

and lo\a distorlion

the EL34 lhe maxlmllm

arive vottaee r"quired

2x25 volta r.m.s

approximately

is

lnput

lor

voltage

ll iode

re-

pen-

cuirements are similar

r;de.

or disl ributed-load operalion

in order to

Bcarine in mind lhe necd

srabilitv ivhen feedback

irr. *nlte

"n"tui"

ampliner,

ttt"

lo insur'

is applicd ovel

should

in lhc

lhe circuit

minimum number of

recluce phase shifts

and

iiages

ii rle lunction

of phaso splitling

d

amDlification can bo combir)

gn

neit -t o-t he-last -st a

il"it"".

rni"

can

u"tri"i-a uv usinq

form o[

phase

a

spliller'

.,i u.tun"" is possibte

!v'it-h a

"o-lrin"a

cl

iu

u.ine u

odc, "ri

ii-"t

so much lhe

be conveniently

cfllhodc-coupled

A

high

deerce

\\'ilh thii

douhle

lri-

gairr ol aboul 25

simullsneously'

high-

A I'rncrrlrnq

circuil'

tow distortion level

maximum drive lo lhc oulpllt slage'

high-impcdanco

.m.cti*e

be ohlain(d

uilh

This. combirre.t

"un

a

gain slage. enables a high o\er-all

to be oblained even when

iensiliriiy

ia.e,'a;ount

,,-^.r_ a r.i.r' <.nsirivitv

l""rrL". thc

"-Jiin"i

reouir"merrls

.nnuia

outpul

ol preamplifiel

io

and lone

th'reby

he morc

ll

contlol circuits lo be reduced

cnabling

oasilv

low dislorlion

in thcse

actrieved

cilcuils

fr" rcmr'mbered

lhal circuils

muit bp

nteceaine

capabln

lllc main amplifier

ol

handling.

wilhoul apFrP-

\\'hich are

ri;ble dislor'lion'

much

load thc

With the

EF86.

r<l. in a

ojioa,

input

i.iiriu"fr"

vollages

greater than those

amplifier

use

of

fully.

neccssary to

jnpui

Dois{'

slage

lovels'

oulprrt

an'l noise

such tubes as the

suited for

\,t'hich is particularly

h iqh-sensil

ivil

y

and

sensitivilies

,ii,. ro lts l6rv hum

it is lound lhAl

$hcn leedback is ap-

of 100 lo 300

can be

lor 36-ualt

acni".:ea wf]ite keeping hum

levels extremely

'-tn

low.

an

amplifiel emplo]ine iingle-

Fis. S. Hormonic distotlion dnd inPut/ouiput charocte!tulics oI the dnplilier'

E

RADIO & TELEYISION NEWS

Mullard's 520 Circuit

. (C ontinued, from p&ge 68)

EL34. It is necessary, in this type of

output stage, that the

cathodes be by-

passed to ground even when a com-

mon cathode resisfor is useal.

T]le power

supply is conventional

and uses a MulLtrd Gz32 or Gz34 irr-

directly-heated, full-wave rectifier with

capacitor input filter.

The driver stage uses a Mullnrd

anal fulfiIs the com-

bined function of phase splitter and

ECC83 twin-triode

driver. amplifier. It is of the cathotle-

coupled type and enables a high de-

gree

of push-pull balance to be ob-

tained,

The first stage is a high-gain

pen-

tode voltage amplifier using an EF86

low-hum pentode. High-stability car-

bon resistors are used in

grid, and cathode circuits and give ap-

plate, screen-

preciable

improvement in measured

as compared

background noise level

with

mize low-frequency

ordinary carbon resistors. This

grid

splitter in order to mini-

phase shift in the

stage is d.c,-coupled to the input

of

the phase

ampliffer and improve low-frequency

stability when feedback is applied.

Despite

the high degree of negative

margin of stability has

feedback used in the present design,

an adequate

been

achieved, Complete stabilily is

maintained under open-circuit condi-

tions in this circuit. An increase in

feedback of at least 10 db,

reducing

possible

obtained by

the value of .Bro, should be

before signs of high-frequency

instability occur. The loop gain, over-

all frequency response, and phase shift

characteristics of

are shown in Fig. 4.

the whole amplifier

The harmonic distortion of this am-

plifier at 400

cps, measured without

5. The distor-

feedback under resistive load condi-

tions, is shown in Fig.

tion curve towards the overload point

is also shown for feedback

conditions.

At the 2o-watt level the distortion level without feedback is well below

1% and with feedback

applied falls to

distortion at

below 0.05%. Harmonic

40O cps reaches 0.2% at approximate-

ly 36 watts output. The loop gain

are such that at least

characteristics

20 db feedback is maintained from 15

to 25,000 cps,

Measutement of

intermodulation

products has been made, using a car-

rier frequency of 10,000 cps, and a

modulating frequency of 40 cps, with

a ratio of 40 to 10,000 cps amplitudes

of 4:1. With the combined

plituale of the mixed output at a level

corresponding to the peak sine wave

peak am-

amplitude at 36 watts r.m.s. power,

intermodulation products expresseal in r.m.s. terms totaled 0.8% of the 10,000

cps carrier amplitude.

The sensitivity of the amplifier is

approximately

output. The

amplifier

0.3 volt for 36 watts

backgrounal level in this

was 89 db below at 36 watts,

measureal with a source resistance of

10,000 ohms.

Aprll, lt56

-@-

ArR F0RCr ttlrSSttE IISI Ctr{lER

\

RGA

ANNOUNCES OPPORTUNITI ES

ln Guided Missile Test lnstrumenlalion

For Electronic Technicians

At, the Jollnuing locations

PATntC[ ilR toncE 8rst, iloRl[A

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lest Equipmetl

crPt ctl{AYtRil.

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fiming

OPtics

These positions are located on the IsIaLd's shown otu the ,xop abote. Salara,

30Vo incentioe, nxeals and lodging Iumished'. Return to U.S. ewru 3 months.

For informotion

and atangemenls Jor personal

' ;nlcruieu.

senil conxplete re;ume to:

Mr. H, C. lour Technicol Etnployment, Dept. N-l5D Missile lest Proie(t RCA Service Co., lnc, P.O. Box 1226, Melbourne, Florido

RAIll(l C0RPORAT|0i{ of AMERIGA

t3t

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