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Rural Regional Planning Workshop

January May 2008

Workshop Report

Development Planning of Khok Charoen District, Lopburi Province

Submitted to Asso. Prof. Dr.Soparth Pongquan Professor J.K. Routray Mr. Vitoon Nil-Ubol

Submitted by Rural regional Development Planning Student

Rural Regional Development Planning Field of Study School of Environment, Resources and Development Asian Institute of Technology Thailand

Acknowledgments First, we would like to express our deep gratitude to Prof.J.K.Routray, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, and Dr. Soparth Pongquan, Associate professor, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology for their kind and field and class room guidance, comments, and their technical assistance in preparing this report and to learn a valid practical social research methodologies. This report and field work was become successfully possible due to Mr. Vitoon Nil-ubol, RRDP Field Laboratory Supervisor, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology. We heartily acknowledged his efforts in preparing schedules, organizing filed surveys and trips and data collection. We also extend our thanks to all the senior Thai students who acted as translator and made our job easier while data collection and even in data organizing. Finally, our greatest appreciation is given to local people of Khok Chareon district and TAO officials, and other officials at the district and provincial level for their warm contribution and support.

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Workshop Participants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Mr. Abdul Waheed Mr. Abid Hussain Mr. Alam Mohammad Mr. Amar B. Thing Mr. Bashirullah Khpalwan Ms. Chaba Srisuno Mr. Choen Krainara Mr. Imran Taj Hassani Mr. Junaid Alam Memon Mr. Khampu Phoyyavong Mr. Mahtab Ahmad Mr. Mizan ul-Rahman Ms. Naw Pe The Law Ms. Nay New Ms. Poonam Sharma Mr. S.Apichatthanapath (seng) Mr. Sarawuth Wattatham Ms. Sirinath Matra (Noi) Mr. Sothy Va Ms. Tran Thi Bach CUC Ms. Yupa Naw Mr. Zhang Jun Pakistan Pakistan Pakistan Nepal Afghanistan Thailand Thailand Pakistan Pakistan Laos Pakistan Bangladesh Myanmar Myanmar Nepal Thailand Thailand Thailand Cambodia Vietnam Myanmar China

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TABLE OF CONTACTS Chapter Acknowledgment Workshop Participants Table of contacts List of Table List of Figures List of Maps 1. Introduction 1.1 Study Area Identification Phase 1.2 Preparatory Phase 1.3 Field Investigation Phase I 1.4 Data Analysis Phase I 1.5 Field Investigation Phase II 1.6 Data Analysis Phase II 1.7 Planning Phase 1.8 Synthesis 2. Natural Resources and Environment Sector 2.1 Over view and outline 2.2 Topography and Climate 2.3 Soil 2.4 Land 2.5 Water 2.6 Forest 2.6a Case Study of Tambon Yangrak Community Forestry 2.7 Minerals 2.8 Environmental Issues 2.8a A Case Study on Pollution from Open Sugarcane Burning in Tambon Nang Makha 2.9 Relevant Government Policies and Strategies on NRE 2.10 Sectoral Analyses and Interrelation of Key Issues 2.10.1 Conclusions 3. Agricultural Sector 3.1 Land for Agriculture 3.2 Water Resources 3.3 Soil for Agriculture 3.3a Water Management: A case study on water users organization 3.4 Crops 3.5 Livestock and Poultry 3.6 Fishery 3.7 Agricultural Employment 3.8 Khok Chareon District Agriculture Office 3.9 Agriculture Extension Service
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Title

Page i vi x xiii 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 5 5 6 11 19 23 26 28 30 32 33 35 37 40 42 50 53 55 66 72 74 74 74

3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17

Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre Case study on Integrated Farming System Case study on chemical free vegetable plantation Case study on paddy farming group Agricultural Credit Agriculture Policies Problems and prospects Conclusions and recommendations

76 78 80 82 83 84 86 87 88 91 103 105 106 109 116 133 138 140 143 143 144 147 152 153 154 155 156 158 161 161 161 165 170 171 174 183 185 206 208 210 214 218 223 228 230

4. Non Agricultural Sector 4.1 Industrial Sector Thai Hand Weaving Group, Tambon Khok Charoen Thai hand weaving group, Tambon Khok Samae San Thong Muan production, Tambon Nong Makha Basketry group Wang Thong 4.2 Trade and Commerce 4.3 Tourism 4.4 Problems and Potential Analysis of Non-Agriculture Sector 4.5 Conclusion and Recommendation 5. Infrastructure Sector 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Settlement 5.3 Connection network: Time distance and accessibility 5.4 Public transportation (Bus) 5.5 Water Supply System 5.5.1 Case study 5.6 Power supply systems 5.7 Telecommunication 5.8 Overall Development 6. Social Sector 6.1 Population 6.1.2 Population Structure 6.1.6 Population Projection 6.1.11 Migration 6.1.13 Policies and Programs on Poverty Alleviation 6.2.1 Health policies and strategies Public Health Station - Tambon Yang Rak District hospital, Khok Charoen A case study 6.3 Education Case Study on Yang Rak Vittaya School Case Study of Village Development Fund Project in Supporting Students Study 6.3.10 Non-Formal Education 6.3.13 Vocational Training 6.4.1 Thailands Administrative Structure 6.4.3 Community Planning Process of Tambon 6.4.6 The Community Development Department (CDD A Case study on Weaving Group
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6.4.12 6.4.15

Saving group case study in Tambon Khok Charoen Village Development Funds Case Study on Village Development Funds village no.of 8 Tambon Wang Tong Social Welfare and Issues Summary of problems and potentials for the Social sector

231 232 235 236 237 237 243 248 250 252 258 265 267

7. Project proposals - Awareness Raising Project on Natural Resources and Environmental Problems - Promoting Community Forestry in Tambon Wangthong - Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre Strengthening Project - Enhancement of Area under Cassava Cultivation - Cooperative weaving centre - Formation of Weaving Training and Demonstration Center as a Culture Tourism - Provision of Community Shallow Tub-well - Skill improvement program for OTOP groups in Khok Charoen district References Appendices

270 272

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LIST OF TABLE Table Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 2.6 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Table 3.9 Title Classification of Major Soils in Khok Charoen district Soil quality with reference to the villages in the district Soil Suitability analysis of Khok Charoen District with reference to Tambons Types and Number of Land Ownerships in Khok Charoen District Details of the Natural Sources of water in Khok Charoen District Overall Policies of Natural Resources and Environment Sector Total cultivable agricultural land, households and average land holding size Land area and percentage of land occupied by agriculture and others Agricultural Land Use by Tambon Wise Upland and Lowland Crop by Tambon Wise Factors affecting crop performance and suitability General Soil Observation Soil Fertility Analysis Available water storage resources Situation of cultivable area and available stored water resources Page 11 13 14 20 23 39 43 43 44 45 47 47 48 50 52 56 57 57 58 59 64 67 70 72 72 73 73 73

Table 3.10 Cropping pattern Table 3.11 Cropping Calendar Table 3.12 Cropping Intensity Table 3.13 Average Yield Table 3.14 Benefit Cost ratio calculation of major crops Table 3.15 Comparative statement of livestock and agriculture production Table 3.16 Human resource of livestock department in Khok Charoen District Table 3.17 Poultry Population in District Khok Charoen Table 3.18 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Table 3.19 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Table 3.20 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Table 3.21 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Table 3.22 Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas

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Table 3.23 Summary information about the three Financial Institutions Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 General information of Lop Buri province Breakdown of income generated by sector Comprehensive picture of Non-agricultural sector in Khok Charoen district Summary of supporting institutions of industries and OTOPs Industry situation in Lop Buri province Current situation in Khok Charoen district Number of agricultural household per one agro-processing industry Change in number of OTOP projects in different districts between 2006-07 Comparison of income generated from OTOPs among different districts

83 88 88 90 91 94 95 95 98 99 99 100 108 114 115 117 119 120 120 125 128 130 132 133 134 138 145 147 148 148 151

Table 4.10 Comparison of successful OTOPs (4 stars or more) in different districts of Lopburi Table 4.11 List of OTOPs in Khok Charoen district Table 4.12 Comparison among OTOPs Table 4.13 List of main problems in the industrial sector Table 4.14 List of potentials of industrial sector in Khok Charoen Table 4.15 Distribution time and place of weekly market in Khok Charoen district. Table 4.16 Distribution of total shop by Tambon Table 4.17 Distribution of Shops by Tambon Table 4.18 Ratio of Population under the Service of Shops in Tambon Table 4.19 Markets, Location and Time Spent of Inflow Products Table 4.20 Markets, Location and Time Spent of Outflow Products Table 4.21 Number of Clients and Loan Amount Disbursed Table 4.22 Department of Business Development Strategy (2008-2012) Table 4.23 Internal Tourism Statistics of Lop Buri Province Table 4.24 Attractive tourist place in Lop Buri by share of visitors in 2004 Table 4.25 SWOT analysis of tourism Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Population Density and Settlement Pattern of District Khock Charoen Average time Roads density Cumulative road density Accessibility to facilities
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Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Table 5.8 Table 5.9

Construction and maintenance Individual transport Water availability Case study

151 152 153 154 155 156 158 161 161 163 164 165 166 166 167 168 168 169 170 171 176 177 178 180 194 194 196 196 197 198

Table 5.10 Power supply Table 5.11 Telecommunication Table 5.12 Overall development Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 6.8 Table 6.9 Households size change by Tambon, 2004-2007 Population Density by Tambon Population by gender, 2007 Comparison of Male and Female Sex Ratio The dependency and dependency ratio Population projected by Tambon 2015 and 2020 The population growth rate Khok Charoen district, 2003-2007 Birth and Death Rates Khok Charoen district, 2007 Household income

Table 6.10 Poverty rate by Tambon in 2004-2007 Table 6.11 Type of poverty problems Table 6.12 Tambon wise out - migration Table 6.13 Tambon wise in - migration Table 6.14 Accessibility of public health stations/hospital Table 6.15 Distribution of health facilities with respect population Table 6.16 Detail of health personnel Table 6.17 Details of major disease in the district Table 6.18 Distribution of Education Institutions by Tambons Table 6.19 Ratio of Student-classroom Khok Chareon District Table 6.20 Ratio of Students-classroom in Pre-primary Education Khok Chareon District Table 6.21 Ratio of Student-classroom in Primary School, Khok Chareon District Table 6.22 Ratio of Students-classroom in Lower Secondary Education, Khok Chareon District Table 6.23 Ratio of Students-classroom in Upper Secondary Education, Khok Chareon District
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Table 6.24 Number of Teachers by Qualification in Khok Chorean District, Academic Year 2006 Table 6.25 Students-teacher Ratio by School Table 6.26 Students-teacher Ratio by Lower Secondary and Upper Secondary School Table 6.27 Percentage of Dropout by Schools Table 6.28 Time of Distance to a Particular School Service by Foot and by Bike Table 6.29 Schedule of English Teacher of Anu Bann Khok Charoen School Table 6.30 School Assessment by External Education in Khok Charoen District Table 6.31 Number of Villages Reached at Progressive Level of Studying Continuation

198

199 200 200 203 204 205 206 206 207 209 211 212 214 215

Table 6.32 The Students-to-computer Ratio, Yang Rak Wittaya School Table 6.33 Number of Students in Yang Rak Wittaya School by Gender and Grade Table 6.34 The Distribution of Scholarship in Khok Charoen District, 2008 Table 6.35 The Rate of Illiteracy by Tambons in 2007 Table 6.36 Non-formal Education Projects Plan and Budget, Khok Chaoren District, 2007 Table 6.37 Community Learning Centers in Khok Charoen District Table 6.38 Report Fiscal Year 2007: Education and Training to Improve Vocational Skills Table 6.39 Human Resource of the Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) Table 6.40 Income and Expenditure by Tambon in Khok Charoen District, 2007 Table 6.41 Local Revenues by Source of income in TAO, 2007 Table 6.42 Expenditure of TAO Table 6.43 List of Development Projects in Khok Charoen District Table 6.44 Percentage of Local Peoples Participation in Khok Charoen District Table 6.45 Institutional support from Line Ministries in Khok Charoen District Table 6.46 List of Community Groups in Khok Charoen District by Tambon Table 6.47 Finance group and the budget in five Tampons, 2007 Table 6.48 Detail of assistance provided to needy people

221 221 222 222 223 225 227 229 230 235

LIST OF FIGURE Figure Figure 1.1 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Title Rural and Regional Planning Workshop Methodology Percentage Distribution of the Area by Tambon Rainfall Data Lopburi Metrological Station (1988-2006) No of Rainy Days, Lopburi Metrological Station (1997-06) Average Max/Min Temperature Average Humidity, Lopburi Metrological Station (1988-2006) Percentage distribution of the soil under major groups Alternative for Planting in Khok Charoen District Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water for Domestic Uses Page 4 7 9 9 9 9 13 18 25 25 26 30 42 44 45 46 49 50 52 56 58 60 60 67 67 68 68 69 69 70

Figure 2.10 Villages with Access to water for agricultural purposes Figure 2.11 Utilization and appearance of Perlite Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Land Use Upland and low land crop area Upland and Low land crop by Tambon Agricultural land use by Tambon Soil Fertility Level Tambon wise percentage of total water storage capacity Comparison of cultivable land and water resources Area under the different cropping patterns Cropping Intensity

Figure 3.10 Gross Benefits vs Production Cost (per rai) Figure 3.11 Benefit cost ratio analysis of major crops Figure 3.12 Number of Livestock (cattle- Buffalo, Sheep, Pig) in 2008 Figure 3.13 Livestock population in Tambon Khok Charoen Figure 3.14 Livestock population in Tambon Yang Rack Figure 3.15 Livestock population in Tambon Nong Makah Figure 3.16 Livestock population in Tambon Khok Samae Figure 3.17 Comparison of Tombon wise livestock population percentage Figure 3.18 Percentage of Production System
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Figure 3.19 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure: 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13 Figure 4.14 Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Figure 4.17 Figure 4.18 Figure 4.19 Figure 4.20 Figure 4.21 Figure 4.22 Figure 4.23 Figure 4.24 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5

Khok Chareon district Agriculture Organizational Chart Employment status at provincial level Breakdown of employment by sub-sector in Lopburi (in number of worker) Industrial Development and Planning Zone of Thailand Percentage distribution of cottage industries by location/Tambon Distribution of cottage industries (rice mills) Distribution of OTOPs among different districts Distribution of OTOPs by location/Tambon Distribution of OTOPs by function among Tambon Distribution of OTOPs by function among different areas within Khok Charoen district Marketing channels for weaving products Marketing channels of Thong Muan production Marketing channels for handicraft basketry Marketing channels of dried cassava. Marketing channels of products from rice mill. Density of Population to Private Shops Map Distribution of Weekly Market Map Market Linkage Marketing Chanel of cloths Marketing Chanel of groceries Marketing Chanel of House ware products Marketing Chanel of Electric ware Products Distribution of Tax revenue of Khok Charoen District in 2006 Tax Revenues Generated from Private Shop by Tambon in 2007 Tourist Map in Lop Buri Province Size of Household Individual transports Availability of water Power supply TOT and cell phone

75 89 89 92 95 96 97 101 101 102 105 107 110 111 111 121 122 123 126 126 127 127 129 129 135 145 152 153 155 157

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Figure 5.6 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.6 Figure 6.7 Figure 6.8 Figure 6.9

Overall development Population Distributions by Tambon Population by age and gender Gender balance Population pyramid Population Growth Rate Achievement of households have saving by Tambon Location of public health station Distribution of health facilities Distribution of nurses in the district

158 162 163 163 164 167 169 176 177 178 180 181 181 185 187 191 193 195 195 203 207 218 220 224 226 228 228 228

Figure 6.10 Resident environment Figure 6.11 Health and Hygiene conditions Figure 6.12 Distribution of health volunteers in four Tambons Figure 6.13 Organization Structure Khok Charoen Hospital Figure 6.14 Details of health awareness schemes Figure 6.15 Organization of the Present School System in Thailand Figure 6.16 Education Administration and Management Structure Figure 6.17 Percentage of Classrooms by Education Level Figure 6.18 Percentage of Students by Education Level Figure 6.19 Percentage of Villages Achieved Progressive Education Level by Tambons

Figure 6.20 The Changing of Numbers of Students by Gender and Grades Figure 6.21 The National and Local Government Structure in Figure 6.22 TAO Administrative Chart Figure 6.23 Development Project of TAOs Figure 6.24 Peoples Participation in Social Activities by Five Tambon Figure 6.25 Community Development Department working Figure 6.26 Number of villages becoming sufficiency economy village Figure 6.27 Number of villages having Public Information Centre in Khok Charoen District

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LIST OF MAPS Map Map 2.1 Map 2.2 Map 2.3 Map 2.4 Map 2.5 Map 2.6 Map 2.7 Map 2.8 Map 3.1 Map 3.2 Map 3.3 Map 5.1 Map 5.2 Map 5.3 Map 5.4 Map 5.5 Map 5.6 Map 5.7 Map 6.1 Title Topographic map of Khok Chareon District Villages Affected by Storm in Tambon Khok Charoen Soil Type Soil Suitability Map, Khok Charoen Disitrict Land Use Pattern Land Reformed in Tambon Khok Samae San, Khok Charoen District Drainage Map Showing Water Bodies Distributions of Land and Forest Resources in Khok Charoen District Distributions of Water Resources Showing water reservoir in the study district Demonstration Farm Sites Settlement pattern of Khok Chareon Population density of Khok Charoen district Population distribution Road network Flow map Distribution of Facilities Accessibility of facilities School Distribution in Khok Charoen District Page 8 11 16 17 19 21 24 27 51 53 77 144 146 146 147 149 150 150 202

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This report is prepared by the students who participated in the Rural and Regional Planning Workshop which was conducted form January to May 2008 as part of the Masters and Doctors Program at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). The objective of this report is to understand the current situation and development level of the district, and then to provide any recommendations or suggestions for future district development planning to the local authorities or any other relevant organizations. The report is based on both primary and secondary data sources. Main sources of secondary data have been NRD-2C and BMN as well as statistics and documents provided by the local government offices and organizations.

