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TheKidneyMeridian

byJiangJing
Introduction Unlike the lung meridian, the other meridians do not start at their corresponding organ. This is because the internal organs do not create their meridians; nor do the meridians create their corresponding internal organs. As a yin and yang pair, one simply cannot exist without the other. While the primary concept of meridian is the circulation of universal qi in and around the human body, they support, influence and reacttoeachother. SincethephysicalbodyiscapableofmanifestingonlyinaFiveElemental(Wuxiang) manner,thesixmeridiansmustsharefivefingers.Likethewayanobjectcastsashadow on a flat surface, the six universal energies are projected or reduced into a five dimensionalspace.ShaoyinandShaoyangqi,asimperialfireandministerfire,showa placement of sharing the borders throughout the body. Combining qi and material substance becomes remarkably complex through a system of meridians, divergent meridians, collateral channels, as well as through the Five Elemental points, Mu, Shu, Luo,etc. While the three yin and three yang layers of meridians form a continuous circle through the arms and legs in the order of yinyangyangyinyinyangyangyinyin yangyangyin, they follow the six qi rules of the universe. The following two diagrams illustratetheorderlydistributionofthetwelvemeridiansthroughoutthebody.

SomeGeneralConsiderations

Fig.A

Fig.B

Because of the difficulty to penetrate through the dense armor formed by the spine and ribs on the back, all the meridians other than Taiyang of leg tend to flow over the frontofthebody.Similarly,thebackoftheheadisenclosedwhilethefaceandtemporal

regions are open through the sensory organs. Therefore, all meridians also tend to connectwiththefaceratherthanthebackofthehead.

Fig.C

In the Fig.C, one side of body is illustrated showing twelve meridians distributed of the left arm and left leg. Notice that the horizontal center line indicates the body trunk and the organs, while the vertical center line indicates spine. The vertical line at the center of the circles indicates the bones of the arm and leg. In this diagram, the energy circulation follows the numbering system. Note that meridians which initiate from the horizontallinestarttheircoursesfromthecorrespodingorgans(1,5,9,and3,11,7).The others initiate from the tips of the limbs and eventually connect with their correspondingorgans.Thetwelvemeridiansarenumberedonthediagramasfollows: 1:TaiyinofArm 2:YangmingofArm 3:YangmingofLeg 4:TaiyinofLeg 5:ShaoyinofArm 6:TaiyangofArm 7:TaiyangofLeg 8:ShaoyinofLeg 9:JueyinofArm 10:ShaoyangofArm 11:ShaoyangofLeg 12:JueyinofLeg

Heaven is the source of the yang meridians; earth is the source of the yin meridians. These energies flow between heaven and earth, merely passing through the human body. The Ren mai and Du mai meridians are created as a result of symetrical pairs of three yin on the front and three yang on the back. As much as Ren mai/Du mai circut is the most vital meridian circulation of the human body, it is the result of the interaction between the six qi circulation thru the body and the bodys five elemental response. Since Ren mai and Du mai are created by the universal six qi in the human body, these two are the only meridians that truly belong to an individual. This is the reason why RenmaiandDumaiarethemostimportantchannelsofcirculationforhumanexistance (health,life,death).

Fig.D

The kidney meridian is the meridian that most closely follows and contributes to Ren mai while also creating important channels like Chongmai. Together these three meridianscontributethemostimportantqiflowincreatinganewlife(reproduction).

The lung deals with the most yang qi, and the kidney the most yin qi. Because they deal with such opposite qualities of qi in a physical unit, they become a pair. Naturally,thereareconnectionsbetweenkidneychannelandlungchannelinternally. ThelungchannelreachesdowntotheTantienandthekidneys,whilekidneychannel extends up to the lungs and branchial tubes. While their two essences (qi and jing respectively) mix between these two organs, the many variables of the internal environment arouse tremendous variety in the way that qi and jing manisfest in syndromes. In the microcosm of human body, lung draws universal yang qi into the microcosmic unit, and the kidney, through the action of the spleen and stomach, suppliesyinenergyorjingqi.Thisishowmicrocosmsimulatesthemacrocosmicflowas shown in the Fig.C and Fig.D. Reducing this scheme to the smaller scale of an individual, we can consider the flow of the external channels at the surface of the body to be the macrocosm of the universe, and the internal flow of the channels as the microcosm of human body. A more indepth synopsis of universal stems and earthly brancheswillbediscussedinmycommentariesoftheYoonchisectionoftheNeiching.

TheKidneyMeridian
Here, we will not discuss the kidney organ per se nor emphasize the importance of the kidneys but, instead, summarize the course of this meridian. The kidney meridian initiatesfromthelastpointofthebladdermeridianlocatedonthefifthtoe.FromU.B.67 (Zhiyin), yang becomes yin. The Taiyang qi of water element transforms into Shaoyin of water element by entering into the deepest center of the foot at Kd.1 (Yongquan). Naturally, Kd.1 (Yongquan) point is in the foot, not simply on the bottom skin of foot. The course of the meridian follows the interior aspect of the foot, moving upward aroundtheinteriormalleolusandthenbackwardanddown.Whenitreachesthebottom of the interior malleolus, the qi enters deeper into the joint and forms Kd.6 (Zhaohai). Starting from Kd.6 (Zhaohai), the kidney meridian becomes more involved with the internalorgansandothermeridians. Kidney meridians Luo point is Kd.4 (Dazhong) and it directly communicate with Bladder meridian through U.B.58 (Feiyang), the Luo point of the Bladder meridian. This pair of points actively exchange qi through yin/yang transformation. As Kd.2 (Rangu) receives and springs out the Fire element of Shaoyin, Yangming qi influence from St.12 (Quepen) through Yinqiao Mai causes the flow between Kd.2 (Rangu) and Taixi to be much more vigorous. This makes the Kd.3 (Taixi) an effective point for controlling the flow (stream) of kidney qi. Kd.3 (Taixi) forms a pair with U.B.60 (Kunlun). Taixi is earth of yin and Kunlun is fire of yang. These two points control each other and contribute to thebalancingoftwowater(BladderandKidney)meridians. The pairing of these points not onlycontributestobalancingofthesetwomeridians, but also helps focus needling effect to a very small area which is often necessary for treating localized disorders like broken bones, cysts, obstructions of urethra, etc. Kd.6 (Zhaohai)andU.B.62(Shenmai)alsoformapair. ***

