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a c i e o

THE

I B o o k s

o f

BOOK

t b e

B u tiO & tfftg

OF

TH E

V O L U M

E

I V

tD o l,

£ 311).

DISCIPLINE

OF

T H E T H E

BOOK

DISCIPLINE

(V I N A Y A - P I T A K A )

VOLUME

IV

(M A H A V A G G A )

 

Translated

 

by

 

L

B*

H O R N E R ,

M .A .

 

Associate

of Neumharn

College,

Cambridge

 
 

L O N D O N

 

L U Z A C

 

&

C O M P A N Y

 

L T D .

4 6

G

r

e

a

t

R

u

s

s

e

l

l

S

t

r

e

e

t

,

W

. C

.

i

T

R

A

N

S

L

A

T

O

R

’ S

I

N

T

R

O

D

U

C

T

I

O

N

T h e present volum e of the Book o f the D iscip lin e covers the

whole of the M ah avagga, the G reat, or G reater D ivision of

the Vinaya, and is thus a translation of the first volum e of

O ldenberg’ s V inaya Piiakatn, published in 1879. T h e M aha-

vag g a w as translated in full b y R h y s D avid s and O ldenberg,

and com prises m ost of V olum e I and the first p art of V olum e II

o f their Vinaya Texts (their C u lavagga translation also begins

in V olu m e II),

V olum es XITT

although th ey first appeared se v e n ty years ago, are still indispensable for a stu d y o f early B u d dh ist m onastic life.

published

and

X V I I ,

in

the

in

Sacred

B ooks

of

th e

B ast,

1881,

1882-

T hese

volum es,

T his n ew translation

in

th e Book o f the D iscip lin e is, how ever,

justified I think, for various reasons. F o r exam ple, recent eve n ts h ave focused atten tio n on the B u d d h ist lands o f S o u th ­

E a st A sia where B u d d h ist m onks still follow these ancient

rules ] B uddh ism itself is stirring and seeking to k n o w m ore of its ow n treasures, and it is a ttra ctin g n on -B u d dh ists to

is

therefore not unsuitable to re-translate one o f the principal

w orks of the P ali canon, the more especially as m an y W estern

stu dents are now debarred from consulting th e original E nglish

translation, Vinaya Texts, since u n fo rtu n ately it is out of print.

M oreover, the scholarship w hich has been lavished on the P ali

becom e acq u ain ted w ith them

likew ise.

T h e

m om en t

resulted

understanding of the technical and other term s the Vinaya and w hich in m an y cases also occur

in other p arts of th e P a h canon. F o llo w in g th is, there has

canon during rou gh ly the last century has in ev ita b ly

in an increased so abundant in

resulted a surer know ledge of Pali B uddhism as a w hole. N ow

th at references, allusions, rem arks, n ot to m ention words

them selves,

can be com pared w ith other contexts, w hich had

been either

not

edited

in

rom an

letters

or n ot translated b y

the tim e

a fresh and a fuller m eaning, F o r th e sam e reason vario u r

term s and phrases, h ith erto difficult and perhaps baffling, have

becom e easier to

Vinaya Texts w as published, th e y are able to

understand, and hence to translate.

take on

 

I

h ave

therefore

attem p ted

translations

of

variou s

w ords

th

a t

R h y s

D avid s

and

O ldenberg,

for

one

reason

or another,

kept in th e P ali. I do

n ot claim o rigin ality, how ever, fo r m y

v

vi

TRAN SLATO R'S

INTRODUCTION

renderings, for m ost, if not ail of these term s h ave already

been translated where th e y occur in other canonical texts and

h

ave appeared in their appropriate books in the P ali T ex t

S

o ciety's Translation Series or in the Sacred B ooks of the

B

uddhists. Som e of these words m a y be m entioned here.

F

o r exam ple, as in th e first three volum es of the B ook o f the

D iscip lin e, samgha is rendered as O rder ; dukkapz as wrong­ doing (a typ e of offence) of constant occurrence in this volum e , sdmanera as n ovice ; titihiya as other s e c ts ; bhikkhu and

bhikkhunt as m o n k an d nun j chabbaggiya bhikkhit as th e sixfold group of m onks ; vassa as the rains ; parivdsa as probation ;

w ho shares

his c e l l ; acariya as teach er (in

as

upa.jjhd.ya as p re c e p to r; saddhiviharika as th e one

a tech n ical sense), an d antevasin

his

p u p il

;

and pavarai^a as In vita tio n .

Tn th is volum e T h a v e also translated a n u m b er o f o th er words,

likewise left untranslated b y R h ys D avid s and Oldenberg, and w hich h ave not occurred in m y three preceding volum es. F o r exam ple, I h a v e tran slated parisuddhi as entire p u rity ; nissaya as dependence ; and natii as m otion w hile natticatuttha is a m otion follow ed b y a resolution p u t three times* I h a v e also given th e nam es of the form al acts of the O rder in English.

A ll these are technical term s, and should be understood, for

th ey n atu rally help

which

tions

R h ys D avid s and O ldenberg append

consultation* I h ave m ade

no attem pt to translate dham m a and nibbana. B u t I hope

b y translating such term s as I have m entioned above I have,

w hile

a m eaning and significance easier for the E nglish reader to

grasp

intention, perhaps clo th ed them in

are of great value and m erit careful

to their untranslated w ords

to cla rify some of th e depths and com plica­

In

alm ost

every

case

the

notes

of

the

Vinaya.

keep in g

to

th e

P a li

than when he is confronted w ith the P ali forms.

This volum e opens w ith the account, of the greatest im port­

ance to historians and devotees of Buddhism alike, of the days

im m ediately preceding the form ation of the Order itself,

beginning w ith the seven d ays' contem plation under the Bo-tree

w here G o ta m a sat en jo yin g th.e bliss o f deliverance ju s t a fte r he had attained th at full awakening, illum ination or enlighten­ m ent w hich m arked his passage from Bodhisattahood to

B uddhahood. A ccording to this M ahavagga account, during each of " the

TRAN SLATO R 'S INTRODUCTION vii

three w atches of the n ight " — presum ably the last of th e seven

spent under th e B o-tree— h e u ttered a solem n utterance concerned w ith cause, an d then w ith th e ro u tin g of M ara (in the th ird w atch). T h e Dhammapada Commentary {DhA. iu. 127) sa y s th a t in th e first w a tch he d issipated th e d arkn ess

or lives, births ; th a t

in the second he purified his deva-vision ; and th a t in th e third, out of com passion for creatures, he paid right m indfulness to dependent origination b oth in forw ard and reverse order. Then, self-aw akened to th e fullest self-aw akening, he uttered the solem n utterance com m on to hundreds of thousands of B u d d h as, n a m ely th e tw o verses b egin n in g anakujdtisarnsdram {Dhp. 153 ; Thag. 183 ; J d , i. 76}. T he Introduction to the

(ignorance)

veilin g

his

form er

abodes,

Vinaya

Commentary

(Sam antapdsddikd), V o l.