The study area of Khok Chareon District is situated in Lobburi Province and had the following features. The district (King Amphoe) was created on March 9th, 1987 by splitting off four tambon from Khok Samrong District. It was upgraded to a full district on November 4th, 1993 with total area of 317.14 Km2 or 198212 rai with five subdistricts (tambons) and 53 villages. Socio-economic Characteristics of the study area The main occupation is agriculture Hospital: 10 bedrooms, 2 doctors, 1 dentist, 28 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 11 public health officers None of bank None of department store There are 16 Primary Schools 2 Secondary Schools: (Khok Charoen Withaya School and Yang Rak Withaya School) 1 Research Station: Kasetsart University in Moo 4, Tambon Yang Rak Total households 7142 Total Population 24457 Agriculture and industry Main agricultural goods: maize, sugarcane, potato, sorghum Main water sources: Sub Song Stream, Ma Deu Stream None of industry Tourist Attractions None of ancient remains and antiques Tourist Attractions: handmade silk center, Chang village headmans grape field
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Hotel: Sak Thong Phra Narai Resort None of guest house Restaurant: J Lek Restaurant next to the Khok Charoen District Office Significant natural resources of Khok Charoen District Perlite mineral in Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon Yangrak

1. Methodology: Rural and Regional Planning Workshop has various steps (Figure 1.1). These steps were grouped into phases. 1.1Study Area Identification Phase Faculty and staff identified the study area for the workshop. In this case Khok Charoen district was identified. The faculty and associated proceeded with the collection of secondary data about the study area. 1.2 Preparatory Phase In this phase objectives of the workshop were formulated. Different literatures were reviewed such as the study area profile, the previous workshop reports and planning reports. Conceptual framework was prepared from these studies. 1.3 Field Investigation Phase 1 Study area reconnaissance survey was done in this phase. This survey was intended to get an overall picture of the situation of the district through field observation, Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) with local groups and project activities in the study area. During the visit secondary data and information were obtained from district and sub-district levels. Key problems and issues encountered in the sub-district and district levels were identified from primary and secondary sources.

1.4 Analysis Phase 1 Data and information collected during the reconnaissance survey, the local groups and project activities, the NRD-2C database by village on selected aspects (general, economic, education, health, labor and social), BMN of the sub-districts and other secondary data were analyzed and key problems were identified into difference sectors. The data requirement, data sources and data gaps were worked out for detailed survey.

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1.5 Field Investigation Phase 2 During the field investigation, the participants were assigned to 5 separate sector groups namely: I. II. III. IV. V. Natural Resources and Environment Sector Agriculture Sector Non-agriculture Sector Infrastructure Sector Social Sector

The respective groups collected data and information of study area, i.e. the problems, needs, potentials and key issues, focusing on their sectors. Data such as descriptive statistics, annual reports, provincial plans, sectoral plans, line department plans, district plans, sub-district (Tambon) agriculture plans, Tambon administrative organization development plans, maps, topographic sheets, and others, were collected from line agencies, departments and other primary sources of information. The participants were presented the main problems and needs of study area at the district and provincial meeting room and got the feed back from these officials. 1.6 Analysis Phase 2 From the data and information gathered during the field study such as Tambon Profile, district profile, district development guidelines, government policies, existing project/activities and other primary data, the respective sectoral group analyzed the situation of the study area for their sectors. Therefore, the problems, needs, potentials and key issues of the sectors were identified and prioritized. 1.7 Planning Phase Base on the identified and prioritized sectoral problems and needs, projects were identified. The result of secondary data analysis, peoples perception, government policies, and information on existing projects of the district were taken into consideration for the formulation of new projects. 1.8 Synthesis Each sectoral group completed a final report of the respective sector. The final report was compiled and arranged strategically to contain the following chapters: Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Natural Resources and Environment Sectoral Study Chapter 3 Agriculture Sectoral Study Chapter 4 Non-agriculture Sectoral Study
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Chapter 5 Infrastructure Sectoral Study Chapter 6 Social Sectoral Study Chapter 7 Project Proposals A workshop is organized in Khok Charoen District to present the outcome of the planning workshop. The participants were the representatives from the study area: Provincial, District, and Tambon officers of Khok Charoen District, during the workshop. The respect five groups presented their sectoral projects. Questions were raised concerning the projects presented and was courteously and promptly answered by the presenters. Suggestion and comments were also raised. This final report was prepared incorporation all the comments and suggestions made. Problems and Constraints The workshop was conducted within four months and participants encountered various personal and professional related concerns. But despite everything, the plan was cohesiveness of the group was developed. The following were the major problems and constraints identified:

a) All data and information were collected through PRA or RRA, which needed extensive discussion with the local community. Local people speaks Thai language only, which some of the students dont understand. Faculty, staff and Thai friends worked very hard to solve the language problem. b) Data requirement for a purpose was found different. Some of the required data were not available for the sectoral planning at sub-district and district levels.

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Time Frame
-

Major Steps
Identification of the Study Area Collection of Secondary Data Primary Survey on Sample Tambon/ Village Objective of the Workshop and Literature Review Introduction of the Study Area Review of Different Plans and Literature Conceptual Framework

Techniques

(Pre-workshop period)
Preparatory Phase (2 weeks) -

PRA/RRA Observation Group Discussion Discussion with people and Govt officials

Field Investigation Phase 1 (3 days)

- Reconnaissance Survey (Macro and Micro Study Groups)

Identification of Problems Analysis Phase 1 (3 weeks) Identification of Data Requirements, Data Sources and Data Gaps Field Investigation Data/Information Gathering Regional and Sectoral Analysis

PRA/RRA Presentation Before the District and Provincial Officials Tambon Council Meetings Meeting with Sector Organizations

Field Field Investigation Investigation Phase Phase 22 (6 (6 days) days) Analysis Phase 2 (4 weeks) Planning Phase 2 (3 weeks) Synthesis (2 weeks)

Development of Problems Based on Potential Finalization of the Planning Report Final Presentation Before the District and Provincial Officers Discussion and Adjustments

Structuring of Problems and Potentials Projection/Spatial Analysis Quantitiative and Mapping

Source: Routray, J.K., (1995) Figure 1.1: Rural and Regional Planning Workshop Methodology

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CHAPTER II NATURAL RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENT 2.1 Overview

The part of the study analyzes the state of natural resources and environment (NRE) and highlights its problem potential, need and constraints. Subsequently it also attempts to propose important project to address the problems and develop the potentials that will contribute to overall development of the district by creating opportunities for the well being of the local people. This sector will broadly cover topography, land, soil, water, forest, minerals and environment. The relevant policies at all scales are also reviewed and the strategies adopted by the district and Tambon offices are also reviewed in detail to streamline the project with programs and policy to enhance their relevance and practical application.Based on the analysis of the sector, it is observed that the state of environment and natural resources in the district is not very much satisfactory. The district is not very rich in terms of natural resources in their present state. Given some natural constrains, the potential however exist in the area that can be developed for the overall improvement of social, economical and environmental aspects for long-term and sustainable development of the district. Each of the above mentioned sectors has some problems and potentials needs and constrains which sketch the outline for the development planning of the district. The land is available in the district with relation to population. The per-capita land availability of the district is about 7.5 rai but the most of the land in the district comes under the reserve forest area. The land distribution is also a major problem. The state of water for some basic needs like drinking and other domestic usage is satisfactory however the water shortage in dry season coupled by poor quality of aquifer is the main problem in the area. The water perennial supply of agriculture water is utmost need of the area and has important implications on the development of the district. Forests are the most prominent feature of the district in general and Tambon Wong Thong and Yang Rak in specific and are development potentials of the area. But the degradation of the forest to considerable extent needs immediate attention. The community based forestry management practices are already introduced in Tambon Yang Rak and its results are promising. So community forestry is considered to be a potential that can substantially applicable in Tambon Wong thong as about 90% of the total area of Tambon area classified as reserve forest area. In terms of soil quality, the poor soil texture is the main problem. Due to the lack of compactness in soil structure, the water run-off during the rainy seasons and flooding causes soil erosion problem. The issues related to soil are on particular focus of national and provincial level priorities. The land development department has the soil doctor project with a soil doctor in every village and the demo project on soil conservation through vitiver gross in Tambon Nong Makha. However the services of scope of these initiatives are not very much satisfactory. The district level authorities can take initiative to strengthen these existing services to cope with the serious problem of soil erosion because the national and provincial policy and program framework is in complete harmony. The issues corresponding to soil are addressed in proposed general awareness raising project. In the environmental analysis though the district has got relatively clean environment but the periodical and ad-hoc based problems like illegal farm burning from sugarcane and emerging
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problems or solid-waste in residential areas are also highlighted for future implication of environmental conscious planning as a part of sustainable development strategy. The overall sectoral plan provided by the planning team is not a one-off action plan rather a flexible cyclic activity. It is neither a recipe that is complete in-itself to ensure the development of the district nor it is a complete replacement version of the existing planning methodology in the district. Rather its a supplement to the existing planning mechanisms. District level planning personals can add-remove following the empirical and practical experience acquired through close interaction with the area. This report represents the sectoral status of the Natural Resources and Environment and sectoral development plan project proposals for the Khok Charoen district. The sectoral report covers the following sections: 1. Topography and Climate 2. Soil 3. Land 4. Water 5. Forest 6. Minerals 7. Environmental Issues 8. Relevant Government Policies and Strategies 9. Sectoral Analyses and Its Interrelation of Key Issues 10. Conclusion and recommendations 2.2 Topography and Climate 2.2.1 Geographical Location Area and Topography Location District Khok Chaoren is located between North 15o 15 & 15o 30 latitude and East 100o 45 & 101o 0 longitude in the upper central region of Thailand. It is situated at the distance of 80 km from provincial hall Lopburi and 182 km away from Bangkok, the capital of Thailand. Positioned in the top of the Lopburi province, it touches Phai Sali District of Nakhron Saman Province in its North and Si Thep District of Phetchaboon Province in its east, whereas in south-east and south-west, neighbors two of its siblings: District Sa Bot and District Nong Muang respectively. Area and Administration The district covers an area of 317 km or 198,212 rai in the upper part of Lopburi province. It is administratively divided into five tambons namely Tambon Khok Charoen (45,573 rai), Tambon Yang Rak (41,075 rai), Tambon Nang Makha (69,268 rai), Tambon Wong Thong (15,833 rai) and Tambon Khok Same Sam (26,463 rai) with district Khok Charoen is the district head quarter.

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Figure 2.1: Percentage Distribution of the Area by Tambon


Tambon Wise Area Distribution Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province

8% 23% 13% Khok Chaoren Yang Rak Nang Ma Kha Khok Samae San 21% 35% Wang Thong

Source: District Administrative organization, Khok Charoen District Physical Settings/Topography The district is the part of Pasak river basin which is the important tributary of Chao Pharaya and Mekong river basins. Various Land features appear in the district ranging from lowland to upland and highlands. Highland and upland mostly exists in Tambon Yangrak where the elevation level varies from 80 m to 560 m above mean sea level, with more than 40% of the land area having a slope gradient of 0-2%, while 4.7% has slope gradient of 40%. However, some small patches of high and upland are also sparsely scattered in rest of four tambons. The lowland exists in Tambon Khok Charoen, Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon Nong Makha. The per-capita land availability in the district is about 7.5 rai. The main land uses are agriculture forest and residential. Around 54.5% of the total land in the district comes under reserve forest are mostly located in Tambon Yang Rak and Tambon Khok Samae San.

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Map2.1: Topographic Map of Khok Charoen District

Source: District Administrative organization, Khok Charoen District 2.2.2 Seasonal Composition, Rainfalls, Temperature and Humidity Seasonal Composition The seasonal composition of the district is similar to the general seasonal patterns of the central region in Thailand with three seasons a year. Generally, the summer rests for three months, starting from the February to April, which is less hot than the summer of the North or Northeast of the country due to the influence of the ocean and the trade winds from the ocean between February and April. The Rainy season rests for six months starting from May to end of October, when the southwest monsoon winds and depression storms exert their influence, while the winter retains for more or less three months starting from November to the end of
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January, when the northeast monsoon winds exert their reduced influence and thus is not as cold as the winter of the district of the North or Northeast region of the country. Rainfall Though the available data is not district specific and is representative of the entire jurisdiction of Lopburi metrological station but data shows that the area has got less precipitation much lower than Thailand and also significantly lowers than rest of the central region of Thailand in which it is located with few exceptions in year 1996 and 1999. The average rainfall of the area comes about 1077 (mm.). There is almost no rain in the area during December to march. The range of rainy days varies between 77 days to 121 days between the period 1996-2007 with 121 days in 1996 and 77 days in 2004 and 96 days in 2006.

Figure2.2: Rainfall Data Lopburi Metrological Station (1988-2006)

Figure2.3: No of Rainy Days, Lopburi


Total Raining days 1997-2006
140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1996 88 91 121 104 108 93 92 77 88 96 Raining days

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Metrological Station (1997-2006) Source: LopBuri Metrological Station 2007 Temperature and Humidity /climate The area is tropical hot and humid and has almost constant temperature ranges. The trend for more than decadal time series data (1997-2007) shows that the average maximum temperature ranges between 32Co to 35Co whereas the average minimum temperature ranges from 23Co 25Co. The average relative humidity in the area as of the period (1997-2007) ranges from 67% to 73 % with July, August, September and October as most humid months in a year. This is significantly high in comparison to the universal recommendation of 30%-60% as a standard for comfort to human beings. Due to high humidity sweating is less effective so people in the area feel hotter. Please refer annex 1 (2, 3 and 4) for details.

24

Figure 2.4: Average Max/Min


Average Max/MinTemperature (1996-2007)
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 max min

Figure2.5: Average Humidity, Lopburi Metrological Station (1988-2006)


Average Humidity 1996-2006
73 72.44 72 71 70 69 68.36 68 67.52 67 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 69.77 70.05 70.14 Average 71.87 71.48 72.44 72.69

Temperature Source: LopBuri Metrological Station 2007

2.2.3 Flood, Draught and Storm Case Study Analysis Flood The district has occasional flash floods rounds with the frequency of once in three years and rests for a maximum period of 10 days, however does not cause significant economic and human losses. As per qualitative information obtained during the interviews and FGDs the last flood occurred 3 years ago for 10 days at the month of October. The magnitude was low however affected 400-4500 rais of sugarcane land however no human and livestock losses are associated with this phenomenon. Though no documentation is available in the district regarding the occurrence of floods however it is observed that in Tambon Nang Makha, flood occurs every year, while in Khok Samae Sam it occurs once every three years. However no flood occurs in Tambon Yang Rak and Wang Thong. Storm Though minor storms usually occurs the study area but the severity of the phenomena is Tambon Khok Charoen specific where it causes considerable economic and human loss. Though the data for frequency and other matters was not readily available in Tambon however the damages caused by last storm were properly noted down. During the Group discussion and meetings with Tambon officials it was observed that due to the direction of the wind in association with the location of the villages the storms have impacts in Khok Charoen tambons. Based on available data, a case study has been conducted as given below.

25

Case Study.1: Storm in Tambon Khok Charoen Tambon Location: Khok Charoen Year of Occurrence: 2007 Occurrence Period: December to January of every year Villages Affected: Village number 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9&12 Household Affected: 59 households Economic Loss: 178217.38 bhat Storm is an annual event in Tambon Khok Charoen, so the people of this Tambon are facing storm problem every year. The time of the storm was from December to January. The storm of 2007 was massive one and so taken as a case for study in our report. 58 households of 7 villages namely village number 1,2,3,6,8,9,&12 were affected by the storm, and among them village number 8 was greatly affected in which a total 32 Households out of total 56 households were affected by the storm. In village number 2, 12 household, in village number 12, 1
household, in village number 6, 2 household, in village number 1, 7 household and village number 9, 5 household were affected. In average, 80 households are affected per year from the storm. The

Map 2.2: Villages Affected by Storm in Tambon Khok Charoen

Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008

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2.3 Soil 2.3.1 Soil Type and Classification Like other central districts of the country, Khok Charoen consist variety of soil series. The standard classification of soil in Thailand is based on the standard soil classifications by the major soils of south Asia by R.Dudal and FR Moornam, the Jour of Trop Geog vol 18 1964. Following these standards there are 15 major soil series found in the Khok Charoen District and can be categorized under 6 major groups. About 42% total district soils are classified as low humic gley soils which makes 42% of total soils of the district followed by red yellow podozolic soil 20%, hydromorphic, non calcic gely soil 18%, Sedimentary rocks 11.22%, Alluvial Soils 7% and Redish Brown Lateritic soils 2.5%. The details of each of the soil types are given in Table 2.1: and percentage distribution of the soil is given in figure 2.1. Table 2.1: Classification of Major Soils in Khok Charoen District Classification of Soil Soil % of Drainage Series it total contain district Soil Permeability Surface Run pH Value range Slope

Alluvial Soils

7%

Moderately Moderate well drained Moderately Moderate well drained

Moderate

6.0 to <2 7.0

Hydromorphic, 25, 25B, 18% Non Culcic 31, 55 Gley Soils 16, 28, 28B, 28/47, 42% 28/54, 28B/47B, 29, 33B, 30

Moderate

5.5 to 1-20 8.0

Low Humic Gley Soils

Somewhat poorly drained

Moderate

Slow

5.08.0

0-2

Reddish Brown Lateritic Soil Red Yellow Podzolic Soil Sedimentary

52, 54

2.5%

Well Drained

Moderate

Rapid

4.5 to 2-16 6.0

46, 46B, 47, 47B, 20% 47C 62 11.22

Well Drained Well


27

Moderate

Moderate 4.5to Rapid 6.0 Rapid 5.0-

4-16

Moderate

3-16

Rocks

Drained

8.0

Source: Land Development Office, Lopburi Province, 2008 The overall picture of the soil of the district shows that about 33% of the soils are well drained; about 25% of the soils are moderately well drained while 42% of the soils are somewhat poorly drained. The permeability of the entire of the district is moderate. The surface run data shows the patterns in flow of rain water. The map 2.1 shows the area under each type soil in the district. When we locate the data on map and compare it with NRD-2C data we can observe that due to the fact that the considerable part of the low humic gley soils are located at Khok Charoen, the soil erosion problem is not found in this Tambon because none of the top fertile soil is lost due to slow surface water run. We can observe that the most of the low humic soils which are poorly drained are located in Khok Charoen district. Due to slow surface run on these the soil problem is not appear ant in this Tambon. In the case of Yang Rak the soil erosion is a problem in the area where the surface run is moderate or rapid. The same observations can also be calculated from the rest of the three Tambons. As its is oblivious from above analysis that the areas of the district with high run rate are more prone to the soil erosion problem one other factor is the lack of vegetations on the soil and land is left barren which cause soil erosion and top soil loss in the district. Figure2.6: Percentage distribution of the soil under major groups
Percentage of the Soil under 6 Major Groups Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province

11%

7%

Alluv ial Soil 18% Hydromorphic, Non Calcic Gley Soil Low Humic Gley Soil Redish Brown lateritic Soil

19%

2%

Red Yellow Podzolic Soils Sedimentry Rocks 43%

Source: Land Development Office, Lopburi Province, 2008 2.3.2 Soil Quality No exclusive data set for soil quality exists in the district. However the NRD-2C provides some indication about the point with reference to village numbers where the soil quality is shown in the village which can extrapolated to nearby soils with reference to the type of soil upon which the villages exists. The summary of the NRD-2C data set for indicator No: 27 regarding soil quality is summarized in table 2.2 as given below which provides tambon wise general picture of the soils in the district.
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Table 2.2: Soil quality with reference to the villages in the district Name of Tambon No of villages under particular category of soil Fertile soil Silted/Eroded Soil Gravel, Sandy Soil Tambon Khok Charoen Tambon Yang Rak Tambon N. Makha Tambon Wong Thong Khok Same San 12 5 7 6 4 4 2 1 3 3 3 3 12 12 12 9 8 Total Number of villages

Source: National Rural Database-form 2C, 2007 2.3.3 Soil Suitability Based on the data and general guidelines of the land development office, the soil in the district Khok Charoen can be categorized into nine groups. The location and topography of these groups is shown on map 2.2 which has been prepared to depict the overall picture of the soil suitability in Khok Charoen district. The soil suitability, degree of fertility, limitation and recommendation regarding the soil are summarized in below given table. It may be remembered that soil suitability may not be in complete harmony with the actual cropping patterns adopted by farmers. However, if cropping patterns are somehow managed as per below given synthesis it shall result in the increasing productivity of the soil.The analysis recommends for the cultivation of the selected crops on the group areas as shown on the map. Under this analysis different groups can be suitable for same crop but the conditions for the suitability vary within groups.

