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8/9/13

Newton's Laws Applications

Part C: Force-Mass-Acceleration Relationships

Use the approximation that g= ~10 m/s 2 to fill in the blanks in the following diagrams.

13.

2 to fill in the blanks in the following diagrams. 13. F g r a v

F grav = m•g = ~800 N

∑F y = ma y = (80 kg)•(2.0 m/s/s)

∑F y = 160 N, down

The F grav (down) and the F air (up)

must add up to 160 N, down. Thus, F air must be smaller than F grav by

160 N.

F air = 640 N

14.

than F g r a v by 160 N. F a i r = 640 N

Since F grav = m•g, m can be

calculated to be ~70 kg(m=F grav /g).

Since

a y = 0 m/s/s, F norm must

equal F grav ; so F norm = 700 N.

∑F x = m•a x = (70 kg)•(5.0 m/s/s)

∑F x = 350 N, left

(Note that the ·F x direction is

always the same as the a x direction.)

With F app being the only horizontal

force, its value must be 350 N - the

same as ·F x .

15.

its value must be 350 N - the same as ·F x . 15. F g

F grav = m•g = ~800 N

Since there are two forces pulling upwards and since the sign is hanging symmetrically, each force must supply an upwards pull equal to one-half the object's weight. So the vert pull (F y ) in each force is 400 N. The following

triangle can be set up:

each force is 400 N. The following triangle can be set up: Using trig, we can

Using trig, we can write:

sin(30 deg.)=(400 N)/F tens

Solving for F tens yields 800 N.

16.

t e n s Solving for F t e n s yields 800 N . 16.

A quick blank is F grav : F grav = m•g = ~80 N

Now resolve the 60-N force into components using trigonometry and the given angle measure:

components using trigonometry and the given angle measure: F x = 60 N•cos(30 deg) = 52

F x = 60 N•cos(30 deg) = 52 N

F y = 60 N•sin(30 deg) = 25 N

Since the acceleration is horizontal, the sum of the vertical

17.

the acceleration is horizontal, the sum of the vertical 17. The first step in an inclined

The first step in an inclined plane problem is to resolve the weight vector into parallel and perpendicular components:

F par = m•g•sin(angle) = (420 N)•sin(30 deg) = 210 N

F perp = m•g•cos(angle) = (420 N)•cos(30 deg) = 364 N

The mass can be found as m = F grav /g

m = F grav /g = (420 N)/(10 m/s/s) = ~42 kg

The F norm acts opposite of and balances the F perp .

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Newton's Laws Applications

forces must equal 0 N. So F grav = F y + F norm .

Therefore F norm = F grav - F y = 55 N.

Knowing F norm and mu, the F frict can be determined:

So F norm = F perp = 364 N

Knowing F norm and mu, the F frict can be determined:

F frict = mu•F norm = 0.5*(55 N) = 27.5 N

Now the horizontal forces can be summed:

∑F x = F x + F frict = 52 N, right + 27.5 N, left

F x = 24.5 N, right

F frict = mu•F norm = 0.2*(364 N) = 73 N

Now the forces parallel to the incline can be summed:

∑F || = F || + F frict = 210, down to left + 73

∑F || = 137 N, down to left

N, up to right

Using Newton's second law, ∑F x = m•a x

So a x = (24.5 N)/(8 kg) = 3.1 m/s/s, right (3.06

m/s/s)

Using Newton's second law, ∑F || = m•a ||

So a || = (137 N)/(42 kg) = 3.3 m/s/s

18.

| | So a | | = (137 N)/(42 kg) = 3.3 m/s/s 18. Treating the

Treating the two masses as a single system, it can be concluded that the net force on the 9-kg system is:

∑F system = m•a system = (9 kg)•(2.5 m/s/s) = 22.5 N, right

The free-body diagram for the system is:

= 22.5 N, right The free-body diagram for the system is: The F n o r

The F norm supporting the 9-kg system is ~90 N.

So the F frict acting upon the system is:

F frict = mu• F norm = 0.20*(90 N) = 18 N, left

So if ∑F system = 22.5 N, right and F frict = 18 N, left, the

rightward F tens1 must equal 40.5 N.

The F tens2 force is found inside the system; as such it can

not be determined through a system analysis. To determine the F tens2 , one of the individual masses must be

isolated and a free-body analysis must be conducted for it.

19.

and a free-body analysis must be conducted for it. 19. Like most two-body problems involving pulleys,

Like most two-body problems involving pulleys, it is usually easiest to forgo the system analysis and conduct separate free-body analyses on the individual masses. Free-body diagrams, the chosen axes systems, and associated information is shown below.

axes systems, and associated information is shown below. Analyzing the F x forces on the 250-g

Analyzing the F x forces on the 250-g mass yields:

ma x = F tens - F frict

mass yields: m a x = F tens - F frict Since F f r i

Since F frict = mu•F norm and F norm = 2.5 N

The F frict is (0.1)*(2.5 N) = 0.25 N.

Substituting into equation 1 yields

(0.250 kg)•a x = F tens - 0.25 N

1 yields (0.250 kg)•a x = F t e n s - 0.25 N Analyzing the

Analyzing the F y forces on the 50-g mass yields:

ma y = F grav - F tens

50-g mass yields: m a y = F grav - F tens Substituting m and F

Substituting m and F

values into equation 3 yeilds:

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The 3-kg mass is selected and analyzed:

8/9/13 The 3-kg mass is selected and analyzed: Newton's Laws Applications grav (0.050 kg)*a y =

Newton's Laws Applications

grav

(0.050 kg)*a y = (0.500 N) - F tens

The above equation can be rearranged to:

F tens = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*a y

to: F t e n s = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*a y The F n

The F norm and F grav balance each other; their value is ~30

N. The F frict on the 3-kg mass is:

F frict = mu•F norm = 0.20*(30 N) = 6 N, left

The net force on the 3-kg object is:

∑F x = m•a x = (3 kg)•(2.5 m/s/s) = 7.5 N, right

The horizontal forces must sum up to the net force on the 3-kg object; So

∑F x = m•a x = F tens2 (right) + F frict (left)

7.5 N, right = F tens2 + 6 N, left

The F tens2 must be 13.5 N.