I,

p.

17 ,

and the

these verses are the

first B u d d h a va ca n a ; w h ile th e Uddna Commentary (p. 208) an d the Suttanipata Commentary (ii. 392) also s a y th a t he

the three know ledges

in the three w atches o f the night. The Khuddakapatha

Commentary (p. 1:3—13), ela b o ra tin g fu rth e r, or p erhaps follow ­ ing some other tradition, says that while these tw o verses were

the first o f all w ords to

recently, " aw akened "), th e y were

o n ly spoken m en tally and not o u t loud. F o r w hat he first spoke o u t loud, so this C om m entary continues, w as the verse

w hich in the M aJiavagga is attribu ted to the end of the first

because now , although v e r y

uttered these verses after he had attain ed

Dtgha

Commentary (DA.

i.

16), agree th a t

be uttered b y th e B u d d h a (Buddha,

w

atch

of

the

night

o f

awakening.

A t the end o f th e third w atch of this cru cial n ight the B u d d h a

w

ent, according

to

the

M ahavagga,

to

the

foot

of the

A ja p a la

ban yan an d sat there for seven d ays ; he then spent another seven days at the foot o f the M ucalinda tree, and a still fu rth er

seven

of these three trees he w as visited b y a brahm an, representative

th a t tim e, and

the B u d d h a stated his view on w hat it is to be a " brahm an ” (in th e true sense). W h ile he w as a t the second tree a n aga-k in g arrived to offer him protection— in d icative of the close and.

at the foot of the RajcLyatana. W hile he w as at th e first

of one of the sects w h ich abounded in Tndia a t

on the w hole, frien d ly relations w hich in the B u d d h ist trad ition existed betw een serpents and hum an beings. A gain G otam a

m ade a short statem ent, th is tim e on w h at it is th a t con stitutes

viii

TRANSLATOR'S

INTRODUCTION

" highest bliss " , pajam a sukha. A lth ough th is statem ent lacks the terseness of th at attrib u ted to G o tam a in the Mdgandiya

nibbana is th e highest bliss " , it that throughout th e long history

at th e heart of its teaching ; th at

the absence of m alice,

conditioned things, th e transcending of sense-pleasures, and

the avertin g (or c o n tro l vinaya) of prid e in the th o u gh t " T am " — th a t these are the highest bliss. “

B rah m a ’s E n trea ty "

the B u d d h a’s hesitation to teach dham m a, concepts em erge

of the

P ali canonical texts :

its peace, and th e consequent need to teach it in a w orld so

deligh tin g and

to lettin g itself be persuaded that dham m a, earnestly practised, led upstream , against th e current, patisotagdmin, and b y the

death of cravin g opened the doors of deathlessness to nibbana, the source o f true and suprem e bliss. T he first K h an d h aka, Section or Chapter of the M aliavagga, called th e G reat {mahd) Section , also contains G o ta m a 's fam ous utterance to U p aka, the N aked Ascetic, of his victoriousness, perfection and self-awakening, o f his uniqueness, and of his

h avin g had no teach er (r. 8. 8).

other hum an beings. T hen there com es, preceded b y further

the absence of feeling attracted to

Sufta (M . S ta . 75) : th a t “ nevertheless contains tenets of B uddhism have rem ained

In

the

T a lk

on

during

th e

m ost

tim e

of

which, w ith m ore insistence or less, are found in

the

deepness and difficulty

of dham m a,

rejoicing in sensual pleasure th a t it w as averse

H e is therefore different from

stress

on

the

finding

of

deathlessness,

the

F irst

Discourse,

delivered

to

the

five

earliest

followers,

and

called

elsewhere

the D h am m acakkappavattan a Su tta, the D iscourse on the

R ollin g of the W heel of D ham m a, in w hich the M iddle

the dead-ends of too great lu xu ry called th e A riyan E igh tfold W ay.

This W a y is graded into stla, samadhi and panna {1\i. i. 301)

and centres on dukhhat iinsatisfactoriness, ill or suffering, and

is

recorded to say (Af. i. 140) : " A s form erly, so now, this is p recisely w h a t T teach : ill and the stop p in g o f ill.J' A rin ata K opdanna was the first of the disciples to apprehend this cen tral fact in cau sality, th a t " w h atever is of the nature to

arise,

of

dham m a, as it was soon afterw ards th a t of his four com panions.

Course

between the tw o extrem es, and too great au sterity, is

th e sto p p in g of it, epitom ised later b y G o ta m a when he

all th at

is of the

nature to

stop

I t

w as

his vision

TRAN SLATOR'S

INTRODUCTION

ix

A s this dham m a-vision arose in each one o f them he asked for the " going forth " or adm ission, pabbajjd, and for the

•ordination, u-pasampada, in the L o rd 's presence. In response,

G otam a u ttered th e words, “ Come, m onk, ehi bhikkku, w ell

ta u g h t is dh am m a, fare th e B rah m a-farin g for the u tte r ending

o f ill." This, the original form ula, used b y G otam a w hen the

O rder w as beginning to form and w hile it w as still in its infancy,

covers sim ultaneous adm ission and ordination. L a ter, two

separatb procedures supervened, and as the M ahavagga shows,

O rder had to be gained before ordination

could be conferred. A fte r the Second D iscourse, that on the im possibility o f the

and

suffering, and also spoken to the five original follow ers, and

ordination of Y a sa , his fou r friends, and th en his

th ere w ere sixty-o n e a ra h a n ts in th e w orld (1. 10. from all sn ares," th e y w ere told b y G otam a to go

after the

five^ hhandhas b ein g self because th e y are im p erm an en t

adm ission into the

fifty frien d s, 4). F reed

o

u t on tour and preach

dham m a for the good and th e

welfare

o

f

the

m ultitude.

A s

a

result

m any

people

becam e

anxious

for adm ission and ordination, but, jou rn eyin g

to be adm itted

A ccordin gly he

to G otam a so as

and ordained b y him , th e y arrived exhausted.

thereupon allowed m onks them selves to adm it

a

n d

ordain

in

a n y

d istric t,

in

a n y

q u arter.

T h e y

w ere

not,

how ever,

instructed

to

use

the

w ords

" Com e,

m o n k ."