Table 2.3: Soil Suitability analysis of Khok Charoen District with reference to Tambons
29

Soil group Group 1

Found in Tambon

Suitability

Fertility

Limitation

Recommendation

K.C Paddy Crops K.S Annual crops/Cash Crops WT and Orchards YR 4 /5 Tambons

Medium

Annual Crops Application of both chemical can be and Organic cultivated if fertilizer the water is available in dry season

Group II

K.C K.S WT YR NM 5/5 Tambons

Paddy

Very Low

Sandy Loamy Application of both chemical Soil and Organic fertilizer Burring after harvest should be discouraged Low capacity Application of both chemical to retain water and Organic fertilizer Soil Erosion Problem at high Slopes

Group III

YR NM

Paddy on low land and upland crops on high lands

Low

2/5 Tambons Group IV K.C K.S WT YR NM Fruits Upland Crops Perennials Vegetables high Application of both chemical and Organic fertilizer Topography with high slopes should be covered with vegetation to avoid soil erosion Rotation in Cropping pattern must be observed Application of both chemical and Organic fertilizer Barren lands

5/5 Tambons Group V K.S WT YR NM Upland Crops Livestock grazing in low fertile areas Low to Medium Soil Erosion by water

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should be covered with vegetation to avoid soil erosion 4/5 Tambons Group VI High Upland Crops Livestock grazing High Growth Plants 4/5 Tambons Intercropping K.S WT YR NM Soil Erosion Problem Application of both chemical and Organic fertilizer Should be covered with vegetation to avoid soil erosion

Group VII

Unsuitable for Low to K.S any cash crop WT Medium YR NM 4/5 Tambons K.C WT YR Upland Crops Also Suitable for Chili, Cotton, Sugarcane, Sorghum, Maize, Custard Apple, Tamarind High

High Slopes, Hilly Patches

Conserved as forest or water shed area

Group VIII

Alkaline Soils

Application of both chemical and Organic fertilizer Alkaline Resistant Varieties should be introduced

3/5 Tambons Group IX Misalliances group

Map2.3: Soil Type


31

Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008

32

Map 2.4: Soil Suitability Map, Khok Charoen

33

Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008

2.3.4 Alternative Analysis for Soil Suitability for Major Crops On the basis of the data from land and development office the alternative analysis has been done for the different crops in the province. Data shows that for different wide prevailing crops the suitability varies considerably. For example only about the suitability for rice cultivation in the soil is low. Only 22% of the total soil is suitable for rice around 5 % of the total soil is less suitable while rest 73 % is not suitable at all for the cultivation of rice crop. The same sort of analysis has been made for rice corn sugarcane grapefruits papaya, Banana, Asparagus, Guava, Mango and Vegetable. The overall analysis is show in figure 2.7. Figure 2.7: Alternative for Planting in Khok Charoen District
Alternative For Planting in Khok Charoen District Lopburi Province
Percentage of the the Area
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
rC an e G ra pe Fr ui t Ve gi ta bl e Pa p Ba n ag us an go Co rn Ri ce ya an a ua va

Not Suitable Less Sutable Suitable

Name of Crop

Source: Regional Rural Workshop, 2008 (Prepared on the basis of guidelines provided by Land Development Office, Lopburi Province) 2.3.5 Problems, Constraints, Needs and Potentials Problems Poor quality of soil Soil erosion Flooding Constraints Mismatch between soil suitability and existing cultivation practices Lack of knowledge on soil conservation

Potentials Soil suitable for upland crops like sugarcane and cassava
34

As pa gr

Su ga

Soil doctor project is working at village level where a volunteer at village level provides technical assistance regarding soil problems

Needs Awareness raising among the local people regarding impacts of extensive use of chemical fertilizer and encourage them on use of bio fertilizer. The public involvement in soil reclamation activities and land use planning Establishment of local level soil erosion and flood control initiatives 2.4 Land

2.4.1 Broad Land Use Pattern Broadly, land use pattern has been categorized into 5 types. These consist of human settlement areas, other human settlement areas located in Pawangploeng-PamuangkomPalamnarai National Reserved Forest, agricultural area, Pawangploeng-PamuangkomPalamnarai National Reserved and land reform areas (in four villages of Tambon Khoksamaesan). Pa means forest area. It can guide approximate utilization of the land in Khok Charoen District. Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest extended over Tambon Yangrak, Tambon Wang Thong, and some parts of Tambon Khok Charoen and Tambon Nong Makha. Overall, there are 53 human settlements within Khok Charoen District. Out of these, nineteen settlements or 36 % of total settlements were located in the degraded reserved forest represented by 12, 6 and 1 communities in Tambon Yangrak, Tambon Wang Thong and Tambon Nongmakha, respectively. Land reform areas can only be found in Tambon Khok Samae San. While agricultural areas are widely noticed in Tambon Khok Charoen, Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon Nong Makha. And the trend of settlements will slowly be toward encroaching reserved forest. Please see detail of broad land use pattern in the map below. Map 2.5: Land Use Pattern

35

2.4.2 Land Ownership Khok Charoen District has total area of 198,212 Rais. It has non-national reserved area of 99,314 Rais (50.10 %) of total land area, of which land ownerships registered at 69,049.94 Rais with 8,067 land plots. Title deed holders represented at highest share at 81.95 %, followed by N.S.3K at 16.49 %, while N.S.3 and Por Bor Tor 5 0combined at 1.54 %. This implies that there are almost 69 % of people who live on non-national reserved area have land ownerships whereas the rest 31 % of them did not have any types of land ownership at all. According to Natural Resources and Environmental Office of Lopburi Province, local people are upgraded and legally granted certificate of land ownerships from time to time when the government has the policy to do so. Average land holding size varies from 2-4 Rais up to 50 Rais per household. There are few people in almost all Tambons who have large size of hundreds Rais of land. Holding of land ownerships allow local communities to use as collateral for access to formal credits so that they can utilize as household investment capital in productive farm and non-farm activities. In terms of government income from the land, in 2008, Khok Charoen Land District has generated total revenues amounted at 165,761 Baht from land fee and tax.

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Table 2.4: Types and Number of Land Ownerships in Khok Charoen District
Types 1.Title deed 2.N.S.3K 3.N.S.3 4.Por Bor Tor 5 Certificate Total Number of 7,369 653 1 44 Plots Rai 56,588.84 11,392.73 28.83 1,039.54 % 81.95 16.49 0.04 1.50

8,067

69,049.94

100

Source: Khok Charoen District Land Office, 2008 In addition, lack of land tiles is commonly raised. Approximate 50 % and 10 % of total households in Tambon Wang Thong and Tambon Khok Samae San did not have land titles respectively. This problem was partly due to communities encroached and now resided on degraded National Reserved Forest Area. According to data from key informant interviews, landlessness is also significant problem in Tambon Khok Samae San and Tambon Wang Thong at about 6 % and 11 %, respectively, while in Tambon Nongmakha the landless incidence is marginal. This is considered a part of the whole landless scenario in these Tambons. Some of them have land for settlements but do not have land for cultivation. And some are totally landless. Their coping strategies have been rented land both for settlements and cultivation. Yet, actual magnitude of absence of land titles in Khok Charoen District could doubtedly be higher than this if further investigation is to be conducted at household level. Therefore, it is equitably necessary for TAO to render possible assistance to this group of poor people through appropriate initiative so that their social and human securities are ensured. 2.4.3 Land Reform Activities At present, land reform was only carried out in Tambon Khok Samae San in order to legally manage land which was long encroached to National Reserved Forest. A total of 305 households were granted Agricultural Land Reform Certificates (ALRC) with the whole 4,349.59 Rais of reformed land, or accounted for 2.19 % of Khok Charoen District area. After implementing the project, the average land size was redistributed at 14.26 Rais/household with the maximum holding size at 50 Rais/household. It was undertaken in 4 villages as follows: Village 4 at 40 households of 604.68 Rais Village 5 at 8 households of 106 Rais Village 7 at 197 households of 2,785.62 Rais Village 8 at 60 households of 751.77 Rais
37

Please see detail of already land reform area in the map 2.6

Map 2.6: Land Reformed in Tambon Khok Samae San, Khok Charoen District Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008 Once households registered for land reform, they will be entitled to a package of government supports for generating rural livelihoods consisting of agricultural extension and technology transfer particularly on Sufficiency Economy practices, seedling, skill trainings, environmental and natural resources management as well as capitalization using ALRC as collateral to borrow loan from Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC). According to interview with Office of Land Reform of Lopburi Province, the land reform activities went well in terms of providing greater technical supports for enhancing local agricultural productivity. In fact, the government has a policy to establish a system governing land ownership and land zoning that is comprehensive and fair. And land reform is political issue and national agenda. Therefore, there is so far no clear policy on land reform at provincial level. Though there are pros and cons (particularly those who have occupied large area of land plot) existed on essence of land reform in other Tambons, many villagers
38

expressed their willingness to join governments land reform scheme if they are to offer. Thus, there is potential to intensify land reform undertaking in other areas e.g. Tambon Yang Rak and perhaps in Tambon Khok Charoen so that equitable redistribution of land could help increase income through better local livelihoods situation and higher agricultural productivity. 2.4.4 Problems/Constraints, Potentials and Needs Land resource play crucial role in enhancing livelihoods of local communities. However, some problems existed need to be overcome in order to realize potentials in meeting the need of local villagers. Problems Lack of land titles This is due to some communities are settled in degraded National Reserved Forest for quite long times. So they have the right to cultivate and settle but the government does not provide any land title. Landlessness This is due to rapid population growth in Khok Charoen District causing some of them and the new settled migrants (2-4 years in migration) have become landless. Misperception on non-commercial value of land reform certificate to use for borrowing loan from BAAC. Many local villagers misperceived that holding land reform certificates do not entitle them to access to formal credit. That is why some of them still feel against land reform provided by government. Many of local villagers only prefer N.S 3 or N.S.3K or land deeds which are difficult to obtain as by law their settlements are illegal. So government can not grant any land titles needed

Potentials Land reform has been successfully implemented in Tambon Khoksamaesan in terms of providing technical supports to farmers in to increase agricultural productivity. It could be expanded to other areas where there is potential to developed in order to optimize full capacity of the land value. Agricultural water supply pipeline project originating from Pasak Cholasit Dam to serve some districts and terminate at Khok Charoen District opens up a prospect particularly in Tambon Khok Charoen to tap with this potential in intensifying cash crops e.g. paddy, sugarcane or cassava.

Needs Land titles Local villagers need land titles so that their land ownerships are secure. In addition, they can use land title as collateral to borrow loans from both BAAC and other commercial banks. Land reform in Tambon Yangrak Local peoples want the government to carry out land reform activities as they realized its benefits and opportunity to increase agricultural productivity, gaining technology transfer and technical supports.

39

2.5

Water

2.5.1 Types, Numbers and Capacity of Natural Water Resources The study area has acute water shortage every year specifically for agriculture usage. The dry season starts from March to July, while it also suffers from flooding in rainy season particularly during the months from August to October; however the frequency for flooding is mostly once every three year period. The drainage network of the district is given as Map 2.7. Though the area is receiving low precipitation in comparison with the central region and also country as a whole, however, it has sufficient natural water resources but the scarcity of reservoirs and weirs for storage of water is the main problem causing extreme situation of dryness and flooding in peak seasons. The detail of the some of natural water sources is given in Table 2.5. The water from aquifer is not suitable for drinking in all Tambons except some pockets of potable waters exists in Nong Makha sub district. Generally the underground water contains high amount of limestone and other heavy nutrients which make it unsuitable for drinking purposes. As a result heavy reliance on rainwater is the only available option for potable water. The water scarcity in dry season also substantially affects the agricultural productivity in all Tambons but the degree of scarcity varies among all Tambons. The over all picture of the status of water for above mentioned usages is given in the Table 2.5. Table 2.5: Details of the Natural Sources of Water in Khok Charoen District Pond No. Tambon Name Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San 17 22 12 19 3 Cap. (M3) 80,000 105,000 120,000 307,200 44,800 Reservoir No . 3 3 0 3 1 Cap. (M3) 57,880 300,000 0 2,640,000 128000 No . 4 15 2 14 1 Weir Cap. (M3) 24,000 72,000 32,550 492,000 3,500 14 19 2 14 Stream No. Cap. (M3) 335,750 360,000 32,000 492,000

Source: Irrigation Office, 2007

40

Map 2.7: Drainage Map Showing Water Bodies

Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008 2.5.2 Water Availability for different Water Uses Potable Water As earlier said, the rain is the primary source of potable water in the district. Local people have indigenous knowledge to collect and store the water in rainy season and use it in dry season when water scarcity is on its peak. Mostly the water collected in rainy season is not sufficient for the entire dry season. In the case of shortage the villages receive the water supply from district water supply Authority through respective TAO. However the drinking water is relatively not a major problem in the district. The state of drinking water in all Tambons is shown in below given figure 2.8.

41

Figure2.8: Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water


Tambon wise status of villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water, Khok Charoen District Lopburi Province

11

12

11

1 0 T ambon Khok Charoen

0 Tambon Yang Rak

0 1 Tambon Nong Makha

1 0 Tambon Wong Thong

2 0 Tambon Khok Samesan

Clean Drinking water < 63 % Clean Drinking water > 95%

Clean Drinking water > 63 but < or 90

Source: National Rural Database, 2007 Water for Domestic Usage The availability of water for domestic usages other than drinking is also satisfactory in almost all Tambons and also relatively better than the state of potable water in the district. The village specific data shows that the need for domestic use water is also fulfilled. People relying on village water supply scheme for fulfilling the need for domestic usage. The state of domestic water in all Tambons is shown in figure 2.9. Figure 2.9: Villages with Access to Clean Drinking Water for Domestic Uses
Tambon wise status of Villages with Access to Water for Domestic usage, Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province

12

12

11

0 Tambon Khok Charoen

0 Tambon Yang Rak

0 Tambon W ong Thong

0 1 Tambon Nong Makha

0 Tambon Khok Sames an

< 63 %

> 63 but < or 90

> 95%

Source: National Rural Database, 2007 Water for Agriculture The dry season in the district considerably affects the availability of water for agriculture sector. Due to the scarcity of the water in dry season, the full potential of soil always remains under utilized. It has negative impacts first on the local economy and subsequently on the regional and national economy. The state of agriculture water in different tambons is shown in figure 2.10:
42

Figure 2.10: Villages with Access to Water for Agricultural Purposes


Tambon wise status of villages for Access to Agriculture Water, Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province
0 4 0 2 1 3 2 1 8 7 2 Tambon Khok Charoen Sufficient Tambon Yang Rak 7 3 1 Tambon Nong Makha Tambon Wong Thong 0 Tambon Khok Samesan DNA 3 6 2 0

sufficient in rainy season

Not sufficient for practicing cultivation

Source: National Rural Database, 2007 The water scarcity and shortage in dry season considerably affects agro-economy in all tambons in terms of damage to the crops cultivated. In Tambon Khok Charoen suffers relatively high, since the Tambon is the most active in agricultural activities. The crops having high adverse effects due to shortage of water are cassava where as sugarcane also suffers due to water shortage but the severity is low due to its high water resistant capacity. In order to address the issue of scarcity of water for agriculture sector the government is working on the irrigation project on Pasak River through department of agriculture at regional level. All Tambons of the district are likely to be benefited from this project. It is expected that this project will start providing the services to the area by the end of 2008. 2.5.3 Problems, Constraints, Needs, Potential Problems Water scarcity in all tambons in dry season Poor quality of underground water Potential: The topography ranging from high to low areas provide a cost effective way to build small scale check dams at various medium high slopes and thereafter distribute it through graduate flow 2.6 Forest

2.6.1 Forest Area, Boundary and Encroachment According to Provincial Natural Resource and Environment Office, PawangploengPamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest covers 447,081.25 Rais of land crossing 4 districts namely Chaibadal, Sabot, Khoksamrong and Khokcharoen. Khok Charoen District alone shares a portion of 98,898 Rais of forest area or 49.90 % of total district area. This forest area was encroached by peoples for agricultural cultivation and other purposes at 58,081 Rais or 49.30 % of total forest area, according to data as of 1991. Out of this, 16,922
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Rais of encroached land were granted for farming, and 39, 673 Rais were under the process for giving rights to use for making a living, settlement (by renting) with the condition that reforestation must be accomplished. 1,416 Rais were utilized for roads, reservoirs and other public uses. It is found that a large number of local villagers migrated from other provinces; then they settled down in Khok Charoen District by encroaching forest land for over 30 years. Right now, forest encroachment by local people is minimal; on the other hand particularly in Tambon Khok Samae San, it is reportedly done by outsiders by cutting the trees as well as collecting forest products e.g. mushroom and bamboo shoots. Forest encroachment could be worsened if collective efforts by local community to protect forest area are weak. Map 2.8: Distribution of Land and Forest Resources in Khok Charoen District

Source: RRDP Workshop, 2008 2.6.2 Community Forestry In response to forest reserved area and community forest degradation, local communities have been practicing community forestry. It objectives were to provide basic needs, generate income, and strengthen local capabilities to manage natural resources by raising awareness and fostering right attitude, knowledge, and skills through participatory learning. Three community forestry were promoted in Khok Charoen District. The first two community forestry were set up in 2001 located in Ban Maisriubol at Village number 6 at 500 Rais and in Ban Khaosamyod at Villages number 7 at 650 Rais both in Tambon Khok Samae San. The third one was Yang Rak Community Forestry was launched in 2006.

