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Ring Topology
In a ring physical topology, network devices are wired and connected in a conceptual circle. A ring topology is almost always implemented in a logical ring topology on a physical star topology.

IEEE 802.5 Token Ring

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15-Minute Guide

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The IEEE 802.5 standard defines the MAC layer for Token Ring networks. This standard is an instance of a topology becoming so well known and used that it became a standard. Like Ethernet, Token Ring can use several different types of cables, though youll most often see twisted-pair cabling, either shielded or unshielded. Standard transmission rates formerly were 4 Mbps (Megabits per second) and 16 Mbps. Token Ring networks generally use a physical star/logical ring topology with token passing media access method. Token Ring LANs are gradually disappearing due to their higher costs and proprietary hardware.

IEEE 802.11 Wireless


Speed, Frequency, and Advantages/Disadvantages

CompTIA Network+
Star Topology
The focal point of this topology is what youll find at the center, namely a centralized hub or switch to which all the networks nodes/devices are connected. Network devices are easily connected or disconnected to the central hub or switch using network media, such as UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable. This topology is commonly used for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, or 1000BASE-T networks.

Standard IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.11a Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11b Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11g Wi-Fi Bluetooth 802.16 WiMAX

Data Speed Up to 2 Mbps Up to 54 Mbps Up to 11 Mbps Up to 54 Mbps Up to 2 Mbps Up to 75 Mbps

Frequency 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.45 GHz 2 GHz to 11 GHz, and 66 GHz

Bus Topology
PCs connect to the bus by using network cable that attaches or taps into the backbone directly. Network signals are sent along the bus in both directions on most buses. This topology was commonly used for 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 networks and is seldom used today.

Mesh Topology
In a mesh physical topology, every device on the network is connected to every other device on the network. Partial mesh networks dont incur quite the same expense in terms of cabling but, of course, lose some of the redundancy. This topology is most commonly used in WAN (Wide Area Network) configurations for redundancy and maximum fault tolerance.

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Designation 10BASE-T 10BASE-FL

Media Type Cat 3 or better UTP Multimode optical fiber

Max Cable Length 100m 2 km (6,561 ft) without a repeater 100m 412m (half duplex) 2km without a repeater (full duplex) 100m 25m 550m (50u) 275m (62.5u) 550 m (multi mode) or 5000m (single mode) 300m 10km 40km

Max Transfer Speed 10 Mbps 10 Mbps

F-Type
Connector RJ-45 ST fiberoptic cable plug RJ-45 SC fiberoptic connector Topology Star Star

An F-Type media connector is a threaded, coaxial signal connector typically used in consumer applications, such as a coaxial cable connection to a TV or VCR.

ST
ST stands for Straight Tip. This is a fiber-optic cable connector youll see in 100BASE-FX networking environments. This is one of two commonly used fiber optic connectors. It uses a BNC attachment mechanism much like what you see in F-Type connectors.

100BASE-TX 100BASE-FX

Cat 5 UTP Micromultimode optical fiber

100 Mbps 100 Mbps (half duplex) or 200 Mbps (full duplex) 1 Gbps 1Gbps 1 Gbps

Star Star- usually set up only as point-to point Star Star or pointto-point Point-to point Point-to point

SC
SC stands for standard connector or subscriber connector. This fiber-optic cable connector is sometimes called a square connector because of its shape. SC connectors are latched and require a button or release to disconnect it. SC connectors work with both single-mode or multimode optical fibers and last for around 1,000 connections/disconnections.

1000BASE-T 1000BASE-CX 1000BASE-SX

Cat 5, 4pr Twinax STP Micro multimode optical fiber Multimode or single mode fiber optic Multimode optical fiber Multimode optical fiber Multimode optical fiber

RJ-45 RJ-45 SC fiberoptic connector SC fiberoptic connector 850-nm serial LAN 1310-nm serial LAN 1550-nm serial LAN

Fiber LC (Local Connector)


Fiber-optic LC connectors are made of Zirconia ceramic ferrule. They have an RJ-45 push-pull style housing and latching mechanism. LC connectors are half the size of standard connectors and are used on private and public Ethernet networks. Fiber patch cords using LC connectors are used to connect fiber optic Ethernet network devices.