On

th e

contrary,

it

is

now

the candidate

w ho

has

three

tim es

to

rep eat an o th er form ula. T h is is called adm ission and ord in a­

tion b y the " three goings for refuge

stage in the ordination proceedings. In th e usage to be follow ed

b y those who wished to be m onastic follow ers, the three refuges

becam e stabilised as buddham saranam gacchdmi, dhamrnam

saranaift gacchafni, sdmghattt saranani gacchdm i, each ph rase

be repeated three tim es. Those who w ished to be counted as

la y disciples (upasaka, fem . updsika) asked fo r this statu s b y

repeating the sligh tly different form ula of taking refuge n o t in biiddham, dhamrnam and samgham, b u t in bhagavantant,

bhavantam Gotam am ,

dhamrnam an d bJiikkhusarhgham.1

dhamrnam

T h is m arks th e second

to

and

bhikkkusamghatn,1 or

in

* Besides the M ahSvagga references, see e.g. Af. i. 363, 3.79, 391, 3<X>.

* See also

e.g.

M .

i. 290, +13,

489, 501.

X

TRAN SLATO R 'S

INTRODUCTION

of adm itting and ordaining

did not last v e ry long.

perhaps not v e ry convincing, and w e should have expected

m ore

longer

sufficed

the

mishaps

reasons given for abolishing it are

It

is probable

details

he

and

and

that

tales

this m ethod

T h e

of

showing

A t

that

all

it

no

needed revising.

M ah avagga

how

did not answ er th at the brahm an's repetition of th e three goings

ordain a certain brahm an, G otam a

on an occasion w hen Sariputta asked him

therefore

stands,

adm it

events,

as

should

and

fo r refu ge w ould co n stitu te his ordination. (I. 38. 3-} In stead

the

candidate, presented b y his preceptor, b y m eans of a form al

a c t (kamma ,) consisting of a m

th at of the O rder ordaining a

third

phase

now

arose :

otion an d a resolution proclaim ed

th

ree

tim es

{naiticatzdtha).

T his m eans th a t it is now the

O

rder

alone

w hich has the

authority,

the

pow er and the legal

righ t to ordain. Tn ad dition , the can d id ate for ordination now has to have a preceptor, agreed upon b y the Order, w ho must present him to th e O rder— that is to the one dw elling within

the

boundary

where

he

w ants

to

take up his residence— and

who

m ust

have

prepared

him

beforehand so th a t, w ithout

feeling asham ed or confused, he w ill be able to answer a num ber

of routine questions th a t w ill be put to him in the m idst of the Order. N o doubt of gradual grow th, these routine questions

form a kind of exam ination, and it is im pressed on the candidate

b y

truth-speaking.

his

preceptor

th a t

now ,

above

all

times, is a tim e for

of the features am ong the

m any leading to the finalised form of the ordination proceedings. These m ultiplied and became intricate to suit the dynam ic

and progressive phase

old

com p lexity of em ergent eventualities. The

num ber of m onks com posing

an

m ust h ave been ordained before he is reckoned as suitable or

com peten t to ordain

vaithurn, on a teach er, g iv in g

qualities th at a m onk should be possessed of in order to ordain, and the ordination and probation of form er mem bers of other

sects, and

su bjects

Gone is the

R egulations have to

These

are,

how ever, m erely some

of

in which

th ey

‘'C o m e ,

m o n k ".

the

minimum

to o k shape.

sim plicity

increase to m eet a resources, nissaya,

O rder

com petent

to ordain, the num ber of years a m onk

others, livin g in dependence, nissaya

gu idan ce, nissayam datum, the

w hich a person m a y be ordam ed, are all

review .

T he inner life of the Order

the

age at

brought

under

TRAN SLATO R 'S

INTRODUCTION

XI

had to

b e

safeguarded

as

m uch

as

h ad

its

relations

to

the

w

orld outside.

 
 

T h a t

th e

candidate

for

ordination

h ad

to

undergo a prior

period of preparation and instruction at th e hands o f a preceptor

im

ordination or final adm ission, meet difficulties, perhaps created

b y the draw ing pow er of G otam aJs O rder itself, w h at

been one operation becam e split into tw o. This is the inten tion

o f

adm ission, allow s m onks to ordain b y a form al act consisting

of th e m otion and the resolution put to the O rder three tim es.

Since th e m ethod of adm ission is not form ulated here, although Saxiputta had asked how to adm it and how to ordain, it becom es clear th a t these tw o proceedings, hitherto sim ultaneous, are now in th e process o f sep aratin g. C h a p te r 30 show s even m ore confusion. Tt cites an in stan ce where m onks a d m it an d ordain

w ith o u t m en tion in g

had once

" going forth " or

prelim inary adm ission, and “

plies a

passage

of tim e

elapsing betw een

ft would seem th at in order to

C h a p ter

28 of M a h av a gg a

T

w h ich ,

G otam a

reproved them for ad m itting anyone w ho w ent forth for the

sake

and

ordained, saying that adm ission w as for the sake, n ot of good food, but of each one of the resources.

Tt is, h o w ever, clear th a t tw o stages w ere b ecom in g n ecessary

th a t

in

adm ission, the m o n k’s stand ing, rig h ts and d u ties w ould be

b y

uftasampada, ordination. H ence when pabbajja w as fu n ction ally

separated from upasampadd, it received a new and specialised

significance, com ing to m ean adm ission to noviciateshtp. One becam e a n ovice, samatpera, b y th e con ferm en t o f pabbajja, a

n ew ly ordained m onk, navii, b y the conferm ent of upasam padd.

The form er, like the latter, had its own m ach in ery for its proper

b o y should n o t be

before

being

a brahm an

who

good

had

asked

the

the

for

adm ission

were

(only).

to

of

th e

m eals

out

m onks

four

reputed

for

e n jo y —

then

pointed

** resources ”

one

the

fu ll statu s

of

these

those

of

a

m onk could

stages,

be

acquired,

an d

th e

earlier

from

tw o

in

entered

stage,

on to b y fiabbajjd,

entered

on

to

different

th e

latter

en

actm en t

(L

50- 61).

F o r

exam ple,

a

allow ed to " go forth ”

and unless he had reached the age

strange condition th a t he could scare crow s (L 51)-—a te st perhaps th a t his first in fan cy was past. M ethods of dealing

w ith re fra cto ry n ovices are laid down {T. 57- 60). A s d ep raved

unless

he

had

his

parents’

consent,

of fifteen, except on the

T

R

A

N

S

L

A

T

O

R

’ S

I N

T R

O

D

U

C

T

I O

N

m onks

depraved novices could be expelled before th ey were ordained.

T h e

although abolished from the norm al procedure of ordinationJ

w as

a llo w ed to go fo rth

b y those form er m em bers of other sects, who later will be

eligible for ordination,

fou r m onths' probationary period w hich th ey have to observe

first (I. 38).

are asking to enter on a

I t is also the form ula to be used

repeat when being

could

for

be expelled after th e y had been ordained, so

refuge

in th e buddha, dhamma an d satngha,

form ula novices are

(I.