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Case Study of Tambon Yangrak Community Forestry Yangrak Community Forestry covers an area at 60,625 Rais. This project is noteworthy in terms of its essence as follows: Location: It comprises all 12 communities in Tambon Yangrak Budget: Department of Forestry supported budget for 2006 fiscal year at 800,000 Baht in Villages number 1, 2,3,5,6, while the rest received provincial fund. Objectives: To plant trees along roadsides and increase green area in the community. To plant Eucalyptus in the field for making use at household and supply to paper factory To plant edible trees e.g. labbeck tree, horse Radish tree, classod tree, Indian trumpet flower and gramineae, etc. along irrigation canals and community reservoirs. To plant trees for providing shadow in the educational institutions, temples and government offices as well as cultivating gramineae for food and sale.

Goals: Plant along roadside for 5,000 trees. Plant Eucalyptus in the filed at 50,000 trees/years. Plant bamboo in every household at least 3 trees including encouragement extension for growing bamboo for sale. Plants edible trees along irrigation canals and community reservoirs at 10,000 trees. Educational institutions, temples and government offices have more green areas for using in various activities.

Expected results: Increase forest area along roadside in the community and enhancing greater humidity. Have access to edible trees. Develop as tourist attraction due to presence of a priest center in community. Increase community income by selling Eucalyptus trees which are sellable every 5 year with productivity at 10 Ton/Rai (12,000 Baht/Ton) and contribute some income to community fund. Local communities have access to bamboo products for food. Generate related occupation by selling bamboo seedling.

Lessons Learned This project is of importance in mobilizing community cohesion by jointly planting community forestry. It is found quite successful in providing alternative livelihoods for local villagers, good source of foods, trees for household construction purposes, as well as enhancing pleasant surroundings. This is inline with national forestry policy to promote
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community forestry both in public and private lands. Other Tambons can come and learn how to manage community forestry practice in Tambon Yangrak so that replicability can be enhanced. 2.6.3 Biodiversity Khok Charoen District is not rich of biodiversity. Still, some plant species are found in Pawangploeng-Pamuangkom-Palamnarai National Reserved Forest. This consists of both vegetables and trees namely morning glory, elephant ear, neem tree, lead tree, Burma Padauk, and mahogany. Particularly in rainy season, local villagers will collect vegetables, bamboo shoot, honey and mushroom for food while using valuable trees for household construction purposes. Selling surplus of forest products in the communities is another source of income to local people particularly for the poor. In addition, a wide range of wildlife species were found namely squirrel, rabbits, tree shrew, bullfrog, mongoose, flying lemurs, partridge, palm civet, wild chicken and deer. Local people do not frequently hunt for these types of animal. However, local villagers feel increasing scarce of forest products due to extensive use of forest resources by both local people and outsiders. Likewise low number and species of wildlife were also recognized. Typically the way of local people lives depend very much on forest and local biodiversity. So it is necessary to enhance a richer biodiversity in the community in order to help keep biological balance as well as promoting sustainable natural resources management. 2.6.4 Occurrence of Forest Fire and Forest Conservation Activities Occurrence of forest fire is rare in the area. Local communities are partly capable to handle the incidence. Public agreement among local people of not cutting trees is applied in Tambon Wang Thong which also exists good local initiative in monitoring both forest resources and forest fire. A tambon-wise voluntary group representing 6-8 members from respective villages was formed to patrol local forest and being implemented in Tambon Khok Samae San. Capacity building for natural resources management and forest fire was rendered by Tambon Administration Organizations and relevant district and provincial level offices. This is a good practice. Nevertheless, overall public awareness on forest conservation is low to moderate level. It is then necessary to intensify additional activities including awareness building on forest management among local villagers. 2.6.5 Problems, Potentials and Needs It is recognized among local communities that forest and forest products plays vital role in sustaining their lives being as food bank, household uses, livelihood enhancement and keeping environmental and biological balance. As a result, it is indispensable to overcome its problems, and uphold potentials in order to cater the specific needs of local communities.

Problems/Constraints

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Persisted forest encroachment by outsiders by cutting trees and harvesting bamboo shoots. This has further deteriorated degraded Reserved Forest. Forest vegetables are getting rare. This is due to extensive harvest by both local communities and the outsiders. Disappearance of some wild animals. It is due to the loss of extent of wilderness. Local people expressed low number of wild animals existed. Low public awareness on forest conservation and protection. Some local people do not feel the Reserved Forest belong to them. So they are not aware of likely extent of natural resource degradation.

Potentials Availability of community forestry in Tambons Khok Samae San, and Yang Rak. There are valuable examples of community forestry in these Tambons which can be replicated/ extended to other Tambons. Needs More community forestry should be established so that it can generate alternative source of livelihoods, food bank to local communities, as well as keeping environmental and biological balance. Government should support on seedling for growing community forestry and reforestation. This can be incentive to promote community forestry and reforestation. Wildlife number and species should be maintained and increased in order to maintain biological balance. Public awareness building on forest conservation should be carried out so that local people will hold sense of local ownership of National Reserved Forest. Joint voluntary network of forest monitoring should proactively be set up in all Tambons in order to form as self-help group for enhancing sustainable utilization and protection of natural resources. Minerals

2.7

2.7.1 Types, Location of Mineral Resources and Coverage There are no major mineral deposits found in the district. Therefore, no significant varieties of the mineral resources are available in the district. A few mineral resources like limestone and perlite are available in the district but due to specific soil texture sensitive to rapid soil erosion, the government is not encouraging its commercial utilization. The deposits of the perlites are estimated to 4.86 matric ton and it is found in all tambons of the district. The potential for commercial utilization of limestone only exists in Tambon Khok Chaoren. However perlite is processed and utilized for various purposes but the extent of utilization is very insignificant and limited to local scale exploitation. The minerals and mines have no contribution in the rural economy of the district.

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Figure 2.11: Utilization and Appearance of Perlite

Location There is no exact and reliable data available for location and estimation of available mineral resources in the district. Some idea about the location and stock available are abstracted from the interview with various Tambon officials and local people. Based on that qualitative data and estimation as well as empirical knowledge it reveals that the Perlite deposits are found all Tambons in Koch Chaoren District. In Tambon Yannk Rak, the area of perlite is 244 rai. In Tambon Khok Chaoren and Nong Ma Kaa do not have exact area and stok estimations available for Perlite. In Tambon Khok Samae Sam, the area of perlite is about 40% of the total area of the tambon. The area of perlite in Yambon Wang Thong is about 700 rai. (Source: Loburi Province, Industrial Office and Interviewing by Tambon Administration Staff) 2.7.2 Agriculture Utilization of Perlite The local people use perlite as an important ingredient of their crop fertilizer plan. It is used as a power that is mixed with the fertilizer. The application of perlite is believed to be helpful in improving the soil quality of the land and thereby increasing the agricultural productivity. Due to no major scale extraction and utilization the price mechanism of the resource is not established the prices vary on the basis of the availability of the recourse and the need in particular time. It is also an optional component so many people just skip it and avoid including it as a regular agricultural input. 2.7.3 Problems, Potentials, Needs and Recommendation Problems Poor Soil Texture as an obstacle in extraction of perlite and limestone. No clear usage of the mineral and its valuation has yet been initiated. Potentials The limestone and perlite resource are two potentials for the development of the district. The commercial utilization potential has to face a couple of obstacles as said above. On one hand difficulty in extraction as it is sensitive to land degradation due to poor soil texture and on
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other hand limited market as people the full scale of the utilization of the perlite is also not highlighted. Needs The EIA to highlight the possible Environmental impacts from extraction of perlite and limestone and the ways to minimize these impacts may be carried out. Explore the ways that these resources can be locally utilized to create income and economic opportunities for the district and tambons. Environmental Issues

2.8

Over the past few decades, Thailand's dramatic economic growth has produced new environmental challenges in this once-agrarian society. The country now faces problems with air and water pollution, declining wildlife populations, deforestation, soil erosion, water scarcity, and hazardous waste issues. In case of Khok Charoen district, interviews with concerned governmental officials, observations and interviews and meetings with villagers showed that the air pollution from sugarcane burning is the only one major problems of the area and slid waste is an emerging problem of the area. In case of air pollution, the sources and level of pollution varies in this area and this may be because of low economic growth in the area compared to overall national economic development. The subsequent paragraphs deal with the types of the environmental problems in the area. 2.8.1 Pollution Types and Impacts Air Pollution: Sources and Impacts Air pollution is the only one environmental problem in the area. Sugarcane burning is the major source of air pollution in the Khok Charoen district. Sugarcane is planted in 36757 Rais (18.54% of the total area of the district). The sugarcane burning takes place about fourth months mainly from December to March, so the pollution problem remains during the burning time. Sugarcane burning is taking place in all Tambons. Awareness on impacts of environmental problems like air pollution was its realization was found to be very low among the local people and TAOs officials. The subsequent paragraphs deal with the major impacts of air pollution in the area. Impacts Human Health Respiratory problems : 26.5% visits of the total hospital visits are due to respiratory diseases Skin allergies: 15.2% visits are due to skin allergies From the above dada it can be said that the air pollution due to sugarcane burning have some contribution in the hospital visits. Natural Resources
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Drinking water contamination from fly ash Social Disturbance (food, sales items and customers) in weekly market operation because of fly ash Effects to local residence leading to conflict (Tambon Nang Makha Village number 8 and 1) and some complains to TAO

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Location: Tambon Nang Makha Area coverage of Sugarcane plantation in the district: Sugarcane is planted in 36757 rai which comprise, 18.54% of the total district area Burning period: December to March Reasons behind choosing for case study: The impacts are comparatively higher than in other Tambons This is one of the major environmental pollution (air, drinking water) sources of the district. The severity of the problems caused by this found comparatively higher in this Tambon than other Tambons; so this Tambon has been selected as a case study. This is majorly causing air pollution in the area further leading to health impacts (skim allergies, irritation). During the interview, local people mentioned that it is very difficult for them to move around during the burning period which takes place during December to February. This is also polluting drinking waster, where drinking water through fly ashes is a major problem and have to rely on rainwater during draught period. This has further creating difficulties in business operation (weekly local markets) by polluting the market products and also distracting the customers due irritation. Finally, this has further increased conflicts among local people, especially sugarcane owner and local people near by sugarcane field, because of this; TAO is receiving complaints from the local people. It implies that sugarcane burning is one of the major problems in the area leading to different specific problems. The major impacts of sugarcane burning in the area is depicted as follows Major Impacts and Problems Environmental Impacts- Air pollution Health Impacts (skin allergies, irritation) Drinking water pollution through fly ashes Conflicts among local people and complaints to TAO Business- mobile market- difficulty in operating

Major Lesson Learned:

Provision of compensation for the victimized local people Alternatives for sugarcane burning should be identified; such as using it for preparing manure

Solid Waste: Sources, impacts, collection and management system Since the district is not much economically developed as compared to the countrys economic growth, solid waste generation is very low. So solid waste is not a big problem in the area but an emerging issue since it was observed solid waste near by market areas during the visit, and also the Tambon officials during the interview highlighted it as an emerging issue. Market is seen and recognized as one of the major source of solid waste in the area. When we look its
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status, collection and disposing mechanisms at Tambon level, it varies from Tambon to Tambon. In some TAO have solid waste collection system and disposing system (Nang Makha), in Tambon Khok Charoen they have identified landfill site but lack collection system at present but have future plan to systematize waste Collection system and going to make arrangement for vehicles for collection. Open burning is vey common as a solid waste handling mechanism in almost of the Tambons. Solid Waste Management System Only TAO of Nang Makha has solid waste collection system and they are practicing open burning far away from the villages by TAO. In case of other Tambons, they do not have collection system and open burning is being practiced as solid waste disposing system. In many of the Tambons, there is practice of open burning of solid waste. Though this is not posing any serious problems at present but likely to have major impacts on health of local people and environment in long run. So there is need to be addressed the issue from the initial phase. 2.8.2 Peoples Awareness on Environmental Issues Peoples awareness on environmental problem found to be very low among the local people and Tambon officials in all Tambons. The criterias used for measuring the awareness level was whether they realize that there are some environmental problems, if yes, then whether they are taking precautions or curative measures for that and whether the local TAO officials have taken some prevention and or curative initiatives for the reduction of environmental problems. The reasons behind low awareness might be because of low level of pollution, low population and low severity of pollution impacts in the area. 2.8.3 Problems, Potentials and Needs Problems Air pollution due to open sugarcane burning is prevailing in all Tambon, with impacts on human health, polluting drinking water, conflicts among the local people and creating disturbance in operation of weekly markets. Lack of awareness on environmental pollution among the local people and Tambon officials Though solid waste is an emerging problem in the area, all Tambons except Nang Makha lack solid waste collection and deposing mechanism and except Tambon Khok Charoen, all other Tambons lack landfill site Extensive use of pesticide is causing degraded soil fertility and spillover of pesticide affecting the physical growth and productivity of fruits and vegetables; like papaya

Constraints Though the district is experiencing some pollution problems and like to have increased pollution level in the days to come, TAOs have inadequate pollution control mechanisms and awareness raising programs
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Lack of availability of data on national database on ((NRD 2C, BMN) environmental problems further constraints to get the real picture of the environmental pollution

Needs Data on environmental pollution is of great need in order to get the real picture of the pollution level in the area Awareness of environmental problems among the local people and TAO officials which will further help to take preventive measures for pollution control In order to prevent and make the pollution control cost effective, there is great need of introduction of proper solid waste collection and handling mechanisms Strict pollution control policies should be endorsed to prevent pollution in future with the growth of industries Relevant Government Policies and Strategies on NRE

2.9

National policies on Natural Resources and Environment stated in the Policy Statement of the Council of Minister (January 2008), Sub-national level strategies issued by Natural Resources and Environment Office, district level strategies and Tambon level strategies are analyzed. The analysis is based on the following criterias: how well the national policies have addressed the protection, conservation and management aspects of NRE sector how well those national policy are reflected in the sub-national level strategies how well the programs at local level are developed in line with policies to address the problems at the local level Natural Resources (Soil, Water, Land, Forest) and Environment (NRE) policies are analyzed except mineral policy since there is no policies on mineral. The policy analysis has been carried out in two phases; firstly sub-sector wise policies were analyzed and then the overall status of the problems was analyzed. 2.9.1 Soil Policies Conserve soil and forestry by ending illegal farm-burning and topsoil destruction; reducing chemical use in agriculture; rehabilitating soil and preventing soil degradation by planting vetiver grass Strategies To promote organic farming by using manure and reducing chemical substance To campaign farmer to reduce burning stump To educate farmers regarding soil conservation To convince farmers participate in decision-making of land use regarding its capacity

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Programs Small scale soil erosion control project through vetiver plantation only in some Tambon (Nang makha- approximately 200 Rais) Soil doctor project supported by land development department one doctor each village headed by one tabmon level doctor.

Local level soil related problems Sugarcane burning widely prevalent in all Tambons Extensive use of chemical fertilizer Soil erosion Poor quality of soil

Policy and Program Analysis The policy and strategies have adequately addressed the major aspects of soil; but district level strategies and tambon plan has not addressed it well. In addition, but there is still lack of adequate programs in line with the policy and strategies; like educate farmers regarding soil conservation measures/strategies; campaigning for reducing burning stump, promoting organic farming by using manure and reducing chemical substance; because, soil erosion and extensive use of chemical fertilizer are widely prevalent in the area and recognized as major problems. In addition, National policy has recognized farm burning as illegal but it is widely prevalent in all Tambons so it need effective law enforcement. Alternative Sugarcane residues and other vegetable residues can be utilized to prepare organic manure; which will have three benefits; higher price for sugarcane, reduction in pollution and reducing use of chemical fertilizer. Since there is lack of sufficient data it need further research on its cost effectiveness. 2.9.2 Forest Policies Conserving and protecting mature forest; supporting forestation and forest rehabilitation in accordance; supporting establishment of community forests; growing economic timber in suitable areas as determined by academic research Strategies To promote reforestation for rehabilitation of upstream forest economic forest, community forest, village forest and other afforestation in private and public land To campaigns, training and provide education about forest and wildlife conservation including forest fire protection to youth student and general population To promote public participation by developing volunteer network

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Programs Existence of three community forestry in three Tambons Plantation program- on the day of Kings birthday; but not intensive reforestation programs Voluntary group at Tambon level engaged in patrolling of forest resources

Local Level Problems Increasing forest encroachment and clearance Low public awareness on forest conservation and protection

Policy and Program Analysis The policy and strategy on forest have well addressed the local level forest related problems; but since the forest encroachment and clearance are high, campaigns for awareness raising, and trainings for capacity building, forest reforestation programs are needed to be intensified as the scope of these activities are found to be very limited. In addition, the policies and strategies are in favor of growing forest with economic value and expand them in public and private land; but in reality programs on growing economic timber in suitable areas and including private and public land as are lacking. So these need to be addressed in the near future. 2.9.3 Water National Policies Provincial Level Strategies to develop water source for village facing water shortage for their consumption by improving natural source and water supply system both surface and underground water to educate and enhance public participation regarding water management in water shortage area, moreover, consult and transfer technology of water supply improvement in sub-district level Sufficient water resources to meet local demand Provisioning and developing water sources for agriculture

Promoting community roles in water resource management

District Level Strategies Tambon Level Strategies

Programs Irrigation Water Supply Pipeline Project Problems Shortage of water for agricultural purposes in dry seasons Policy and Program Analysis
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National Policy is silent on making availability of drinking water and water for agricultural purposes at local level though peoples participation in water management has been prioritized. Provincial and district level strategies have adequately addressed the drinking water issue but not for the agricultural purposes. Programs to address the water shortage during dry season especially for agriculture, one of the major problems, are still inadequate. 2.9.4 Land Policies Fairly distributing ownership and managing

Strategies land No

District Level Strategies

Local people equitably have land title

Programs Land reform is taking place in one tambon among the five tambons Problems Lack of land title Policy and Program Analysis Sub-national strategies have not addressed the land issue but national and district level strategies have adequately addressed the issue. Land reform is ongoing only in one tambon and there is no reform policy for other remaining tambons. Since the problem of lack of land title for many people and landless is in existence in the area, there is need to address these issues. 2.9.5 Environmental Pollution and Awareness Policies Strategies Implement an environment-friendly waste disposal system, and increase the capacity of local administrative authorities regarding waste disposal and wastewater treatment Raise environmental awareness Air Pollution To enhance understanding in order to prevent and protect from air pollution Solid waste To promote 3R project To promote community clustering for solid waste management. To increase effectiveness of local community for solid waste management including collection, transfer and disposal

Programs
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No environmental awareness raising programs and waste management programs Tambon level

at

Problems Lack of awareness on environmental problems among local people and TAO Officials Lack of solid waste collection and management system in almost all Tambons Policy and Programs Gaps National policy has adequately addressed the awareness on environmental pollution and solid waste management system which is one of the emerging issues in the area, the local people participation has been emphasized in the strategies. But programs to address the issues are not conducted in the local area. Indeed, lack of awareness on environmental problems among the local people and TAO officials is one of the major problems in the area and lack of solid waste collection and management system in almost all Tambons also been recognized as a problem.