1000BASE-LX

1 Gbps

10 GBASE-SR 10GBASE-LR 10GBASE-ER

10 Gbps 10 Gbps 10 Gbps

Point-to point Point-to point Point-to point

MT-RJ (Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack)


MT-RJ is a multimode or single mode fiber optic connector used to connect MT-RJ, ST, SC, and LC types of fiber optic cable in Ethernet networking environments.

USB (Universal Serial Bus)


USB is a PC standard interface that connects at speeds of 12 Mbps (USB 1.1) or 480 Mbps (USB 2.0). USB A connectors media cables are used to connect to your USB port on the back or front on your PC. Various male and female USB mini connectors are used to connect digital devices, such as digital cameras to USB A ports.

RJ-11
RJ-11 stands for Registered Jack-11. This is a four-wire connector used mainly to connect telephone equipment in North America. A phone circuit uses two wires; the RJ-11 jack uses four wires. The RJ-11 connector looks very similar to the RJ-45 connector.

CSU/DSU (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit)


The CSU/DSU connects a digital carrier, such as the T1 to the network equipment, usually a router. The CSU terminates the line at the customer site, whereas the DSU performs the actual transmission through the CSU. The CSU also provides diagnostics and remote testing while the DSU provides buffering and data flow control.

RJ-45
RJ-45 connectors are used on 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T networks and are defined in IEEE 802.3 standard. The RJ-45 connector is used with CAT 5, CAT5e, and CAT 6 cables.

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Modems
Modem stands for modulator/demodulator. Traditional (POTS/PSTN) - POTS/PSTN (plain old telephone service/public switch transmission network) is used by telephones and computer modems. DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) - DSL is a popular high-speed technology popular with both consumers and businesses and is primarily used for connecting to the Internet. Cable modems - Provide high-speed Internet access via coaxial cable television lines. At speeds of up to 36Mbps, cable modems using coaxial cable provide much greater bandwidth than telephone lines with speeds up to 3MBps for accessing the World Wide Web.

billion unique NIC MAC addresses can be created! On the exam, look for MAC addresses to be displayed with colons, like this: 00:50:DA:C3:8A:F9

OSI Model

Transceivers (Media Converters)


A transceiver is a network device that transmits and/or receives analog or digital signals. Most computers on LANs use a NIC that contains a built-in transceiver to transmit and receive network signals. In Ethernet networks, a transceiver is sometimes referred to as a medium access unit (MAU).

Firewalls
A firewall is a hardware device or software that is most often used to protect networks and home PCs from malicious attacks from the Internet. Firewalls protect against spyware, hijackers, hackers, viruses, Trojan horses, worms, phishing, and spam are most often used with other protective software, such as anti-virus, anti-spam, and software.

Wireless Standards
Standard IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.11a Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11b Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11g Wi-Fi Data Speed Up to 2 Mbps Up to 54 Mbps Up to 11 Mbps Up to 54 Mbps Frequency 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz Transmission Type FHSS or DSSS OFDM DSSS with CCK OFDM above 20Mbps DSSS with CCK below 20Mbps FHSS Topology Point-to-point Point-to-point Point-to-point Point-to-point

IPX/SPX
Routing - Routers that route TCP/IP usually can route IPX/SPX. Routing protocols used to route the IPX/SPX protocol are RIP, SAP, and NLSP. Addressing - Each nodes 12-digit hexadecimal address is represented by its own unique 8-digit hexadecimal IPX network address. Interoperability - Early NetWare versions (up to NetWare 5.0) used IPX/SPX as the default protocol. Current Novell operating systems can use the IPX/SPX protocol, which is not as flexible as TCP/IP. The IPX/SPX protocol stack can communicate with a number of clients, including Windows and Linux. However, many versions of UNIX and other high-end operating systems, such as OS/400, dont provide built-in support for the IPX/SPX protocol stack. Naming - The only devices that use names are servers. Any name can be used,