54. 3).

to

when

th ey

goin g

retained as the

B y

enlarging

the

O rder

to

include

novices,

who

m ight be

those

who

shared

a

cell

(with

a

preceptor)

or

pupils

(of

a

teacher), b y not

lim iting

of w hom

original

adepts "

to

go

it

to

G otam a

himself

and

the

first

six ty m onks, all ”

were arahants, b y exhorting these

and as a

forth

and

teach

dham m a

result of their returning w ith an unspecified num ber of people seeking for adm ission and ordination, the O rder was rendered

accessible

(I. 13. x) w ere not so g rea t as those o f th e original

d eliveran ce

m atchless

to

men

whose

powers

of

attaining

the

disciples.

These

were

m onks

who

therefore

stood

in

need

of

training. B u t in spite of m any opportunities of subm itting

out

H ence it m ay be presum ed th at the bhikk-

husathgka of the third refuge for la y follow ers said less than

least of ariyans

Samgha. o f the T rip le

is n ot the com m unity of m onks as such, not the com m unity

that includes the groups of six or seventeen m onks, notorious for their bad habits and as makers of trouble, or the quarrelsome

m onks of K osam bI, or those depraved or ill-behaved individuals on account of all of whom rules were form ulated, regulations

devised, and offences discrim inated from w hat were not classed

a s offences, an d whose m isdoings provide the raison d 'ftre of

discipline, of vinaya, of the outw ard standard of self-control so m uch needed not m erely to distinguish the m onks from

m em bers of other sects, although in some cases a certain am ount

of im itation was perm itted, but also to gain the lo ya lty and support of the lay followers- For on these depended to a large

exten t

to

to

it

an d

profiting

T he

b y

it,

they

did

not

alw ays

turn

satisfacto rily.

w as intended.

samgha of arah an ts, or at

T h e

is m eant, not th a t of average m en.

Gem

the physical conditions w hich

himself

to

his

training,

would m ake a m onk free

goal

of

which

was

th e

devote

the

xiii

vision of nibbana. T he Satngha of the th ird refuge has in

reality reference o n ly to those steadfast disciples w ho, h avin g entered th e sotdpanna stage are on the supram undane p arts

statu re

is

T h e y are-

united b y th e com m union of understanding and ethical b eh a v­

io u r,” acco rd in g to th e C om m en taries on th e Bhayabh.era.va Sutta (M A . i. 130 ff.) an d th e Khuddakapdpha {KhA . 18 -1 9 ), in both of w hich the m eaning of " going for refuge " is discussed at length and a t a high level not approached in th e Vinaya Commentary. T he first tw enty-fou r chapters of the F irst Section, th e M ahakhandhaka, of th e M ahavagga appear to give a chrono­ logical account of events from the night of A w aken in g under th e B o-tree on the banks of the river N eranjara to the adm ission and ordination of S arip u tta and M oggallana, the pair o f chief disciples, alread y gone forth from hom e into hom elessness a s

wanderers. F rom this point

is not so apparent, for the M ah avagga now begins to group

together subject-m atter

ology is suspended, no doubt in the interests of classifyin g th is subject-m atter and reducing its co m p lexity to som e kind of m anageable order, the b etter to be fixed in the m em ory. W h at need w as there for th e existin g or for a n y subsequent O rder

to

valu e to learn and m aster the rules and procedure governin g

b o th th e recurrent occasions and the d aily oonduct of m onastic life, and this could be m ore easily accom plished if th e m aterial for the various topics w ere grouped togeth er instead of being

scattered

V inaya- Pi tak a .

of e ve n ts

becam e secondary to system atisation, this plan nonetheless w ell

shows b o th th e developm ent and the stabilisation of the O rder

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of th e W a y , and so are them selves and attain m en ts— lokuttara because

of

supram undane

b y

all

"

u n aifected

th a t

lokiya , of the w orld , com pound ed an d con d ition ed.

on, a precise historical narration

belongs

together.

S trict

chron­

th a t

know

the

exact

procession of even ts ? I t w as of greater

throughout

th e

hands

the

immense

early

com pilation

know n

as

the

If,

in

of the

editors th e

sequence

as

a

uniform

institution ,

grow th

of

several

m onastic

p ractices,

of

governm ent

the w ith in

it

for

th e

sake

o f

its

own.

preservation and continuance which, in turn, depended on the essential qualities of scrupulousness and strivin g on the part of the individuals w ho becam e its m em bers. These therefore

TRANSLATOR'S

INTRODUCTION

were being con tin u ally brought to live in conform ity w ith a standard o f b ehaviou r specially suitable to recluses, samana, and w o rth y of those w ho had " l e f t the w o rld " with its evanescent pleasures and its troubles and had instead entered

on a w a y of life where w orldly jo ys and sorrows were gradually

to be renounced so th a t the other-w orldly transcended them could be apprehended.

F o r achieving cam e to be, no

t o . such

developm ents,

steps of all— adm ission and ordination

into th e Order— were experim ented w ith until various types of applicants regarded as not eligible for entry could be excluded b y rules, based either on experience or on forethought. This

left the O rder open o n ly to the sort of person whom it was not unreasonable to suppose m ight be assim ilated w ithout bringing it into disgrace. E ven so, there were backsliders, as already m entioned. D isgrace w ould have been courted if, for

exam ple, debtors and those in the royal service had been allow ed to escape their obligations b y becom ing monks. Therefore

lated, Thus the first

adap ted

and higher jo y that

this, the life of the O rder regarded as a whole doubt gradually, planned and arranged and

while,

running

parallel

becam e

carefully

regu­

to

circum stances,

the

life

of

its m em bers

th

e y w ere debarred from

entering th e Order.

A fter its first Section on Adm ission and O rdination, the

M

ahavagga proceeds to an account of the nature and establish­

m

ent of th e great fortn igh tly O bservance of uposatha, whose

principal feature is the recital of the

provides m onks w ith an occasion to reveal an y offence they

m a y

taken to m ean that th ey have “ entire purity ” , parisuddhi, in respect of adherence to the rules. A s usual, all kinds of subsidiary m atters had to be defined and regularised in order

to

case

m onks living w ithin the same recognised boundary should

gather together on on U posatha d ay. Therefore m ethods of fixing boundaries had to be established. M oreover the U posatha could not be held at some place chosen a t random ; a place of a m axim um size for the current needs had to be agreed upon w ithin each bou nd ary so that all the m onks livin g there should know where to go and arrive in tim e. If th ey had difficulty

that only

Patim okkha

rules.

This

h av e

co m m itted .