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Table 2.6: Overall Policies of Natural Resources and Environment Sector

National Level Policies

Provincial Level Strategies

District Level Strategies Sufficient water resources to meet local demand Local people equitably have land title

Tambon Level Strategies Provisioning and developing water sources for agriculture Building awareness in natural resources and environmental management Develop clean environment with proper management of solid waste

Programs/Projects/Local Initiatives

Implement an environmentfriendly waste disposal system, and increase the capacity of local administrative authorities regarding waste disposal and wastewater treatment Raise environmental awareness Conserve soil and forestry by ending illegal farm-burning and topsoil destruction; reducing chemical use in agriculture; rehabilitating soil and preventing soil degradation by planting vetiver grass Conserving and protecting mature forest; supporting forestation and forest rehabilitation in accordance; supporting establishment of community

Soil To promote organic farming by using manure and reducing chemical substance To campaign farmer to reduce burning stump To educate farmers regarding soil conservation To convince farmers participate in decision-making of land use regarding its capacity Forest To promote reforestation for rehabilitation of upstream forest economic forest, community forest, village forest and other afforestation in private and public land To campaigns, training and provide education about forest and wildlife conservation including forest fire protection to youth student and general population

Small scale soil erosion control project through vetiver plantation only in some Tambon (Nong makha- approximately 200 Rais) Soil doctor project supported by land development department one doctor each village headed by one Tabmon level doctor. Land reform is taking place in one Tambon among the five Tambons

Existence of three community forestry in three Tambons Plantation program- on the day of Kings birthday; but not intensive reforestation programs

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Voluntary group at Tambon level

forests; growing economic timber in suitable areas as determined by academic research Fairly distributing and managing land ownership

To promote public participation by developing volunteer network Water To develop water source for village facing water shortage for their consumption by improving natural source and water supply system both surface and underground water To educate and enhance public participation regarding water management in water shortage area, moreover, consult and transfer technology of water supply improvement in sub-district level Land is NA Air Pollution To enhance understanding in order to prevent and protect impact from air pollution Solid waste To promote 3R project To promote community clustering for solid waste management. To increase effectiveness of local community for solid waste management including collection, transfer and disposal
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engaged in patrolling of forest resources No environmental awareness raising programs and waste management programs at Tambon level

2.9.10 Overall Analysis of the policies and Programs There is close link between national and provincial level policies on natural resources and environment sector. It means that comprehensive policy framework is already in existence. At provincial level, well articulation of strategies to manage natural resources and environmental quality has been done. However, there is a weak linkage of policies between provincial and district levels may be primarily due to lack of technical expertise and budget. This has resulted in somewhat loose coordination (gaps) for substantial natural resources development and their management. Increasingly, TAOs have realized its own local problems and needs by initiating strategies and plans and projects to respond such varied needs. It optimistically viewed that the TAOs are undertaking their task of planning and programming in a right way though they are existing in the place since only few years. It can now be seen functioning to serve its own people needs. But still there is a huge gap between policies and programs at local level. In conclusion, policies and strategies have adequately addressed the local level problems in the NRE sector; but there are inadequate numbers of programs to address the problems. So there is immediate need to develop programs which adequately address the problems existing in the area.

2.10 Sectoral Analyses and Interrelation of Key Issues Natural resources and environmental degradation appears to be the Major problem of the sector, the root- cause such degradation is lack of environmental awareness among local people and Tambon officials. This apparently simple cause and relation has indeed complex inter and intra sectoral cause and effects linkages which finally results in overall environmental and resources degradation. The methodology for problem analysis consisted of two steps. In first step a preliminary list containing 26 problems corresponding to the NRE sector were highlighted in khok charoen district. The list of preliminary problem was then analyzed for the duplication and prioritization where finally it was shortlisted for 13 problems. Most of them were both cause and effect. Each effect further led to a problem extending to result in the main problem of the district. Thus the team developed a matrix to find out cause and effect relationship among the problem. The subjective evaluation of these relations enabled to rank and prioritize the list of problems were supposed to have maximum impact therefore should be addressed first. The environmental awareness was the major problem that was given the first priority, soil erosion, water pollution and inadequate number and capacity of water reservoirs were ranked as second priority while lack of land title, landlessness, low involvement of people in forest conservation and protection activities, poor soil quality were ranked as third priority. However each problem in itself is a significant entity that needs individual attention. Once addressed from all aspect only, the major problem can be dealt in sustainable manner.
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The exercise of problem analysis was then presented as a loop or flow diagram giving a visual representation of direct as well as indirect relationship among cause and effect. Some extra problems from other sectors of the study were also recalled to complete the cycle of the problem. The diagram provides a complete picture of cause and effects. However it is not close in itself there are many linkages which can be developed among other sectors of the district.

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2.10.1 Summary of Sectoral Problems, Constraints, Potentials and Needs Problems/ Constraints Potentials Needs Soil, Topography and Climate Problems Poor quality of soil Soil erosion Flooding Constraints Mismatch between soil suitability and existing cultivation practices Lack knowledge on soil conservation Land Problems Lack of land title Constraints Non existence of policy on land reform Land owners do not pay land tax Misperception on noncommercial value of land reform certificate to use for borrowing loan from BAAC Water Problems Shortage of drinking water and agricultural purposes during dry season Inadequate rain water storage capacity Soil suitable for upland crops like sugarcane and cassava Soil doctor project is working at village level where a volunteer at village level provides technical assistance regarding soil problems Awareness raising among the local people regarding impacts of extensive use of chemical fertilizer and encourage them on use of bio fertilizer. The public involvement in soil reclamation activities and land use planning Establishment of local level soil erosion and flood control initiatives

Land reform have been successfully implemented in Tambon Khok Samae San Agricultural water supply pipeline project to serve Khok Charoen District particularly in Tambon Khok Charoen

Land title Land reform in Tambon Yang Rak

The topography ranging from high to low areas provide a cost effective way to build small scale check dams at various medium high slopes and thereafter distribute it through graduate flow Indigenous knowledge on storage of rainwater and its perverseness for uses during dry seasons

Water quality testing of rainwater Sufficient rain water storage Efficient and round year irrigation system

Forest Problems Forest encroachment clearance and Availability of community forestry in Tambon Khok
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More community forests to be established

Low public awareness on forest conservation and protection

Samae San, Wang Thong, and Yang Rak

Increase public awareness on forest conservation and protection Government supports for the growth of community forestry and reforestation Joint voluntary network of forest monitoring should be set up and intensified

Environment Problems Air pollution by sugarcane burning Lack of awareness on environmental pollution among the local people and Tambon Officials Constraints Lack of availability of data on national database on (NRD 2C, BMN) environmental problems further constraints to get the real picture of the environmental pollution 2.10.2 Conclusion The livelihood of local communities in Khok Charoen District relied heavily on availability of natural resources. Local people both utilize potential natural resources for sustaining their lives and enhancing agricultural productivity which is the main occupation of local people. However rapid population growth and increasing agricultural intensity have driven interrelationship between local people and environment become complex putting high pressure on natural resources ranging from poor soil quality, soil erosion, forest encroachment, lack of land title and landlessness. Likewise increasing agricultural and household activities have brought about environmental pollution; like air pollution from sugarcane burning, solid waste, and impacts of extensive chemical uses to human and environment. These activities have partly posed health threat to local people due to lack of awareness. Apart from the problems, the district has also sufficient potentials. Availability of community forestry and successful implementation and probability of its promotion in other Tambons, topographical advantages which can lead to storage of high water and solve the problem of water shortage and promote agricultural productivity and existence of favorable national, provincial and district level policies are some of the potentials of the sector. But these potentials are not fully harnessed.
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Severity of environment pollution is low; so it could be managed even with less efforts which will further prevent pollution in future.

Increase awareness on environmental problems among the local people and Tambon officials Provision of pollution control and waste handling mechanisms in all Tambons

There exist favorable policies and plans at national, provincial, district and tambon levels to address the local problems, there is gap in design and implementation of programs as per the need of local problems. Programs utilizing the potentials and solving the problems of the area should be designed and implemented which need effective coordination among the provincial, district and local level governments of the area. 2.10.3 Recommendations Based on above findings and conclusion, some relevant recommendations are made as follows: General Recommendation Public intervention, public involvement and integrated natural resources management practices at both district and Tambon levels are required to ensure that local livelihood activities will be making use of natural resources in a sustainable manner. Specific Recommendations Soil Increased use of organic fertilizer in agricultural farm should be promoted Extensive use of vetiver grass plantation at the high slope areas should be promoted Land Land Reform measure should be supported in Tambon Yank Rak. Additional land reform activities should also be executed in Tambon Khok Charoen in order to prepare the land for taking advantage of the implementation of Irrigation Water Supply Project originating from Pasak Cholasit Dam and ending in Tambon Khok Charoen. This will be exercised based on the needs of local people and resource potential so that optimum benefits and equitable distribution of the land can be realized Lack of land title has been seen as major problem so it need to addressed adequately from national level

Mineral Resource Right usefulness of Perlite mineral should be disseminated to local villagers as well as conducting a research on coverage, quantity of its reserve in order to promote as ingredient for making organic fertilizer and if possible to promote larger scale industrial production

Water Immediate action should be taken to solve the problem of water stortage during the dry season Forest
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More community forestry should be expanded in other areas e.g. in Tambon Wang Thong Tambon Nong Makha, Tambon Khok Charoen so that it can become alternative source of livelihoods, being local food bank, as well as maintaining environmental and biological balance in local communities. Government supports on seedling for growing community forestry and reforestation activities should be provided Market place and market channel for community forestry products should be in place Measures and actions on maintaining wildlife numbers and species should be streamlined in all Tambons Measures and actions on building public awareness for forest conservation should be carried out in all Tambons Joint voluntary network of monitoring forest area should be set up in Tambon Yangrak, Tambon Nong Makha

Environmental Management Awareness raising campaigns should be launched in order to make people and Tambon officials aware on prevailing pollution impacts and as well as to minimize the possible threats from future environmental problems. Stringent measures on controlling and management of sugarcane burning activities should proactively be adopted. In addition, innovative techniques to clear the sugarcane filed should be sought e.g. using sugarcane leaf as compost manure. In addition, preventive measures for protecting environment should be made. Solid waste is an emerging issue in the district. Therefore, all the TAOs should establish the solid waste collection and disposal system or applying clustering of disposal facilities in the district.

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CHAPTER III AGRICULTURE SECTOR Introduction

Khok Charoen is a one district of Lopburi Province lies in the northern part of it. This district Khok Charoen has five Tambons and it covers in total 1980000 rai of land of which nearly 90 percent is utilized by agriculture activities. Out of 7142, nearly 5189 families are involved in agriculture for their livelihood. Both upland and lowland crops are cultivating in this area. Paddy, maize, sugarcane and cassava are the major agricultural crops. In addition, livestock rearing is the second major sources of income of the people living in the area. Agriculture land and land holding size are different from one Tambon to another. Tambon Wang Thong has the highest land holding size among the Tambons.

District and Tambon Administration Office, District Agriculture Development Office, Agriculture Extension Office and Agriculture Technology Transfer Center are the major institutions supporting farmers for agriculture and livestock development activities.

Formal and informal both kinds of financial sources are available in the district. Bank of Agriculture and Agriculture Cooperative, Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Fund are the formal sources of financial services while sugarcane factory and some middle men also provide loan to its respective client farmers.

3.1 Land for agriculture

3.1.1 Land Use Land use classification is originally divided by land for agriculture and other areas for mountain, hilly area, and water source area. It is observed that the land of this district has been occupied by all sorts of resources. The data shows that 89% of the total land is used for agriculture purpose while for the mountain or forest purpose is 11%. Most of the area of Khok Charoen District is mountain area. The table 3.1 gives the land utilization scenario of the Khok Charoen district. The land use is presented in Figure 3.1. Figure 3.1 Land Use

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Source: Land District Department 2007 3.1.2 Land Ownership

In Khok Charoen district, 176,134 rai is the agricultural land and 5189 number of households is engaged with agricultural occupation. 33.94 percent of average agriculture land holding size has been consisted of the whole Khok Charoen District. In Tambon Khok Charoen 27% of the total households have agriculture as the main occupation for their livelihood. In Tambon Yan Rak 31% of households are involved in agriculture sector while in Tambon Nong Makha has 18 percent of household are working in agricultural sector and Tambon Khok Samae San 13% of agricultural households and Tambon Wang Tong 11 % respectively. It is clear that Tambon Nong Makha has the highest level of land holding size 69 percent and mostly cultivated crops are upland crops. The cultivation area is very low and only 1% of Tambon Nong Makha has consisted of low land area and cultivated area for paddy is 430 rai. Hence, we can see that Tambon Wong Tong has the very minimum of total cultivated area and number of land holding size for households is also the lowest level in this Khok Charoen District. 92 percent of upland crops area has consisted of this Tambon Wang Tong.

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Table 3.1: Total cultivable agricultural land, households and average land holding size Total Cultivated area (rai) Tambon Area Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Khok Samae San Wang Tong Total 45,203 29,970 64,619 22,421 13,921 176,134 % 26 17 36 13 8 100 No. of Agri H/H 1,394 1,634 925 649 578 5189 % No. of Households Average Land Holding Size (rai)

27 31 18 13 11 100

32.43 18.34 69.86 33.55 24.08 33.94

Source: Agricultural District Office 2007 3.1.3 Agricultural Land Use Pattern In Khok Charoen District, with the total area of 198,212.05 rai, most of land is agricultural land i.e. 176,134 rai, and the rest 22,078.05 is others area like mountain and hilly area. 5,189 agricultural households out of 6,457 total households were involved and it belonged to 80.36 % of total household. Table 3.2: Land area and percentage of land occupied by agriculture and others SN 1 2 Description Agriculture Land area (rai) 176,134.00 %age land coverage 89% 11% 100

Others (mountain, hilly area, water 22,078.05 source) Total 198,212.05

Source: Land Department District Office 2007 According to the land use pattern by Tambon, it is clear that Tambon Khok Charoen has the highest agricultural land use area and Tambon Khok Samae San has the lowest agricultural land used area. Land Use by Tambon Wise is presented by Table 3.3

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Table 3.3: Agricultural Land Use by Tambon Wise Land Use by Tambon Khok Charoen Khok Samesan Nong Makha Yang Rak Wang Tong Total Land Area Land Area (rai) 45,573 26,463 69,268 41075 15,833 198,212 Agricultural Area (rai) 45,203 22,421 64,619 29,970 13,921 176,134 Percentage of Agri-land use 99.19 72.96 93.29 84.73 87.92 89

Although the main career of Khock Charoen District is Agriculture but due to the insufficient of water for agriculture, there must have solution in order to have availability of sufficient of water. Present status of land utilization is shown by figure 3.2. Figure 3.2: Upland and low land crop area
Upland and Low Land Crop Area (rai)

38% Rice Area Upland 62%

Source: Land District Office 2007 The land occupied by agriculture is mostly covered by upland crops in the district. Upland and low land crops cover nearly 62% and only 38% of the agriculture land respectively. The major upland crops cultivated in this area are sugarcane, maize and cassava while paddy is recognized as the low land crops. Vegetables constitute very low coverage of the land i.e. 0.01%. The distribution of agriculture land and its size and the land covered by different agriculture crops according to Tambon is given below in table 3.4

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Table 3.4: Upland and Lowland Crop by Tambon Wise

Tambon Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Khok Samae San Wong Tong

Up Land Crop by % 54 27 99 26 92

Low Land Crop by % 46 73 1 74 8

Source: Agriculture land use office 2007

Figure 3.3: Upland and Low land crop by Tambon

Upland and Lowland Crop by Tambon


99 92

73
54

74

46
27 26 Up Land Crop by %

8 1
C ha ro en Ya ng R ak No ng M Kh ak ha ok Sa m ae Sa n W on g To ng

Low Land Crop by %

Source: Land District Office, 2007


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Kh ok

Figure 3.4: Agricultural land use by Tambon

The above mentioned upland and lowland cropping pattern, Tambon Nong Makha has the highest level of upland crop area 99% and second largest of upland crop area is Tambon Wong Tong which has 92%. Tambon Khok Samae San has the lowest upland crop area which is 26% respectively. Lowland crop area, Tambon Khok Samae San has the highest level of 74% and followed by Tambon Yang Rak 73%. Tambon Nong Makha has only 1% of lowland crop area. Different types of crops have been cultivated in different area according to the diverse nature of topographical and climatically conditions of the area. Two types of land reclamation schemes are conducted in Thailand for the agricultural land namely Up land and Lowland area. Lowland Area is suitable for rice cultivation and other crops such as vegetables and orchards. In addition to this there has not sufficient water especially in dry season so where paddy cultivation is not feasible. The above figure shows that paddy plantation is only 65,212 rai out of 176,134 rai of agriculture land area. In upland area, four major crops are mostly cultivated in this region such as Sugarcane, Cassava, and Maize. Moreover, the characteristic of this district is mostly upland area so that the main crops such as maize, cassava, and sugarcane become major crops. However, insufficient of water for paddy plantation and betterment of income for sugarcane plantation, many farmers of the area practice shifting cultivation paddy to sugarcane.
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3.2 Soil for agriculture 3.2.1 Soil type and fertility In Khok Charoen district, the structure of land is not good. Due to porous structure of soil the water holding capacity of land is poor but if we see the presence of nutrients is the soil, it looks suitable for agriculture. All kinds of major crops are being cultivated in this district. Actually success of crop depends on abiotic, biotic and economic factors. Deficiency or poor management of any one of these factors would directly affect the performance of crop and income level of farmers. Table: 3.5: Factors affecting crop performance and suitability Biotic (pathogens + parasites + beneficial organisms + genetic variation)

Abiotic (climate + soils)

Economic (market + political + cultural)

Climate Annual precipitation* Growing days* Daily air temperatures* Winter minimum temperature* Solar intensity Light duration Daily precipitation Soil temperature

Soil Texture* Drainage* pH* Capital farmers have, (1) Beneficial and harmful organisms such Supply, demand, seed as insects, fungi and supply laws, bacteria. government policy and (2) Genetic variation social acceptance, within a crop. marketing channels, infrastructure, proper prices.