Bluetooth

Up to 2 Mbps

2.45 GHz

Scatternet

Mac Addresses
The MAC address itself is a 12-digit hexadecimal number, which is represented by numbers 09 and the letters AF. Hexadecimal uses a 16 base numbering system represented by the following number combinations: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0A, 0B, 0C, 0D, 0E, 0F, 10. Using these number combinations, more than 12

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so long as the name contains no illegal characters. The server name has to contain less than 64 characters (or 47 characters in older versions of NetWare). IPX/SPX names are not case-sensitive. Names are resolved using the older Novell Bindery Services or the newer Novell Directory Services (NDS).

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)


TCP, a Transport layer protocol, is a host-to-host, connection-oriented protocol. It enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange network data. Unlike IP, TCP guarantees data packet delivery and reassembles packets back into the same order in which they were sent. TCPs connection-oriented properties set it apart from similar protocols, such as UDP. TCP provides error detection and recovery, flow control, and guaranteed, reliable delivery of data. Network applications that require reliable, guaranteed, error-free delivery use TCP. But TCP does this at a price. The TCP header contains 20 bytes, which means it has more overhead than UDP. Because it has more overhead, its slower than UDP. To choose between TCP and UDP, decide whether you want speed (UDP) or reliability (TCP).

NetBEUI/NetBIOS
Routing - Does not use routing discovery protocols. NetBEUI/Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) are not routable and are designed instead for LANs only. Interoperability - Almost all Windows-based LANs can use NetBIOS. All early Windows network operating systems (Windows for Workgroups, Windows 9x, and Windows NT) used NetBEUI as their default protocol. NetBEUI was first created by IBM for its LAN Manager server. Apple operating systems do not natively support NetBEUI. Naming - There is very little network addressing using NetBEUI/NetBIOS. In NetBEUI, naming and addressing mean the same thing. Each workstation is given a unique name, called the NetBIOS or computer name.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)


UDP, also a Transport layer protocol, is a streamlined, economy class version of TCP, earning it the nickname thin protocol, which means it doesnt take up much bandwidth on the network. UDP is a connectionless, unreliable, low overhead protocol but is faster than TCP. UDP doesnt offer the assurances of TCP, but does do a very good job of getting data from one host to another using lower bandwidth and fewer network resources to do so. Its a good choice to use if guaranteed delivery is not required. UDP is also used when it is paired with a service, such as NFS, that contains its own reliability checks.

Identify classful IP ranges and their default subnet masks For example: Class A, B and C).
Class A - 1.0.0.0 to 126.255.255.255 - supports 16,777,214 million hosts on each of 126 networks Class B - 128.0.0.1 to 191.255.255.255 - supports 65,534 hosts on each of 16,000 networks Class C -192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255 - supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)


The FTP is an Application layer protocol that allows a user to upload or download files between hosts. FTP is the simplest way to exchange files between computers on the Internet, and is used on the Web to download files. Its often compared to HTTP, which transfers Web pages, and to SMTP, which transfers e-mail.

Identify the purpose of subnetting.


Subnetting is the process of subdividing an assigned IP address into smaller networks or subnets. Static - An IP address, subnet mask, DNS, and gateway address that is manually configured in the TCP/IP configuration options on client operating systems (OSs). Dynamic - An IP address that is automatically assigned to network clients from a pool of addresses residing on a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. Self-assigned - Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing (APIPA) is used by Windows 2000 and Windows XP NOSs when a client is unable to obtain an IP address automatically from a DHCP server APIPA automatically configures itself with an IP address using a range of addresses from 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254.

SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol)


SFTP is an interactive command prompt, application, and file transfer program, similar to FTP. The SFTP utility comes with SSH or Secure Shell suite to provide encryption over insecure networks such as the Internet. It can also use public key authentication and file compression. SFTP connects and logs into the specified host, and then uses an interactive command prompt for file transfers. SFTP is used when you want to eliminate the security risks involved in using standard FTP file transfers. Because of the security risks, you should only use FTP for anonymous logins.

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)


TFTP is also similar to FTP in that it facilitates file transfer between computers. The difference between FTP and TFTP is speed. FTP uses TCP, which is reliable but has high overhead, and TFTP uses UDP, which uses much less bandwidth, offering greater speeds but less reliably.

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SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)


As its name implies, SMTP is used to send e-mail. One thing to remember is how SMTP compares with POP3, which can be used with or without SMTP. SMTP sends e-mail whereas POP3 receives e-mail.

NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol)


NNTP is an Application layer protocol used for the distribution, inquiry, retrieval, and posting of news articles and USENET messages. USENET is a bulletin board system that contains more than 14,000 forums, called newsgroups. Millions of people around the world use NNTP to view, access, and use their favorite newsgroup forums.

SSH (Secure Shell)


SSH is an application program used to log into another computer on a network, execute commands, and transfer files back and forth. SSH offers secure data transfers as compared to using rlogin, telnet or FTP. Actually, SSH is a suite of protocols; slogin, ssh and scp and requires that the server and client are both running SSH software. It uses strong authentication methods and secure communications. Because the entire session is encrypted, SSH protects against network attacks. SSH use the RSA public-key encryption technology authentication method and can be used on Windows, UNIX, and Mac computers.

SCP (Secure Copy Protocol)


SCP is based upon and is very similar to SFTP. It uses SSH for safe, secure copying of files between a local and a remote computer. SCP requires the local computer running SCP client software.

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)


LDAP is a set of Session layer protocols used to access X.500 information directories. It is based off the earlier X.500 standard but is simpler and also supports TCP/IP. Both Microsofts Active Directory and Novells eDirectory are based on the X.500 standard. LDAP provides directory services on a network. LDAP is used for management applications and browser applications that need simple read/write interactive access to the X.500 Directory.

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)


ICMP works with IP at Layer 3 to provide Network layer management and control. Routers send ICMP control messages in response to undeliverable datagrams. The receiving router places an ICMP message into an IP datagram and sends the datagram back to the source.

ARP / RARP (Address Resolution Protocol / Reverse Address Resolution Protocol)


ARP is a Network layer protocol that resolves network (IP) addresses into hardware (MAC) addresses. ARP uses the address resolution cache table built into every NIC. This table maps IP addresses to MAC addresses on the network. Whenever a node needs to send a packet, it checks the address resolution cache table to see if the MAC address information for the destination is there. If so, that destination address will be used. If not, an ARP broadcast request is issued. ARP is built into most network operating systems such as Windows, UNIX, and Novell and is executed at a command prompt. RARP uses a host MAC address to discover its IP address. The host broadcasts its MAC physical address and a RARP server replies with the hosts IP address.

IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol)


IGMP is a Network layer protocol that is used by an Internet computer to report its multicast group membership to adjacent routers. Multicasting allows an Internet computer to send content to multiple computers. Multicasting is used to send out company newsletters to an e-mail distribution list, and to broadcast high-bandwidth programs using streaming media to a multicast group membership audience.

LPR (Line Printer Remote)


LPR is a printer protocol originally developed for and used on UNIX systems. Today, its the de-facto printing protocol used to print across different NOS platforms. The LPR client sends a print request to the IP address of the LPD print server. The LPD print server queues and prints the file. To enable LPR, LPR software must be installed on the client computer. A port is an endpoint to a logical network connection. Both the TCP and UDP protocols must use port numbers to communicate with the upper OSI layers and the Web. Port numbers keep track of data communications across networks. This list of well-known port numbers specifies the port used by the server service or process as it contacts and connects to a port. Registered port numbers range from 0 through 65,536 and are usually assigned to the both TCP and UDP protocols even though only one or the other may be required.

