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DOE/NETL-2002/1169

Process Equipment Cost Estimation

Final Report

Prepared for:

National Energy Technology Center P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 and P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880

Prepared by:

H. P. Loh National Energy Technology Center P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940

Jennifer Lyons Charles W. White, III

EG&G Technical Services, Inc.

3604 Collins Ferry Road

Morgantown, West Virginia 26505

Suite 200

January, 2002

DISCLAIMER

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

ii

Table of Contents

Abstract

1

Background

1

Results and Usage

2

Assessment

3

Conclusions/Recommendations

4

Cost Curves

6-40

Vertical Vessel

6

Horizontal Vessel

7

Storage Tanks

8

Valve Tray Column – 15 psig

9

Valve Tray Column – 150 psig

10

Sieve Tray Column – 15 psig

11

Sieve Tray Column – 150 psig

12

Packed Column – 15 psig

13

Packed Column – 150 psig

14

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

16

Air Cooler

17

Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger

18

Furnace

19

Cooling Tower

20

Package Steam Boiler

21

Evaporators

22

Crushers

23

Mills

24

Dryers

25

Centrifuges

26

Filters

27

Agitator

28

Rotary Pump

29

iii

Inline Pump

30

Centrifugal Pump

31

Reciprocating Pump

32

Vacuum Pump

33

Reciprocating Compressor

34

Centrifugal Compressor

35

Centrifugal Fan

36

Rotary Blower

37

Gas Turbine

38

Steam Turbine – under 1000 Horsepower

39

Steam Turbine – over 1000 Horsepower

40

Cost Indexes

47

Appendix A

52

Appendix B

53

iv

List of Tables

Table 1

Packing Costs

15

Table 2

Distributive Factors for Bulk Materials - Solids Handling Processes

41

Table 3

Distributive Factors for Bulk Materials – Solids - Gas Processes

42

Table 4

Distributive Factors for Bulk Materials - Liquid and Slurry Systems

43

Table 5

Distributive Factors for Bulk Materials - Gas Processes

44

Table 6

Distributive Labor Factors for Setting Equipment

45

Table 7

Factors for Converting Carbon Steel to Equivalent Alloy Costs

46

Table 8

Engineering News Record Construction Cost Index

48

Table 9

Marshall and Swift Installed-Equipment Index

49

Table 10

Nelson-Farrar Refinery Construction Index

50

Table 11

Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index

51

v

Abstract

This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

Background

As part of its mission to identify and develop practical and viable processes for power production, chemicals processing, fuel processing, CO 2 capture and sequestration, and other environmental management applications, NETL engineers and scientists need to both perform order of magnitude cost estimates and evaluate and assess cost estimates contained in proposals for novel processes. In these applications where process and technological specifics are lacking, detailed cost estimates are not justified. Rather, rough estimates that can be obtained relatively quickly are more suitable. There are a number of tools available to NETL engineers to assist in the performance and evaluation of chemical process equipment cost estimates.

One such tool is ICARUS Process Evaluator (IPE). IPE is a sophisticated and industry- accepted software tool for generating cost estimates, process facility designs, and engineering and construction schedules. The IPE equipment library contains over 320 process equipment types. Sizing is performed using common engineering methodologies from intrinsic sizing algorithms. IPE utilizes self-contained equipment, piping, instrumentation, electrical, civil, steel, insulation, and paint sizing and design algorithms for a preliminary equipment model that is properly integrated and evaluated for many safety and operability issues.

When used with appropriate values for the adjustable design and construction parameters, IPE provides a highly detailed and accurate cost estimate. However, the program is very complex and both expensive and time consuming to learn and use. Furthermore, IPE requires well-defined process configuration and process parameters that typical proposals do not provide. In general, it is not practical or cost-effective to use IPE for the assessment of cost estimates contained in proposals for novel processes or in generating rough cost estimates from laboratory scale data. Instead, the factored estimation methodology, a cost-effective methodology widely used in industry, is more suitable for that application. To leverage the cost information contained within IPE, a series of cost curves for different equipment types were generated. The cost curves and other

1

information contained in this report can then be used to develop the overall process plant capital cost using the factored estimation methodology.

Results and Usage

For this activity, a general file was created in ICARUS Process Evaluator version 5.0 that contained several pieces of stand-alone equipment. The specific equipment types were selected by NETL and intended to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types that might be encountered in processes relevant to CO 2 capture and sequestration. Each piece of equipment was then varied in size to generate costs for a spectrum of sizes. The cost versus sizing capacity was plotted for each equipment type. The data was then regressed to provide smoothed cost curves.

The cost curves for the 31 different types of equipment examined in this report are shown on pages 6 - 40. In addition to the graphs, the applicable design specifications and equipment descriptions are provided as appropriate.

All graphs portray purchased equipment cost data. This total material cost includes:

Internals, shells, nozzles, manholes, covers, etc as noted for each piece equipment.

Vendor engineering, shop drawings shop testing, certification.

Shop fabrication labor (and field labor if field-fabricated).

Typical manuals, small tools, accessories.

Packaging for shipment by land.

FOB Vendor.