Depth, Cat ion Exchange, Water holding Capacity, Fertility, Organic matter

If soil texture is poor it does not mean soil is barren. Soil fertility is another factor which confines presence of sufficient level of macro and micro nutrients in the soil. Organic matter is another factor with especially related to fertility and water holding capacity of soil. Greater the level of organic matter in the soil, greater will be its fertility level and water holding capacity. If we say soil quality is poor, it means soil texture and structure is poor due to slow weathering process or excessive erosion of soil. In Khok Charoen district soil quality is poor but fertility level is good that is why crop production level is also satisfactory. A good soil quality can add more to production of crops by increasing its water holding capacity and saving the soil from intensive leach down of soil nutrients. During field visit soil
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characteristics were observed practically. Soil of district is easy for tillage practices due to poor cohesion of particles. It happens where soil is silt loam or sandy loam. But there is also an advantage of these kinds of soils that percolation level is so good. During study in Khok Charoen district following aspects were observed. Table: 3.6: General Soil Observation Khok Charoen Soil Type Silt loam Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San Silt loam

Yang Rak Sandy loam Poor Medium Poor

Fine sandy Silt loam loam Poor Good Poor Medium Good Medium

Soil quality/ texture Soil fertility W. H. C.

Medium Good Medium

Medium Medium Medium

Source: Primary Data (farmers, TAO and observation in fields) These are the general observations which were noted during visit to fields. It is the picture of sample area which we targeted. It does not mean the entire area of each Tambon is the same; there is great variation in soil structure of all five Tambons. It was just perception before data analysis.

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Table: 3.7: Soil Fertility Analysis Khok Charoen Nong Makha no. of villa ges % 3 25 Wang Thong no. of villa ges % 3 Khok District Samae San Level no. of villa ges % no. of villa ges % 22.64

Yang Rak

no. no. of of fertility village villa Indicator level s % ges % Low 0 0 3 25

33.33 3

37.5 12

Mediu m 0 SOIL QUALIT Y Good

33.33 2

16.67 0

12.5 7

13.21

12

10 0 5 10 0 12

41.67 7

58.33 6

66.67 4

50

34

64.15

TOTAL

12

100

12

100

100

100 53

100

(Source: NRD-2C Data, 2007) Data analysis show that over all fertility level of all five Tambons (Khok Charoen, Yang Rak, Nong Makha, Wang Thong and Khok Samae San) is 64.14% (falls in good category). Only 22.64% soil is of low fertility level, it means that 22.64% soil is not fertile for agriculture. 13.21% soil is of medium quality.The best soil as for as fertility is concerned is of Tambon Khok Charoen which is 100% of good fertility level. Yang Rak is having the lowest fertility level of soil with 41.67%. Its 33.33% soil is with medium fertility level, which shows that 33.33% soil is also have potential for agriculture if proper soil management practices (manures, compost, fertilizers and other organic matter addition) are carried out. Even soil with very low fertility level can also be manageable for agriculture. In Nong Makha Tambon 58.33% soil is good, 16.67% is medium and 25% is with low fertility. Wang Thong Tambon is having 66.67% good soil and 33.33% soil is with low fertility level. In Khok Samae San 50% soil is good, 12.5% is medium and 37.5% is with low fertility. Here again it is necessary to mention that fertility is not the only determinant of high productivity, there are other factors also which collectively determines the performance of crop as expounded in table 3.5.

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Figure: 3.5: Soil Fertility Level


S oil Fertility L evel
37.5 33.33 12.5 50 K ho k Samae San Wan g Tho ng 25 N on gM akha Y an gR ak K hok C haro en 0 0 20 40 Low

66.67

0 16.67 33.33

58.33 41.67

3.2.2 Soil suitability for crop Practically the farmers are cultivating paddy, sugar cane, maize, millet, green bean, black sesame, sunflower, cotton, cassava, peanut, egg plant and some vegetables. Sugar cane, sunflower, cassava, paddy and maize are being cultivated as major crops but the soil is more suitable for horticultural crops (fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants). If these horticultural crops are given due weight, the benefits of the farmers would increase because multi-cropping and inter-cropping will be flexible. More significant point is that soil is suitable for horticultural crops because these crops consumes less water so low water holding capacity of soil would not jolt the yield. More specifically speaking soil of district is suitable for citrus, guava, sugar beet, lady finger and brinjal besides major agronomical crops (sugarcane, cassava, maize, cotton, paddy etc). Structure of soil has been perished my erosion in this district but fertility shows that soil is still very suitable for agricultural practices. One point should be clear that if erosion disturbs the upland area structure, same time it would be contributing to the improvement of soil structure in lowland area. Water erodes fine particles (mostly enriched with soil nutrients) of soil from upper land and adds them into the soil of lower lands. Other possibility is that fertile particles in water remains with water, when this stored water is used for agriculture that time these particles will be added to crop field. Water runoff destroys soil structure in one area and improves it in other areas at the same time.

25

tt

Lev el (in Percentage) M edium G ood

100 60 80 100 120

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3.3 Water resources 3.3.1 Source of water for agriculture The agriculture sector is highly dependent on rain. So we can say district is having more rainfed agriculture rather than irrigated. The irrigation system is not well defined in the district Khok Charoen (majestic reservoirs, canals, distributaries, minors, water channels etc. are limbs of good and well defined irrigation system); there are small storage hubs and water courses which are all about irrigation system mostly in this district. Water is mostly available from ponds, Reservoirs (small), weirs, and streams for irrigation. The ratio of this available water to actual water required by crops is very low. So the dependency on rain is inevitable. Table: 3.8: Available water storage resources Pond Reservoir Weir Cap. (Cubic Meter) Stream Total %age of Cap. Capacity total (Cubic (Cubic cap. Meter) Meter)

Cap. Cap. (Cubic (Cubic TAMBONS No. Meter) No. Meter) Khok Charoen Yang Rak

No.

No.

19 80,000

57,880 300,000 0 360,000

4 15 10 14

24,000 72,000 52,550 132,000

14 19 2 3

335,750 497630 360,000 837000 32,000 60,000 204550 559600

21.35 35.92 8.78 24.02

22 105,000 3

Nong Makha 12 120,000 0 Wang Thong 19 Khok Samae San Total 7,600 3

44,800

128,000

4 47

13,500 294,050

3 41

45,000

231300

9.93 100

64 357,400 10 845,880

832,750 2330080

Data source: DAO, TAO (secondary data) In district Khok Charoen there are total number of 64 ponds, 10 reservoirs, 47 weirs and 41 streams. The total water storage capacity of these resources is 2330080 Cubic Meter. Out of total stored water resources 21.35% is being stored in Khok Charoen Tambon, 35.92% in Yang Rak, 8.78% in Nong Makha, 24.02% in Wang Thong and 9.93% in Khok Samae San.

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Figure 3.6: Tambon wise percentage of total water storage capacity

Tambon wise percentage of total water storage capacity

9.93

21.35 Khok Charoen

24.02

Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San

8.78

35.92

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Map 3.1: Distribution of Water Resources

DISTRIBUTION OF WATER RESERVIOR

Phai Sali District Nakhorn Saman Province Tambon Nong Makha


Water reservoir

Si Thep District Phetchaboon Province

Tambon Wang Thong Tambon Yang Rak

Tambon Khok Charoen

Tambon Khok Samae San 83


Nong Muang District Sa Bot District

If we see the available agriculture land in Tambons are water resources available for agriculture (these resources are mainly for agriculture), the following picture will appear. (See table 3.9) Table 3.9: Situation of cultivable area and available stored water resources TAMBON Cultivable Area (Rai) 45937 38449 52246 15276 % of Cultivable Total Stored Water Resources (% of total in district) 21.35 35.92 8.78 24.02 9.93 100

Area 26 22 29 9 14 100

Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong

Khok Samae San 24226 Total 176134

Data source: DAO, TAO (secondary data) 1) Khok Charoen Tambon is having 26% of total cultivable land of district but it has 21.35% of total stored water resources of the district. Yang Rak has 22% of total cultivable land of district but it has 35.92% share in water resources. 2) Nong Makha has 29% share of cultivable land but the stored water resources are only 8.78%. Wang Thong has only 9% of share of cultivable land but available water resources are 24.02%. It is quite interesting that Wang Thong should have more water resources to manage its available agriculture land. 3) Distribution of water resources is not according to the cultivable land of Tambons. 4) If we see the map of district, the reservoirs are not equally scattered in the district. For example southern part of Yang Rak, western and eastern parts of Nong Makha and southern part of Khok Samae San should have more reservoirs to irrigate the cultivable land.

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Figure 3.7: Comparison of cultivable land and water resources


C o m pariso n of C ultivab le lan d&W ater reso urc es (Ta m bo nw is e)
1 2 0 P e r c e n t a g e 1 0 0 8 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 3 5 .9 2 2 9 2 6 2 2 1 .3 52 8 .7 8 2 4 .0 2 1 4 9 .9 3 9

1 0 1 0 0 0 %o f cu tiv a b le la n do f d istrict T o ta l sto re dw a te r re so u rce s (%o f to ta l in d istrict)

K h o k C h a ro e n

Y a n g R a k N o n g M a k h a W a n g T K h h o o n k g S a m a e S a n

Ta m b o n s

3.3.2 Management aspects of water user groups Water Management: a case study on water users organization This case study is on water users group based in village number 6, Tambon Khok Samae San (district Khok Charoen). This village is situated in hilly area and its population size is 50 households (average 3-4 person per household). Background 24 years ago, first proper irrigation system was developed by forming a water user organization (WUO) comprising initially 150 members (currently 220) aiming to construct a small weir. The Irrigation Department invested an amount of 4 millions Baht to construct water weir of capacity 3500 cubic meter. To improve further water resources, the amount of 21 million Baht was invested in 2001 to construct water reservoir. This reservoir was unpaved (earthen). The both structures weir and Reservoir serve seasonally whenever water is collected in these. Rain is the main source to collect water. Weir irrigates 20 Rai/member, and reservoir can serve 5000 Rai of paddy during rainy season. The system is now serving whole Tambon 6 villages; (Village No. 2, No.3, No. 4, No. 5 No. 6 and No.7).

T o ta l

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Map 3.2: Showing water reservoir in the study district

Objectives l To provide adequate water for agriculture through proper irrigation system to increase crop yield. l To support the need of water for rearing livestock in the project area. l To fulfill the needs of water for domestic use. l To increase over all income and livelihoods of the Tambon. Water Management The irrigated area is divided than the farmers at the head. zones. Water is allocated on second Reservoir, the area is hrs (2days/2nights). Maintenance According to the decision of the organization (WUO) /Irrigation Department, maintenance costing: l Less then 500 baht will be done on individual basis.
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into zones considering that tail-enders will get water first For Weir and the first Reservoir, the area is divided into 5 1day/1night formula basis (24 hrs) for each zone. For the divided into 10 zones and each zone receives water for 48

l 501 5000 baht will be done by WUO collectively. The Total cost will be divided per household. l More then 5000 baht will be requested through Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) to Irrigation Department. Paddy is the major agricultural crop grown in the project area. Paddy is grown at lowland while Cassava is cultivated on highland of the area. Rearing of livestock is only for purpose of beef. Limited fish farming (due to unavailability of water in dry season and also after harvesting in April). Outputs More than 5000 Rai rain-fed land is now possible to be irrigated. At least the amount of 2,500 metric ton of paddy is produced (500 kg x 5,000 Rai=2,500,000 kg). The income of the farmers of the area from paddy product is now raised to 18.75 millions baht/annum. Rearing of livestock is also increasing with the availability of water. The project has provided cohesiveness in community and the inhabitants are now interlinked with each other. It has improved the overall social attitude of the community. Two kinds of disputes were found in the community; one, on water distribution (not more then 10%), second, on maintenance (not more then 10%). Head of the Village/Head of the organization (WUO) resolves these disputes appropriately. Future Plan Village heads and WUO have planned to improve the existing water resources through development project of 2.6 millions baht (new reservoirs). The proposal to increase storage capacity of the existing system is already submitted to irrigation department for final approval. Plan to introduce different varieties of crops in the area and to promote livestock. Project Findings: 1. 2. 3. 4. Community Participation was found very well. The project was gender responsive 20% female members in WUO. Project has helped to reduce poverty up to some extent. Although there was no contribution of community in the initial cost, however considering the government investment, the project is viable keeping in view its initial cost and annual rate of return. 5. WUO was perceived under some certain political influence. Recommendations 1. Establishing regular irrigation system would be key instrument for sustainable agriculture. 2. More investment on water resources is needed to ensure the availability of water in dry season.
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3. Proper overhauling of the existing projects is needed to serve their functions efficiently. 4. Role of agriculture extension should be enhanced in the area. 3.4 Crops 3.4.1 Type of crops Crops of Khok Charoen district are divided according to following two criteria: 1. Topographical division 2. Division on the basis of Cultivation and Productivity Topographical Division: (a)- Low land crops: These are the crops which consume relatively more water and fine textured soil is suitable for their significant production e. g. Paddy. These crops are being cultivated on relatively low areas of land in district Khok Charoen. (b)- Upland Crops: These are the crops which are being cultivated on relatively high altitude e.g. sugarcane, maize, cassava, cotton, horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, flowers etc). Division on the Basis of Cultivation and Productivity (a)- Major crops: These are the crops which are being cultivated by farmers on priority basis in accordance with market demand. Major crops of district Khok Charoen are paddy, sugarcane, maize, sunflower and cassava. (b)-Minor crops: These are the crops which have relatively less priority due to high production costs, extensive field operations or less market demand. Minor crops of Khok Charoen district are cotton, hot pepper, brinjal, beans, millet, black sesame, peanut, squashes etc. 3.4.2 Cropping Pattern Generally in Khok Charoen district two types of cropping patterns are being followed; (1) Mono-cropping (2) Multi-cropping (mostly double cropping in Khok Charoen district). Other practices like inter-cropping, crop rotation and triple-cropping can rarely be observed. As for as multi-cropping is concerned sugar cane and cassava are two crops which are being used for this practice because these crops have life cycle of 8-10 months. No other crop can be cultivated during the gap. On the other hand paddy, maize, cotton, sunflower and different vegetables are being practiced as multi-cropping pattern in Khok Charoen district.

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Table 3.10: Cropping pattern Area Under cropping (Rai) 13700 23173 15575 14173 17857 Mono- Area Under cropping (Rai) 3198 396 7184 1133 595 MultiTotal area 16898 23569 22759 15306 18452

TAMBONS Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San

81.07% 98.32% 68.43% 92.60% 96.77%

18.93% 1.68% 31.57% 7.40% 3.23%

Source: District Agriculture Development Office In Khok Charoen Tambon 81.07% area was used for mono-cropping pattern and 18.93% was used for multi-cropping practices. In Yang Rak, Nong Maka, Wang Thong and Khok samae San areas under mono-cropping were respectively 98.32%, 68.43%, 92.60% and 96.77% and areas under multi-cropping pattern were respectively 1.68%, 31.57%, 7.40% and 3.23%. So it can be concluded that multi-cropping is not being practiced on large scale due to the shortage of water during dry period. Second point here is that farmers prefer sugarcane and cassava to other crops. Paddy farmers are changing their paddy fields into sugarcane. They now prefer sugarcane to paddy. Figure 3.8: area under the different cropping patterns

percentage of area under different cropping patterns


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Khok C haroen Yang R ak N ong M akha Tambons
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percentage

m ulticropping m onocropping

W ang Thong

Khok Sam ae San

3.4.3 Cropping Calendar There are two annual crops being cultivated in the district e.g. sugarcane and cassava. All remaining crops are seasonal crops. It means life cycle of annual crops is like that these crops remain in the field the whole year. After harvesting of one period crop, second period crop starts. In case of sugarcane ratoon cropping is common practice. Both annual crops are upland crops and can tolerate all climatic factors as well. Other major crops like rice, maize and sunflower are seasonal crops and are being sown according to the calendar. Different vegetables are also being cultivated through out the year according to the season and conditions. Other horticultural crops can rarely be seen in this district. Table 3.11: Cropping Calendar Crops Rice Maize Sunflower Sugarcane Cassava Cotton Vegetables Source: District Agriculture Office,Lobpuri,2007 3.4.4 Cropping Intensity It is actually the measure that how the available agriculture land is used. If we use the available land efficiently with cultivation of two or more crops in the same field for the same year, the cropping intensity and income would be more. Table 3.12: Cropping Intensity January February March April May June July August September October November December

Net sown area (Rai) TAMBON Khok Charoen Yang Rak 45,937 38,449

Gross (Rai)

cropped

area Cropping Intensity

27,473 34,129

59.80% 88.76%

90

Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San Total (District)

52,246 15,276 24,226 176,134

41,340 13,004 33,652 149,598

79.13% 85.13% 138.91% 84.93%

Source: District Agriculture Office, 2007 Maximum cropping intensity has been found in Khok Samae San which is 138.91% and lowest figure has been calculated in tambon Khok Charoen which is 59.80%. The overall figure for district as whole is calculated as 84.93%. Cropping intensity is the determinant of efficiency of land use. It shows that agriculture land of the district is not being used efficiently. In Yang Rak, Nong Makha and Wang Thong the cropping intensity figures are respectively 88.76%, 79.13%, 85.13%. Figure 3.9: Cropping Intensity
cropping intensity 160.00% 140.00% 120.00% 100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% Khok C haroen Yang R ak N ong M akha W ang T hong Khok Sam ae San T otal (D istrict) 59.80% 88.76% 79.13% 85.13% 84.93% cropping intensity

138.91%

3.4.5 Crop Yields Yield of crops varies from Tambon to Tambon with changes in soil structure, fertility, water availability, ph of soil, cation exchange, water holding capacity and other factors (biotic). Moreover extensive use of fertilizers and protective measures (pesticides and weedicides) can also make difference.

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Table 3.13: Average Yield Average Yield Per Rai (Kgs) TAMBONS Khok Charoen Yang Rak Nong Makha Wang Thong Khok Samae San Average Yield Sugarcane 15000 15000 10000 12000 10000 12400 Paddy 450 500 450 500 450 470 Cassava 5000 3000 3500 3800 3200 3700 Maize Sunflower 800 800 1000 800 900 860 120 70 90 105 85 94

Source: farmers, key informants, TAO (primary data) If we had considered only fertility level (100%) of Khok Charoen tambon, the yield would have been the maximum but there is no great difference with other tambons. The lowest fertility level (41.67%) is of Yang Rak tambon but it has almost same yield figures as in Khok Charoen tambon in case of sugarcane, paddy and maize but in case of cassava and sunflower there is big gap between tow extreme tambons. Paddy is lowland crop so it is being cultivated in lowland patches which are so often fertile in all tambons that is why there is not great difference in yield figures. Now two points are clear, number one is soil fertility is not the only determinant of high yield, second is soil of Yang Rak is suitable for sugarcane, maize and cassava. It means natural fertility does not cast significant effect on these crops if fertilizers are additionally used to increase the productivity. But in case of cassava and sunflower natural fertility level has created a great difference. So some crops are sensitive to specific factors. Low natural fertility level always increases the production costs of farmers regarding fertilizers and manuring. Overall all three factors (biotic, abiotic and economic factors) determine the production level and performance of different crops. 3.4.6 Benefit-Cost Analysis Table 3.14: Benefit Cost ratio calculation of major crops Cost and Benefits of Crops (Baht/Rai) Practices Paddy 1. Cost of seeds/ seedlings 170 Cassava Maize 2000 620 SugarSun-flower cane 900 120

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2.land preparation/tractor cost 3.Fertilizer/Manure/Bio Fertilizer 4.Pesticides/insecticides 5Cultivation(planking,ploughing,tillage) 6. Labour cost 7. Weeding/Hoeing 8. Harvesting 9. Transportation 10. Others costs Total production cost Yield (kg/ rai)

350 100 100 450 0 200 200 200 0 1770

1400 720 150 0 0 245 0 375 100 340 300 0 500 450 150 420 0 0

700 650 150 820 1300 500 800 500 0 6320

200 0 0 200 0 150 200 0 0 870

4610 3160

470kg Sale Price (Baht) Total income (Baht) Net income Benefit-cost ratio 7/kg 3290 1520 1.86

3700kg 2.50/kg 9250

860kg 8/kg 6880

12400k g 94kg 0.7/kg 8680 2360 1.37 22/kg 2068 1198 2.38

4640 3720 2.06 2.18

Source: Secondary data (TAO, district agriculture officer, key informants)

If we see the comparative analysis of production costs and gross benefits of major crops, it would appear that cassava, maize and sunflower have wide margins for net profit, whereas sugarcane has less margin for net profitability. So, comparatively better crops should be preferred to get maximum profit margins.