NTP (Network Time Protocol)


NTP is an Internet standard application protocol that sets computer clocks to a standard time source, usually a nuclear clock maintained by the U.S. Naval Observatory Master Clocks. An NTP designated server on a LAN is often deployed to periodically connect to an NTP server on the Internet, assuring accurate synchronization of the LAN NTP servers time clock down to the millisecond. The LAN NTP server then checks and, if necessary, adjusts, all other servers and client computers time clocks assuring accurate time and date stamping of client files.

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Port Number 20 21 22 23 25 53 69 80 110 119 123 143 443

Services and Protocols FTP FTP SSH Telnet SMTP DNS TFTP HTTP POP3 NNTP NTP IMAP4 HTTPS

Function Transfers data Provides flow control Executes commands and moves files (Remote login protocol) Connects a remote computer to a se rver Delivers e-mail between e-mail servers Translates host names into IP addresses Transfers data (simple FTP ) Opens a browser connection to a Web page Delivers e-mail between a mail server and client Views and writes news ar ticles for various newsgroups Sets computer clocks to a standard time Downloads e-mail or e-mail headers; stores, searches messages from newsgroups Allows browsers and servers to sign, authenticate, and encrypt HTTP network packets (uses SSL)

Network Service DNS NAT

Purpose Translates and resolves IP addresses into host names or the re verse: resolves host names to IP addresses. Allows a LAN to use one set of IP addresses for in-house traffic and a second set of IP addresses for external or Internet traffic. NAT hides private, internal IP addresses, reducing the possibility of conflic t with other companies' IP address assignments. Connects multiple computers in one LAN to the Internet through a singl e connection and a single IP A ddress. ICS uses NAT. All versions of Windows except WFWs have ICS software built into the network operating system . Dynamically resolves a host's NetBIOS or computer name into an IP address. All versions of Windows NOSs and some WINS aware applications can use WINS. It was used in earlier Windows versions on a LAN in place of using a DNS server. Monitors the network and network devices. SNMP sends messages to different parts of a network. SNMP agents store and return data to the SNMP requesters. Uses Management Information [Data] Bases (MIB) to define what information is available from a managed network device . Permits network users to access and use shared files. Similar to peer-topeer network file sharing. NFS allows different computer platforms running different OSes to share files and disk storage space across both a loca l network and the Internet. Is a client/server application developed by Sun Microsystems. Cconnects networking devices using an Ether net cable. Mainly supported by UNIX systems with a focus on GNU/Linux and BSD . No configuration or DHCP server is required. Shares files, directories and devices. A message format used by DOS and early Windows NOSs. Samba also uses SMB to allow UNIX/Linux and Windows machines to share directories and file s. Used with TCP/IP, AFP over TCP/IP permits users to access AFP se rvers. AFP is an AppleTalk network client/server file sharing protocol. AFP can be installed on non-apple computers allowing them access to an AppleT alk server Processes LPR client print jobs. The LPD print server queues and prints the file. Originally used on UNIX se rvers Provides file and print services to SMB clients. An open source version of the SMB file sharing protocol. Samba, originally developed for UNIX, also runs on Linux,

ICS

WINS

SNMP

NFS (Network File System)

Zeroconf (Zero configuration) SMB (Server Message Block) AFP (Apple File Protocol)

LPD (Network Printer Daemon) Samba

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IPSec (IP Security)


IPSec is a security protocol that provides authentication and encryption over the Internet. It operates at the Network layer and secures all packets operating in the upper OSI layers. It works with IPv4 and IPv6 and has broad Industry support. IPSec uses either Authentication Header (AH) or Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) to ensure sender authentication and data encryption. It is most often used to secure VPN on the Internet using digital certificates sent from the server to authenticate the sender.