The total material cost does not include:

Owner/contractor indirects (engineering, shop inspection, start-up/commissioning).

Packaging for overseas/air shipment, modularization.

Freight, insurance, taxes/duties

Field setting costs (off-loading, storage, transportation, setting, testing)

Installation bulks

The total capital cost of each piece of equipment includes material and labor charges. The material charges include the delivered equipment costs and installation bulk material costs. The labor charges include labor for handling and placing bare equipment and labor for installation of bulk materials.

Installation bulks consist of foundations, structural steel, buildings, insulation, instruments, electrical, piping, painting and miscellaneous. Tables 2 - 5 list distributive percentage factors that can be used to estimate installation bulk labor and materials for different plant types. 1 The factors vary depending on the type of process and the

1 AACE Recommended Practices and Standards – “Conducting Technical and Economic Evaluations in the Process and Utility Industries,” adopted November 1990.

2

temperature and pressure of the system. The bare equipment cost is used as the base to apply the percentage factor for the installation material cost. This installation material cost is then used as the base to apply the percentage factor for determining the associated labor cost involved.

Handling and placing equipment involves unloading, uncrating, mechanical connection, alignment, storage, inspection, and other factors. The costs vary by type and size of equipment. The setting costs can be estimated by using historical work hours or by applying factors for labor cost as a percentage of delivered equipment cost. Table 6 shows approximate factors for setting various types of equipment. 1

The total cost for installing a piece of equipment would be the bare equipment cost plus the setting labor cost plus the installation bulks material and labor costs as determined from the distributive labor percentages. See Appendix A for a detailed example.

Appendix B shows the ICARUS generated purchased/ installed costs of the equipment used in each chart. All costs in this document are reported in first quarter 1998 dollars.

Assessment

The charts can be used for preliminary purchased equipment cost estimates (i.e. order of magnitude estimates with accuracy of +50%/-30% and budget estimates with accuracy of +30%/-15%). Clearly, the charts are most accurate when used for the operating conditions listed as defaults for each equipment type. Nevertheless, they should provide reasonable cost estimates for conditions that contain small or moderate deviations from the assumed design conditions. Correlations to correct for deviations in some design variables, particularly pressure, are available in the literature. Peters and Timmerhaus “Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers” is one such source for correction factor data. Without appropriate correction, estimates generated for conditions that deviate markedly from those used in this study should be used with caution.

Another limitation is that most of the charts give estimates for equipment manufactured from carbon steel. Conversion factors for converting the carbon steel costs to equivalent alloy costs for a few items of equipment are shown in Table 7. 2

As mentioned previously, setting costs can be estimated by using historical data or by applying factors. It should be noted that the factors do not work well for very large pieces of equipment. If available, historical work hours provide more accurate costs.

2 Perry, Robert H. , and Don W. Green, “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook,” The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999.

3

Conclusions/Recommendations

This report contains cost curves for various equipment types at specific operating temperatures and pressures. These conditions and other design parameters are listed for each equipment type. When used within the expected design conditions, the cost estimates derived from the cost curves contained in this report will provide accurate estimates. The data can also be used to provide reasonableness estimates when the actual design conditions are outside the expected values but the level of accuracy cannot be quantified.

To help quantify the error induced by large deviations in the design conditions, it is recommended that a first-order sensitivity analysis of the cost curves be performed. Another activity that could improve the range of accuracy of the charts would be to run cases with various materials of construction to show how the price is affected. If requested, additional support can be provided to expand the set of equipment types beyond those examined in this report. For example, cost data for slurry pumps and solids conveying equipment would be useful for many of the technologies at NETL.

4

Cost Curves

5

Vertical Vessel

Description: The vertical process vessel is erected in the vertical position. They are cylindrical in shape with each end capped by a domed cover called a head. The length to diameter ratio of a vertical vessel is typically 3 to 1. Vertical tanks include: process, storage applications liquid, gas, solid processing and storage; pressure/vacuum code design for process and certain storage vessel types; includes heads, single wall, saddles, lugs, nozzles, manholes, legs or skirt, base ring, davits where applicable.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

15 psig and 150 psig

Diameter:

2.5 – 8 feet

Length:

2.7 – 13.3 feet

Total Weight:

1,000 –7,100 pounds

Vertical Vessel Purchased Equipment Cost

$100,000 150 psig 15 psig $10,000 $1,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 Purchased Cost, $
$100,000
150 psig
15
psig
$10,000
$1,000
10
100
1,000
10,000
Purchased Cost, $

Capacity, Gallons

6

Horizontal Vessel

Description: The horizontal vessel is a pressure vessel fabricated according to the rules of the specified code and erected in the horizontal position. Although the horizontal vessel may be supported by lugs in an open steel structure, the more usual arrangement is for the vessel to be erected at grade and supported by a pair of saddles. Cylindrical, pressure/vacuum, code design and construction, includes head, single wall (base material, clad/lined), saddles/lugs, nozzles and manholes.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

15 psig

Diameter:

2 – 14 feet

Length:

4.3 – 81 feet

Total Weight:

1100 –59,400 pounds

Horizontal Drum Purchased Equipment Cost

$1,000,000 150 psig $100,000 15 psig $10,000 $1,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Purchased Cost,
$1,000,000
150 psig
$100,000
15
psig
$10,000
$1,000
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Purchased Cost, $

Capacity, Gallons

7

Storage Tanks

Description:

Floating Roof: Typically constructed from polyurethane foam blocks or nylon cloth impregnated with rubber or plastic, floating roofs are designed to completely contact the surface of the storage products and thereby eliminate the vapor space between the product level and the fixed roof. Floating roof tanks are suitable for storage of products having vapor pressure from 2 to 15 psia. Cone Roof: Typically field fabricated out of carbon steel. They are used for storage of low vapor pressure (less than 2 psia) products, typically ranging from 50,000 – 1,000,000 gallons.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

15 psig

Diameter:

2 – 14 feet

Length:

4.3 – 81 feet

Total Weight:

1100 –59,400 pounds

Floating/Cone Roof Tanks Purchased Equipment Cost

10,000,000 1,000,000 Floating roof tanks Cone roof tanks 100,000 10,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000
10,000,000
1,000,000
Floating roof tanks
Cone
roof tanks
100,000
10,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
10,000,000
Purchased Cost, $

Capacity, Gallons

8

Valve Tray Column – 15 psig

Description: Pressure/vacuum column includes vessel shell, heads, single base material (lined or clad, nozzles, manholes (one manhole below and above tray stack or packed section and one manhole every tenth tray or 25 feet of packed height), jacket and nozzles for heating or cooling medium, base ring, lugs, skirt or legs; tray clips, tray supports (if designated), distributor piping, plates.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

15 psig

Height:

17 - 133 feet

Application:

Distillation

Tray Type:

Valve

Tray Spacing:

24 Inches

Tray Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Tray Thickness:

0.19 Inches

Single Diameter Valve Tray Column 15 psig Purchased Equipment Cost

$1,500 Diameter = 20 ft $1,250 $1,000 Diameter = 15 ft $750 $500 Diameter =
$1,500
Diameter = 20 ft
$1,250
$1,000
Diameter = 15 ft
$750
$500
Diameter = 10 ft
$250
Diameter = 5 ft
$0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Purchased Cost, $ x 1000

Number of Trays

9

Valve Tray Column – 150 psig

Description: Pressure/vacuum column includes vessel shell, heads, single base material (lined or clad, nozzles, manholes (one manhole below and above tray stack or packed section and one manhole every tenth tray or 25 feet of packed height), jacket and nozzles for heating or cooling medium, base ring, lugs, skirt or legs; tray clips, tray supports (if designated), distributor piping, plates.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

150 psig

Height:

17 - 133 feet

Application:

Distillation

Tray Type:

Valve

Tray Spacing:

24 Inches

Tray Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Tray Thickness:

0.19 Inches

Single Diameter Valve Tray Column 150 psig Purchased Equipment Cost

2,000 1,800 Diameter = 20 ft 1,600 1,400 Diameter = 15 ft 1,200 1,000 800
2,000
1,800
Diameter = 20 ft
1,600
1,400
Diameter = 15 ft
1,200
1,000
800
600
Diameter = 10 ft
400
Diameter = 5 ft
200
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Purchased Cost, $x1000

Number of Trays

10

Sieve Tray Column – 15 psig

Description: Pressure/vacuum column includes vessel shell, heads, single base material (lined or clad, nozzles, manholes (one manhole below and above tray stack or packed section and one manhole every tenth tray or 25 feet of packed height), jacket and nozzles for heating or cooling medium, base ring, lugs, skirt or legs; tray clips, tray supports (if designated), distributor piping, plates.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

15 psig

Height:

17 - 133 feet

Application:

Distillation

Tray Type:

Sieve

Tray Spacing:

24 Inches

Tray Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Tray Thickness:

0.19 Inches

Single Diameter Sieve Tray Column 15 psig Purchased Equipment Cost

$1,500 $1,250 Diameter = 20 ft $1,000 Diameter = 15 ft $750 $500 Diameter =
$1,500
$1,250
Diameter = 20 ft
$1,000
Diameter = 15 ft
$750
$500
Diameter = 10 ft
$250
Diameter = 5 ft
$0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Purchased Cost, $x 1000

Number of Trays

11

Sieve Tray Column – 150 psig

Description: Pressure/vacuum column includes vessel shell, heads, single base material (lined or clad, nozzles, manholes (one manhole below and above tray stack or packed section and one manhole every tenth tray or 25 feet of packed height), jacket and nozzles for heating or cooling medium, base ring, lugs, skirt or legs; tray clips, tray supports (if designated), distributor piping, plates.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

150 psig

Height:

17 - 133 feet

Application:

Distillation

Tray Type:

Sieve

Tray Spacing:

24 Inches

Tray Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Tray Thickness:

0.19 Inches

Single Diameter Sieve Tray Column 150 psig Purchased Equipment Cost

2,000 1,800 1,600 Diameter = 20 ft 1,400 1,200 Diameter = 15 ft 1,000 800
2,000
1,800
1,600
Diameter = 20 ft
1,400
1,200
Diameter = 15 ft
1,000
800
600
Diameter = 10 ft
400
Diameter = 5 ft
200
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Purchased Cost, $x1000

Number of Trays

12

Packed Column – 15 psig

Description: Pressure/vacuum column includes vessel shell, heads, single base material (lined or clad, nozzles, manholes (one manhole below and above tray stack or packed section and one manhole every tenth tray or 25 feet of packed height), jacket and nozzles for heating or cooling medium, base ring, lugs, skirt or legs; tray clips, tray supports (if designated), distributor piping, plates, packing not included (see Table 1).

