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wind turbines

R. Lanzafame, M. Messina

*

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria, 6, 95125 Catania, Italy

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 20 December 2011

Accepted 30 June 2012

Available online xxx

Keywords:

BEM theory

Centrifugal pumping

Brake state model

NREL wind rotor

a b s t r a c t

In scientic literature, when the aerodynamic design of a horizontal axis wind turbine is discussed,

different brake state models are presented. The brake state models are implemented within a BEM code

which is a 1-D numerical code, based on Glauert propeller theory, and able to predict HAWT perfor-

mance. This code provides reliable results only if a proper brake state model and aerodynamic post-stall

model are implemented.

In this research, the authors have produced a numerical code based on BEM theory in conjunction with

an aerodynamic post-stall model, indispensable for taking into account radial ow along the wind

turbine blades (Himmelskamp Effect), and the brake state models by Buhl, combined with the calculation

of Jonkmans tangential induction factor.

In scientic literature, Shens brake state model is commonly implemented within 1-D numerical

codes, based on BEM theory. Subsequently, a comparison with Shens brake state models was carried out.

With the numerical code presented in this work, the power for an NREL wind rotor was predicted. With

the numerical simulation, it was possible to notice when these different brake state model furnish results

close to experimental data.

2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The numerical codes based on BEMtheory are powerful tools for

the design and performance evaluation of HAWT. BEM theory is

based on Glauert propeller theory [1] modied for wind turbines.

Today, many researchers are developing numerical codes based on

BEM theory [2e11]. Industry also utilizes these numerical codes to

design HAWT. These numerical codes are 1-D codes and produce

reliable results provided certain criticalities are resolved. These

criticalities regard the correct representation of lift and drag coef-

cients at high values of angle of attack, the implementation of

a post-stall model (to take into account radial ow along the

blades) and the implementation of a brake state model (to correctly

determine axial and tangential induction factors) [12e17].

This paper compares two different (the most accredited) brake

state models to evaluate the performance of a HAWT. The two brake

state models are Shens [18,19] and Buhls [20,21] (here Buhls

model is combined with Jonkmans equation to determine the

tangential induction factor).

First, a numerical code based on BEM theory [13] was devel-

oped, and a post-stall model [13,17] was implemented within the

numerical code. Next, the two brake state models were compared,

predicting the power curves for the NREL wind rotor [22]. In

scientic literature [29], experimental measurements are reported

for this wind turbine rotor. Finally, a comparison between the

simulated and experimental power curves is performed.

2. BEM theory, post-stall model and brake state model

The numerical code, developed in [13] is a 1-D code for the

design of a horizontal axis wind turbine. It has very fast compu-

tational times and provides great accuracy compared with experi-

mental data. This code is based on Blade Element Momentum

(BEM) theory, and can be implemented to design a wind rotor, and/

or evaluate its performance.

BEM theory based numerical codes subdivide the wind turbine

rotor into annuli of dr thickness, the ow of each sector being

independent of adjacent circular sector ows [17,23]. Applying the

equations of momentum and angular momentum conservation, for

Abbreviations: BEM, Blade Element Momentum; HAWT, horizontal axis wind

turbine; NREL, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; BSM, brake state model; 1-

D, One-dimensional; 2-D, Two-dimensional.

* Corresponding author.

E-mail address: mmessina@diim.unict.it (M. Messina).

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Renewable Energy

j ournal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ renene

0960-1481/$ e see front matter 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.06.062

Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 415e420

each innitesimal dr sector of the blade, the axial force and torque

can be dened (Eqs. (1) and (2)).

The axial force on the blade element of width dr is:

dN

r

2

V

2

0

1 a

2

sin

2

f

N

b

C

L

cos f C

D

sin f c dr (1)

The torque on the blade element of width dr is:

dC

r

2

V

0

1 a

sin f

,

u r 1 a

0

cos f

N

b

C

L

sin f C

D

cos f c rdr

(2)

Fig. 1 shows the axial and tangential forces (dN and dT) for an

annulus of width dr.

From Eq. (2) wind rotor power can be evaluated, as reported in

Eq. (3).

P

_

u dT (3)

while the power coefcient is given by Eq. (4)

c

p

P

1

2

rAV

3

0

(4)

2.1. Post-stall model

Knowing the lift and drag coefcients (C

L

and C

D

) is crucially

important for assessing the forces and torques according to Eqs. (1)

and (2).

A problem which might cause numerical instability is linked to

the mathematical description of the airfoil lift coefcient. The

airfoils experimental data is 2-D and taken from wind tunnel

measurements. Furthermore, due to rotation, the boundary layer is

subjected to Coriolis and centrifugal forces which alter the 2-D

airfoil characteristics. This is especially pronounced in stall. It is

thus often necessary to extrapolate existing airfoil data into deep

stall and include the effect of rotation [24e28].

