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8/9/13

Newton's Laws Applications

Part C: Force-Mass-Acceleration Relationships

Use the approximation that g= ~10 m/s 2 to fill in the blanks in the following diagrams.

13. F grav = m•g = ~800 N

∑F y = ma y = (80 kg)•(2.0 m/s/s)

∑F y = 160 N, down

The F grav (down) and the F air (up)

must add up to 160 N, down. Thus, F air must be smaller than F grav by

160 N.

F air = 640 N

14. Since F grav = m•g, m can be

calculated to be ~70 kg(m=F grav /g).

Since

a y = 0 m/s/s, F norm must

equal F grav ; so F norm = 700 N.

∑F x = m•a x = (70 kg)•(5.0 m/s/s)

∑F x = 350 N, left

(Note that the ·F x direction is

always the same as the a x direction.)

With F app being the only horizontal

force, its value must be 350 N - the

same as ·F x .

15. F grav = m•g = ~800 N

Since there are two forces pulling upwards and since the sign is hanging symmetrically, each force must supply an upwards pull equal to one-half the object's weight. So the vert pull (F y ) in each force is 400 N. The following

triangle can be set up: Using trig, we can write:

sin(30 deg.)=(400 N)/F tens

Solving for F tens yields 800 N.

16. A quick blank is F grav : F grav = m•g = ~80 N

Now resolve the 60-N force into components using trigonometry and the given angle measure: F x = 60 N•cos(30 deg) = 52 N

F y = 60 N•sin(30 deg) = 25 N

Since the acceleration is horizontal, the sum of the vertical

17. The first step in an inclined plane problem is to resolve the weight vector into parallel and perpendicular components:

F par = m•g•sin(angle) = (420 N)•sin(30 deg) = 210 N

F perp = m•g•cos(angle) = (420 N)•cos(30 deg) = 364 N

The mass can be found as m = F grav /g

m = F grav /g = (420 N)/(10 m/s/s) = ~42 kg

The F norm acts opposite of and balances the F perp .

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Newton's Laws Applications

forces must equal 0 N. So F grav = F y + F norm .

Therefore F norm = F grav - F y = 55 N.

Knowing F norm and mu, the F frict can be determined:

So F norm = F perp = 364 N

Knowing F norm and mu, the F frict can be determined:

F frict = mu•F norm = 0.5*(55 N) = 27.5 N

Now the horizontal forces can be summed:

∑F x = F x + F frict = 52 N, right + 27.5 N, left

F x = 24.5 N, right

F frict = mu•F norm = 0.2*(364 N) = 73 N

Now the forces parallel to the incline can be summed:

∑F || = F || + F frict = 210, down to left + 73

∑F || = 137 N, down to left

N, up to right

Using Newton's second law, ∑F x = m•a x

So a x = (24.5 N)/(8 kg) = 3.1 m/s/s, right (3.06

m/s/s)

Using Newton's second law, ∑F || = m•a ||

So a || = (137 N)/(42 kg) = 3.3 m/s/s

18. Treating the two masses as a single system, it can be concluded that the net force on the 9-kg system is:

∑F system = m•a system = (9 kg)•(2.5 m/s/s) = 22.5 N, right

The free-body diagram for the system is: The F norm supporting the 9-kg system is ~90 N.

So the F frict acting upon the system is:

F frict = mu• F norm = 0.20*(90 N) = 18 N, left

So if ∑F system = 22.5 N, right and F frict = 18 N, left, the

rightward F tens1 must equal 40.5 N.

The F tens2 force is found inside the system; as such it can

not be determined through a system analysis. To determine the F tens2 , one of the individual masses must be

isolated and a free-body analysis must be conducted for it.

19. Like most two-body problems involving pulleys, it is usually easiest to forgo the system analysis and conduct separate free-body analyses on the individual masses. Free-body diagrams, the chosen axes systems, and associated information is shown below. Analyzing the F x forces on the 250-g mass yields:

ma x = F tens - F frict Since F frict = mu•F norm and F norm = 2.5 N

The F frict is (0.1)*(2.5 N) = 0.25 N.

Substituting into equation 1 yields

(0.250 kg)•a x = F tens - 0.25 N Analyzing the F y forces on the 50-g mass yields:

ma y = F grav - F tens Substituting m and F

values into equation 3 yeilds:

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The 3-kg mass is selected and analyzed: Newton's Laws Applications

grav

(0.050 kg)*a y = (0.500 N) - F tens

The above equation can be rearranged to:

F tens = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*a y The F norm and F grav balance each other; their value is ~30

N. The F frict on the 3-kg mass is:

F frict = mu•F norm = 0.20*(30 N) = 6 N, left

The net force on the 3-kg object is:

∑F x = m•a x = (3 kg)•(2.5 m/s/s) = 7.5 N, right

The horizontal forces must sum up to the net force on the 3-kg object; So

∑F x = m•a x = F tens2 (right) + F frict (left)

7.5 N, right = F tens2 + 6 N, left

The F tens2 must be 13.5 N.

