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Global Research & Technology Centre/ GRTC Training Department

Completion & Reservoir Drill In Fluids


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Definition - Completion Fluid

A Completion Fluid may be defined as any fluid that is used during the completion operationafter the well has been drilled and before any oil and/or gas has been produced from the formation.

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Definition - Workover Fluid


A Workover Fluid may be defined as a fluid that is used during remedial or workover operations after a well has produced oil and/or gas. It can be the same fluid as the completion fluid.

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Why Use Brines

MINIMIZE FORMATION DAMAGE!!

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Performance Criteria
control formation pressures circulate and transport solids protect the productive zone stable at surface and downhole safely handled environmentally friendly readily available cost effective

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TYPES OF COMPLETION AND WORKOVER FLUIDS

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COMMON DENSITIES
SINGLE SALT SOLUTIONS
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE SODIUM CHLORIDE CALCIUM CHLORIDE SODIUM FORMATE SODIUM BROMIDE POTASSIUM FORMATE CALCIUM BROMIDE ZINC BROMIDE
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8.4 - 8.9 PPG 8.4 - 9.7 PPG 8.4 - 10.0 PPG 8.4 - 11.6 PPG 8.4 - 11.1 PPG 8.4 - 12.5 PPG 8.4 - 13.1 PPG 8.4 - 14.2 PPG 19.3 - 21.0 PPG

COMMON DENSITIES
MULTIPLE SALT SOLUTIONS
NaCl/NaBr NaHCO2/KHCO2 CaCl2/CaBr2 CaBr2/ZnBr2 CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 10.1 - 12.4 PPG 11.2 - 13.1 PPG 11.7 - 15.1 PPG 19.2 PPG 15.2 - 19.1 PPG

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SPIKE FLUIDS

CALCIUM BASED
11.6 PPG CaCl2 14.2 PPG CaBr2 15.1 PPG CaCl2/CaBr2 19.2 PPG CaBr2/ZnBr2

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SPIKE FLUIDS
SODIUM BASED 10.0 PPG NaCl 12.5 PPG NaBr

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COMPLETION AND WORKOVER FLUIDS PROPERTIES AND TESTING

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Properties
Density TCT pH Solids Content Turbidity Viscosity determined by a hydrometer. True Crystallization Temperature. pH paper is OK...a meter is better. determined by centrifuging. determined by an NTU meter. Marsh funnel.

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Density
To check for brine density use:

Hydrometer

If you do not know the approximate density of the fluid you are weighinguse a mud balance to get you in the ballpark.
Note:
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Density
Can be adjusted by adding water Spike Fluids Dry salts NOTE: adjusting the density usually adjusts the TCT of the fluidunless the salt concentrations are balanced as a part of the density adjustment.

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Crystallization Temperature
Each salt has a maximum solubility in water before it will precipitate out of solution. This maximum solubility is a function of the temperature of the water. The crystallization temperature of the a brine is defined as the temperature at which a solid will form and precipitate out of solution. Operations utilizing completion fluids must account for the crystallization temperature by recognizing the coolest temperature to which the bulk of the brine will be exposed for any significant period of time.

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Crystallization Temperature
For example: A completion fluid standing static in the riser of a deepwater well may reach the thermal equilibrium with the water at the sea floor or mud line. This situation must be taken into account to avoid crystallized fluid in the riser even though the surface conditions may be sunny and warm and the BHT is high.

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Solids Content
Solids Content Determined by Centrifuging

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pH
Salt 11.6 ppg Calcium Chloride 14.2 ppg Calcium Bromide 15.0 ppg CaCl2/CaBr2 16.0 ppg CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 Typical pH 6.5 to 7.5 6.5 to 7.5 6.0 to 7.0 4.5 to 5.0

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pH
Salt 17.0 ppg CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 18.0 ppg CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 19.0 ppg CaCl2/CaBr2/ZnBr2 19.2 ppg CaBr2/ZnBr2 Typical pH 3.5 to 4.0 2.5 to 3.0 1.5 to 2.0 <1.5

The more Zinc Bromide that you have in a fluid, the lower the pH will be.
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Turbidity
Turbidity is a function of the cleanliness of the fluid. If the fluid contains drilling mud solids, undissolved salt, pipe scale, air etc., the turbidity will be high. The NTU value is lowered by cleaning the fluid. This is accomplished by allowing the solids to settle out or float, filtering the fluid through cartridges, through a DE filter press, or all of the above.