T h eir silence, on th e other hand, is

achieve

of the

the

sm ooth

running

it

w as

of the

m ain concerns.

d e t e r m

i n e d

In

the

U posatha

for exam ple

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xv

in crossing a river— one th a t ran through their b ou n d ary— to

get there, it

com e bringing a ll their three robes ; b u t if th e y left th em behind

m ight be agreed b y th e O rd er th a t th e y need not

th

e y

m u st n o t la y th em aside in an u n suitable place w here

th

e y m ight g e t lost or burnt or eaten b y ra ts (II. 12). R ig h t and w rong m ethods of recitin g the P atim ok kh a are

given ; w h ether o r n ot it should b e recited in full o r in brief,

w hich to som e exten t depended on the absence or presence

o f ten sources of danger. It was, ideally, to be recited b y an elder (tkera), b u t if he w a s in com p eten t, th en it w as to be

recited b y some other experienced,

w ere none w ithin the boundary, a n ew ly ordained m onk w as

com peten t m onk ; if there

to

b e sen t to

a

neighbouring

residence to

le a m

it

there, eith er

in

f rill or in b rief, an d th e n retu rn (II.

17. 6).

 

I f a m onk,

ow ing to illness, could n ot atten d the recital o f the

P

atim ok k h a, he h ad

to send

his

"

entire p u rity " , pari&uddhi,

b

y another.

T h is m onk conveyed

it on b eh alf o f the one w ho

w as ill a n d d eclared it (datum) to th e O r d e r ; b u t m a n y

are posited w hen the entire p u rity com es to be not

conveyed on account of a va riety o f things th a t m ight happen to th e co n veyer b o th w h ile on his w a y from th e in v a lid to the

m eeting-place and after his arrival there but before he had

given the entire p u rity . This., and the co n ve ya n ce an d givin g,

(chandam ddtutn) on b e h a lf of a

m onk w h o is ill for th e carryin g out of a form al act of th e O rder,

or d eclaration o f th e consent

occasions

serve

to

show

how extrem ely im portant it w as held to be— a

point

stressed over and over again— th a t an O rder should be

**

com plete ”

w henever

its

business

w as

being

discharged.

This w as not to fall into the hands of the few . E v e n those who, like M ahakappina, claim ed to be " purified w ith the high­

est p u rity " (II. 5. 5), w ere not not to go. F o r an O rder w ould not have been com plete if even one m onk w ere absent. I t

w

ould seem th a t the o n ly reasons for n ot going to the

O

bservance in person w ere severe illness an d m adness. In th e

form er case the O rder could be regarded as com plete although in fact n ot com plete, provided that the entire p u rity an d th e consent w ere properly and safely con veyed and declared. In the la tter, the O rder m ust grant the m ad m onk, here typ ified b y G agga, the agreem ent for a m adm an. T h is agreem ent is to

the

that w hether the m ad m onk rem em bers the

effect

xvi

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com es for it or not, w hether he rem em bers a

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O bservance or not,

formed a ct o f th e O rder or not, com es fo r it or not, th e O rd er either w ith him or w ithout him can legitim ately ca rry ou t both th e O bservance and the form al act. Such are som e of the item s and problem s which h ad to be

settled and solved before the recital of th e P atim okkha

its final form . T do n ot recapitulate all these here, for th ey

m a y be read in th e te x t. Those I h ave given m a y be regarded

as typ ica l of th e care taken to forestall and circum vent deleterious contingencies that m igh t arise a n d , disrupt the

m onk's standing eith er in his own eyes or in those of his fellow s or those of the world. T he strength of the regulations govern­ ing m onastic proceedings and individual conduct lies in th e standard or criterion th e y give of how to act in a m ultitude of circum stances affectin g a m onk’s life. W hen the M ah avagga comes to deal w ith the rain y season it p a y s alm ost equal attention to entering on the rains and

received

then keeping them b y residing in one m onastery for either the first three or th e second three of th e fou r m onths of this period, as it does to the journeys m onks m a y take aw ay from their rains-residence. The prim e m otive underlying the establish­

m ent o f rains-residences was protection or non-injury : the

protection o f crops— th e economic m ainspring

protection of the teem ing sm all creatures th at some P a cittiya s

also seek to safeguard. One of the results to harm vegetable or anim al life, and w h ich

of this an xiety not som etim es received

an im petus from the criticism s the la ity m ade, w as the allow ance given m onks and nuns to enter on th e rains, follow ed b y an

attem pt to im m obilise them during this season. B u t restric­

of life— and the

tions

such

as

this

la tte r

were

at

variance

w ith

the

immense

v

ita lity

the

O rders

possessed,

as

is

shown

b y

the

num erous

occasions w hen it is deem ed not o n ly perm issible b u t desirable for m onks to leave th e rains-residence on various kinds of

m

onastic business or on com passionate missions. E v e n as

life

m

ust go on, so the O rd er’s business m ust go on. A n d the life

of this sm aller w orld w ithin the larger one could n ot close down

m onks were too m uch

entirely for a third o f each year1 ;

 

1

T ilt

rains

lasted

for

lour

months.

E a ch

m oult

could

choose

w hether

lie

w ould

observe

the

fa s t

ttiree

m onths

or

th e

second

three

m onths,

b u t

be

was not expected

to

observe

alt four.

xvii

involved with, the w orld outside, th e y were dependent on it

(III. 10.—11. 4)j an d h a d com m itm en ts tow ard s it* an d th eir

lives were too m uch interlocked w ith those of the la ity to m ake

this feasible. A com prom ise had therefore to be found between, on the one hand, stayin g m a residence for th e w hole of the three m onths of the rains, w hereby the m inim um o f harm w ould be brought to the crops and the life of m inute creatures, and, on the other, leavin g the residence for business which

regarded as urgent. This com prom ise was

effected b y lim iting th e tim e of absence to seven d ays ; and the business calling for a m onk's presence being carefu lly

defined, if he could not tran sact it w ith in this tim e, he should not undertake it at all. The end of the rains w as m arked b y tw o ceremonies. One of these w as the P avaran a, when m onks in vited one another to speak o f offences th ey had seen, heard or suspected to have been com m itted during the rains. T h e recital of the P ati-

m ight reasonably be

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raokkha

w as to " rem ove ” offences, b y confessing them , during

the nine

d ry m onths of the year ; the In vita tio n w as to rem ove

an y offences th at m onks had com m itted during the three wet

m onths, and w ould help them ( r v , 1 . 1 3 ).

to aim at grasping discipline

T he

other

cerem ony

held

at

the

end

of

the

rains

w as

not

d iscip lin ary

in

nature

or

connected

w ith

the

confession

of

offences. Tt w as for th e m aking up

cotton cloth th at had accrued by w a y

into robes to replace those th at had becom e thin and sh ab b y or spoiled b y the rains (Section V II). T hu s the replenishm ent of robe-m aterial com es under consideration, and had to be m anaged in an orderly and prescribed w a y . F urther, various officers were created for looking after robe-

m aterial : the acceptor, the guardian, th e d istrib u to r; places

are prescribed : d yes and m ethods of

d yeing

suitable for store-room s

o f th e kathhui clo th , or

o f gift to the m onks,

laid

dow n ;

the

use

of

three

robes

o n ly

(one

d ou b Ted

however) allow ed ; w hile the kinds of m edicine m onks m ight take are discussed in considerable detail. T he kinds of shoes

and sandals th ey m ight wear, and the use th e y m ight m ake

anim als' skins are treated w ith equal precision.