WPA2 provides stronger encryption than WPA1 using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Both WPA1 and WPA2 use 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) for authentication.

802.1x
The IEEE 802.1x standard includes a method for passing the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) over both wired and wireless networks. EAP provides authentication services for wireless networks not using PPP.

L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol)


L2TP was designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to support non-TCP/IP protocols using VPNs over the Internet. L2TP combines the best features of two tunneling protocols: PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) and L2F (Layer 2 Forwarding). As the name implies, it operates at Layer 2 of the OSI Reference Model. L2TP uses packet-switched network connections, making it possible for endpoints to be located on different nodes It supports a number of protocols, including IP and AppleTalk. L2TP is a good protocol to use when you have two non-TCP/IP networks that must have Internet access.

CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)


CHAP is an authentication protocol that uses a hashed algorithm called Message Digest 5 (MD5) S that provides client response encryption. Remote Access Service servers, some Network Access servers, and some Proxy servers support using CHAP. CHAP is supported on PPP connections and requires authentication not only when initially making the connection, but also during the session. Failure to authenticate will result in the session being ended. CHAP is a weak, one-way authentication protocol.

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)


Originally developed by Netscape, SSL is integrated into both Netscape Navigator and Microsofts Internet Explorer. SSL uses a private key to encrypt data thats transferred over the SSL connection. SSL is based on the RSA public key encryption and provides secure Layer 5 Session connections over the Internet. It is service-independent and can secure many different network applications. The HTTPS protocol is based on SSL. SSL is commonly used by Web merchants on the Internet to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers.

MS-CHAP (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)


MS-CHAP v1 offers more security than CHAP and is an authentication protocol that uses a challenge handshake process. A Remote Access Server sends a challenge to the remote client. The remote access client sends back a response containing the user name and a non-reversible, encrypted password challenge string. The RAS checks the response determining its validity and, if valid, authenticates the user. Microsoft CHAP v1 is supported on Windows NT4 Server, Windows 2000 Server, and Windows Servers 2003. MS-CHAP v2 is an authentication protocol that offers stronger security than MS-CHAP v1 by providing mutual authentication. Using two-way or mutual authentication, the clients user name and password are validated by the RAS. The Windows 2000 family, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 all support using MS-CHAP v2. Note that MS-CHAP, Version 2 authentication is not compatible with MS-CHAP, version 1.

WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)


WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) is the current 802.11b standard protocol that encrypts and protects data packets over radio frequencies providing a similar level of security as wired Ethernet networks. WEP provides either 64- or 128bit encryption. WEP does not, however, offer end-to-end security because it uses the lower level layers in the OSI model: the Physical and Data link layers. Because the WEP encryption algorithm is weak, another Wi-Fi standard, WPA was recently developed.

PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)


PAP is the weakest authentication protocol that sends the user name and password in clear text (no encryption) over the network to be verified by the RAS. PAP should only be used as a last resort only if the RAS does not support stronger authentication protocols. Most all NOS remote servers support PAP.

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)


WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) adds another layer of security, working with Wi-Fi devices that use WEP. It offers improved data encryption and user authentication using the wireless devices hardware-specific MAC address as a means of ensuring that only authorized users access the network. The current version

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service)


RADIUS is an industry standard authentication protocol that provides authentication, authorization, and accounting services. A RADIUS client such as a dial-

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up server, RADIUS Proxy server, or VPN server sends user name, password, and connection information in a RADIUS message to a RADIUS server. The RADIUS server sends a RADIUS message response that authorizes and authenticates the RADIUS client.