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Turbidity Meter (NTU Readings)

NTU Meter Calibration Sample

Sample Bottle
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Density Control
INCREASE THE DENSITY OF A SINGLE SALT FLUID Salt Required (lbs) = Vo WoSf
--------Wf

- So

Final Volume (bbl)

VoWo = ------------Wf

Do = density of original, ppg Df = density of final, ppg Wo = water of original, bbl/bbl brine Wf = water of final, bbl/bbl brine So = salt of original, lb Sf = salt of final, lb Vo = original volume of brine, bbl Vf = Final volume of brine, bbl

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Density Control
INCREASE DENSITY OF A TWO SALT FLUID WITH DRY CALCIUM BROMIDE.
Wa = Water added = Vo CoWf
---------

Cf Ba = Bromide Salt added = Vo VoCo = --------Cf CoBf


---------

- Wo

Cf Vf = Final Volume

- Bo

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Buy-Back
The typical Buyback for completion fluids with a density above 11.6 ppg is 80% of the selling price, less the cost of reclamation. A fluid that sold for $125.00/bbl initially and had a reclamation cost of $7.00/bbl would have an ending value of $93.00/bbl. We would give the customer credit for $93.00/bbl of reclaimed fluid.

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Mass Balance
Fluids are said to be Mass Balanced when two or more fluids are blended together and the combined volume and combined density becomes the new volume and density. TCTs are not a function of Mass Balancing.

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Salt Table

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Mass Balance The Easy Way


HEAVY FLUID DESIRED FLUID LIGHT FLUID EXAMPLE:
RAISE DENSITY OF 12.5 PPG FLUID TO 13.0 PPG, USING 15.1 PPG SPIKE FLUID. FINISH WITH 600 BARRELS OF VOLUME DIVIDE DIFFERENCES BY TOTAL DIFFERENCE AND INVERT THE VALUES. THE FRACTION OF 15.1 PPG IS .192 BBLS AND THE FRACTION 0F 12.5 PPG IS .808 BBLS. MULTIPLY THE FRACTION TIMES THE DESIRED VOLUME TO FIND THE AMOUNT OF EACH FLUID.

15.1 13.0 12.5 2.6

2.1 0.5

0.5/2.6 = .192 2.1/2.6 = .808

2.6

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Typical Wellsite Filtration System Setup

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Filtration Unit

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Displacement & Wellbore CleanClean -Up

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Displacement Method

Drilling mud

Displacement spacers

Displace with water

Forward
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Reverse

Indirect

WELL CLEAN-UP DESIGN


Suggested Standard Procedure.
It would be good practice to follow the program of clean-up pills as listed below, if the rig pit system allows: A Viscosified Surfactant Spacer. This is designed to act as a piston displacing the existing wellbore fluid efficiently out of the hole. It is best pumped in laminar flow to push the wellbore fluid up the annulus. A Yield Point of 40 50 lbs/100 ft2 is recommended. A Solvent Wash. This is used to dissolve any mud residue, pipe dope or minor scale on metal surfaces. This non-viscosified pill is best pumped in turbulent flow. A Surfactant Spacer. This pill is NOT viscosified to ensure turbulent flow and is designed to prevent channeling and lift residual solids from the hole.
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DISPLACEMENT & HYDRAULICS SOFTWARE

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Hydraulics Software

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Clean-Up Tool
Scrapers Brushes Magnets Debris Management Tools Jetting Subs Circulating Tools Pipe Rotation

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Xanthan vs. HEC


Xanthan has superior suspension and transport properties Xanthan slips at the wall, HEC grabs Xanthan used in brine < 10.5 lb/gal CaCl2 HEC used in all brines and densities
XC and HEC can be used in combination in up to 11.4 lb/gal CaCl2 brine