Kidney meridian has very complex relation with many other meridians. Kd.1 (Yongquan) is in polarity with heart meridian Ht.8 (Shaofu). Kd.2 (Rangu), Taixi, Zhaohai and jiaoxin connects to Stomach meridian through Quepen (St12). BetweenSanjiaoxin and Yingu, Sanyinjiao (Sp6) connects the kidney meridian to two other yin meridians (Jueyin, Taiyin) while it branches into Yinqiao mai following closely the kidney meridianuptoYingu.AtYingu,kidneymeridianconnectstoYinlingquan(Sp9,waterof Taiyin) and the water elemental quality becomes more clear and the combination of spleen and kidney qi allows Yingu to influence the reproductive qi more powerfully. Zhubin (K9) connects to spleen meridian at Fushe through Yinwei mai, and extends to liver meridian at qimen, and further extends to Ren mai at Tiantu. After Yingu, kidney meridian moves upward toward Changqiang connecting directly to Du mai and Ren mai . From Changqiang, one branch of kidney meridian follows the Du mai upto Mingmen and enters into the both adrenal glands (Huangmen, UB51) and than into the kidneys.Fromthekidneys,twolinesofqientertheTantien.FromChangqiang,theother branchrisesfowardRenmaiformingChongmai,andatQugu(Ren2)itdividesintotwo lines (.5 cun lateral to Ren mai ) to reach Huangshu (K16) at the level of umblicus. During this course, at Huiyin, additional qi (downward yang qi) from the Tantien enters the Ren mai forming Chong mai, Ren mai and kidney meridian together. Ren mai connectswiththekidneymeridian,spleenmeridianandlivermeridianconnectingDahe (K12), Fushe (Sp13), Jimai (Liv12) and Zhongji (Ren3), and through Zhongji, kidney meridian contacts the bladder. The kidney meridian branch through the Du mai and kidneys which enters the bladder also joins the kidney meridian at Guanyuan (Ren4), and connects back to the kidney meridian at qixue (K13) to continueupwardflowofthe Shaoyinqi. From Huangshu (K16), kidney meridian mixes again into Ren mai and travels down internally to enter urinary bladder. From the kidneys, another branch of kidney qi moves directly to liver, diaphragm and lung. A branch from the lung enters heart and connects to pericardium. The other branch from the lung follows the branchial tube laterally and reaches the root of the tongue. Between Yingu and Henggu, kidney meridian communicates with liver and spleen meridian through connections between Chongmai,Yinweimai,Yinqiaomai,livermeridianandspleenmeridian.AtChongmen (Sp12), spleen meridian conncects with liver meridian and together with the kidney meridian,threeyinmeridiansmeetintheRenmaithroughQugu(Ren2).

DetailsoftheKidneyMeridian
Kd.1 (Yongquan), a wood element Shaoyin (yin fire) of water point of leg (yin, lower burner), has a direct contact with Ht.8 (Shaofu) which has fire element of Shaoyin (yin fire) of hand (yang, upper burner). These two points are like north and south pole of magnet. The function of Kd.1 (Yongquan) is basically to regulate fire (heat) distribution fromthewaterelementalviewpointwhileHt.8(Shaofu)controlsfirefromthesideofthe fire (fire elemental viewpoint). Both points have interesting connection with G.V.20 (Baihui) and C.V.1 (Huiyin). The reason why these four points are all connected is

becauseofthepolarityoftheqi.Intheacupunctureanatomicalpositionwithbothhands up above the head standing up, there are two layers of circles; one is Ren mai and Du maicircle,theotheristwelvemeridiancircle.G.V.20(Baihui)belongsyin(cold)fire,and C.V.1 (Huiyin) belongs yang (hot) water. The following three charts are included to aid theunderstadingofthispolarrelationofthefourpoints.

In this figure, the core is yin and the surface is yang. G.V.20 (Baihui) and C.V.1 (Huiyin) are yin, Ht.8 (Shaofu) and Kd.1 (Yongquan) are yang from the point of view of surfaceandcore. This chart implies the combination of two concepts of yin/yang differentiation; lower/upper and in/out. This might look somewhat contradictory to the conventional wayofmakingachartwithoneconceptofyin/yangdifferentiation.Please,trytoseethe chartasathreedimentionalballshape,notaflatcircle.)

As illustrated in the Figures , four points form an important symmetry: Yang yang/yinyang/ yinyin /yangyin, twolayer circles of qi. Natually, these four points share similarities in controlling coldhot Sanjiao energy distribution. Ht.8 (Shaofu) has a great effect slowing heart rate down by lowering the yang (heat) type tension in the upperburnerwhichalsoincreasestheyinnatureoflungofupperburnerresultingmore yang qi induction (deeper breathing). Ht.8 (Shaofu), in comparison to G.V.20 (Baihui), dealswithhotter,butweaker,yangenergythatrisestothehighestlevelofthebody(the Sanjiao heat distribution). G.V.20 (Baihui) also controls heat as a sedation point, and it deals with less violent but more potent heat of the Sanjiao which rises through both Ren maiandDumaimeridiansandaccumulatesintheheadandshoulderaroundandabove G.B.21 (Jianjing) Naturally, G.B.21 (Jianjing) is directly involved in the distribution of heat in the entire body trunk as a pumping point of activated qi. Yang qi that spins upwardfromTantienafteractivationprocessthroughSanjiaoandMingmenpointsonthe lowerbackwhilejingisconvertedintoqifromthekidneyandadrenalgland. The similarity of these two points on the yang pole is that they control heat by sedating from the top. These points can easily control excessive heat surge into the upper portion of the body (upper Sanjiao) by lowering yang energy level and allowing yin level to rise in the upper Sanjiao. In the cases of tonification of these two points, like in the case of lacking qi support in the heart or brain, we can apply moxibustion to achieve the contact with the heat in the lower level. In the techniques of needling, we can tonify cold qi with a silver needle with a slow, curvy motion at the needle tip to achievethecontactwithcoldqiofthelowerSanjiaowhichasaresultwillsedatetheheat

of the upper Sanjiao. However, unlike Kd.1 (Yongquan) or C.V.1 (Huiyin) which can be treated with moxibustion to pull heat down by connecting the excessive heat of upper SanjiaowiththecoldqioflowerSanjiao. Applying cold energy techniques to G.V.20 (Baihui) or Ht.8 (Shaofu) are not so effective. This is because it is much harder to pull cold qi upward than to pull hot qi downward. Hot energy, which is yang, is very mobile, but cold energy which is yin is not so mobile. In dealing with Kd.1 (Yongquan) as a heat level controller, there are basic four ways to look at the yin/yang balancing. We can tonify or sedate with either acupunctureormoxibustion. More precisely, we can either tonify or sedate cold qi or hot qi with acupuncture. With moxibustion, we can also sedate cold qi at any level of the Sanjiao, hook down hot qi from upper or middle Sanjiao, tonify hot qi of lower Sanjiao, or connect hot qi from bottom to top. When we are using Kd.1 (Yongquan) to warm up the cold lower part of the Sanjiao, it should be tonified with moxibustion. When we want to bring excessive heat down from upper Sanjiao, we can pull down heat by using a sedation technique with sharp moxibustion heat. If we want to simply neutralize the upper Sanjiao heat with Kd.1 (Yongquan), we can sedate that heat by strong sedation needling technique aftercontactingtheupperSanjiaoheatatthepoint.Ifwewanttoreinforcethefunctionof Kd.1 (Yongquan), that is to expell heavy toxic qi out, we can simply sedate the congested heatattheKd.1(Yongquan)point. Strangely enough, if we want to contact the upper Sanjiao heat at the Kd.1 (Yongquan) point, we should insert the needle deep, and we should start doing bird pecking(actuallypickingout,notpeckingin)techniqueuntilheatissensedattheneedle tip. Such a technique is called by our school, fishing or hooking. In this case, it is customary thinking that heat should be on the superficial level is inappropriate. This is becausewhenthereisnobloodflow,thereisnoclearqiflow.And,thereismoreheatin the deeper level of the cold feet than on the superficial level. Of course, when we are coolingahotfoot,weshouldinserttheneedleshallow. C.V.1 (Huiyin) point has the very same function as Kd.1 (Yongquan). But, C.V.1 (Huiyin) has a special characteristics of the yin qi that is more crystaline, contracting, accumulative,andimmobile.SincetheC.V.1(Huiyin)isconnectingRenmaiandDumai which are the vital meridians of human body, many false death cases are revived by triggeringtheextremeyinqiandcrystalizedyangqiatthepointtoactivateanddisperse such qi upward through Tantien. Another name for C.V.1 (Huiyin) is Xiachi meaning extreme of the lower Sanjiao characteristics. However, do not disregard the other yin/yang aspect of C.V.1 (Huiyin) which is fire of water. This fire element is due to its position, the bottom gate of Tantien. Naturally, the fire action of C.V.1 (Huiyin) can be vigorous, but, it is a very superficial one. The fire action is very easily lost by being crystalized into yin at this position. The fact that C.V.1 (Huiyin) being yin of yin, and Kd.1 (Yongquan) being yangof yin is through different aspects of yin/yang differentiantionthansimplytheaspectsofcoldandhot.Inthethreecharts,Fig.1,2,3,the inward/outwardconceptisasimportantasthecold/hotconcept,andthesetwoconcepts areoverlappedinthecharts.