Owing to radial ow along the turbine blades, mathematical

equations describing lift coefcient have to overestimate experi-

mental C

L

values within a precise range of the angle of attack.

Centrifugal pumping is a phenomenon which describes radial air

ow along blades [29,30]. This ow slows the ow detaching from

the airfoil, causing an increase in airfoil lift.

To take into account radial ow along a rotating blade in

scientic literature, many authors modify the C

L

distribution

[29,31,32].

The curve t can be applied to any airfoil in the same aero-

dynamic region (the fully stalled one), because in this region the

benets due to radial ow are greater [33].

To increase C

L

distribution in the fully stalled region, a new

approach was implemented. As shown in Fig. 2, a fth-order log-

arithmic polynomial C

L

i

fcost

i

*lna

i

g was adopted for the

attached ow region (2

a 18

region (18

a 90

) the function C

L

2C

Lmax

*sin(a)*cos(a) was

adopted. This last function intersects the logarithmic polynomial

curve at about 1/2e1/3 of its descendent part. This method

furnishes the correct amount of increase in C

L

in the fully stalled

region, and permits the 1-D numerical code, to take into account

radial ow along the blades.

Analogously to lift coefcient, two different mathematical

functions have been implemented to describe the drag coefcient.

A fth-order logarithmic polynomial C

D

i

fcost

i

*lna

i

g

was adopted for the attached ow region (2

a 18

), while for

the dynamic stall region (18

a 90

) the function C

D

C

Dmax

*sin

2

(a) was adopted. The cos t

i

, in the C

D

logarithmic polynomial,

have been evaluated through the least squares method, starting

from the C

D

experimental data [21]. Also the C

Dmax

has been

obtained from C

D

experimental data.

Nomenclature

A rotor area [m

2

]

Re Reynolds number [e]

a angle of attack [

]

f incoming ow direction angle [

]

u angular velocity [s

1

]

a axial induction factor [-]

a

0

tangential induction factor [e]

r local blade radius [m]

V

0

wind velocity far upstream [m/s]

V

1

relative airfoil velocity [m/s]

dL lift [N]

dD drag [N]

dR resultant force from lift and drag [N]

dN normal rotor force [N]

dT tangential rotor force [N]

c airfoil chord [m]

r air density [kg/m

3

]

C

L

airfoil lift coefcient [e]

C

D

airfoil drag coefcient [e]

C

Lmax

C

L

at a 45

.

N

b

number of blades [e]

F tip loss factor [e]

C

N

normal force coefcient [e]

l

r

local tip speed ratio [e]

C torque [Nm]

P mechanical power [W]

Fig. 1. Forces acting on the airfoil.

R. Lanzafame, M. Messina / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 415e420 416

2.2. Brake state model

A brake state model is a set of mathematical equations imple-

mented within a 1-D numerical code, based on the Blade Element

Momentum theory, to design and evaluate the performance of

horizontal axis wind turbines.

The brake state model implements different mathematical

expressions to evaluate the tangential (a

0

) and axial (a) induction

factors. In the numerical code presented in this paper, Eqs. (5)e(7)

were implemented [13].

The numerical stability of the mathematical code depends on

tangential (a

0

) and axial (a) induction factors. Before selecting these

mathematical expressions, many simulations have been carried

out, implementing different mathematical expressions for the

tangential and axial induction factors. In all the simulations the

results were not good as those presented in this paper (see Fig. 3),

and in some cases, the numerical code does not converge to the

solution, but diverges to an innite loop of calculations.

In Eqs. (5) and (6) the two mathematical expressions imple-

mented in this code for the evaluation of the axial induction factor

are reported:

for a < 0.4:

a

1

4Fsin

2

f

cN

b

2pr

C

L

cosf C

D

sinf

1

(5)

while for a ! 0.4 [20]:

a

18F 20 3

C

N

50 36F 12F3F 4

_

36F 50

(6)

In Eq. (7) the mathematical expression implemented in this

code for the evaluation of the tangential induction factor is repor-

ted [21]:

a

0

1

2

_

1

4

l

2

r

a1 a

1

_

(7)

where F is the Prandtl tip loss factor, as reported in [29,31].

The proposed post-stall model, in conjunction with the brake

state model, has been validate through the comparison between

the simulated and experimental data on the mechanical power for

the NREL wind turbine (see Fig. 3). The results of the numerical

code proposed in this work (including the post-stall model

described in Subsection 2.1, and the brake state model described in

Subsection 2.2), are very close to experimental data.

3. Comparison between experimental and simulated data

The numerical code produced by the authors, is implemented to

predict the power curve of the NREL wind rotor [22]. The radius of

Fig. 2. Graphic visualization of the post-stall model.

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

M

e

c

h

a

n

i

c

a

l

P

o

w

e

r

[

k

W

]

Wind Speed [m/s]

NREL wind rotor

Experimental data Simulated data

Fig. 3. Experimental mechanical power for the NREL wind turbine.