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Suspension in HEC and XC

XANTHAN-GUM 2 lbs/bbl

HEC 4 lbs/bbl

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Velocity Profiles
HEC
Slip area

Xanthan

Area of high friction drag

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Cleaning Spacer Design


11.6 ppg 3% Safe Solv OM 5% Safe Surf O 0% Contamination and 13.2ppg Nova Plus @100rpm/ 42fpm

Clean Dry Sleeve

Sleeve Coated with 13.2 ppg SBM

After 3 Minutes Rating 2

After 5 Minutes Rating 2

After 8 Minutes Rating 1

After 10 Minutes Rating 1

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Displacement Evaluation

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WELL CLEAN-UP DESIGN


Casing Clean-Up
Well Geometry : 9 5/8" Csg Shoe 9 5/8" Csg ID 7" Casing Shoe 7" Csg ID Pill Type Volume ( bbl ) 3797 8.681 6527 6.366 m in m in 9 5/8" section Length 7" section length 3797 m 2730 m DP in 9 5/8" csg 5.5" DP ID DP in 7" csg 3.5" DP ID Flow Regime Flow Rate 9-5/8" Casing Flowzan Rinse Aid Super Pickle 3 14 31 835 1332 15 15 Turbulent Turbulent 336 556 7" Casing 888 9-5/8" Casing 10 7" Casing 10 9-5/8" Casing Laminar 7" Casing Turbulent (gpm) 336 ( bpm ) 5.5 4.778 3.5 2.6 in in in in

Well name : XXX Angsi C-11

Product Concentration (ppb, % v/v) Flowzan 2ppb RinseAid 30% Super Pickle 50% RinseAid 30%

Contact Length ( m ) Contact Time (min) Product Usage (sack, drum)

Surfactant Pill (viscosified) Solvent Pill

80 120 80
> 1127

8 8 8
>8

Surfactant Pill

Rinse Aid

14

556

888

10

10

Turbulent

Turbulent

336

Sea water

Brine (filtered)

1127

Brine

>8

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CLEAN-UP DESIGN
9 5/8" Annulus FLOW RATE Visc. bpm 3.7 6 8 10 12 14 20.3 gpm 157 255 336 420 504 588 854 Surfactant Lam. Lam. Lam. Lam. Lam. Lam. Turb. Lam. Lam. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Solvent Un. Visc. Visc. Solvent Lam. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Un. Visc. Surfactant Lam. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. RECOMMENDED Surfactant Surfactant Lam. Lam. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Turb. Lam. Lam. Lam. Lam. Turb. Turb. Turb. 7" Annulus REMARKS

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NTU vs TIME CHART

NTU vs Time
90

Unfiltered Seawater out

Displace to 8.9 ppg Filtered NaCl + 3% KCl Brine

Filtered NaCl + 3% KCl Brine at surface

60

NTU
30 0
0: 30 1: 00 1: 30 2: 00 2: 30 3: 00 3: 30 4: 00 4: 30 5: 00 5: 30 6: 00

Time (24 hrs)

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NTU vs CIRC. CYCLE - CHART

NTU vs Number of Surface to Surface


90

Unfiltered Seawater out

Displace to 8.9 ppg Filtered NaCl + 3% KCl Brine

Filtered NaCl + 3% KCl Brine at surface

60 NTU 30 0 1.25

1.75

2.25

2.75

3.25

3.75

Num ber of Surface to Surface

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Reservoir DrillDrill-In FLuids

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The Difference

Typically used to drill only the producing formation Non-damaging Low solids Does not contain clay (gel) and/or dispersants Compatible with formation Additives are soluble in typical chemical treatments e.g. acid, enzymes, chelants, oxidizers Inhibitive to formation clays Compatible with the completion

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The Difference
Property Density Viscosity Fluid Loss Bridging Drilling Mud Barite Gel gel/polymer Barite RDIF Base fluid Bio-polymer Starch Calcium carbonate, Sized salt

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Why use Reservoir DrillDrill-In Fluids?

To maximize production by minimizing damage to the formation and completion assembly!

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How do we damage the formation and/or Completion Assembly?