Kd.1 (Yongquan) has an important fuction to root the qi downward expelling cold heavy toxic qi. Therefore the feet should be relatively colder to achieve this action. However, if feet are kept too cold, the downward movement of yang qi of the body (mobility is yang, and the qi going down in the body is yang qi) stops and qi going upward also stops. That is to say, Taiyang/Shaoyin transformation between U.B.67 (Zhiyin) and Kd.1 (Yongquan) becomes hindered and the kidney meridian cannot carry much qi to support kidney action. If there is not enough hot yang qi in the Sanjiao, the decreased level of qi flow and the sluggish movement of the bladder and kidney qi can cause cold feet indicating low vital energy. Kd.1 (Yongquan), while this is a cold yin point, can be activated usually by heat tonification techniques with moxibustion, and it is a very effective point for many urgent conditions like unconsciousness due to stroke, cardiacarrest,sunstroke,etc. In general, Kd.1 (Yongquan) is effective to heat up the lowerSanjiao (urogenital system, lower gastrointestinal tract), to reinforce the kidneyliver qi transformation (five elementally this wood elemental jingwell point is a gate of tonification from kidney to liver tonification cycle) which many times concerns nerve stress and insomnia due to hyperactivity of nerves and endocrinal glands, to lower the heat level of the upper Sanjiao (especially of the head, heart, lung) and/or to stop the heat rising into the upper Sanjiao,andtofreeupfrozenqiforemergencies. Kd.1 (Yongquan) is asonpoint(wood,thesonofwater)andisusedtosedatekidney meridian qi flow. But, because of the strong heat/cold polarity action of the point, sedatingkidneywaterelemementthroughthispointisnoteasilydone. The second point of the kidney meridian, Kd.2 (Rangu), is also the first point of Yinqiaomai.Yinqiaomai(RongmaiorDragonChannel)springshere,soitsnicknameis Rongquan(dragonspring).Kd.2(Rangu)isafireofwaterelementpointresonatingwith root of tongue and water of fire element of heart Ht.3 (Shouhai) and fire element of Sanjiao, T.W.2 (Yemen). All three points are very effective points for cracked tongue and manyothertongue,heartconditionsandbleedingcondtions(especiallywaterelemental organs, like hemorrhage of uterus, kidney, bladder, etc.). To be specific and to illustrate thedifferencebetweenKd.2(Rangu)andT.W.2(Yemen)forthedrycrackingtongue,one should tonify at T.W.2 (Yemen) because it is the water of fire of Shaoyang; and sedate at Kd.2 (Rangu) because it is the fire of water of Shaoyin. In this case of sedation at Kd.2 (Rangu),needlingshouldbedoneatashallowlevelsoasnottodamagetheYinqiaoand Kidney meridians which feed the fundamental water element. As we all know from the primary needling techniques, for each acupuncture point there are basically five needlingdepths:lung,heart,spleen,liverandkidney. Yinqiao mai starts at Kd.2 (Rangu), but it is not the representative point for the Yinqiaomai,instead,Kd.6(Zhaohai)representstheYinqiaomai. Kd.3 (Taixi) is in the oppsite positionofU.B.60(Kunlun).AsaYuanpointofShaoyin meridian, it communicates with Ht.7 (Shenmen) of Heart meridian (polarity); both of these points are Shu stream earth element of Shaoyin. Kd.3 (Taixi) is earth of water of Shaoyin,Ht.7(Shenmen)isearthoffireofShaoyin.Oneinterestingindicationforbothof these points is constipation. The way these points activate the colon is through splenic

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action going down to Tantien. U.B.60 (Kunlun) is a fire of water element of Taiyang, and it is exactly oppsite side of the Kd.3 (Taixi) and it can be specially effective for diarrhea inthemorning(ShaoyindiarrheaatthetimeofMao,imperialfire,yinwood). The Luo point of the kidney meridian, Kd.4 (Dazhong), communicates with U.B.58 (Feiyang). Both of these points are involved in urination activity of the kidney and the bladder. As much as the entire kidney meridian is also called as Dazhong mai, the connection with the Bladder meridian of Taiyang at this point is very often noted. A goodexampleofapplyingthisLuopointistotonifyatthispointforbackacheduetothe deficiency of kidney and bladder. Another good use of this Luo point is to strengthen entire nervous system and brain activity, because Dazhong enables the tonification of both jing (endocrinal) properties of the kidney meridian and qi (nervous) quality of the bladdermeridian. There are three Xi points in the kidney meridian: Kd.5 (Shuiquan), Xi of Kidney meridian; Kd.8 (Jiaoxin), Xi of Yinqia; and Kd.9 (Zhubin), Xi of Yinwei. When we are using Xi points to release the overflowing qi of the meridian (e.g., overthrusting and forming wind element in theflow),itisimportantnottooverreleasetocauseweakness ofanyotherbenignareas.ToillustratetheexamplesofthedifferentuseofthesethreeXi points, in wind sedation: Shuiquan is very effective for bladder, uterus and kidney contraction, Jiaoxin is very effective for contraction of vagina, testicle, urinary tract, heart, diaphragm, tongue, eosphagus (following Yinqiao mai); and Zhubin is very effective for contraction of large intestine (illiocecal valve), gall bladder, pancreas, vocal cord,etc. Kd.6(Zhaohai)hasanotherfamousname,Yinqiao.Thisisthepointwheresomuchis happening. Zhaohai is a confluent point of Yinqiao mai, and is the practical valve between kidney meridian and Yinqiao channel. Together with Jiaxin, it is a coalescent point for Yinqiao mai. Together with U.B.62 (Shenmai), the confluent point of Yangqiao, it balances Shaoyin qi of kidney and Taiyang of bladder meridians. It is also yin and yang between Yinqiao and Yangqiao. Because of the such yin and yang balancing effect of Zhaohai and Shenmai, they are very effective for balancing jing (organic function, emotion) and shen (mental and nerve function). Of course, Shenmai and Zhaohai are a polaritypair.And,YinqiaoandYangqiaoareapolaritymeridianpair. As a representing point of the Yinqiao mai, Zhaohai does almost everything Yinqiao mai would do just as if it has the full control of the Yinqiao mai. In many old texts of acupuncture, Zhaohai has been described as one of the two most important points for gynecological conditions. The other point is Sp.6 (Sanyinjiao). One reason is that the connections of the meridians of kidney, liver, gall bladder happen at the same places as where Yinqiao, Yinwei, Chong and Dai mai communicate, which is thru Ren mai points on the lower abdomen (Guanyuan, Qugu, Zhongji, Shenque). Shenque also connects with G.B.26 (Daimai), and thru Shenque, Zhaohai connects to G.B.26 (Daimai) on the Gall Bladdermeridian,forminganotherpolaritypointspair.AnotherreasonisthatZhaohaiis in polarity with Ren mai thru Lu.7 (Lieque). Lieque is in supporting relation with the ChongmaithruSp.4(Gongsun). AnotherimportantfactofZhaohaiisthatZhaohaicanreleaseoverflowofqijustlike Xi point. Simply because it is branching kidney meridian out into Yinqiaomai. Taking