B o th o f these

categories no doubt spring from the desire not to take life, how ever infinitesim al. W ooden shoes, or clogs, are objected to

o f

xviii

because if m onks wore them and stepped on insects th e y m ight k ill them (V. 6. 3}, besides disturbing m onks who were

m editating.

and

com plained to m onks th a t, m cu ttin g these down, th ey were destroying life th at w as one-facultied. O ther com plaints m ust also h ave tended to reduce ihe slaughter of anim als. R ugs

— or garm en ts (V III. 28. 2)— m ade o f b lack antelope skin w ere forbidden to m onks an d also sheets m ade of the hide of the K a d a li deer (V. 10. 4), and it becam e an offence of w rong-doing

to recline upon th e hides o f lions, tig e rs an d leopards (V. 10. 6} or of sm aller anim als. Cowhides w ere forbidden because scandalised m onks found that one of their num ber had incited

a depraved la y follow er to kill a calf for his benefit, and th e y rem em bered th a t G otam a had condem ned " onslaught on creatures B u t, at the end of Section V , an exception is m ade

in fa v o u r of th e border districts (V. 13. 13) where, because of the hardships and discom fort, the hides of sheep, goats and deer were allow ed to b e used as coverings. T h e last tw o Sections of the M ahavagga point to an O rder

th at w as in d u b itab ly growing and th at, in order to m eet this

expansion, had to be carefully controlled. Section I X engages

on a thorough discussion of w hat it is th a t constitutes valid as against invalid form al acts that an O rder can ca rry out. In

th e first place an O rder to carry out a legally valid form al act

m ust be com plete ; those m onks not able to be present because

and those who are

present m ust not protest against the proceedings. A " com plete

O rder " also refers, as before, to the one residing w ithin a

determ ined boundary. T he actions and business of every such

O rder m ust be transacted on a uniform pattern, and conform

to one uniform standard, so th at each Order transacts its business in the sam e w a y as every other, all follow ing the same

regulations. T h is m u st therefore be done, in the second place,

dhammena, righ tly, properly, b y rule. T o carry out a form al act dhammena, b y rule, means th at if it is to be carried out b y

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F u rth er, bam boos

sandals m ade of young palm yra palm s

cam e

to

be forbidden after people had

yo u n g

of illness m ust send th eir leave for absence,

a

m otion

an d

one resolution] Hattidutiya,

the

m otion

m ust

be

p

u t an d

th e resolution

proposed once

only.

B u

t

if it

is to

be

carried out b y a m otion and a resolution put three tim es, naUicatuUha, th e n th is m u st b e done, in a ll cases th e m otion

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xix

being p u t before th e resolution

w ill then be irreversible, fit to stand, and protests against its

va lid ity of no avail. Im m ense pains are taken to distinguish

rule

from one carried out in an incom plete assem bly and either b y

w hat has the appearance of rule or not b y rule. The form al acts

under

T h ey

a

is proclaim ed. T h e form al act

form al a ct

the

carried

out

in

of

a

com plete

O rder

assem bly

an d

b y

jurisdiction

an

num ber

sixteen.

com prise {IX . 4. i) : in vitation , rehabilitation, ordination, but

on ly an O rder consisting o f tw en ty m onks or more can carry

T h ey also include verd icts of innocence, of

past insanity, specific d ep ravity, form al acts of suspension for not seeing an offence, for not m aking am ends for it, for not

giving up a w rong view ; and of banishm ent, censure, placing under guidance, reconciliation, sending one who m erits proba­ tion back to the beginning, and th e im posing of mdnatta (two features in the p en alty for Sam ghM isesa offences). W hen circum stances ju stify, these form al acts m a y be revoked b y the Order.

and last Section strikes a different note

again b y prom ulgating regulations and advice for allayin g

schisms.

upon

the particular kind of offence incurred b y a particular action ;

or w hen factions form ed

quarrelled w ith their fellow s from other causes, am ong w hich

m ust be included the positive wish to create a schism, a wish

put into practice b y, for exam ple, suspending a m onk for an offence he had not com m itted and th at he therefore refused

to see

is reputed to h ave tried , un successfully, to m a k e the bick erin g

m onks com pose their differences b y telling them a J a ta k a sto ry illu stra tin g the conquest o f w rath b y non-w rath {X . 2). T he

M ah avagga therefore co n ta in s dhamma. o r d octrin e as w ell as

discipline. Indeed the latter would be n u gato ry if it were not based on the form er and prom ulgated in conjunction w ith it.

H ow

KosarnbI w hose braw ls and dissensions caused G otam a to seek

solitude like the great buH-elephant who w as beset and annoyed

b y the rest of the herd

A nuruddha,

out

all

of

these.

F in ally,

w hat

the

These

tenth

m ight

arise

an

through

and

genuine

w hat

did

disagreem ent

not,

or

upon

constituted

offence

to support a m onk or m onks who had

as an offence of his.

On

one such

an

occasion G otam a

great

is

the contrast between the quarrelsom e m onks of

N andiya

(X .

4-. 6), and the peaceable m onks,

and

K im bila

w ho

lived

harm oniously

XX

TRAN SLATO R'S

INTRODUCTION

together as m ilk and w ater blend, regarding one another w ith the eye of affection, full of am ity in gesture, speech and thought, surrendering their m inds to each other and so, although h avin g different bodies, h avin g on ly one m ind (ndnd h i kho no kaya ekan ca pana m anne cittam , X , 4, 3—4). The M ah avagga deals w ith a tim e w hen, at the beginning of

G o ta m a ’s m in istry,

fast increasing, and when they, travellin g to more distant parts of India, bore the new doctrine w ith them and so started the influx of m em bers th at has gone on until to-day. I f the

geographical

the

countries, m ade necessary b y the

harder than those of the Middle C o u n try where otherwise the

scene is laid — p rin cip ally a t R a ja g a h a , also at S a v a tth i, VesalT,

K ap ilavatth u and other neighbouring places— its num erical

relaxations

th e num ber o f m onks— and nuns too— w as

expansion

in

the

rules

o f

for

the

O rder

can

be

gauged

or

b y

the

ou tlyin g

districts

border

conditions prevailing there,

expansion can eq u ally w ell be gauged b y the awareness of schism s arising to the danger and detrim ent of the O rder, and

w hich could o n ly have occurred som e tim e after its form ation.