than compared to software RAID. Software RAID - Integrated into the server NOS and designed to be used on SCSI hard disk drives. Software RAID usually only offers RAID 0, RAID 1 and RAID 5 support. RAID Level 0 - Striping without Fault Tolerance Disk striping without parity. Inexpensive and fastest hard drive read/writes of all RAID technologies. Offers best performance but no fault-tolerance. If one disk in the RAID 0 array fails, all the data is lost. You need to restore data using a different fault tolerant method such as restoring data from a backup and then reinstalling RAID 0. Should never be used on mission critical data servers. Most often used in video production/editing, image editing, pre-press applications and any application that requires high bandwidth. Also useful for proxy caches where fault tolerance isnt much of an issue. RAID Level 1 - Disk Drive Mirroring and Duplexing An exact copy of data written to the first hard drive is also simultaneously written to the second hard drive. If one drive fails, you break the mirror, install a new hard drive, and then re-mirror the drives. RAID level 1 uses one SCSI host adaptor and two SCSI hard disks. If the SCSI host adaptor controller fails, the array fails until a new host adaptor is installed. RAID 1, with disk duplexing uses two SCSI host adaptor controllers and two SCSI hard disks, Provides fault tolerance for both the host adaptors and hard drives. Hard drive read performance is improved since both disks can be read at the same time. Write performance carries some overhead and results in slight loss of performance. The additional cost of a second identical size SCSI hard drive. Usually supports hot swapping hard drives through the SCSI host adaptor hardware. Does not support hot swapping hard drives when implemented through software. Its primary use is to mirror the boot and system server operating system files. RAID Level 0+1 A Mirror of Stripes Two RAID 0 stripes are configured, and a RAID 1 mirror is then configured over them. Not one of the original RAID levels, Its primary uses are replicating and sharing data among disks. RAID Level 5 - Stripping with Parity Data along with the data recovery parity information is striped across all the drivers in the array. If one drive fails, parity information stored on other drives is used to reconstruct and regenerate the data to a new, installed drive. Requires a minimum of three SCSI hard drives; usually five or more disks are used.

Kerberos
Kerberos is more than a strong, secure network authentication protocol. Its a full-fledged security system designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Created at MIT, Kerberos establishes a users identity as soon as he or she logs onto a network where Kerberos is supported. A unique key (ticket) is issued to each user after the user logs onto the network. All network messages that the user sends over the network contain this unique key used to identify the user-sender. The user identification and security credentials contained in the embedded ticket are used throughout the entire network session. The encryption used by Kerberos is freely available. The source code can also be downloaded via the Internet. The Windows 2000 family, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, UNIX, Novell, and Linux all support Kerberos.

EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol)


EAP is a general protocol that provides support for several different authentication protocols such as EAP-TLS (EAP-Transport Level Security), MS-CHAP, Kerberos, certificates, public key authentication, and smart cards. It is often used by wireless devices to connect to a RADIUS authenticator server. A wireless client requests a WAN connection from an AP, which requests the identity of the user and transmits the users identity to an authentication server such as RADIUS. The RADIUS server asks the AP for proof of identity, gets it, and sends it back to the server. EAP-TLS uses certificates for user authentication such as smart cards. Smart cards are often used with laptop and notebook PCs to provide remote access authentication. EAP-TLS provides mutual authentication, negotiation of encryption type, and is the strongest authentication protocol method.

Storage - RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)


RAID is a type of fault tolerance, excluding RAID 1, where server data storage systems recover from data disasters. Using one of more types of RAID, both the servers data and error correcting information needed for data recovery are stored on two or more physical hard disk drives. RAID provides improved reliability, recovery and oftentimes, performance as well. Two are two general categories of RAID: Hardware RAID - Special SCSI host adapters contain SCSI burned-in software that provides support for various levels of RAID. Hardware RAID is more expensive than software RAID, but produces faster hard drive performance

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Offers excellent performance and good fault tolerance. Fastest and most reliable of all RAID technologies. RAID Level 5 is one of the most popular implementations of RAID. Used on enterprise critical file and application servers, Web, email intranet and news servers and database servers. Usually supports hot swapping hard drives through the SCSI host adaptor hardware. Does not support hot swapping hard drives when implemented through software. RAID Level 10 A Stripe of Mirrors A mirrored array with two drives configured as RAID 0 arrays offering the same fault tolerance as RAID Level 1. If one drive fails, the entire array becomes, essentially, a RAID 0 array. Offers higher performance than RAID 1 but at higher cost. Excellent choice in environments where high performance is required but achieving maximum reliability is not a concern.