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advantage of all these facts of the Zhaohai, a good example of indications is appendicitis.Thewayithelpstheappendicitisissoeffective(usuallyusedwithShanqiu (Sp5), you can decide against the diagnosis when Zhaohai did not eliminate the pain around the appendix, almost immediately. Another famous point for appendicitis is Kunlun, in the same way. But, the mechanisms of these two points working against appendicitis are not the same. Zhaohai reaches Jingming (UB1) through Shenmai and Yangqiao mai, and meets kidney meridian, stomach meridian and bladder meridian at the point. Since Zhubin reaches the same point, but thru different course, Zhubin and Zhaohaiareoftenusedtogethertocontrolcomplexhotandcoldsituationofkidneyand bladder, like bladderinfectionbybacteriaandyeastatthesametime(or,yeastinfection overlappedbybacterialinfection). Traditionally, Fuliu is the only point on the kidney meridian to be used with moxibustiontotonifykidneyqi.ThemostinterestingfactindoingmoxibustiononFuliu isthatweareapplyingfiretoadjustthemetalthatisthemotherofwaterelementofthe kidney meridian. In general, the kidney meridian contains lesser blood and greater qi (Shao Xue Duo qi), which means that Shaoyin quality of imperial fire is its main qi characteristics. This can lead many scholars into miscomprehension. It sounds fine to tonify shoyin to strengthen the kidney meridian with moxibustion, but, in practice, it is very difficult not to weaken Jing (blood factor of kidney meridian, lesser blood in the kidney already) by amplifying qi (greater qi in the kidney meridian already) with fire in moxibustion. This is not an absolute rule for Fuliu being the only point to be handled with moxibustion in the meridian, but Fuliu is a good reminder of such fact of the kidney meridian. It is very important to understand the simple five elemental rule in this example that can later lead into much more complicate involvements. Another important concept in Shao Xue Duo qi in kidney meridian is that the meridian can easily lack qi because it needs to keep high content of qi than xue. It does not have surplusofqitogiveaway. The locations of Fuliu andSanjiaoxin have been controvercial for ages; according to one school, Fuliu is located in front ofSanjiaoxin, and according to the other school (most),SanjiaoxinislocatedinfrontofFuliu.Regardingwhichisthecorrectlocations,we should understand the characteristics ofSanjiaoxin more precisely.Sanjiaoxin is the Xi of Yinqiao, and also, the coalescent point of Yinqiao.Sanjiaoxin is the point that directly connects to the Stomach meridian thru Yinqiao mai.Sanjiaoxin and Quepen (St12) are in thedirectcontact.Sanjiaoxincontrolstheflowofthethreeyinmeridiansoflegsbyletting them open to the three yang meridians of legs. In order to balance the Yangming of stomach meridian,Sanjiaoxin should locate on a more symetric position to the stomach meridian.Becarefulinthesymetricityofyin/yanghere.Itisnotthe180degreeopposite side of the circle, instead, it is the mirror view. Lets look at the Fig.a, and fold along the horizontal line that divides yin and yang. Yangming of leg meridian flows very closely to the anterior crest of the tibia. Anterior crest of the tibia is like a border line between yangming and taiyin of the leg. The entire posterior view of the leg is dominated by the Taiyang meridian (Taiyang meridian dominates the back portion of the human body

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because other yang meridians tend to curve to the front. And, for this reason, the Taiyang meridian of leg double or triple the flow to protect the back.) The Taiyin and Jueyin of the leg become pushed to the medial surface of thetibia.TheKidneymeridian is pushed close to the medial margin of the tibia. Naturally, a point connecting these two, yangming and shaoyin meridians should be close to the border, the tibia, to be more symetrically located, especially because yangming meridian locates close to the border. It is correct to locateSanjiaoxin 1/2 cun in front of Fuliu, instead of locating Fuliu in front ofSanjiaoxin. When you locateSanjiaoxin correctly, you should be able to feel strongsensationreachingQuepenofStomachmeridian.Thisway,Sanjiaoxincompresses the 3 yin leg meridians and connects to the yangming of the leg. Also, this compressing movement of the kidney meridian toward the other two yin meridians causes the Sanyinjiao (three yin connection, SP6) to open up on the spleen meridian. At Sanyinjiao, many unusaual activities happen as the three types of yin qi are pulled at thecorrect position of the Taiyin, once, and then, escape back to disorderly positioning again. The anatomical twist of the tibia and fibula also contributes to this disorderly distribution of the 3 yin leg meridians on the calf. We should discuss the seemingly reversed distribution of the Jueyin and Taiyin under the Sanyinjiao level at the time we discuss the spleen meridian or liver meridian. However, the most important fact is that because of these disorderly manners of the Jueyin and Taiyin of leg, the special point like Sanyinjiao is created on the spleen meridian. At Sanyinjiao, the torque of 3 combining yin qi throws the Jueyin meridian very deep into the bone level, and pushes the Taiyin more superficial. And, since the Jueyin of leg becomes very deep, actual flow of the meridian is not so reversed with the Taiyin, even though the anatomical twist of the ankle joint misrepresents the Jueyin flow of the leg. The actual distribution of the two meridians can be looked at the angle of the foot matching the angle of the hand by medialrotationofthefoot.Atsuchangle,visualizetheJueyinmeridianinthemiddleof the metatarsal bone, and the Taiyin on the surface. This will give a correct visual allocation of the meridians of foot. At Sanyinjiao, we can contact liver meridian in the very deep level (bone level), the spleen meridian in the superficial level, and the kidney meridian in the middle. Locating kidney qi at the shallower level than liver qi level is veryunusual,however,thatiswhatweactuallyencounteratSanyinjiao.Gettingbackto the Fuliu andSanjiaoxin, supprisingly, one of the important texts of acupuncture, Chin KiuDaCheng,illustratesthewronglocationsforthesetwopoints.