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

15 psig

Application:

Absorption

Packed Column 15 psig Purchased Equipment Cost

60,000 50,000 ID=3.5 feet 40,000 ID=3 feet 30,000 ID=2.5 feet ID=2 feet 20,000 ID=1.5 feet
60,000
50,000
ID=3.5 feet
40,000
ID=3 feet
30,000
ID=2.5 feet
ID=2 feet
20,000
ID=1.5 feet
10,000
ID=1 foot
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Purchased Cost, $

Packed Height, Feet

13

Packed Column – 150 psig

Description: Pressure/vacuum column includes vessel shell, heads, single base material (lined or clad, nozzles, manholes (one manhole below and above tray stack or packed section and one manhole every tenth tray or 25 feet of packed height), jacket and nozzles for heating or cooling medium, base ring, lugs, skirt or legs; tray clips, tray supports (if designated), distributor piping, plates, packing not included (see Table 1).

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Shell Material:

A515

(Carbon Steel Plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service)

Design Temperature: 650 °F

Design Pressure:

150 psig

Application:

Absorption

Packed Column 150 psig Purchased Equipment Cost

70,000 60,000 ID=3.5 feet 50,000 40,000 ID=3 feet ID=2.5 feet 30,000 ID=2 feet 20,000 ID=1.5
70,000
60,000
ID=3.5 feet
50,000
40,000
ID=3 feet
ID=2.5 feet
30,000
ID=2 feet
20,000
ID=1.5 feet
10,000
ID=1 foot
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Purchased Cost, $

Packed Height, Feet

14

Table 1

Packing Costs

Uninstalled cost, dollar per cubic feet

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Diameter (Inches)

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

Pall Rings

Polypropylene

33

29

21

8

-

Stainless Steel

130

118

92

76

-

INTALOX Saddles

Ceramic

31

28

23

21

-

Porcelain

32

29

24

21

-

Raschig Rings

Ceramic

119

14

12

12

11

Porcelain

-

17

15

12

11

Stainless Steel

-

111

94

59

54

Carbon Steel

-

37

31

20

18

Activated Carbon

25

13X Molecular Sieve

61

Silica Gel

94

Calcium Chloride

11

15

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Description: Shell and tube heat exchanger consists of a bundle of tubes held in a cylindrical shape by plates at either end called tube sheets. The tube bundle placed inside a cylindrical shell. The size of the exchanger is defined as the total outside surface area of the tube bundle. Maximum shell size is 48 Inches.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Type:

Floating Head (BES)/ Fixed Head (BEM)

Shell Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Shell Temperature:

650 °F

Shell Pressure:

150 psig

Tube Material:

A214

(Electric-resistance-welded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes)

Tube Temperature:

650 °F

Tube Pressure:

150 psig

Tube Length:

10– 20 Feet

Tube Diameter:

1 Inch

Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Purchased Equipment Cost

10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Purchased Cost, $
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Purchased Cost, $

Surface Area, Square Feet

16

Air Cooler

Description: Variety of plenum chambers, louver arrangements, fin types (or bare tubes), sizes, materials, free-standing or rack mounted, multiple bays and multiple services within a single bay.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Tube Material:

A214

(Electric-resistance-welded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes)

Tube Length:

6 – 60 Feet

Number of Bays:

1 – 3

Power/ Fan:

2 – 25 Horsepower

Bay Width:

4 – 12 Feet

Design Pressure:

150 psig

Inlet Temperature:

300 °F

Tube Diameter:

1 Inch

Plenum Type:

Transition shaped

Louver Type:

Face louvers only

Fin Type:

L-footed tension wound Aluminum

Air Cooler Purchased Equipment Cost

1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 Purchased Cost, $
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
10
100
1,000
10,000
Purchased Cost, $

Bare Tube Area, Square Feet

17

Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

SS304

(High Alloy Steel - Chromium-Nickel stainless steel plate, sheet and strip for fusion-welded unfired pressure vessels)

Tube Pressure:

150 psig

Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger Purchased Equipm ent Cost

100,000 10,000 1,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
10,000
1,000
10
100
1,000
10,000
Purchased Cost, $

Heat Transfer Area, Square Feet

18

Furnace

Description: Gas or Oil fired vertical cylindrical type for low heat duty range moderate temperature with long contact time. Walls of the furnace are refractory lined.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Tube Material:

A214

(Electric-resistance-welded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes)

Design Pressure:

Design Temperature: 750 °F

500 psig

Furnace/Process Heater Purchased Equipm ent Cost

10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1 10 100 1,000 Purchased Cost, $
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1
10
100
1,000
Purchased Cost, $