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Figure 3.10: Gross Benefits vs Production Cost (per rai)


G ross Benefits vs Production Costs (Per Rai)
1 0 0 0 0 A M O U N T (T H B ) 8 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 P ad d y C a ssa v a M aize C R O PS S u g a rca n e S un flo w e r 32 9 0 1 7 7 0 4 6 1 0 3 1 60 2 06 8 8 7 0 9 2 5 0 6 8 8 0 8 6 8 0 6 3 20 P ro d uctio nC o sts G ro ss B e n efits

3.4.7 Benefit-Cost Ratio Sunflower has maximum benefit cost ratio but it is being cultivated on small area of district Khok Charoen. So for rational decisions it can not be compared with major crops like paddy, sugarcane and cassava. Paddy has ratio as 1.86 and maize has 2.18. These analysis show that maize should not be ignored, it should be given due value while making farm decisions. It can be cultivated on more area than the current areas under its cultivation. If we compare two upland crops sugarcane and cassava, cassava will definitely have priority on the basis of its high benefit-cost ratio (2.06) as compared to sugarcane (1.37). Both are annual as well as upland crops so cassava can replace sugarcane from some possible area. Figure 3.11: Benefit cost ratio analysis of major crops
B enefit-cost ratio A nalysis 2.5 2 1.5 B enefit-cost ratio 1 0.5 0
C a ss va P a d d y M a iz e

2.38 2.06 1.86 1.37 2.18

S u g a rc an e

MA JO RC R O P S

3.4.8 Marking Channels Marketing channel is the economic factor which determines the performance of the over all farm practices. If productivity is high and marketing strategy is poor, the required out put will not be possible. So marketing should be considered as wind up force of agriculture.

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S u n flo w er

Marketing Channel of Cassava

Source: farmers, key informants (primary data) Marketing Channel of Sugarcane Sugarcane has a little bit complex marketing channel. The produce moves from farmer to middle man or directly to sugarcane factory. Sugarcane factory process the raw produce into sugar. Exporters directly access sugarcane factory to purchase sugar for export. From sugarcane factory, sugar flows towards whole sellers and then ultimately to retailers. Ultimate consumer purchases sugar from retailers. Farmers also purchase sugarcane press-mud (residues) from sugarcane factory to produce bio-fertilizer. This press-mud is an important ingredient of bio-fertilizer.

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Marketing channel of Sugarcane

(Raw form) FARMER or Grower

MIDDLE MAN (informal lender)

(Raw Form)

(Raw Form)

SUGAR CANE FACTORY (Press-mud / residue of sugarcane for bio-fertilizer)

(Processed form)

DIRECT SALE/ EXPORT

(Processed form)

WHOLESALE MARKET

Consumer or ultimate

RETAIL MARKETS
96

users

(SMALL)

Source: farmers, key informants (primary data) Marketing Channel of Paddy In case of marketing channel of paddy farmer directly sell out its produce to rice factory or middle man purchases paddy. After processing of paddy in factory, rice bulk is purchased by exporters or local whole sellers. Sometimes rice factory sell out rice to big markets of Bangkok and exporters purchase from these markets. Ultimately rice reaches the retail markets from where consumers purchase it. Marketing channel of paddy

FARMER or Grower

paddy

MIDDLE MAN (informal lender)

paddy

paddy

RICE MILL polished/husked rice

DIRECT SALE/ EXPORT

RICE

polished rice

97

LARGE MARKETS(Bangkok)

Consumer or ultimate users

RETAIL (shops)

MARKETS

Source: farmers, key informants (primary data) Marketing Channel of Maize In khok Charoen district marketing channel of maize is not so complex. Farmer sells out his produce to middleman quite often. He also directly sells out in nearby market. Sometimes consumers directly purchase from the farmer.

Marketing channel of maize


98

FARMER or Grower

MIDDLE MAN

ears (cob+kernels)

MARKET

Processing unit/ factory

finished/processed products Consumer or ultimate users

Source: farmers, key informants (primary data)


99

Marketing Channel of Agriculture Inputs In all five Tambons marketing channel of agriculture inputs is also similar. Pesticide and fertilizer companies supply their products to generic companies or middlemen who act as their distributors. From middleman these chemicals reach the farmer. There is also another route, from local companies these products flow towards dealers, from dealers to farmers groups or cooperatives. Ultimately there groups and cooperatives sell this out to farmers.

100

Agriculture Inputs Marketing

Pesticide/ company

fertilizer

Generic company

MIDDLE MAN dealers (shops)

Farmer/ Grower

Farmers groups/org./coops.

101

Source: farmers, key informants (primary data) 3.4.9 Problems, Potentials and Solutions Problems 1) Water shortage for agriculture in dry season is common problem in the district and flaws in conservation of existing water resources are also adding to water shortage problem. 2) Crop rotation practices are not regularly being experimented. Sugarcane may be rotated with cassava due to its comparative advantages. Cassava has more economic benefits as compared to sugarcane because it has more benefit-cost ratio (2.06) as compared to sugarcane (1.37). Potentials In the whole district the farmers are cultivating the crops without analyzing the ultimate benefits. For example their trend is shifting from paddy to sugar cane gradually. Whereas sugar cane has less benefit-cost ratio (1.37) is less than other crops (cassava 2.06, paddy 1.86, maize 2.18 and sunflower (2.38). The most important point is that sugarcane is annual crop, so multi-cropping is not possible. It is exhaustive crop and uses soil nutrients and water more than other crops. Cassava has more potential in this district as for as production and benefits are concerned. Cassava should be preferred to sugarcane because it has high benefit-cost ratio as compared to sugarcane, moreover it has some future prospects also. Government is intending to install cassava processing units in Khok Charoen district because it is the source of renewable energy (bio-fuel, ethanol etc.). So crops with high benefit cost ratio should be preferred and cultivated. Moreover this area is suitable for horticultural crops e.g. vegetables and fruits. Solutions 1) Water reservoirs should be constructed to store required water for crops at least. Secondly practices like terrace irrigation and contour water management should be incorporated. If available water is capitalized by terrace irrigation and contour irrigation management, the over all benefits would increase with synchronizing impact. Due to terraces and contours two positive points would come out, firstly water storage can be possible and secondly soil erosion would be decreased. 2) In the whole district the farmers are cultivating the crops without analyzing the ultimate benefits. For example their trend is shifting from paddy to sugar cane gradually. Whereas sugar cane has less benefit-cost ratio (1.37) is less than other crops (cassava 2.06, paddy 1.86, maize 2.18 and sunflower (2.38). The most important point is that sugar cane is annual crop, so multi-cropping is not possible. Cassava and sugarcane are both upland crops and need same agronomical conditions. Sugarcane is exhaustive crop and uses soil nutrients and water more than other crops. Cassava has more potential in this district as for as production and benefits are concerned. So crops with high benefit cost ratio should be preferred and cultivated. Moreover this area is suitable for horticultural crops e.g. vegetables and fruits.

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3.5 Livestock and Poultry In Khok Charoen District, livestock is secondary significant in agriculture production. The main economical animals are Beef Cattle, Dairy Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep, Pig, Local and Meat Chicken, Ostrich. All livestock distribution is different in all sub-districts; Livestock are raised mainly for local consumption commercial business. Livestock rearing depends upon land holding size and availability of agriculture grazing lands, rangeland also on availability of Agriculture by product (major livestock feed) 3.5.1 Economic Aspects (Provincial Mass Products) According to Lop Buri economic in 2005 people earned of 88,613 baht per year (19th rank of Thailand) with the provincial mass product was totally 66,504 million baht. The main income depended on industry with 36.88% or 24,527 million baht, then, the whole and retail sales plus vehicle and appliance repairs with 14.11% or 9,382 million baht. There was 12.52% or 8,329 million baht on agriculture, animal hunting, and forestry and lastly about 11.86% or 7,890 million baht on the kingdom government administration, national safeguard and compulsory social security Table 3.15: Comparative statement of livestock and agriculture production (Million baht) Production sector Agriculture, animal Hunt, Forestry Fisheries Resource: Secondary data Table 3.16: Human resource of livestock department in Khok Charoen District Veterinary Doctor 01 Para Veterinary Staff 02 Total 03 2000 6732 2001 6992 2002 6561 2003 6966 2004 7433 2005 8329

193

197

181

219

212

134

Source Secondary Data, District Livestock Office, Khok Charoen There was only one (01) veterinary Doctor with 2 Para Veterinary staff, which is very limited human resource within district.

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Figure 3.12: Number of Livestock (cattle- Buffalo, Sheep, Pig) in 2008

14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000

12,393

1,108 107

832 Sheep

51 Pig

0 Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo

Source Secondary Data, District Livestock Office, Khok Charoen (2008) Beef Cattle population is high in this district they have 12,393 animals which has 85% of total population, Buffalo is second largest population 1,108 which has 8%, sheep population was on 3rd largest population 832 which has 3%, but percentage and distribution are different at Tambon level Figure 3.13: Livestock population in Tambon Khok Charoen In this Tambon, beef cattle population is very high, the percentage is 90%

Buffalo Dairy Cattle 10% 0%

Sheep Pig 0% 0%

Beef cattle 90%

Beef cattle

Dairy Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Pig

Figure 3.14: Livestock population in Tambon Yang Rack

In this Tambon 64% beef cattle and 19% sheep and dairy cattle
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Sheep 19% Buffalo 17% Dairy Cattle 0%

Pig 0%

Beef cattle 64%

Beef cattle

Dairy Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Pig

Figure 3.15: Livestock population in Tambon Nong Makah 97% beef cattle only 3% Dairy cattle

Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig 3% 0% 0% 0%

Beef cattle 97%

Beef cattle

Dairy Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Pig

Figure 3.16: Livestock population in Tambon Wang Thong

92% beef cattle 7% sheep


105

Figure 3.16: Livestock population in Tambon Khok Samae In this Tambon livestock percentage is change then previous tambon, mainly reared sheep and Buffalo, 49% sheep, 33% Buffalo, 18% Pig,

Pig 18%

Dairy Beef cattle Cattle 0%

Buffalo 33%

Sheep 49%

Beef cattle

Dairy Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Pig

Figure 3.17: Comparison of Tombon wise livestock population percentage


106

1.

Khok Charoen

Pig Buffalo Sheep Dairy Cattle 0% 0% 0% 10%

Beef cattle 90%

Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig

2.

Yang Rak

S heep 19% Buffalo 17% Dairy Catt le 0%

P ig 0%

B eef cattle 64%

Beef cattle

Dairy Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Pig

3.

Nong Makha

Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig 3%0% 0% 0%

Beef cattle 97%

Beef cattle

Dairy Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Pig

Sheep Pig Dairy Buffalo Cattle 0%1% 7% 0%

4.

Wang Thong
Beef cattle 92% Beef cattle Dairy Cattle Buffalo Sheep Pig

5.

Khok Samae San


Beef cattle

Beef cattle Cattle Pig Dairy 0% 18%

Buffalo 33%

Sheep 49%

Dairy Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Pig

Source Secondary Data

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Table 3.17: Poultry Population in District Khok Charoen

S N

Tam bon

Duck

Local Chicken

Meat Chicken

Ostrich

Agricult Numb Agricult urist er urist Khok Char oen Yang Rack Non Maka h Wan g Thon g Khok Sama e Total 73 516 536

Num ber

Agricult urist

Num ber -

Agricult urist -

Number

11,82 7

48

616

604

12,34 1 1 5,656 2

20,00 1 0 38,00 0

600

20

221

236

33

321

301

6,396 -

35

364

249

5,332 -

209

2,029

1,926

35,19 3 6

51

600

3.5.2 Sedentary & Household Livestock Production Most of the people living in the villages rely on agriculture in District Khok Charoen. Most animals reared on farms are either for household consumption or for commercial use. This supplementary livestock production accounts for a major portion of household income and helps to improve farm productivity. Household flocks usually have 15 to 30 animals. In sedentary production system livestock animals within area,

108

Figure 3.18: Percentage of Production System

Nomadic 0% Transhuman t 0%

Sedentary 100%

Nomadic

Transhumant

Sedentary

3.5.3 Livestock Marketing Channel Formally, buying and selling of animals by products takes place in rural markets. Marketing without their entry into formal markets also takes through direct purchase and sale among livestock farmers. Village trader is the main intermediary in buying animals from the farmers. Butchers are the main buyers of animals from livestock traders. Traders are also marketed to other districts and provinces. Livestock are generally marketed either at village level by personal contact between buyer and seller or at places rural markets organized for district people. These markets are organized on weekly bases. Smaller or primary markets are present in the rural interior whereas larger or secondary markets are usually organized near the urban centers, provincial level. Markets are under the direct control of the relevant local administration which provides special places for marketing. Marketing Pricing Mechanism Pricing mechanism in some shops were fixed but on some shops negation will required for fixing the price but it will based on demand and supply position and bargaining skills Famous and significant livestock products Food Products (pickled fish with rice, pickled fish and pork, mince pickled fish 3.5.4 Marketing Channel of livestock products

109

Marketing Channel Beef, swine,


For Export For Local Consumption

Producer Producer

Middleman Company Slaughterhouse Processing Slaughterhouse Retailers

Export Consumer

Chicken Marketing Channel

Independent Farm

Dependent Farm

Middle Man

Companies

Small Slaughterhouse

Slaughterhouse

Retailer

Meat Processing

Export

Consumer

110

Milk Marketing Channel

Dairy Farm

Middlemen

Cooperative

Retailer

Processing Plant

Consumer

Export

Source: Secondary and Primary data 3.6 Fishery There was no fisheries department at district level but the provincial fisheries department official is working for fisheries development. Due to the significant rivers, which are Sak River, Lop Buri River, Bang Kham River flow through Lop Buri Province plus the Pa Sak Chonlasit Dam known as the large water source for Lop Buri. Therefore, it spread out the fishery throughout the province. Tambon: Khok Charaoen Table 3.18: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of farmers Total Number of Fish Farms Area Per Rai range for single farm Production per year/kg (Range 0.50 to 1.00 rai) 27 Source Secondary Data Source Tambon: Nong Makha Table 3.19: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of Total Number of Area Per Rai range
111

28

0.50 to 1.00 rai

25 to 130

Production per

farmers

Fish Farms

for single farm

year/kg (Range 0.50 to 2.00 rai

111 Source Secondary Data Source Tambon: Khok Samea San

65

0.50 to 2.0 rai

50 to 1,800

Table 3.20: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of farmers Total Number of Fish Farms Area Per Rai range for single farm Production per year/kg (Range 0.50 to 2.00 rai) 202 Source Secondary Data Source Tambon: Yang Rak Tambon Table 3.21: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of farmers Total Number of Fish Farms Area Per Rai range for single farm Production per year/kg (Range 0.50 to 3.00 rai) 180 Source Secondary Data Source Tambon: Wang Tang Tambon Table 3.22: Number of fish farmers, fish farmers, production and areas Total Number of farmers Total Number of Fish Farms Area Per Rai range for single farm Production per year/kg (Range 0.50 to 5.50 rai) 18 Source: Secondary Data Source
112

135

0.50 to 2.00 rai

50 to 1,200

363

0.50 to 3.00 rai

50 to 300

21

0.50 to 5.50 rai

40 to 300

In each Tambon number of farmers and number of fish farms are different and also the size of farm vary farm to farm which is range from 0.50 rai to 5.50 rai but the average size is 100 rai , on the base of farms size the production per year/ kg is also different. 3.6.1 Expenditure on single fish farm For 2000 to 3000 fish is 200 to 300 baht (0.2 baht) per fish 3.6.2 Problems of fisheries department Budget Farms are House Hold level not commercial farms Limited staff 13 persons working for 11 districts Water source Vehicles only 3 pickup for 11 districts

3.6.3 Future plan Big dam is under construction (1998-2009) fisheries department will linked for fisheries development for commercial production Genetic improvement of fishes Water testing Soil testing 3.7 Agricultural employment Agricultural Sector employment is based on harvesting season of Sugarcane and Paddy. At present, Sugarcane becomes the main cash crop of this area due to the high demand of sugarcane factories. Consequently, agricultural sector employment is depending on the harvesting season of sugarcane. During harvesting period, producers are faced labor shortage problems because many figures of labours are becoming occupy with non agricultural employment sector due to the sustainability of non agricultural sector. Especially, in harvesting period, there are two types of migration in inter province like seasonal migrants and daily migrants. Inter migrants means labour especially come from outside of the province and spend the whole season in this area but daily migrants are from the particular area and come and work there as daily basis. However, there has no quantitative data is available for agricultural employment sector, it can be calculated that 1 rai per 10 labors is demand for agricultural sector. Wages rate per day is 150 baht per day and there has no difference payment between male and female labor and the employment for labor is at the age of 15-60. Although there has no data availability for quantitative data of Agricultural Employment Sector, we can estimate demand for labor respectively.