Solids Plugging filtrate invasion / solids contamination fines migration Inadequate displacement Chemical Incompatibility clay / shale swelling inducing fines migration fluid-fluid interactions emulsions, precipitation (scaling) wettability reversal

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Reservoir Drilling Fluid Design Criteria


Drilling Issues Density for Well Control / Wellbore Stability Rheology for Hole Cleaning & Suspension Minimum ECD Lubricity Low Fluid Loss Formation Inhibition Environmental restrictions Thermal Stability Contaminant Stability Availability
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Reservoir Drilling Fluid Design Criteria


Completion Issues
Type of completion planned e.g. open hole, cased hole, screen completion, gravel pack etc. Efficient removal of RDF residues/filter cake Clean-up without treatment? (flowback) Chemical breakers Displacement to completion fluid Compatible with procedures and equipment Completion tool restrictions

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Reservoir Drilling Fluid Design Criteria

Reservoir Issues
Compatibility with formations drilled Fluid Compatibility Expected Fluid Production (Type & Volume) Pore Size Pore Interconnectivity

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Reservoir Drilling Fluid Design Criteria


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Typically used to drill only the producing formation Engineered to maintain drill solids below target Relatively low amount of Bridging Solids Typically does not contain inert solids or gel Bridging solids are acid/chelant soluble Inhibitive to formation Clays Compatible with Formation Fluids Compatible with the completion screens Compatible with Sand Control Screen

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Viscosifiers
High yielding xanthan gum or biopolymer Clarified / Dispersible Provides LSRV High thermal stability. Not affected by acids/alkalis over a wide pH

range (2.5 to 10)

Usually 0.75 ppb to 2.0 ppb


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Fluid Loss Control Agents


Hydroxypropyl, X-linked, starch High Thermal Stability Synergy with xanthan and scleroglucan

Usually 4 ppb to 7.5 ppb

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Pre-Planning
RDF Questionnaire - location, BHT, BHP, wellbore geometry, etc Mineralogical Information permeability, porosity, clay content, etc Completion Information completion assembly type, tools, etc Rig Information - solids control availability, volumes, etc Interview Engineers - determine primary objective and concerns,etc

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Required Information
Completed Questionnaire Well Diagram Completion Design Core sample or formation data e.g. thin section, core flood results, XRD

Established metrics/objectives

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Fluid Optimization
Test and Evaluate Properties Fluid Loss (modified HTHP or PPA), Rheological Profile (LSRV), Hot Roll & Static Age, Swellmeter, Shale Dispersion test, Emulsion Tests, etc. Test a variety of products and compositions. Use SOFTWARE for determining blend of bridging particles. Use Brookfield Rheometer to determine optimum LSRV

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RDF Lab Tests


Density Static age and hot roll Viscosity Profile Fluid loss data (dynamic and static), PPT/HTHP Compatibility tests Cleanup treatment Compatibility with Completion assembly Return permeability
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RDF Systems
The primary mechanism for minimizing the invasion of solids/liquids on all RDF systems is creating a thin, impermeable filter cake.

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Bridging Agents Objectives


Thinner filter cake Reduced chance of wellbore problems Minimize invasion of solids and fluid Less formation damage More efficient cleanup Better productivity

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Bridging Theories - Choosing PSD Abrahms rule


The median particle size of the bridging material should be equal to or slightly greater than 1/3 the median pore size of the formation.

The concentration of bridging particles must be at least 5% by volume of these solids in the fluid

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Ideal Packing Theory

Ideal packing occurs when the percent of cumulative volume versus the D 1/2 forms a straight line relationship - SPE 58793 Provides the optimum PSD for bridging the opening created by the bridging solids In un-weighted fluids 2-3% by volume is sufficient to form an optimum seal In weighted fluids or high solids laden fluids the guidelines are more flexible

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Pore Opening Size Abrahms rule

D1/2

133 microns
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Particle Size Distribution/PSD


Closest Mixture Utilizing CaCO3 for a 133 Micron Opening
100%

90%

80%

70%

Cumlutive % Below

60%

50% Target Line CaCO, 2 30% CaCO3 10 CaCO3 40 CaCO3 250 10% Closest Mix W/CaCO3 0% 0 5 10 15 20 25 Square Root (Microns) D 1/2