Heat Duty, Million BTU per hour

19

Cooling Tower

Description: Factory Assembled cooling tower includes fans, drivers and basins

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars Temperature Range:

Approach Gradient:

Wet Bulb Temperature:

15 °F 10 °F 75 ° F

Cooling Tower Purchased Equipment Cost

1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 1,000 10,000 Purchased Cost, $
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
100
1,000
10,000
Purchased Cost, $

Water Rate, Gallons per Minute

20

Package Steam Boiler

Description: Package boiler unit includes forced draft fans, instruments, controls, burners, soot-blowers, feedwater deaerator, chemical injections system, steam drum, mud drum and stack. Shop assembled.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Pressure:

250 psig

Superheat:

100 °F

S te a m Boile r P urcha se d Equipm e nt Cost

10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 Purchased Cost, $
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
Purchased Cost, $

Ca pa city, P ounds pe r Hour

21

Evaporators

Description: Standard vertical tube evaporator and standard horizontal tube evaporator.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Tube Material:

Carbon Steel

Purchased Cost, $

1,000,000

100,000

10,000

1,000

Evaporators Purchased Equipm ent Cost

Standard Horizontal Tube
Standard
Horizontal Tube

Standard Vertical Tube

10

100

1,000

10,000

Area, Square Feet

22

Crushers

Description: All crushers include motor and drive unit.

Gyratory:

Primary crushing of hard and medium hard materials.

Rotary:

For course, soft materials.

Ring Granulator: For primary and secondary crushing of bituminous and

subbituminous coals, lignite, gypsum and some medium hard minerals.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Crushers Purchased Equipm ent Cost

10,000,000 1,000,000 Gyratory Crusher 100,000 Ring G ranulator 10,000 Rotary Crusher 1,000 1 10 100
10,000,000
1,000,000
Gyratory
Crusher
100,000
Ring G ranulator
10,000
Rotary Crusher
1,000
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
Purchased Cost, $

Driver Pow er, Horsepow er

23

Mills

Description: All units include mill, bearings, gears, lube system and vendor-supplied

instruments.

Ball mill includes initial ball charge.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

M ills Purchased Equipm ent C ost

1,000,000 B a ll M ill 100,000 R o ller M ill 10,000 1,000 1
1,000,000
B a ll
M ill
100,000
R o ller
M ill
10,000
1,000
1
10
100
1,000
Purchased Cost, $

D river Pow er, H orsepow er

24

Dryers

Description:

Atmospheric tray batch dryer includes solid materials. Rotary and Drum dryers include motor and drive unit.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Dryer Purchased Equipment Cost

1,000,000 Single atmospheric drum 100,000 Direct contact rotary 10,000 Atmospheric tray batch 1,000 1 10
1,000,000
Single
atmospheric drum
100,000
Direct contact rotary
10,000
Atmospheric tray
batch
1,000
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
Purchased Cost, $

Area, Square Feet

25

Centrifuges

Description: Centrifuges include motor and drive unit. Reciprocating Conveyor with continuous filtering centrifuge for free-draining granular solids, horizontal bowl, removal by reciprocating piston. Continuous Filtration Vibratory Centrifuge with solids removal by vibratory screen for dewatering of course solids.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

C entrifuge Purchased Equipm ent C ost

1,000,000 Reciprocating conveyor 100,000 Continuous filtration vibratory Batch top-suspended 10,000 Batch bottom
1,000,000
Reciprocating conveyor
100,000
Continuous
filtration
vibratory
Batch top-suspended
10,000
Batch bottom -suspended
1,000
1
10
100
Purchased Cost, $

S creen D iam eter, In ches

26

Filters

Description:

Cartridge Filter consists of a tank containing one or more disposable cartridges. Contains 5-micron cotton filter. Drum Filter is a vacuum type, multi compartment cylinder shell with internal filtrate piping with polypropylene filter cloth, feed box with inlet and drain nozzles, suction valve, discharge trough, driver consisting of rotor, drive motor base plate, worm, gear reducer and two pillow block bearing with supports. Defaults for Drum Filter medium filtration rate, 0.5 tons per day/ square feet solids handling rate, 20% consistency (percent of solids in feed stream). Tubular Fabric Filters are a bank of three without automatic cleaning option. Plate and Frame Filter default material is rubber-lined carbon steel.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Purchased Cost, $

1,000,000

100,000

10,000

1,000

100

Filter Purchased Equipment Cost

Plate &

Drum filter Tubular fabric filter Cartridge filter
Drum filter
Tubular
fabric filter
Cartridge filter

Frame filter

1

10

100

1,000

10,000

Cartridge and Tubular - Flow Rate, Cubic Feet per Minute; Plate and Frame - Frame Capacity, Cubic Feet; Drum - Surface Area, Square Feet

27

Agitator

Description: Fixed propeller mixer with motor and gear drive. Includes motor, gear drive, shaft and impeller.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

A285C

(Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Speed:

1800 RPM

Agitator Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000 10,000 1,000 1 10 100 1,000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
10,000
1,000
1
10
100
1,000
Purchased Cost, $