Equation 4 provides an expression for Ftens; this can be substituted into equation 2:

(0.250 kg)•a x = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*a y - 0.25 N

Now since both masses accelerate at the same rate, a x =a y

and the above equation can be simplified into an equation with 1 unknown - the acceleration (a):

(0.250 kg)•a = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*a - 0.25 N

After a few algebra steps, the acceleration can be found:

(0.0300 kg)•a = 0.25 N

a = 0.833 m/s/s

Now that a has been found, its value can be substituted back into equation 4 in order to solve for F tens :

F tens = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*(0.833 m/s/s)

F tens = 0.458 N

20.

N) - (0.050 kg)*(0.833 m/s/s) F t e n s = 0.458 N 20. This problem

This problem can most easily be solved using separate free-body analyses on the individual masses. Free-body

21.

free-body analyses on the individual masses. Free-body 21. Like #20, this problem can most easily be

Like #20, this problem can most easily be solved using separate free-body analyses on the individual masses. Free-body diagrams, the chosen axes systems, and associated information is shown below. Note that in chosing the axis system, it has been assumed that object 1 will accelerate up the hill and object 2 will accelerate downwards. If this ends up to be false, then the acceleration values will turn out to be negative values.

the acceleration values will turn out to be negative values. Object 1 is on an inclined

Object 1 is on an inclined plane. The usual circumstances apply; their is no acceleration along what has been designated as the y-axis.

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Newton's Laws Applications

diagrams, the chosen axes systems, and associated information is shown below.

F norm = F perp = m•g•cos(theta) = 888.2 N

o r m = F p e r p = m•g•cos(theta) = 888.2 N Note that

Note that the positive y-axis is chosen as being downards on the 200-g mass since that is the direction of its acceleration. Similarly, it chosen as upwards on the 100-g mass since that is the direction of its acceleration.

For the 200-gram mass, the sum of the vertical forces equals the mass times the acceleration:

F grav - F tens = ma y

2.00 N - F tens = (0.200 kg)•a y

m • a y 2.00 N - F t e n s = (0.200 kg)•a y

The same type of analysis can be conducted for the 100- gram mass:

F tens - F grav = ma y

The parallel component of F grav is

F || = m•g•sin(theta) = (100 kg)•(9.8 m/s 2 )•sin(25)

F || = 414.2 N

The F frict value can be found from the F norm value:

F frict = mu•F norm = (0.35)•(888.2 N) = 310.9 N

The ∑F x = m•a x equation can now be written:

∑F x = m•a x

F tens - F frict - F ||

= ma x

F tens - 310.9 N - 414.2 N = m•a x

• a x F t e n s - 310.9 N - 414.2 N = m•a

(Note that the F frict and F || forces are subtracted from

F tens since they are heading in the direction of the

negative x-axis.)

F tens - 1.00 N = (0.100 kg)•a y

The above process can be repeated for object 2. The ∑F y = y =

Equation 2 can be rearranged to obtain an expression for the tension force:

m•a y equation can now be written:

∑F y = m•a y

F tens = (0.100 kg)•a y + 1.00 N

= m•a y F t e n s = (0.100 kg)•a y + 1.00 N F

F grav - F tens = ma y

This expression for F tens can be substituted into equation

1 in order to obtain a single equation with acceleration (a y )

as the unknown. The a y value can be solved for.

2.00 N -[(0.100 kg)•a y + 1.00 N] = (0.200 kg)•a y

(980 N) - F tens = m•a y

N] = (0.200 kg)•a y (980 N) - F t e n s = m•a y

The separate free-body analyses have provided two equations with two unknowns; the task at hand is to use these two equations to solve for F tens and a.

2.00 N - 1.00 N = (0.200 kg)•a y + (0.100 kg)•a y

1.00 N = (0.300 kg)•a y

Equation 2 can be re-written as

(980 N) - m•a y = F tens

a y = (1.00 N)/(0.300 kg) = 3.33 m/s/s

Now with a y known, its value can be substituted into

equation 3 in order to determine the tension force:

F tens = (0.100 kg)•a y + 1.00 N

F tens = (0.100 kg)•(3.33 m/s/s) + 1.00 N

F tens = 0.333 N + 1.00 N = 1.33 N

Since both objects accelerate together at the same rate, the ax for object 1 is equal to the ay value for object 2. The subscripts x and y can be dropped and a can be inserted into each equation.

(980 N) - m•a = F tens

inserted into each equation. (980 N) - m•a = F t e n s Equation 3

Equation 3 provides an expression for F tens in terms of a.

This expression is inserted into equation 1 in order to solve for acceleration. The steps are shown below.

(980 N) - m•a

- 310.9 N - 414.2 N = m•a

= 2•m•a

254.9 N = 2•(100 kg)•a

1.27 m/s 2 = a

The value of a can be re-inserted into e uation 3 in order

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Newton's Laws Applications

q

to solve for F tens :

F tens = (980 N) - m•a =(980 N) - (100 kg)•(1.27 m/s 2 )

F tens = 853 N