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Fig.X:Apracticalguidetothedivisionofmeridianenergyintheleftleg.

The course of the kidney meridian should not skip the Sanyinjiao of the spleen meridian. BetweenSanjiaoxin and Zhubin, Sanyinjiao pulls the kidney meridian anteriorlybeforeitreleasesbacktotheitsoriginalcourse. As we have already discussed before, Zhubin is a remarkable point of the kidney meridian. This is where the kidney meridian and spleen meridian (Fushe, Sp13) combines thru Yinwei mai. Further, it provides the contact with the liver meridian thru qimen (Liv14), and also, the contact with the Ren mai thru Tiantu (Ren22). Fushe connects to Guanyuan and Zhongji of Ren mai to move to the next point Fujie (Sp14). This means that Zhubin has almost direct contact with Guanyuan of Ren, reaching Zhongji.Thisisthereasonwhythispointissoeffectiveforlowerabdominalconditions, and problems of testicles by evoking the actions of both kidney and Ren. Basically, ZhubinisapointthatbelongsmoreintheYinweimaithaninthekidneymeridian.Itisa natural Xi point for the Yinwei releasing its overflow very easily to the Yinqiao by kidney meridian flow (atSanjiaoxin), which means that Zhubin obtains extra benefits from Renying (St9), and even from the bladder meridian thru Jingming (UB1). At Jingming, Yangqiao is met, and Zhubin is resonated by Zhaohai thru Shenmai. Some ancient texts consider Zhubin as accumulation point of Yinqiao mai, and consider it belongbothtoYinqiaoandYinwei.ItsstrongXipointqualityhasbeentakenadvantage by being used as a detoxification point. As Zhubin leaks the Yinwei mai flow, it also leaks the pericardium meridian thru the connection with the confluent point of Yinwei, Neiguan (P6). Neiguan is paired by Waiguan (TB5), which means Zhubin is involved withtheSanjiaomeridianactivitiesthoughYangweimai.

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Yingu is such an important point for so many kidney involvements. It is hard not to mention its WATER elemental quality in the WATER of SHAOYIN of LOWER extremeties. It is very worthwhile thinking about this over and over again. The utmost crystallinewaterelementalqicanbecontactedthruonlythispointthroughouttheentire body. You can tonify this element so easily thru this point, and you can even affect the liver thru Yinqiao mai, because Yingu connects directly to liver meridian by connecting Ququan (Liv8). One thing to remember is that, because of such five elmental relation between Yingu and Ququan (water of water, water of wood, water being mother of wood in the meridian level, and in the relation between element of the point and the element of meridian), tonification of Yingu automatically tonifies the liver meridian, as well as the kidney meridian. Sedation is rarely recommended on this point, just like Guanyuan.SedationofsuchelementcanbeachievedatSanyinjiaoatmidlevelofdepth without damaging Jing of kidney. Yingu, also, connects down to the center of heel. For this reason, Yingu has often been selected as an extra point for treating sharp burning painoftheheels. We all know how famous Yangchi (SJ4) is for providing immediately usableinstantSanjiaovitalenergy.YinguisthepairingpointforYangchi.WhileYangchi provides true shaoyang minister fire type of vigour to the body, Yingu cultivates the true core of Jing. This is a must point for all types of kidney difficiency. Another important fact of this point is that we should be extra careful locating it between two tendons at the medial border of popliteal fossa. Make sure that it is located exactly, and the needle tip should be in the proper depth and angle (midkidney level, very shallow angle of opproximately 15 degree upward). Otherwise, we do notfullybenefitfromthis miraculous point. A very interesting meridian connection happens at this point. Yingu directly contacts Changqiang of Du. As we have already described, through Dumai, Yingu reaches Mingmen and both kidneys. From Mingmen, Yingu extends to Sanjiao of Bladder meridian. Through Changqiang, Yingu contacts Renmai, than Guanyuan. In other words, Yingu enters the Tantien in two ways simultaneously thru two very important part of the body, kidneys and Guanyuan (its nick name is XiaTantien, meaninglowerTantienpoint;upperTantien,orShangTantienisRentang,middleTantien, or ZhongTantien is Shanzhong). From Changqiang, Yingu also connects to Chong mai thru Henggu (K11) and C.V.1 (Huiyin). Chong sources out from Tantien. Now, we can clearly see how Yingu is sending water element Yin qi upward in three complete routes toward the core of the Tantien. The connection between Yingu and Yinlingquan (Sp9) providesthestronginfluenceofYingutothethreevitalorgansinvolvedinreproduction (liver,spleen,kidney). At Henggu, there are many meridians crossing. Chongmai, Ren, Spleen, Stomach meridians are all communicating with kidney meridian at this point (along the superior border of symphysis pubis). The most strong connection here , of course, thru Chongmai, is Ren mai meridian at C.V.1 (Huiyin) and Qugu. This makes the Henggu to connect to Du, also. According to a classic, Jiukonglun, Chongmai rises from qichong (St30) and connects to Henggu, instead of rising from C.V.1 (Huiyin) of Ren. Even though this is not a proper allocation of Chongmai path, such connection still supports the strong communication between Henggu and Stomach meridian through qichong. Chongmen (Sp12) communicates with the Henggu to connect with Spleen meridian.

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Chongmai,fromChongmen,flowsthroughspleenmeridianandreachesGongsun(Sp4), confluent point of Chong. Because Chong , at Youmen, fades into the chest entering heart and lung, Henggu is selected to treatfalse fire type of yin difficiency syndroms involving upperSanjiao heat, including the disorders of reproductive system and urogenitalorgans. Dahe is not a such popular point in the kidney meridian, however, there are many unusual activities going on at Dahe. Due to two neighboring points of the meridian, Henggu and qixue, the selection of Dahe is not so often made. Another reason for not being often selected is that Dahe locates very deep, and it is very hard to reach the effective level of depth. Dahe also supports Zhongji of Ren. A very strong horizontal resonance between Ren, Kidney, Stomach and Spleen meridians occurs at this point. Fushe of spleen meridian and Yinwei mai even more strongly relate to Dahe. Dahe has often been considered as a part of Yinwei (the nick name of Dahe is Yinwei). Dahe contacts directly with Fushe (Sp13), Jimai (Lv12), Zhongji (Ren3) and Guanyuan (Ren4), and enters into the urinary bladder. Dahe is usually selected as a health point, not a medical one. It is because Dahe affects kidney and its related urogenital organs through splenic activity and Yinwei connection rather than through powerful Chongmai, Yinqiaomai and Renmai actions. Due to strong involvement of Tantien and kidneys at this level, kidney meridian at this point gets extremely deep upto the organic level (bladder), and gets merged back out into Renmai between Zhongji and Guanyuan. Than, with the help of strong Chongmai action at the qixue, it appears back on the correctpositionandlevelofdepthofshaoyinmeridiancontinuingitspathupward. LeftqixueiscalledBaomenmeaningGateofWomb.RightqixueiscalledTzehu meaning Home of Fetus. qixue connects Ren mai and Chong. While Guanyuan is proper point to tonify Tantien qi, qixue provides Chong qi and Ren mai qi to the uterus. And, of couse, kidney qi. qixue has been the most popular selection for all types of infertility for this reason. Bianque, a legendary physician, strongly suggested the use of qixue for infertility with moxibustion tonifying techniques. qixue is also very famous for Chongqicontrol,andselectedfordysmenorrhea,especiallytocontroltheflowofblood, eitherpositivleyornegatively.Baomenismorerelatedtoperiodcontrolforwomen,and Zuhu is more related to ovulation and fertility. There are many points connecting Ren mai and Chong. But, qixue is the most powerful Ren/Chong connecting point, therefore itcanevenbecalledLuoofChong. Zhongzhu is also a strong Chong/Ren mai connecting point thru Yinjiao of Ren. Zhongzhucanbeselectedforthesameactionsasqixueswithoutstrongimpactpossible at qixue or at Yinjiao of Ren. Since Yinjiao is a accumulation point of Ren, Zhongzhu naturally bleeds into Yinjiao, and into Ren. For this reason, Zhongzhus use in breaking the blocks between middle and lowerSanjiaos is very effective. Commonly Shenque of Ren mai (umblicus) is the landmark of dividing between middle and lowerSanjiao, but Yinjiao, Huangshu, Tianshu of Stomach meridian are actually forming the border line between the twoSanjiaos. Naturally, Huangshu has a greater influence to the activity of YinjiaothanZhongzhu.