Hot, Warm, and Cold Sites


Hot site/hot standby - A redundant method where the primary and secondary backup systems run simultaneously. Data is mirrored to a secondary server so that both servers contain identical information. A hot site is an off-site location containing a fully operational network equipped with all the necessary hardware and software. Hot sites are used in the event of a disaster or for recovering from a disaster. Cold site/cold standby - A redundant method where the secondary backup system is only used when the primary server fails. The standby server receives data backups less frequently than a warm standby. Cold standby systems are used for infrequently changed data and non-critical data and applications. A cold site is a backup off site location that provides space for containing redundant network hardware and resources that becomes hot should the primary site become unavailable. In the event of a disaster, a cold site network is implemented thus allowing work to continue. Cold sites, however, are expensive and are initially designed and used for development testing or temporary work. Warm site/warm standby - A redundant method where the secondary backup system runs in the background while the primary server backs data real-time. With the warm standby method, data is mirrored more frequently than the cold standby method but not continuously as in the hot standby method. A warm site is a backup off site location where your data is periodically backed up and updated. Server and data synchronization occurs over a secure ne work although servers are not continuously mirrored. In the event of a disaster, you can restore, critical servers and continue network operations.

Backup/Restore
All types and sizes of businesses need to backup their important applications and data daily to a tape backup device. There are primary types of tape backups.

Full Incremental

Backs up all data. Takes the longest time to backup. Clears file archive bit on all backed-up files. Only backs up files added or changed since the last backup. Backs up faster than differential, but restore requires multiple tapes and takes longer- last full backup tape plus all incremental tapes since the last full backup. When restoring incremental tape backups, always take care to restore tapes in the correct order, oldest to newest. Clears archive bit on all backed-up files. Backs up all files since last FULL backup. Differential backups take longer than Incremental to backup, but faster than Incremental to restore, requiring only two tapes - the most recent full backup and most recent differential backup. Does not clear file archive bits. A copy backup is the same as a full backup except, they do not mark files as backed up. This backup type is most commonly used to make offsite copies of backup data.

Differential

Copy or Mirror

Table 21 - Backup Types

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Utility config ifconfig winipfcg ipconfig ping tracert traceroute netstat nbtstat arp

Operating System NetWare UNIX/Linux Windows 95/Windows 98 Windows NT/Windows 2000/Windows XP Windows/UNIX/Linux /NetWare Windows 2000/Windows XP /Windows 2003 UNIX/Linux Windows - all versionsUNIX /Linux/NetWare Windows - all versionsUNIX /Linux/NetWare Windows - all versionsUNIX /Linux/NetWare Windows 2000/Windows XP /Windows 2003 UNIX/Linux

Function Displays IP stack configuration, including IP address, subnet mask, and gateway IP address Displays IP stack configuration Displays IP stack configuration Displays IP stack configuration, release/renew DHCP IP address, flush/register DNS Verifies end-to-end network connectivity; uses ICMP echo packets Traces routes to Internet sites based on the number of hops, and displays time taken Traces routes to Internet sites based on the number of hops, and displays time taken Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP network connections using NetBIOS over TCP/IP. Although NBTSTAT does not run natively on UNIX /Linux, you can download and use the Linux NBTSTAT utility. Displays and/or modifies the IP-to-physical address translation tables; displays current ARP cache Queries a DNS name server; used to troubleshoot DNS and verify DNS resolution Nslookup equivalent

Notes

nslookup dig

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