Driver Power, Horsepower

28

Rotary Pump

Description: Rotary (sliding vanes) pump includes motor driver.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Cast Iron

Temperature:

68 ° F

Power:

25 – 20 Horsepower

Speed:

1800 RPM

Liquid Specific Gravity:1

Efficiency:

82%

Rotary Pump Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000 10,000 1,000 1 10 100 1000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
10,000
1,000
1
10
100
1000
Purchased Cost, $

Capacity, Gallons per Minute

29

Inline Pump

Description: General service in-line pump includes pump and motor driver.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

Temperature:

120 ° F

Speed:

1800 RPM

Liquid Specific Gravity:1

Efficiency:

<50 GPM = 60%

Driver Type:

50 – 199 GPM = 65% 100 – 500 GPM = 75% > 500 GPM = 82% Standard motor

Seal Type:

Single mechanical seal

Inline Pump Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000 10,000 1,000 1 10 100 1000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
10,000
1,000
1
10
100
1000
Purchased Cost, $

Capacity, Gallons per Minute

30

Centrifugal Pump

Description: Single and multistage centrifugal pumps for process or general service when flow/head conditions exceed general service. Split casing not a cartridge or barrel. Includes standard motor driver.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Design Temperature: 120 ° F

Design Pressure:

Carbon Steel

150 psig

Liquid Specific Gravity:1

Efficiency:

<50 GPM = 60%

Driver Type:

50 – 199 GPM = 65% 100 – 500 GPM = 75% > 500 GPM = 82% Standard motor

Seal Type:

Single mechanical seal

Single and Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pump Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000 10,000 1,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
10,000
1,000
10
100
1,000
10,000
Purchased Cost, $

Capacity, Gallons per Minute

31

Reciprocating Pump

Description: Reciprocating duplex with steam driver. Triplex (plunger) with pump- motor driver.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Design Temperature: 68 ° F

Liquid Specific Gravity:1

Efficiency:

Carbon Steel

82%

Reciprocating Pump Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000 Triplex Duplex 10,000 1,000 1 10 100 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
Triplex
Duplex
10,000
1,000
1
10
100
Purchased Cost, $

Driver Power, Horsepower

32

Vacuum Pump

Description: Mechanical oil-sealed vacuum pump includes pump, motor and drive unit.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

First Stage:

0.01 MM HG (Mercury)

Second Stage:

0.0003 MM HG (Mercury)

Vacuum Pump Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000 2 Stages 10,000 1 Stage 1,000 10 100 1000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
2 Stages
10,000
1 Stage
1,000
10
100
1000
Purchased Cost, $

Actual Capacity, Gallons per Minute

33

Reciprocating Compressor

Description: Reciprocating compressor with gear reducer, couplings, guards, base plate, compressor unit, fittings, interconnecting piping, vendor-supplied instruments, lube/seal system. Does not include intercoolers or aftercoolers and interstage knock-out drums.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

Inlet Temperature:

68 ° F

Inlet Pressures:

14.7/ 14.7/ 165 psia

Pressure Ratios:

4:1/ 30:1/ 30:1

Molecular Weight:

30

Specific Heat Ratio:

1.22

Reciprocating Compressor Purchased Equipment Cost

10,000,000 440 psia discharge, 3 Stages 5000 psia discharge, 3 Stages 1,000,000 60 psia discharge,
10,000,000
440 psia
discharge, 3 Stages
5000 psia
discharge, 3
Stages
1,000,000
60 psia
discharge,
1 Stage
100,000
10,000
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Purchased Cost, $

Actual Capacity, Cubic Feet per Minute

34

Centrifugal Compressor

Description: Axial (inline) centrifugal gas compressor with motor driver. Excludes intercoolers and knock-out drums.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

Inlet Temperature:

68 ° F

Inlet Pressures:

14.7/ 14.7/ 190 psia

Pressure Ratios:

3:1/ 10:1/ 10:1

Molecular Weight:

29

Specific Heat Ratio:

1.4

Centrifugal Compressor Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000,000 150 psia discharge, 7-9 Stages 10,000,000 1900 psia discharge, 9 Stages 1,000,000 50 psia
100,000,000
150 psia discharge,
7-9 Stages
10,000,000
1900 psia discharge, 9 Stages
1,000,000
50 psia discharge, 4 Stages
100,000
10,000
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
Purchased Cost, $

Actual Capacity, Cubic Feet per Minute

35

Centrifugal Fan

Description: Centrifugal fans move gas through a low pressure drop system. Maximum pressure rise is about 2 PSI.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

Power:

1.5 - 300 Horsepower

Speed:

1800 RPM

Exit Pressure:

6 In H2O

Centrifugal Fan Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000 10,000 1,000 100 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
10,000
1,000
100
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
Purchased Cost, $

Actual Capacity, Gallons per Minute

36

Rotary Blower

Description: This general-purpose blower includes inlet and discharge silencers. The casing of the rotary blower is cast iron and the impellers are ductile iron.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

Power:

5 - 200 Horsepower

Speed:

1800 RPM

Exit Pressure:

8 psig

Rotary Blower Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000 10,000 1,000 10 100 1,000 10,000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000
10,000
1,000
10
100
1,000
10,000
Purchased Cost, $

Actual Capacity, Gallons per Minute

37

Gas Turbine

Description: Gas turbine includes fuel gas combustion chamber and multi-stage turbine expander.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

Gas Turbine Purchased Equipment Cost

100,000,000 10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 Purchased Cost, $
100,000,000
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
Purchased Cost, $

Power Output, Horsepower

38

Steam Turbine – under 1000 Horsepower

Description: Steam turbine driver includes condenser and accessories.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

Steam Pressure:

400 psig

Speed:

3600 RPM

Purchased Cost, $

Steam Turbine D river Purchased Equipm ent Cost

100,000

10,000

Purchased Cost, $ Steam Turbine D river Purchased Equipm ent Cost 100,000 10,000 1 10 100

1

10

100

1,000

Pow er Output, Horsepow er

39

Steam Turbine – over 1000 Horsepower

Description: Steam turbine driver includes condenser and accessories.

Design Basis:

1 st Quarter 1998 Dollars

Material:

Carbon Steel

Steam Pressure:

400 psig

Speed:

3600 RPM

Steam Turbine Driver Purchased Equipm ent C ost

10,000,000 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Purchased Cost, $
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Purchased Cost, $

Pow er O utput, H orsepow er

40

Table 2

Distributive Factors for Bulk Materials - Solids Handling Processes

Temperature

<400 ° F (%)

>400 ° F (%)

Foundations

Material

4

5

Labor

133

133

Structural Steel

Material

4

2

Labor

50

100

Buildings

Material

2

2

Labor

100

100

Insulation

Material

---

1.5

Labor

---

150

Instruments

Material

6

6

Labor

10

40

Electrical

Material

9

9

Labor

75

75

Piping

Material

5

5

Labor

50

50

Painting

Material

0.5

0.5

Labor

300

300

Miscellaneous

Material

3

4

Labor

80

80

 

41

Table 3

Distributive Factors for Bulk Materials – Solids - Gas Processes

Temperature

<400 ° F

>400 ° F

Pressure

< 150 psig (%)

>150 psig

< 150 psig (%)

>150 psig

(%)

(%)

Foundations

Material

5

6

6

6

Labor

133

133

133

133

Structural Steel

Material

4

4

5

6

Labor

100

100

50

50

Buildings

Material

2

2

5

4

Labor

100

50

50

100

Insulation

Material

1

1

2

2

Labor

150

150

150

150

Instruments

Material

2

7

7

8

Labor

40

40

40

75

Electrical

Material

6

8

7

8

Labor

75

75

75

75

Piping

Material

35

40

40

40

Labor

50

50

50

50

Painting

Material

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Labor

300

300

300

300

Miscellaneous

Material

3.5

4

4

4.5

Labor

80

80

80

80

42

Table 4

Distributive Factors for Bulk Materials - Liquid and Slurry Systems

Pressure

< 150 psig (%)

>150 psig

(%)

Foundations

Material

5

6

Labor

133

133

Structural Steel

Material

4

5

Labor

50

50

Buildings

Material

3

3

Labor

100

100

Insulation

Material

1

3

Labor

150

150

Instruments

Material

6

7

Labor

40

40

Electrical

Material

8

9

Labor

75

75

Piping

Material

30

35

Labor

50

50

Painting

Material

0.5

0.5

Labor

300

300

Miscellaneous

Material

4

5

Labor

80

80

 

43

Table 5

Distributive Factors for Bulk Materials - Gas Processes

Temperature

<400 ° F

>400 ° F

Pressure

< 150 psig (%)

>150 psig

< 150 psig (%)

>150 psig

(%)

(%)

Foundations

Material

5

6

6

5

Labor

133

133

133

133

Structural Steel

Material

5

5

5

6

Labor

50

50

50

50

Buildings

Material

3

3

3

4

Labor

100

100

100

100

Insulation

Material

1

1

2

3

Labor

150

150

150

150

Instruments

Material

6

7

7

7

Labor

40

40

75

40

Electrical

Material

8

9

6

9

Labor

75

75

40

75

Piping

Material

45

40

40

40

Labor

50

50

50

50

Painting

Material

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

Labor

300

300

300

300

Miscellaneous

Material

3

4

4

5

Labor

80

80

80

80

44

Table 6

Distributive Labor Factors for Setting Equipment

Equipment Type

Factor

Equipment Type

Factor

(%)

(%)

Absorber Ammonia Still Ball Mill Briquetting machine Centrifuge Clarifier Coke Cutter Coke Drum Condenser Conditioner Cooler Crusher Cyclone Decanter Distillation column Evaporator Filter Fractionator Furnace Gasifier

20

Hammermill Heater Heat Exchanger Lime Leg Methanator (catalytic) Mixer Precipitator Regenerator (packed) Retort Rotoclone Screen Scrubber (water) Settler Shift converter Splitter Storage Tank Stripper Tank Vaporizer

25

20

20

30

20

25

15

20

30

15

20

15

25

15

20

20

30

20

25

20

20

30

15

20

15

15

25

30

15

20

20

15

20

25

20

30

20

30

45

Table 7

Factors for Converting Carbon Steel to Equivalent Alloy Costs

Material

Pumps, etc.