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BeforeZhongzhu,SimanisonthesamehorizontallevelasShimenofRen.Shimenis so well known for disconnecting Ren mai qi that feeds into the uterus. Siman is communicating with Ren mai thru Shimen and its action in Ren/Chong connection is to stop Chong qi flow into the Ren mai and uterus. This activity is taken advantage in selecting Siman to control the flow of menstration without damaging the ability of getting pregnant in female body. Siman is energetically resonating with Xuanzhong (GB39), the influential point for marrow, and Siman is called marrow house. In the same way Xuanzhong pairs with Sanyinjiao, Siman retains more horizontal connection with spleen and liver meridians. Water is in the core of the extreme fire. When fire qi reachesitsextreme,itstartscrystalizingintowaterqi.Jingisyinextremewater(withfire in its core), and marrow is yin extreme of Jing. If we call Yingu the point of Jing, Siman is the point of marrow that is the most extreme yin nature of human body. Naturally, Siman can not be substituted for Yingu, nor vice versa. However, if a disease is related tothecourseofJingandmarrowtransformation,SimanandYinguhavetobeartificially resonated by proper acupuncture techniques to contact the two extreme yin manifestations of yin category versus yang. Jing is an end product, and so is marrow. However, marrow is not the final goal of yin qi. Jing is more of a goal for yin qi transformation in the body. Marrow is the product of Jing, however, it, in turn, controls the Jing development. This is just like the brain controling nervous system, even though nervous system bears the brain. Another example is in the relation between 12 meridians and Ren/Du; 12 meridians bear the Ren/Du, but Ren/Du mai controls over 12 meridians. This is the reason why Yingu and Siman are so different from each other, whilebotharedealingwithyinofyin. Looking at the meridian distribution on the abdomen and chest, stomach meridian of Yangming is closer to shaoyin kidney meridian than the other two yin meridians of liver of Jueyin and spleen of Taiyin. The Yangming stomach meridian, like Taiyang bladdermeridianontheback,dominatesthefrontofthebodyanditbecomesthemajor Weiqi (protective qi) flow of the front. Since the Yangming wei qi rather floats over the skin surface, stomach meridian flows very superficially, while kidney meridian flows quite deep in the flesh. In other words, the stomach meridian does not really take over the space between spleen and kidney meridian on the same anterior yin level surface of body. It is over the layer of 3 yin meridians on the yin surface (abdominal surface), and for this reason, the stomach meridian does not readily communicate horizontally with other3yinmeridiansofthelegontheabdominalandchestarea. AtHuangshu,kidneymeridianentersdirectlyintothekidneys(adrenalglands)thru bladder. Which means that Chongmai enters into kidneys directly thru this point. And, Huangshu further connects to Shenshu (UB23), Zhishi (UB52), Huangmen (UB51), Sanjiaoshu (UB22) and Mingmen (Du4). Because Huangshu and Shenshu, Huangshu and Huangmen form two pairs of polarity points for the kidneys, the usage of these pairsinregardstokidneyconditionsisverydiverse.Huangshu,astheconnectingpoint between Du mai and Chong, thru Mingmen, presents a very unique action. The Chong syndroms (conditions caused by Chongmai flow) due to nervous system, like a sudden period due to nerve stress, are well controlled at this point. Therefore, infertility due to qi,notXue,canbeaidedthruthispoint.Ofcourse,allotherChongconditionsduetoDu

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mai conditions are applicable (conditions of heart, lung, diaphragm, kidney, uterus, ovary, genital, and etc. that are due to mental stress). The letterHuang usually means tip of sternum or diaphragm, however, in the two points like Huangshu and Huangmen, it indicates the tip of the kidneys (adrenal glands). It is very proper for Chongmai to be connected with Dumai at Huangshu, because Huangshu is directly dealing with adrenal, instead of direct dealing with kidneys. The kidneys and adrenals both deal with Jing, but they are in yin/yang realation. The adrenals deal more with qi (especially weiqi) , while kidneys deal more with Xue (and, yingqi). The adrenals respond to Du mai (and nerves) following the six qi rule, while kidneys respond to organic balance follwing five elemental rule. Huangshuisalsoadividingpointbetween lowerandmiddleSanjiaoinconnectionwithYinjiaoofRen. Shangqu is the point where Chong mai knots and amplifies its flow to add the strength by induction of Yingqi of Ren mai . In Renmai, through the actions of Shangwan,Zhongwan,Xiawan,threeRenmaipoints,Yangmingqiofstomachmeridian entering into stomach organ transforms into Yingqi of Ren. And, this Yingqi joins the Chong stream at Shangqu which belongs in both Shaoyin and Chong. Therefore, Shangqu is a transformation point of Yingqi to Xueqi of Chong. At this level, kidney meridianismorerelatedtoRenmaiactivitiesthanitspertainingorgan,kidney.Sincethe Stomach Yangming qi prevails the entire upper abdominal area, a point like Shangqu cannotpenetratedeepintoorgansorotheryinmeridians.ThestreamofYingqijoinning Chong (from Ren mai to Shaoyin) is muchmorepowerful,anditishardforthepointto root out into organs. Other than the contact with liver meridian thru Zhangmen, at Shangqu, not much connection is made with urogenital organs. Zhangmen (Liv13) is also a spleen mu point, and this amplifies the spleen influence over stomach depending uponliverresponse.SedationatShangquforstomachcrampsisthroughZhangmenand liver organ, not thru resonance with yangming stomach meridian. It is also thru releasing condensation (cold) of stomach qi thru Chongmai which is accepting Yingqi from Zhongwan of Ren. For another instance, the application of Shangqu for uterine cramps is not done by directly following the Chong or kidney meridian paths (even though YinDu mai and Tonggu are resonated by Zhangmen, Shangqu does not directly resonate YinDu mai or Tonggu). In this case, Shangqu controls over the rejected spleen qi by liver (which is already liver qi), and inturn, sent to the uterus. Here, Shangqu affects liver through Zhangmen instead of Chong and Ren mai directly, and it only resonatesChongmaiandRenmaiatthelowerSanjiao,notatthehorizontallevel. Shiguan and YinDu mai have very similar actions as Shangqu, including the subtle contact with stomach , liver and spleen. The affect towards the entire Chongmai is almost the same as what we saw in the relationship of Shangqu with Chongmai. But, very differently from Shangqu, Shiguan hasanabrupt,hardandthinflowofqiwhichis due to the normalizing action of Chongmai after the strong surge of extra Chong qi at Shangqu. For this reason, working with Shiguan requires extra attention, especially in the cases of pregnant females. It is very easy to disconnect Chong qi at this point. Reminding another important basic facts, Chong qi is always contacted by needle at the deeper level than kidney shaoyin qi, and it is because Chongmai (its nick name is Xuehai, meaning ocean of Xue) has more Xue than qi (Duo Xue Shao qi). The letterShi