40%

20%

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Scomi Software
HyPR-BRIDGE

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RDF Design Tools

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HIGH PRESSURE , HIGH TEMPERATURE - RETURN PERMEABILITY APPRATUS

Brine Coils

Mud Coils OVEN Return Gas Cylinders

Piston

Drill-In Fluid

Hassler Cell

+Viscosity Coil

C O R E

++-

Validyne Delta Pressure Transducers BPR


Piston

Humidifier

BPR BPR

PR
ISCO

OVERBURDEN PUMP

ISCO PUMP

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Cleanup Design
FO R M ATIO N E VALU ATIO N C O MP LETIO N SIMU LA TO R
BPR Co m pletio n Screen S cr een G ate F luid C ham ber Pr essure Transd ucer s

Test to determine Return Permeability - Return

BP R

ISC O

C ore S ample CO NTI NO US F LO W P UMP

O VER BUR DEN PUM P

W A S T E

S T E M U L A T I O N

D R I L L I N G

C O M P L E T I O N

HAS TELLOY TR AN SFER VES SELS

Permeameter, modified HTHP or PPA, Production Screen Tester,


BPR

Air Dr iven C ylind er

HY DR AULIC DI SPLA CEM ENT C YLIND ER

Air-D riven Pum p

etc. Test various methods of cleanup including flow back only, single step or two step chemical cleanup treatments using acids,

B e fo re

A fte r

enzymes and/or oxidizers.

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Chemical Breakers

Filter Cake
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Oxidizer: Spotty Breaks in Cake

Acid: Wormholes

Enzyme/Chelant: Cake Removal

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Common Breakers
Oxidizers Lithium Hypochlorite Sodium Hypochlorite Calcium Hypochlorite Internal Breakers Enzymes Starch specific Cellulose specific

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Breaker Options
Single Acid Oxidizer Enzyme(s) Enzyme/Chelant No Clean-up Multi Oxidizer/Acid Acid/Acid

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Chemical Cleanup Options


Chemical Options Acids Attack polymers above 120oF and calcium carbonate in WB, water wet reversible invert emulsion fluid Oxidizers Attack polymers above 80oF in WB fluids Enzymes Attack specific polymers above 40oF (usually starch) in WB fluids Chelants Dissolve calcium carbonate in WB fluids. Performance may be enhanced with enzymes or oxidizers No Treatment Flowback through completion assembly

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Breaker Selection
Factors that effect Breaker Selection BHT Length of open hole Fluid Density RDF formulation Completion assembly Condition of RDF Completion design What to use, when to use it & how do you get it there?
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Field Testing and Evaluation


Monitor fluid properties with : Modified HTHP or PPA Production Screen Tester Brookfield Rheometer Solids Determination Test etc.

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Production Screen Tester (PST)


Manufactured in Stainless

Steel
Many parts standard OFI

fittings
Cell capacity - 1200 ml Weight - 10.5 kg Max. Pressure - 100 psi Robust Construction Quick and Simple to Use

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Production Screen Tester (PST)

The RDF is designed utilizing properly sized bridging/ weighting agents. The PSD of the bridging/weighting agents meet the required PSD in order not to plug the completion assembly.

Production Screen

Receiving Cup

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Example of Screen Plugging

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Example of Screen Plugging

Shale and mud plugging screens

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Brookfield Rheometer
Maintaining the Low Shear Rate Viscosity (LSRV) with a Brookfield Rheometer is critical to proper hole cleaning and suspension. An LSRV of 40,000 cp at 0.063sec-1 is typical.