R. Lanzafame, M. Messina / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 415e420 417

the rotor is 5.03 m and rotates at 72 r/min. The blade section is the

S809 airfoil. The experiments were carried out in the worlds

biggest wind tunnel at NASA Ames.

The rotor blades are twisted and tapered. Power control is

passive and occurs by deep stalling a section of the wind turbine

blades. One method to maintain almost constant the wind turbine

power, while the wind speed varies, is that to design the blades so

that they work in the deep stall region, and power production is

limited by these aerodynamic conditions (see Fig. 3, for the wind

speed varying from 10 m/s to 20 m/s).

Experimental measurements of power as wind speed varies

were taken from scientic literature [29].

In Fig. 3 the comparison between the experimental and simu-

lated data is shown. It is possible to notice how the 1-D numerical

code proposed in this work (with the post-stall model, and the

brake state model described in Subsections 2.1 and 2.2) furnishes

reliable results.

4. Numerical simulation and comparison of brake state

models

The combined JonkmaneBuhl [20,21] brake state model is

implemented within the numerical code developed by the authors

(see Eqs. (5)e(7)), and is compared with Shens brake state model

[18,19].

Shens brake state model is represented by Eqs. (8)e(14).

For a 1/3

a

1

1 C

N

_

2F

(8)

while for a ! 1/3

a

2 Y

1

4Y

1

1 F Y

2

1

_

21 FY

1

(9)

a

0

1

1 aFY

2

1 a

1

(10)

with

Y

1

4Fsin

2

f

sF

1

C

N

(11)

Y

2

4Fsinfcosf

sF

1

C

T

(12)

F

1

2

p

cos

1

_

exp

_

g

N

b

R r

2rsinf

__

(13)

g exp 0:125N

b

l

r

21 0:1 (14)

Figs. (4) and (5) show the brake state models.

In [34], Glauert reported the experimental results showing that

the trust coefcient equation C

N

4a(1 a) is not valid if the axial

induction factor exceeds 0.4. Glauert [34] gave a correction for

determining the axial induction factor, when a > 0.4, valid only for

F 1. If the losses at the tip of the blade are taken into account

(F < 1), the correction proposed by Buhl [20] must be considered

and implemented. Fig. 4 shows Buhls brake state model in

conjunction with experimental data taken from [23].

This correction is needed to eliminate the numerical instability

which occurs when the Glauert correction is implemented in

conjunction with tip losses.

In 2005, Shen et al. [18] proposed a new tip loss correction

model to predict physical behavior close to the tip. The local thrust

coefcient is replaced by a linear relation when the axial induction

value is greater than a critical value (a ! 1/3). Fig. 5 shows Shens

brake state model in conjunction with experimental data taken

from [23].

Implementing the numerical code, the BEM computation is

carried out using 20 blade elements distributed uniformly along the

blade. Comparative axial induction factors are rst computed. In

Fig. 6, the axial induction factor is plotted as a function of radius.

The axial induction values are almost identical for the inner part

of the blade but diverge when approaching the tip. This value is

lower than the value obtained with the Glauert model (reported

also in [18]), but greater than the value obtained with Shens brake

state model. A greater a value implies less predicted power.

Fig. 7 shows the predicted power curves for the NREL wind rotor.

It shows the predicted power curve of the simplied Glauert model

[18], the predicted power curve of Shens model [18], and the

Fig. 4. Buhls brake state model.

Fig. 5. Shens brake state model.

R. Lanzafame, M. Messina / Renewable Energy 50 (2013) 415e420 418

predicted power curve obtained with the code developed in this

work. All the predicted power curves are compared with experi-

mental data.

Notice how in Fig. 7, the power predicted in this work is very

close to the experimental data for wind speeds varying from 5 to

20 m/s. For wind speeds greater than 20 m/s, Shens BSM predicts

a better curve.

In future research, a new strategy to implement both the BSMs

presented here, will be taken into account. Each BSM will be

implemented for different wind speed ranges to maximize the

correlation between experimental and simulated data.

5. Conclusions

The authors produced a numerical code based on BEM theory in

conjunction with an aerodynamic post-stall model, indispensable

for taking into account radial ow along the wind turbine blades,

and the brake state models by Buhl combined with Jonkmans

tangential induction factor.

This brake state model was compared with that of Shen et al. to

predict the power curve for an NREL wind rotor for which experi-

mental mechanical power measurements are reported in scientic

literature.

The comparison highlighted two different behaviors for the two

brake state models which in this work better predict the power

curves at low and middle wind speeds, whereas Shens works

better at high wind velocities.

The advantages of the developed method are those of a 1-D

numerical code: very little computational weight, the possibility

to effect many simulations in a very little time, the possibility to

evaluate different geometrical congurations of the wind turbine in

order to obtain high power coefcient, maximize the Annual

Energy Production.

The disadvantage of this numerical code is its precision. These

disadvantages can be overcome with a nal 3-D CFD simulation.

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