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meansstone.Inchinese,stonemeanssterile.TheletterShiinShimenofRenmaiisthe samecharacterasinShiguan. Yindu, being at the level of and contact with Zhongwan which is connnected with lung,isthefirstdirectinvolvementofkidneymeridianwithlungthruthemeridianpath thru Zhongwan. The only effective use of this point as a Chong point is to treat infertility that is due to spleeen and stomach related Yingqi deficiency. Yindu, like Shangqu, is one of the strong transformation point between Yingqi and Xue. Zhongwan is a point where yinyang organs (Zhang and Fu) are fed with transforming Yingqi, and where all meridians pass through. Yindu, also, has the quality of feeding kidney meridian as Zhongwan sends its Yingqi. The kidney qi that passes thru liver and echoes at Zhangmen (Liv13), also, resonates at YinDu mai thru Zhongwan. Zhongwan and Zhangmen form a polarity pair. To connect Zhangmen (liver and spleen activity) to Chongmai , or to feed Yingqi of Zhongwan to Chongmai, but without involving other meridians, and without dangering the normal function of Shangqu and Shiguan, YinDu mai is a very proper selection. To lead nourishing (Ying) qi of stomach earth element typekidneyJingintotheliverorspleen,YinDumaiisveryoftenselected. Tonggu has a good energetical relation with lung and liver. It is not a direct connection with Zhangmen of Liver meridian like YinDu mai (Tonggu has some resonance with Zhangmen), but the indirect involvement with lung and liver better serves to resonate liver and lung meridians with Du. This situation of Tonggu is often taken advantage to treat emotional instability, especially fear turning into anger with disharmony between heart and lung. Also, Tonggu can be resonated in the course of liver to lung qi transmission. This characteristics of Tonggu is applied to control the spastic conditions in the respiratory system. The horizontal connection with Shangwan ofRenmailetsthiskidneypointtoinvolvewithepigastricconditions,ofcoursewiththe spasticandcontractingliverqiinvolvement. YoumenisthelastpointoftheChongmai,andfromhereChongdispersesintochest cavity to contact lung, pericardium and heart. Youmen is the gate of qi entering into earth elemental (center) stomach. The direct connection between Youmen and cardiac orfice of stomcah lets this point to have a good control over keeping or releasing (rejecting) food. The energetical similarity between the action of this point receiving qi (Yingqi),andkeepingit,orloosingit,andtheactionofmemorycausesapolaritypairin one location in this point. In other words, to reserve memories, Youmen must be in the receptive mode. The involvement of stomach action and heart action at Youmen can showvomitifheartshaoyinrushesintokidneyshaoyinthruYoumenleadinginto.Such conditions are seen often in the emotional crisis, like fear of losing , fear of detachment. In such case Ht.8 (Shaofu) and Youmen can be used as releasing points, and these two pointscanslowtheheartratebygivingfullmovementtoheartbyfreeingtheheartqito lung and pericardium, and makes the breathing deeper. Connection of Ht.8 (Shaofu) with G.V.20 (Baihui) also allows the release of nerve tension, and the connection with C.V.1 (Huiyin) allows storing qi, and the connection with Kd.1 (Yongquan) allows transformationofliveranxietyintousefulkidneyvitalqi. Bulang is the first kidney point on the chest moving away from Ren. The cause of this distance from Ren mai is the sternum in the center. And, naturally, shaoyin qi

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positions where it can obtain the proper depth. As a result, the resonance of Ren mai to kidney meridian becomes less effective. From this point on, kidney meridian involves more to local organs in the chest, especially, lung, because of the strong yin/yang polarity relation between kidney and lung. Due to such kidney/lung polarity, internal flow of lung meridian and the shaoyin kidney meridian flow through the same channel fromGuanyuanlevelmovingupwarduptoTiantuofRen,(atTiantu,lungandkidneyqi separate); kidney meridian is under the lung channel, and Chongmai is under kidney meridian.ThesixpointshereonarehorizontalyconnectedwithRenmaiandYangming of stomach meridian. The undercurrent of upper stomach meridian from qishe (St11) contributestokidneymeridiandownwardtoBulang,andupwardtotherootoftongue. Shufu connects to both qihu and qishe of stomach meridian, and Shufu reaches Quepen (St12). Quepen connects directly with lung meridian thru Zhongfu and connects with largeintestinemeridians,also.QuepenextendstoJiquan(H1).Aswehavenotedbefore, Quepen andSanjiaoxin are in direct contact. The six points on the chest, therefore, retain stronger influence by stomach meridian on the chest (St11 to St 18). If we select one stomach point that influence and resonate the strongest on these six points, it is, of course, Quepen. Quepen of stomach meridian will be carefully discussed in the future for these complex involvement with many other meridians. Bulang is a point where kidney meridian separates from Ren mai and Chong, also. Bulang helps the kidney qi exit from yin to yang (more yang than the previous 11 points). The eleven points from Henggu to Youmen are in the correct position as shaoyin leg meridian. These eleven points are forming Chongmai to support Xue activity of kidney meridian. Because of Ren mai supporting Chong, the actual kidney meridian is lifted above Chongmai flow transforming into more yang type kidney qi. As a result, Chong is flowing in deeper level, while kidney meridian surfaces with more heat. Dahe, as we have discussed already, however penetrates very deep upto the bladder. Precisely speaking, the eleven points of kidney meridian, not of Chongmai, are involved with heat in the kidney shaoyin water category. This fact is often applied in treating infectious condition of urogenitalsystem,ear,eye,etc. Shenfeng is a place where Shen of heart is sealed in. The heart qi extending to Shenfeng releases into kidney meridian, while Youmen tends to release kidney qi into heart. Quepen and Jiquan are resonated on this point, and it is important not to shock this quiet merge of two shaoyin qi (yin and yang, kidney and heart). Shenfeng, Shencang, Shendao (Du11), Shenmen (Ht7), Shentang (Bl44) are all related to heart (Shen, spirit), and they all pull qi out of lung and inject it into heart. All these points are vital points selected in Dimmak attack in internal kungfu to cause cardiac arrest at exhalation. YuzhongandShufuhavegoodcontactswithlung,heart,noseandtongue.Yuzhong, beingmoreyin,itinvolveswithyinwateroftheseorgansmorecloselythanShufudoes. Yuzhong is connected to mucus glands (yin), while Shufu is connected to the surface temperature (yang). For example, Yuzhong can be used to slow down excessive salivation,andShufucanbeusedtotreatcrackedtongueordrynose. Shufu is the last point of kidney meridian connecting to pericardium and heart. The direct connection with qihu, qishe, Quepen, Zhongfu and Jiquan has been discussed