only

an im pression b u t an account of an Order expanding and taking

shape im m ediately after its

to

am ount of history behind it, and to a tim e therefore w hen m any

rules had been laid down and w hen, in spite of attem pted

schism s, a certain am ou n t o f s ta b ility had been achieved in the m atter of the O rder’s governm ent and legislation. This

m a y to som e extent be judged, for exam ple, b y the num ber

of tim es, thirteen in all, th at the

should be dealt w ith according to the rule, occurs. The rule

referred to w ill in each case be found com plete w ith the p en alty incurred for infringing it, in the V ibhangas. T h at the use of this phrase assum es the prior existence of the rule is confirm ed, in addition, b y the fact th a t the m aterial contained in the

M ah avagga is placed in the palm -leaf M SS. after the

{or Bhikkhu-) and B hikkhuni-V ibhangas. A lth ough this

sequence is not foEowed

Vinaya Pitakam , it is th a t Tightiy adopted in the Vinaya T extsf

fo r here the V ib h an ga for m onks, although d rastically curtailed^

precedes the M ahavagga— th a t for nuns being om itted entirely

A lth o u gh

refer

to

a

the

beginning

when

the

of

the

M ahavagga

gives

not

inception, the rem ainder appears Order alread y had a considerable

tim e

p h ra se yathddhammo kdretabbo,

M aha-

b y Oldenberg in his edition of the

T R A N S L A T O R ' S I N T R O D U C T I O N xxi

T h e question then arises w hy. in th e m iddle of the Vinaya,

an accou n t is incorporated “ of the v e r y first events in the

isto ry o f th e Sam gh a " (V in . Texts i. 7 z . n.). R h y s D avid s "

h

the stories or

legends concerning the ordination o f bh ikkh u s ” w ith these

e a rly e v e n ts because, so th e y argu e, *' it w as im possible to

realise the idea of a Sam gha w ithout

be regarded as a d u ly adm itted m em ber o f the fratern ity, and

who

for

prefacing the record of the developm ent o f the first and m ost

in a m onk's life b y a short h istory of how there cam e

to

F rom their adm ission and

v ita l step

rules show ing w ho w as to

and Oldenberg; th in k it

natural ’* to connect

w as not

be

a

life

I

agree

m onks

th at

this

all.

provides

a good

reason

for

a t

ordination, all the rest follows- A t th e sam e tim e m an y stories are interspersed throughout the whole of the Vinaya, excep tin g

the P arivara. N o t only are there several in the M ahavagga itself, for exam ple about A m b ap ali and the L icch avis, about

J

iv a k a K om arab h acca, V isa k h a, Mendaka,. D igh avu , and ab ou t

P

ilin davaccha,

and

ab o u t

the

boy

U pali

{both told elsewhere

in the Vinaya), and countless shorter

ones, b u t every rule in

the

V ib h an gas 4s introduced b y some story, long or sh ort, as

case m

a y be.

T h is being so, it seem s n ot o n

ly

n a tu ra l ”

the

b u t logical to introduce the rules governing the in itial and m ost

im portant step in a m onk's life b y an account o f the first events

w hich

attain ed full self-aw akening. Since this w as the initial and

m ost im portant step in a B u d dh a's career, to recount it w as

therefore th e g reatest of a ll stories a B u d d h ist “ book *' could tell.

its

first

Section because it deals w ith great (or greater) events. T he

plan of nam ing a D ivision a fte r its first Section, or a Section after its first chapter, is of fairly com m on occurrence in the

P itakas,

it m ight be conceded th a t the M ahavagga, including as it does

occurred

after

the

suprem e

m om ent

w hen G otam a

T he

M ahavagga

Section,

the

possibly

derives

its

nam e

the

from

th a t

(or

of

M ahakhandhaka,

G reat

Greater)

and w as

perhaps adopted

here.

O n

th e

other hand,

m

atter

concerned

w ith

adm ission

and

ordination, w ith the

U

posatha, P atim okkh a, Pavarana. and K a th in a cerem onies, the

clarification of w hat are valid form al acts, and the w a y s o f dealing w ith a schism , contains subjects exceeding in im portance

those contained in the C u lavagga. I t is again possible th at

xxii

o r

the Sm all D ivision because of its tw o Sections on the Councils

of R a j agaha an d Vesall. A s the first of these purports to have

been convened sh ortly

died, and the second

th

T

R

A

N

S

L

A

T

O

R

S

I N

T

th e

R

""L ess *’

O

D

U

C

T

or

I

O

N

e

C u la v a g g a

w a s

regard ed

as

"

L esser ”

after G otam a had

a

cen tu ry

later,

the

C n lavagga

takes

us

to

a

tim e

when

he,

as

the

livin g

fount

of authority, w as no longer prom ulgating

discipline, and when discipline w as no longer growing.

 

Y

e t

th e

mass

of

th e

rules

attrib u ted

to

him and held to

h

ave

been

laid

down

b y

him

when

he

w as

alive,

m any

large

in their scope, others concerned w ith sm all details, b u t h av in g

their own significance nonetheless, together yield a form idable

b o d y of th a t discipline, vinaya, w hich w ith dham m a, w as to be

th

ii. 154 is I think sufficiently clear in its m eaning, although it

has b een accused o f gloss.

ca vinayo ca desito pannatto so vo m am ’ accayena satthd. G o ta m a

w as

h ave om itted to speak of vinaya w h ich , together w ith dham m a,

gives a surer basis for progress tow ards the final vision and

than dham m a alone can give. H ad the sentence

run : yo vo mayd dhammo ca desito vinayo ca panfiuttQ, it m ight

th at the reference of the follow ing so

w a s to

show ing the W a y z vinaya is laid dow n, pailnaiia, for keeping

B o th

are satthu sasanam, th e T eacher's instruction.

A ccording

to the e a r ly editors (Vin, i, 99) th e tea ch in g w ill sta n d firm so long as vinaya is n ot lost even if th e S u tta n ta (Pitaka) and

the

extension and application, and can regulate

alm ost indefinite

item s

offences and " allow ances (anujdndmi) th a t w ere laid down b y

th

been

e T eacher, w ere not legislated for in particular in his lifetim e.

T he m onk

general

standard of w hat he know s to be discipline. He m ust rem em ber

this

W hen M ahapajapati asked

to be tau gh t dham m a in brief (Vin. ii, 258) a general standard

w as

she

of other things

one’s

h ave been m ore apparen t

he would n ot therefore

vq A w m da maya dhammo

T he te x t a t Dtgha

e teacher after G otam a had passed aw ay.

speaking

to

A nanda,

I t reads yp

a

m onk ;

u ltim ate bliss

b o th dhamma. an d

footsteps

on

the

vinaya.

b y

D h a m m a is ta u g h t, desita,

adherence

to

it.