Other Equipment

All Carbon Steel

1.00

1.00

Stainless Steel, Type 410

1.43

2.00

Stainless Steel, Type 304

1.70

2.80

Stainless Steel, Type 316

1.80

2.90

Stainless Steel, Type 310

2.00

3.33

Rubber-lined Steel

1.43

1.25

Bronze

1.54

Monel

3.33

Material

Heat Exchangers

Carbon Steel Shell and Tubes

1.00

Carbon Steel Shell, Aluminum Tubes

1.25

Carbon Steel Shell, Monel Tubes

2.08

Carbon Steel Shell, 304 Stainless Steel Tubes

1.67

304 Stainless Steel Shell and Tubes

2.86

46

Cost Indexes

Cost indexes are used to update costs from the base time, in this case First Quarter 1998 dollars, to the present time of the estimate. Cost indexes are used to give a general estimate, but can not take into account all factors. Some limitations of cost indexes include: 3

1. Accuracy is very limited. Two Indexes may yield much different answers.

2. Cost indexes are based on averages. Specific cases may be much different from the average.

3. At best, 10% accuracy can be expected for periods up to 5 years.

4. For periods over 10 years, indexes are suitable only for order of magnitude estimates.

The most common indexes are Engineering News-Record Construction Cost Index, Table 8, (published in the Engineering News-Record), Marshall and Swift Equipment Cost Indexes, Table 9, (published in Chemical Engineering), Nelson-Farrar Refinery Construction Cost Index, Table 10, (published in the Oil and Gas Journal) and the Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index, Table 11, (published in Chemical Engineering). Annual averages for each of these indexes are included in this report.

The Marshall and Swift Equipment Cost Indexes are divided into two categories, the all- industry equipment index and the process-industry equipment index. The indexes take into consideration the cost of machinery and major equipment plus costs for installation, fixtures, tools, office furniture, and other minor equipment. The Engineering News- Record Construction Cost Index shows the variation in the labor rates and materials costs for industrial construction. The Nelson-Farrar Refinery Construction Cost Index uses construction costs in the petroleum industry as the basis. The Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index uses construction costs for chemical plants as the basis.

Two cost indexes, the Marshall and Swift equipment cost indexes and the Chemical Engineering plant cost indexes, give very similar results and are recommended for use with process-equipment estimates and chemical-plant investment estimates. The Engineering News-Record construction cost index, relative with time, has increased much more rapidly than the other two because it does not include a productivity improvement factor. Similarly, the Nelson-Farrar refinery construction index has shown a very large increase with time and should be used with caution and only for refinery construction. 4

3 Humphreys, Dr. Kenneth K. PE CCE, "Preliminary Capital and Operating Cost Estimating (for the Process and Utility Industries)," course notes.

4 Peters, Max S. and Klaus D. Timmerhaus, "Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers" McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1991.

47

Table 8

Engineering News Record Construction Cost Index Published in the Engineering News-Record

Year

Annual Average

1913

100

1960

824

1965

971

1970

1381

1975

2212

1980

3237

1985

4195

1990

4732

1995

5471

1996

5620

1997

5825

1998

5920

1999

6060

2000

6222

2001

January

6281

February

6273

March

6280

April

6286

May

6288

Table 9

Marshall and Swift Installed-Equipment Index Published in Chemical Engineering

Year

Annual Average All Industry

Process Industry

1926

100

100

1964

242

241

1965

245

244

1970

303

301

1975

444

452

1980

560

675

1985

790

813

1990

915

935

1995

1027.5

1037.4

1996

1039.2

1051.3

1997

1056.8

1068.3

1998

1061.9

1075.9

1st Quarter

1061.2

1074.6

2nd Quarter

1061.8

1075.2

3rd Quarter

1062.4

1077.2

4th Quarter

1062.3

1076.6

1999

1068.3

1083.1

1st Quarter

1062.7

1078.8

2nd Quarter

1065.0

1080.7

3rd Quarter

1069.9

1084.0

4th Quarter

1075.6

1088.7

2000

1089.0

1102.7

1st Quarter

1080.6

1093.5

2nd Quarter

1089.0

1102.2

3rd Quarter

1092.0

1106.3

4th Quarter

1094.5

1108.7

2001

1st Quarter

1092.8

1106.9

49

Table 10

Nelson-Farrar Refinery Construction Index Published in the Oil and Gas Journal

 

Misc.

Year

Annual

Average

Pumps, Compressors, etc

Heat

Exchangers

Equipment

Average

1946

100

1964

252

1965

261

1970

365

1975

576

1980

823

777.3

618.7

578.1

1985

1074

969.9

520

673.4

1990

1225.7

1125.6

755.7

797.5

1995

1392.1

1316.7

758.6

879.5

1996

1418.9

1354.5

793.3

903.5

1997

1449.2

1383.9

773.6

910.5

1998

1477.6

1406.7

841.1

933.2

1999

1497.2

1433.5

715.8