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already.Shufu,asitextendstoheart,providesapolaritywithShanzhong(Ren17)which is a Mu point of pericardium. Shufu is, therefore, in contact more with heart than lung. Since it has a direct contact with Quepen, Shufu is useful releasing hearttokidney shaoyinqithruQuepen. The relationship between Quepen, Jianjing (GB21), Jugu (LI16), Renying (St9), Dazhui(Du14),Naohu(Du17)shouldbefurtherdiscussedinthefuture. Around kidney meridian, Shufu, qihu, qishe, Quepen,Sanjiaoxin, Zhubin, Shenmai, Zhaohai, Jiquan, Zhongfu, Renying, Dahe, Zhongwan, Shanzhong, Gongsun, Kd.1 (Yongquan),Ht.8(Shaofu),G.V.20(Baihui),C.V.1(Huiyin)andmanyothermajorpoints areallcommunicatingwitheachotherrelatingtheactivitiesoflung,kidney,heart,liver, spleen of yin organs and stomach and all other yang organs directly thru qi path, and indirectly thru polarity and resonance. Ren, Chong, Yinqiao, Yinwei, Du, Yangqiao of extrachannelsarealsodirectlyconnectedtokidneymerdianandallothermeridiansare closelycommunicatingwithkidneymeridian. Kidney meridian extends its Mu point, through resonance of Zhangmen, in the Shaoyang leg meridian at Jingmen (GB25). Jingmen forms a polartiy pair with Shenshu (UB23). Jingmen is a transformation point where shaoyin can be turned into shaoyang. One of the profound and unique acupuncture techniques is in converting a type of perverse qi into more manageable qi, or exchanging the depth of perverse qi, usually from deeper level to more superficial level. Jingmen, as a kidney transformation point into shaoyang qi, is very useful point converting and superficializing fatal perverse qi action of kidneys, like terminal kidney cancer. To achieve such converting action at Jingmen, Shenshu is selected as a pair, and Shenshu is used to inject pure vital qi of kidneytoreplaceandfillinthevacuum.Guanyuan,Yingu,Yangchi,etc.arenotcapable of filling in the gap created by the converting action of Jingmen. Energetically, the only oppositepolarenergyofShenmenbalancestheJingmen.Allcancerousdiseasesseverely involvingbonemarrow,likeHodgekinsdisease,canbehelpedbyresonanceofJingmen toZhangmen,thantoDashu,Xuehai,Xuanzhong,Siman,andGeshu,etc.However,one should not try convertion technique unless he is sure of the method, because it could disperseperverseqiintohealthyyangorgansinstantly. PolarityPoints To organize some important polarity points mentioned in this kidney meridian study, the following polarity relationships between a set of points and channels are addedforbetterunderstanding. Zhaohai is in polarity with Lieque, and vice versa. Lieque is in polarity with Houxi, and viceversa.HouxiisinpolaritywithShenmai,andviceversa.Shenmaiisinpolarity withZhaohai,andviceversa. Neiquan is in polarity with Gongsun, and vice versa. Gongsun is in polarity with Linqi (Zulinqi), and vice versa. Linqi is in polarity with Weiguan, and vice versa. WeiguanisinpolaritywithNeiguan,andviceversa.

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ZhaohairepresentsYinqiaomai.LiequerepresentsRenmai.HouxirepresentsDumai. ShenmairepresentsYangqiaomai. Neiguan represents Yinweimai. Gongsun represents Chongmai. Linqi represents Daimai.WeiguanrepresentsYangweimai. Yinqiaomai is in polarity with Renmai, and vice versa. Renmai is in polarity with Dumai, and vice versa. Dumai is in polarity with Yangqiaomai, and vice versa. YangqiaomaiisinpolaritywithYinqiaomai,andviceversa. Yinweimai is in polarity with Chongmai, and vice versa. Chongmai is in polarity with Daimai, and vice versa. Daimai is in polarity with Yangweimai, and vice versa. YangmweimaiisinpolaritywithYinweimai,andviceversa. YinqiaomaiandYinweimaisupporteachother.RenmaiandChongmaisupporteach other. Dumai and Daimai support each other. Yangqiaomai and Yangweimai support eachother. Zhaohai and Neiguan support each other. Lieque and Gongsun support each other. HouxiandLinqisupporteachother.ShenmaiandWeiguansupporteachother. When one of these eight points is manipulated, all other seven points are simultaneously, and directly, as we see in the Fig.5, activated in seven different ways. Combininganyoftheseeightpointsrequiresthepropertechniquesofneedling,andone should be able to predict the outcome of the balance between the eight special channels anditsphysiologicalmanifestationimmediatelyaftertreatment.

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YINWEI

CHONG

YANGWEI

DAI

YINQIAO

REN

YANGQIAO

DU

POLARITY OF JIJINGBAMAI ( 8 EXTRA CHANNELS)

Lieque Houxi Shenmai

Weiguan

Zhaohai

Neiguan Linqi

Gongsun

Simplified JIMENBAFACHINFA fIG.5fIG6 These eight special channels and their points, also known as eight confluent points, are the core of the JIMENBAFA, an acupuncture system based on Bagua, eight trigrams, and eight extra channels. Jimenbafa system is one of the old taoistic acupuncture systems which is not commonly understood or taught in the more traditional schools of acupuncture. However, the discusssion in this article should inhence the understanding of such interesting relationships between these major points and meridians. And, the more proper use of these points should be encouraged. After

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thecompleteunderstandingofentiretwentychannels,weshouldsomedaydiscusssuch intriguing and interesting taoistic systems like Jimenbafa (8), Taichichinfa (2), Sishangchinfa (4), Wuxingchinfa (5), Baguachinfa (8), Jiukongchinfa (9), Chixingchinfa (7), Liuqichinfa (6), Tzewuchinfa (12), etc. As a matter of fact, any point formula in acupuncture has been based on one or more of these Iching systems, not from experiencesorcollectionsofAshipoints.Naturally,anyalteringofformulasshouldbe donewithoutcontradictingthesystemsimplied. The kidney meridian study here is not a perfect one, but we should stop looking at one meridian thru such a narrow angle from its own meridian. But it, hopefully, should encourage certain scholars to review some basic studies again to sophisticate their expertise even further. As we all are aware, it is impossible to know one thing perfectly without knowing the surroungding others, and even more impossible to describe it perfectly. Most of all, we should understand the whole picture, than we get to each component, than back to the whole matter, back and forth attatching the missing links. This way, we can deepen the understanding. At the end, the true understanding will be there, but, only in our minds. Sometime, we should have another chance to discuss kidneymeridianoveragaintodeepentheunderstandingwehavenow.

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