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Completion Procedure

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Displacement Of Horizontal Section Prior To Running the Completion Assembly


Displace the used RDIF system with a Solids Free pill in the open hole and +500 inside of the casing

RDIF System Solids Free pill

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Displacement of the Casing Above the Horizontal Section


Pull hole opener +300 inside casing Displace the used RDIF system with spacers and completion brine Pull out of the hole to pick up screens

Completion brine

Solids Free pill


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Completion Assembly In Horizontal Section


Run screens to bottom, set and test packer

Completion fluid

Screens

Solids Free pill


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Displacement Clean-up procedure


Displace out the Solids Free pill with the completion fluid

Solids Free pill

Completion fluid
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Displacement Clean-Up Sequence

Spot the breaker solution in the open hole and soak for the specified amount of time

Completion fluid

Breaker solution
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Displacement Clean-Up Sequence


After the soak period has elapsed, displace the breaker solution out of hole with completion fluid

Breaker solution

Completion fluid
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CASE HISTORY

DRILLING WITH RESERVOIR DRILL-IN FLUIDS

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OPTA-FLO Sized Salt A Reservoir Drill In Fluids


Background:
November 2006 : The well Sumandak A-01 was drilled with water based mud system HYDRO-FOIL GEN 2- KCL/PHPA to TD at depth 1645m MD/ 1330m TVD with 40.7 deg angle and 160 oF BHST. The well was drilled with 13 3/8 casing set at 843m MD, 9 5/8 casing at 1488m MD with 9.5 ppg. The 8 hole was planned to be open hole completed where 7 production WWS screen planned to be set at 1645m MD through the U1.1 and U1.2 sands. Scomi Oiltools has been requested to propose drill-in fluid system for this particular 8 section that has characteristic of non-formation damage and easy clean-up after the production sand screen set.

Scomi Oiltools CASE HISTORY

Scomi Oiltools Solution:


Scomi Oiltools had proposed the OPTA-FLO Sized Salt RDIF which was formulated and tailored to the given well data. The products were carefully chosen and tested in the lab. Final formulation as follows i.e. saturated NaCl with 3% w/w KCL in brine, Magnesium Oxide 1.0 ppb as pH buffer, clarified starch OPTA STAR PLUS 4.0 ppb, High clarity viscosifier OPTA ZAN ( premium grade) 1.5 ppb, with sized salt 5E ( 5m) 15 ppb and 20E ( 20m) 31 ppb as bridging agent. The HyPR-SIZER software program was used to optimize the concentration and particle size distribution of the bridging agent to ensure solids are deposited across the pore throats. OPTA ZYME S, the enzyme breaker was chosen and tested successfully in the lab at 3% vol/vol to clean up the mud cake at the well bore.

Operator

: Petronas Carigali Sdn.Bhd.

Well Name : Sumandak A-01 Location : Offshore Sarawak, Malaysia

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OPTA-FLO Sized Salt A Reservoir Drill In Fluids


Results:
The well was displaced and drilled with 10.2 ppg OPTAFLO Sized Salt RDIF from 1488m to 1645m. At TD the hole was then displaced with solids free OPTA-FLO Sized Salt RDIF before running in the WWS screen which was set at 1645m as well ( The solid free OPTA-FLO RDIF was earlier tested with PST unit to determine the ability of the fluid passing through the sand screen). The under saturated brine at 9.0 ppg with enzyme breaker OPTA ZYME S at 3% v/v was pumped inside and at screen annulus to destroy the mud cake and dissolve the salts. The whole operation while drilling and completing the well with OPTA FLO . sized salt RDIF was without any problem.

Scomi Oiltools CASE HISTORY

MUD PROPERTIES Mud Weight, ppg Funnel Viscosity, sec PV, cPs YP, lb/100ft2 Gel Strength, lb/100ft2 6 rpm 3 rpm API Flitrate, ml/30 min Chlorides, mg/l pH LGS, %
Operator

10.2 57-61 18-19 17-18 4-6 / 5-7 6-7 5-6 3.8 200,000 8.7 - 9.0 2.0 - 2.7

Benefits:
Fluids are non damaging to the production reservoir . The bridging agent that produce external cake are easily removable with under saturated brine wash couple with 3% OPTA ZYME S enzyme breaker. Improved productivity for U 1.1 and U 1.2 sands from estimated at 1000 bbls/day to 1800bbls/day ( as informed by PCSB Production Technologist) SCOMI OILTOOLS

: Petronas Carigali Sdn.Bhd.

Well Name : Sumandak A-01 Location : Offshore Sarawak, Malaysia

For Additional Information, Contact:


drillingfluids@my.scomioiltools.com

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