W a y

strict

D iscipline, as prom ulgated, is itself an authority.

A bhidham m a

be

forgotten.

of

b eh aviou r

th a t,

in

spite

It

of

is

m oreover

the

m ust m ake

up

for,

m easuring

his m ind

any

course

ap p ly

it

to his problem .

about

of

to

her

b y

w hich

m igh t

capable

of

o f

m ultitude

w hat

has

b y

the

rules,

not

legislated

and

given

action

know

TR A N SLA TO R 'S

INTRODUCTION

xxiii

eso dhammo eso vinayo eiant satlhu sdsanatn (this is d h a m m a ,

this is

discipline, this is th e T eacher's instruction). Sim ilarly

in th e

M ah avagga,

w h en

som e

m onks

w ere

d o u b tfu l

or

had

scruples about w h at h ad

been

allow ed,

anunndta,

and

w h at

had n ot, th e y w ere to ld th a t an yth in g n o t fittin g in w ith w hat

had been allow ed, an yth in g tallyin g w ith w hat had n o t been

allowed, w as not allow able, na kappati, n ot suitable ; contrary.

M ah avagga alone there are about 2So occasions when

Gotama., b y u tterin g th e w ord anujdndm i, I allow , I perm it, mad-e som e th in g or som e usage p erm issible to m onks. T h e va riety of cases covered is so large, ranging as it does from accepting a m onastery to the preparation of a foot-salve, from using three robes to the insertion, of a p atch , from th e n ovices training in ten rules to th e use of a tro u gh fo r d ye, th a t anyone acqu ainted w ith these w ou ld stand a good chance of know ing how to act in circum stances not sp ecifically eith er allow ed or objected to b y G otam a. O r th ey could exten d an " allow ance ” to suit circum stances beyon d those legislated for. G otam a him self, as recorded, once gave a hint in this direction w hen, after m akin g ten " allow ances " for curing a boil a m onk w as suffering fro m , fin a lly said , '* I allow , m on ks, a linen b an d a ge, an d e v e ry treatm en t fo r cu rin g a. sore *' (V I. 14, 4 -5). B esides the use o f anujdndm i, the B u d d h a is often represented

as

or " yo u should n ot ” , a

prohibition a p t to be follow ed b y in tim atin g

results in an offence of w rong-doing. T h is kind of offence,

the

and

In the

saying

to

m onks,

" you

m ay ”

th a t contravention

w ith thullaccaya, grave offences, m entioned in freq u en tly in this volum e, and three other typ es of offence, not m entioned here at all, are regarded as a “ falling a w a y from right h ab its " {IV . 16. 12). W h eth er G otam a him self w as responsible for all these allow ­ ances and prohibitions we shall prob ab ly never know . In the sto ry of th e three m onks who had spent the rains a t R a j agaha and who journeyed to P atalip u tta to ask elders residing there

to solve their problem

there is a hint th a t pow er m ight b e

d elegated (V III. 24. 6). T h is sto ry m a y , how ever, be in clu d ed

in th e M ah avagga for th e sim ple reason that it w as recording exception al events. O r it m a y h ave b een le ft in because in fa ct the practice of turning to others instead of to G otam a to

xx iv

interpret dhamma, a rule, was becom ing more generally adopted than is evident in th e rest of the M ahavagga. It is tru e th at there is not m uch philosophy in the V inaya.

I t ts b y natu re a s b y nam e a b o o k or b ask et of discipline. B u t

a s it is rather hollow to la y down rules for training and for

T

R

A

N

S

L

A

T

O

R

’ S

I N

T

R

O

D

U

C

T

I

O

N

ou

tw ard behaviour w ith ou t givin g th e underlying reasons w h y

th

ey should b e observed, it is n ot possible to exclude

philosophical concepts com pletely from a " book ” principally concerned w ith discipline. I have alread y m entioned som e of these philosophical concepts (above, p. viii). T h e M ahavagga, especially a t its beginning, is not in fa ct devoid of some of

the notions w hich are recognised features in B u d dh ist philo­ sophy. In th e first place, to m ention b u t a few exam ples,

th

e go al is spoken of an d is nam ed. I t is amata, deathlessness,

th

e un d yin g. Its g ates have been opened b y G otam a, th e

W

ay-finder, so th a t those who hear dham m a m a y arrive a t

the object of their quest. T h e notion of gaining th e goal b y

travellin g on a W a y betw een tw o opposites is com m on to m any

finds expression in the First one exam ple am ong several

traditions and in P a li Buddhism

U tterance, b u t w hich is m erely

th e P a li canon contains of the philosophical rightness of

adopting th e m ean betw een two opposing extrem es. T he F irst Serm on also defines th e four truths of ill, or the unsatisfactoriness

a n d suffering w h ich possesses e v e ry com pound ed thing. I t is because these truths are n ot understood or grasped th at there

is th is lo n g lo n g farin g-o n (in sam sara) " b o th for m e and fo r

y o u (Vin. i. 330). I ll h as to be erad icated b y c u ttin g off its

root, ignorant

craving, before recurrent birth, again-becom ing,

punabbhava, can be stopped, and deathlessness won. Then, the you n g m en are told, in a passage th a t w ith the passing of tim e has becom e controversial, that th ey should seek, gaveseyydiha, th e self, atidnam (singular). A n yon e

acq u ain ted w ith th e im portance of A tm a n , self, in the U p an i- shads m ight be inclined to think th a t this w as th e greatest of

a ll philosophical concepts

in the P a li canon, including the A tta v a g g a of the Dhammapada-,

should not be ignored in estim atin g th e position o f atta as a philosophical concept in E arly B uddhism . T he Second U tter­

ance, for exam ple,

when it says in its opening words ; rupatn bhihkhave anaiid,

passages

in

A ncien t

India.

V arious

lays th e idea of self beside

that

of

not-self

TRAN SLATO R 'S

INTRODUCTION

XXV

shape

shape

had

not be as w e kn ow th e m :

to alteration. E v e ry th in g

th a t is com pounded o r constructed is not-self. W h a t is

constructed is to be escaped from (Uddna, So) ; and th e

is to be sought (Via. i. 23), th a t self w h ich therefore b y inference

is not m ade, is not com pounded, and w hich is unaffected b y kamma, the deeds or actions done in a series of in dividual lives hile the b ein g is b o u n d to sam sara, satto sathsdraift dpadi '

w

im perm anent, suffering and liable

ritpaH ca h ' idam bhikkhave atia abhavissat " m aterial

(or

b o d y), been

m onks,

self .

is

not

self,

for

if,

m onks,

m aterial

and

self

sim ilarly

th e y