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In conclusion, we can analyze that agriculture labor force is decreasing year by year due to the sustainability of non-agricultural sector (industrialization) and in terms of no intensive labor requirement of agriculture sector. 3.8 Khok Chareon District Agriculture Office In Khok Chareon District, there is a District Agricultural Office that functions to: Promote agricultural service through farmers-centered approach Act as a facilitator to provide any advices and assistances. Follow up with farmers field for seeking their problems, constraints and needs so to provide the appropriate activities, services and information to them. Develop the Agricultural Development Plan based on farmers needs Update information using for Agricultural Development Planning by studying and analyzing of Agricultural Extension Academic Research and potentials in the field

3.9 Agriculture Extension Service Extension service is very important to improve agricultural production by raising awareness among farmers. The role of agricultural extension service is to promote technology, provide technical supports, and give consultation to farmers and farmer group improving their productions and livelihood. 3.9.1 Agriculture Extension Structure and Human Resources Khok Chareon district office consists of seven staffs as one head office, four agriculture extension workers, one administrator and one worker there such the organizational chart below: Figure 3.19: Khok Chareon district Agriculture Organizational Chart

Source: Agricultural District Office, March 2007 In regards to Agriculture Extension Workers responsibilities, they have average one staff for each Tambon, because the Kkok Chareon district has five Tambons in which agriculture staff has only four, remaining one staff has covered two Tambons there are Yang Rak and Nong Ma Kha. In addition to that, totally there is one AEW to take care of 1,334 farm households
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with different activities in annual years. Moreover, in this case, explicitly agriculture extension workers are inadequate for supporting farmers problems present in table below:

Source: department of agriculture extension, March 2008 ** Refers to one staff per Tambon 3.10 Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre Background Tambon Agricultural technology Transfer Centre (TATTC) is based on the ground which considers farmer as a center of development who will assist in developing participatory agriculture development plan. It promotes farmer to form a group for its activities. It provides as one stop service to farmers in transferring technology from government sectors (crop, livestock and fishery) including agricultural information. In Khok Chareon district, there are 5 TAATC and located in five Tambons. Regardless insufficient staff, large areas and overloading works of AEW in Agriculture District Office (ADO), get close and fit farmers needs and quick respond their difficulties, under provision of governments policy, located of each TATTC was established in Khok Chareon district. Objectives Changes of agricultural development of Local Administrative Organization, Farmers Institutions and communities have more participation and opportunity to achieve sustainable agriculture in term of integration.
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Enhancing community capacity to plan and develop them throughout local resources utilization as well as promotion of pooling and saving for business investment.

Components of TATTC The TATTC is located in a community that suitable areas for farmers meeting center, people stages, training and knowledge transfer. Those committees should be consisted of various representatives who come from different careers as local representatives. There function is incorporation with local farmers to make as an agricultural development plan by an extension should be facilitated farmers activities. The agricultural plans established from farmers for farmers by doing problem analysis which lead to proper solutions based on farmers needs. The TATTC are selected from plot land of farmer the one who succeed in their own agricultural performance.

Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre (TATTC) committee and their responsibilities Totally number of committee is 15 members and they consist of one tambon representative Exceed two of farmers institution representative or and farmers occupation group There are four of agricultural voluntaries in each tambon One each village representative Agricultural extension who has responsibility is a committee and secretary.

Function and responsibility Agreement legislation in term of TATTC administration Provision of monthly meeting as well as approved projects, action plans and monitoring Encourage local leaders and the relevant jointly development planning. Incorporation of action plan making Cooperation of fund raising and administration ( if that has) Supporting and facilitating the TATTC and the farmers in served areas

Activities support and services Provision the Tambon base line as survey, collected and analyzed data with incorporation the relevant organization as well as farmers. Knowledge transfer and set up agriculture activities as training, visiting and selecting demonstration site. Information and warning system such as drought, new disease, pest harm etc. Reporting the serious cases that those areas have faced in order to get treatment or control those things.
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Network Building of production and processing groups and marketing network ,including promotion of non-agriculture such farm enterprises Information and dissemination of TATTC activities via community radio, exhibition and others. Map 3.3: Demonstration Farm Sites

LEGEND
Livestock Production Techniques

Bio fertilizer Making

Frogs Raising

Source: Department of Agricultural Extension Office, March 2008 According to map, it presents about located demonstration farm sites in which set upon farmers residents where the agriculture extension activities visiting and promoting to other interested famers and local people. In additionally, there are specific activities farm sites in different areas under supported Khok Chaeon Agriculture District Office. Here, throughout extension mechanisms is farmers participatory action based on their substantive agricultural productions as widen spread of farms sites. Recently, under provision of Agriculture Extension and Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre, there are some case studies that many kinds of activities have been implemented as Integrated Farming System, Chemical Free Vegetable Plantation and Paddy Farming Group.

3.11 Case study on integrated farming system Introduction Tambon Administrative Office launched Integrated farming System as a pilot project in village number four. The main objective of TAO is to increase income of the farmers through transferring improved farming technology and promoting collective learning. It demonstrates how
117

effectively local resources (water and land) can use for farming crop and fish in an integrated manner. It includes cultivation of banana, papaya, egg plants, bamboo shoots and fish farming. This pilot project is being implemented in 20 rai of land and by involving 20 members. These members work in a group. Major group activities Farming crops and fish in pond Marketing of farm products Group management Learning and sharing Supports Capital investment in farms, ponds construction and seeds Transfer of skills account keeping and improved farming techniques including organic farming Regular monitoring and technical advices Construction of learning centre Facilitation for market linkages Achievements Increased awareness on proper land use for maximizing benefits Transferring skills on improved farming crop and fish Increased access to TAO and other support agencies for necessary supports Marketing skills developed The idea of collective actions for mutual benefit is generated. They monitor their group activities themselves. Leadership skills are also developed Problems This is a pilot project and has been successfully implemented. However there might be some problems that might limit up calling of this concept. Limited cultivable land Small piece of land Lack of motivation Water shortage Lack of capital investment Potentials This kind of Integrated Farming System can be promoted in the area where water resources are available.

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3.12 Case study on chemical free vegetable plantation Introduction The project is located in Tambon Wang Thong Khok Charoen District Lop Buri Province, There are 9 villages in Tambon Wang Tong and the population is 2638. This is the smallest population among 5 Tambons. They started planting using chemical 10 years ago. They plant varieties kinds of vegetables such as water melon, cabbage, cucumber, chilly, Thai melon (yellow) and so on. Ideas of chemical free In past, they used 50% chemical and 50% organic. They need to use chemical because they have to think about productivity. Nowadays they still use 20% chemical and 80% organic. They plant both in the net and open area and there are 100% chemical free in net area. The idea of using chemical free was introduced by Agriculture & Land Development Organization 4 years ago and they got loan from government to set up the project.

Resources There are enough water resources from pond and they have a generator for pumping. The soil types are good for plantation and plenty of moisture of water. They use manure for fertilizer such as cow dunk, lemon root for pesticide that they take from their houses as they raise cattle. They also get liquid fertilizer that is nature from local government.

Objectives To access the knowledge of using chemical free to local people To eat chemical free food for health To enhance farm work together and provide each other To use organic fertilizer and reduce cost of investment To use the sufficiency economy as the guideline for development

Activities The local community set up 2 committee which include 10 for each group in 2005 and they had informal meeting with AEO (Agriculture Extension officers) During activities, they got assistance from AEO and study about plantation and how to use organic. They also visited to other fields to learn about plantation and exchanged ideas. In 2006, they established learning center in the planting area so the farmers have a chance to learn about plantation. In 2007, they started to do a pilot project that was 100% Chemical free Plantation by using net.
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The whole area is 80 rai and they have to rent from private for 1000 baht per rai per year However, it needs high investment by using sprinkle and net because it costs 80,000 baht for rai/net and they got loan from government and it will recover 7 or 8 years. They can only plant some kinds of vegetables like aubergine, tomato, parsley, coriander and some plants that are attracted by insects can not be planted. They use net because they want their plants to protect from insects and chemical effect from open area like spray.

Outputs The farmers get 280 baht/day/person but they will get only 150 baht/day/person in raining season. For the market price, it depends on the season because they get less product sin raining season. They get 2 tons of products after picking up every 2 or 3 days. They sell it to chair person and he has responsibility to take to Bangkok market but they do not get special price for free chemical vegetable. There is no break for them and they have to work for the whole year. There is no comparison of output between using organic and chemical because chemical is still in process.

Problems and constraints For using net and sprinkle, it has high capital cost to invest. As they do not get electricity, they have to use generator and it costs them 300 baht per day. If they get electricity, they have to spend only 50 baht per month. For the farmers, it takes a long time to see their products by using only fertilizer. Compared to using chemical, they can see their plants grow within 1 week. All kind of vegetables are not suitable in net and it has limited. As there is no water in summer, they have only depends on pond.

Achievements and Potentials By doing this project, they learned to do participation and team work. It benefits for both local and consumer in health perspective as they reduce the amount of chemical. The farmers feel satisfied that they can provide free chemical vegetable. In past, they did not know about the effect of chemical so they felt guilty about it. The soil condition will be good and sustainable for their future generation as they use natural fertilizer. It can save cost of investment for organic.

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Future plans They need more support from government to extend their pilot project to plant in net area as much as they can. They will encourage others farmers in community to use organic manure. They will try to improve learning center and ask electricity instead of using generator. They will try to grow new alternative plants. They will share their experience and try to hand up and persuade young generation to involve in this farming.

Conclusions In this area, the soil quality is good so they can fully rely on plantation. They also have a pond that enough for plants so they have sufficient water for the whole year. They will need to improve their learning centre by putting more books and arrange activities for young generation. They need to get more budgets to use net so that they can enhance their project by planting t many kinds of vegetables.

Recommendations from the case By visiting this project, we found out that they need more to encourage and cooperative other farmers participation to grow chemical free vegetables plantation because it is not practiced for the whole area. They should sell their free chemical vegetable to department stores so that they can get special price as the stores divide the products that is being planted with chemical and free chemical. They also need to persuade other farmers about cattle raising around the area to get organic manure as much as possible. They also need support of electricity so that it will reduce the cost.

3.13 Case study on paddy farming group Introduction Paddy Farmers Group, Village-2, Tambon Yang Rak, its group formed in the year 2001 and initially 20 households were in the group and now it is 53 household members to aim that forming this group is to produce quality seeds at local level. Regard groups activities are seed production and supplying to members (Jasmine rice variety) and micro lending Government Supports As farmers were shifting from paddy to cassava and sugarcane cultivation, government initiated this activity with the view to produce quality paddy seeds for future use.
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Support activities Initially government provided 20 sacs of chemical fertilizers Technical supports on cultivation techniques Organization and management The group is managed and operated by the team of 9 members comprising 1 chairperson, 1 vice chairperson, 1 Treasurer, 1 Secretary, 1 Public Relation Officer and 4 Members Key achievements Fund generated: 57,000 BAHT Started providing micro loans to its members at low interest rates i.e. 10% Started producing quality seeds and supply to members and others They started generating income from the group Increased number of group members Increased leadership Increased access to support agencies Learning culture is developed Challenge Comparing the cost benefit of paddy, cassava and sugarcane, cassava gives the highest income. Sugarcane and paddy comes after that respectively. Therefore farmers are replacing paddy field by cassava and sugarcane. So in this connection, how long farmers adopt this activity for producing quality seeds in the area. Recommendation They can produce quality seeds in commercial ways and sell in the markets outside the district According to those case studies, those projects are established in different potentially of each location and duration, so that some of achievements, problems and constraints needed services and resources requirements to overcome together with individual farmers, farmers groups, Agriculture Extension Office, and Tambon Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre. 3.14 Agricultural Credit 3.14.1 Overall situation of access to financial services Bank of Agriculture and Agriculture Cooperative (BAAC), Village Development Fund (VDF) and Agriculture Cooperative are the formal sources of credits in the district. Agriculture Cooperative and VDF are operating at District and village level respectively while the BAAC has been providing its banking services through its branch office located at Lopburi and Nong Makha outside the Khok Charaoen district. Middlemen and sugarcane factory are also the sources of credit for local people.
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For all of these financial institutions, farmers are the main target groups. Up to 10 percent, BAAC invests in non-agriculture sector as well. In total 6433 households have received loan from these financial institutions which constitute nearly 90 percent of the total household of the district. In terms of number of clients VDF has the highest coverage i.e. 56 percent while BAAC and Agriculture Cooperative have 36 and 6 percentage respectively. Similarly in terms of amount disbursed, BAAC is the highest one to invest which is 73 percentages. VDF and Agriculture Cooperative constitute 23 and 4 percentages of investment in agriculture sector respectively (as of December 2007). Clients, investment, accessibility of all these three financial institutions are given below in table 3.23. Table 3.23: Summary information about the three Financial Institutions Financial Institutions BAAC VDF Agriculture Cooperative

Aspects Objective To increase productivity and income through providing financial services Country wide Credit/finance Deposit facility Inputs supply To generate resources at local level for sustainable economic development To provide loan support to farmers at minimum interest

Working areas Products and services

District wide Community development Credit/finance Skills development and technology transfer

Village level Credit/finance Deposit facility Inputs supply

Number of clients Loan disbursed

2277 228 million

4322 5 million

400 73 million (total) 1.37 million per VDF

Repayment rate Types of loan

98 % Short term, medium and long term loan Complex


123

60/40 % Short term loan

100 % Short term loan

Criteria

Simple

Simple

Farmers perception

Positive

Positive

Positive

Source: official documents of BAAC, VDF and Agriculture Cooperative, 2007 3.14.2 Financial Institutions There are three formal financial institutions operating in the district. They are Bank of Agriculture and Agriculture Cooperative, Village Development Fund and Agriculture Cooperative.. 3.14.3 Major problems and prospects BAAC provides loan to farmers directly and through groups at village level. Farmers groups play significant roles as they collect loan demands, submit demand to office, monitor and evaluate the use and misuse of loan amount. However there does not seem any incentive to the groups. Providing incentives to the groups can assure timely pay back and efficient service delivery as well. Agriculture Cooperatives and Village Development Funds lack institutional capacities to manage saving and credit activities efficiently. BAAC operates its activities outside the district. In this connection, BAAC can support for institutional strengthening of these local financial institution so that financial services can be extended to wider areas through these local institutions. As the transaction is being increased, Village Development Fund and Agriculture Cooperative might face problems in data management therefore it would be advisable to introduce software base financial system. 3.15 Agriculture Policies 3.15.1 Self sufficiency Economy Agriculture has been the basic occupation of the Thai people dating back many generations. Approximately two third of the workforce is engaged in agriculture activities. Considering the possible impact of fluctuation on market price and unstable natural conditions, the Thai Kind introduced the concept of Self sufficiency Economy aiming to make farmers self reliant in terms of food by promoting integrated farming system and micro enterprise development for the generation of supplementary income of the farmers household. It focuses mainly on promotion of socially and environmentally appropriate farming technologies through research, development on new cash crops like Para rubber, mulberry, medicinal plants and their extension in the rural areas, study of insects and pests and development of livestock including fish and poultry. In addition to this, it focuses on promotion of micro enterprises for supplementary income. 3.15.2 Economic Restructuring Policy Agricultural Sector Accelerate the restructuring of agricultural production to be in line with market opportunities and changes in consumer tastes in both traditional and emerging markets, through a strategy to turn Thailand into a global food-production hub, with emphasis on improving production efficiency in fisheries, livestock, and major cash crops in an integrated manner, including support for energy crops such as oil palm,
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sugar cane, and cassava to promote the alternative energy policy; and support production of new products with market potential such as fiber plants and medicinal herbs. Promote value addition for agricultural goods through processing that meets international quality standards to create links with agro-industry, by supporting research and development on standards for food and agricultural production and food safety; see to an effective disease prevention and control system, as well as supporting agricultural processing within communities. Expedite negotiation of agreements on food and agricultural product standards to prevent non-tariff barriers to trade; and improve logistical networks for agricultural products in both rural and urban areas to expand access to global markets. Promote New Theory agriculture at the community level according to His Majestys concept to give agricultural households food security; promote the learning process on organic farming, integrated farming, forest farming, school lunch projects, and livestock banks according to His Majestys concept, with farmers and communities setting their own direction and approach. Promote and encourage agricultural institutions such as co-operatives, community enterprises, and farmers councils to enable farmers to participate in setting the approach to agricultural development and developing their own competitiveness.

3.15.3 Agricultural Projects and Plans On-going projects Chemical free vegetable growing Cat fish raising in cement pond Chemical free cucumber growing Bio-fertilizer making

Future Plan (2009-2012) of Khok Charoen District Improve soil condition by using compost in order to increase production (sugarcane) Improve soil condition by using compost to increase production (maize) Increase yield of cassava Increase yield of sugarcane Increase yield of paddy Support for tube well Chemical free vegetable promotion Support to agriculture groups/cooperatives (5 cooperative) Product Standard Improvement Youth farmers activities support in School Promoted soil improvement by using compost Increase cassava yield by using organic fertilizers

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3.16 Problems and prospects 3.16.1 Problems Insufficient technical services for agriculture and livestock farming Lack of central market for live animal marketing Lack of awareness and skills on proper use of bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides Shortage of water for agriculture in dry season Lack of banking institutions at local level Lack of strategic/business plan of Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Fund Lack of awareness among local people on integrated farming system Lack of land title Improper crop rotation practices Fish farming is at household level thus lack of commercialization due to technical skills Inadequate number of technical staff 3.16.2 Prospects Existence of Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre at Tambon level which can further be strengthened so that necessary technical services for agriculture and livestock development can be provided on sustainable basis. Larger number of livestock animals indicates commercialization of the livestock rearing activities which can help generate additional income for the poor households. Some of the farmers groups have started making bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides. These kinds of skills can further be developed so that bio-pesticide and bio-fertilizers can produce at local level. There are different types of water resources available in the district. These kinds of water resources can be utilized for promoting chemical free vegetable farming benefiting low income families living around those water resources. Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Fund have already been functioning at local level. Further strengthening these institutions can help to assure financial services to local people.

3.17 Conclusions and recommendations 3.17.1 Conclusion Agriculture is the major sources of livelihood of more than 80 percent population of the district occupying nearly 89 percent of the total land for agriculture purposes. Sugarcane, paddy, maize, cassava and sunflower are the major crops of the study area. Farmers have been motivated to change cropping pattern from maize and paddy to sugarcane and cassava. This is mainly because of the high benefit cost ratio in sugarcane and cassava in relation to other cereal crops. In addition, livestock animals are also major sources of income. However, inadequacy of technical services for both the agriculture and livestock development cause limited benefits from this occupation.

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As farmers have started farming vegetables by not using the chemicals it has high potentials to intensify chemical free vegetable farming in the areas where water resources are available. BAAC, Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Funds are the formal financial institutions providing credit services to local people. As BAAC is operating from outside the district and Agriculture Cooperative and VDF are operating locally, strengthening their institutional capacity can be a good way to assure financial services to farmers in sustainable basis.

3.17.2 Recommendations Provision of technical services for agriculture and livestock development and Agriculture Technology Transfer Centre can strengthened for providing technical services to the local people. Provision of technical, partly financial and marketing support to promote chemical free vegetable farming through out the district especially in those areas where water resources are available. Micro irrigation project can be helpful to extend the cropping area. Institutional capacity of Agriculture Cooperative and Village Development Fund should be strengthened. As the transaction is being increased, Village Development Fund and Agriculture Cooperative might face problems in data management therefore it would be advisable to introduce software base financial system.

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