Equation 4 provides an expression for Ftens; this can be substituted into equation 2:

(0.250 kg)•a x = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*a y - 0.25 N

Now since both masses accelerate at the same rate, a x =a y

and the above equation can be simplified into an equation with 1 unknown - the acceleration (a):

(0.250 kg)•a = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*a - 0.25 N

After a few algebra steps, the acceleration can be found:

(0.0300 kg)•a = 0.25 N

a = 0.833 m/s/s

Now that a has been found, its value can be substituted back into equation 4 in order to solve for F tens :

F tens = (0.500 N) - (0.050 kg)*(0.833 m/s/s)

F tens = 0.458 N

20. This problem can most easily be solved using separate free-body analyses on the individual masses. Free-body

21. Like #20, this problem can most easily be solved using separate free-body analyses on the individual masses. Free-body diagrams, the chosen axes systems, and associated information is shown below. Note that in chosing the axis system, it has been assumed that object 1 will accelerate up the hill and object 2 will accelerate downwards. If this ends up to be false, then the acceleration values will turn out to be negative values. Object 1 is on an inclined plane. The usual circumstances apply; their is no acceleration along what has been designated as the y-axis.

8/9/13

Newton's Laws Applications

diagrams, the chosen axes systems, and associated information is shown below.

F norm = F perp = m•g•cos(theta) = 888.2 N Note that the positive y-axis is chosen as being downards on the 200-g mass since that is the direction of its acceleration. Similarly, it chosen as upwards on the 100-g mass since that is the direction of its acceleration.

For the 200-gram mass, the sum of the vertical forces equals the mass times the acceleration:

F grav - F tens = ma y

2.00 N - F tens = (0.200 kg)•a y The same type of analysis can be conducted for the 100- gram mass:

F tens - F grav = ma y

The parallel component of F grav is

F || = m•g•sin(theta) = (100 kg)•(9.8 m/s 2 )•sin(25)

F || = 414.2 N

The F frict value can be found from the F norm value:

F frict = mu•F norm = (0.35)•(888.2 N) = 310.9 N

The ∑F x = m•a x equation can now be written:

∑F x = m•a x

F tens - F frict - F ||

= ma x

F tens - 310.9 N - 414.2 N = m•a x (Note that the F frict and F || forces are subtracted from

F tens since they are heading in the direction of the

negative x-axis.)

F tens - 1.00 N = (0.100 kg)•a y

The above process can be repeated for object 2. The ∑F y =

Equation 2 can be rearranged to obtain an expression for the tension force:

m•a y equation can now be written:

∑F y = m•a y

F tens = (0.100 kg)•a y + 1.00 N F grav - F tens = ma y

This expression for F tens can be substituted into equation

1 in order to obtain a single equation with acceleration (a y )

as the unknown. The a y value can be solved for.

2.00 N -[(0.100 kg)•a y + 1.00 N] = (0.200 kg)•a y

(980 N) - F tens = m•a y The separate free-body analyses have provided two equations with two unknowns; the task at hand is to use these two equations to solve for F tens and a.

2.00 N - 1.00 N = (0.200 kg)•a y + (0.100 kg)•a y

1.00 N = (0.300 kg)•a y

Equation 2 can be re-written as

(980 N) - m•a y = F tens

a y = (1.00 N)/(0.300 kg) = 3.33 m/s/s

Now with a y known, its value can be substituted into

equation 3 in order to determine the tension force:

F tens = (0.100 kg)•a y + 1.00 N

F tens = (0.100 kg)•(3.33 m/s/s) + 1.00 N

F tens = 0.333 N + 1.00 N = 1.33 N

Since both objects accelerate together at the same rate, the ax for object 1 is equal to the ay value for object 2. The subscripts x and y can be dropped and a can be inserted into each equation.

(980 N) - m•a = F tens Equation 3 provides an expression for F tens in terms of a.

This expression is inserted into equation 1 in order to solve for acceleration. The steps are shown below.

(980 N) - m•a

- 310.9 N - 414.2 N = m•a

= 2•m•a

254.9 N = 2•(100 kg)•a

1.27 m/s 2 = a

The value of a can be re-inserted into e uation 3 in order

8/9/13

Newton's Laws Applications

q

to solve for F tens :

F tens = (980 N) - m•a =(980 N) - (100 kg)•(1.27 m/s 2 )

F tens = 853 N