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Tensile Structures

Stayed
Tensile structures

Suspended

Anticlastic
Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Pneumatic

Cable truss
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Stayed

Tensile structures

Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

McCormick exhibit hall Chicago Architect/Engineer: SOM To span railroad trucks underneath, the truss roof is suspended by stay cables from concrete pylons. 1 Axon 2 Section 3 Center joint 4 Exterior joint A Pylon top B Stay cable C Truss web bar D Stay bracket E Edge stay, resists wind uplift

Tensile structures

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Imos factory, Newport, UK Architect: Richard Rogers Engineer: Anthony Hunt

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Patscenter Princeton Architect: Richard Rogers Engineer: Ove Arup Stays resist both gravity load and wind uplift

Design alternates

Lines meet = concentric joints

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Renault Center Swindon, UK Architect: Norman Foster

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Suspended

Golden Gate Bridge, photo courtesy Peter Craig


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Suspension span/sag ratios: Small sag = large stress Large sag = small stress but tall supports Optimal span/sag ratio = 10

Tensile structures

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New York bridges: George Washington Bridge, top Brookline Bridge, bottom & left (diagonal hangers resist deformation)

Tensile structures

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Stability issues: 1 Point load deformation 2 Wind deformation 3 Stabilizing cable to resist wind uplift 4 Dead load to resist wind uplift (increases seismic load) 6 US pavilion Expo 57, Brussels Circular compression ring is efficient to resist lateral thrust

Tensile structures

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Oakland Coliseum (1967) Architect: SOM Engineer: Ammann and Whitney Diameter 400 ft Outer concrete compression ring Inner steel tension ring Steel strands for main support Concrete ribs resist unbalanced load X-columns resist seismic load

Tensile structures

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Tensile structures

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Dulles Airport Terminal Washington, DC (1963) Architect: Eero Saarinen Engineer: Ammann & Whitney Initial size: 150x600 Height @ street side: 105 Height @ runway side: 65 Roof features: Concrete deck Steel strands 1 Edge beams Pylons @ ~ 50 (lean back to counteract roof thrust)

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Dulles Airport Terminal Left: Initial structure Below: 1990 expansion

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Lufthansa aircraft hanger, Frankfurt Architect: Beckert & Beckert Engineer: Bomhard The maintenance hanger houses up to six 747 jets in a 100x270 m area Pre-stressed suspended oncrete bands Linear skylights Only 10 m sag (span/depth ratio 13.5 due to flight safety height limit) Inclined ballasts resist roof trust Straight strands restrain ballasts

Tensile structures

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Exhibit Hall Hanover Architect: Thomas Herzog Engineer: Schlaich Bergermann


Roof features: 3x40 cm steel suspender band

Prefab wood panels with ballast gravel


Skylights provide lighting and ventilation (prevent balanced suspender support) Prestressed glass wall avoids buckling of mullions due to roof deflection

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Anticlastic

Anticlastic = saddle shape, inverse curvatures


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Anticlastic Surface 1 Opposing strings stabilize a point in space 2 Several opposing strings stabilize several points 3 Anticlastic curvature stabilizes a membrane Membrane shear causes wrinkles in fabric Stress without wrinkles HP-surface Quadratic equation Minimal surface Differential equation
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4 5 6 7
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Minimal Surface

The minimal surface conditions: Minimum surface area between any boundary Equal and opposite curvature at any point Uniform stress throughout the surface f1/f2 = A/B (Schierle, 1977 *) Minimal surface equations (Schierle, 1977 *) Y= f1(X/S1)(f1+f2)/f1 + X tan Y= f2 (Z/S2)(f1+f2)/f2 * Published in Journal of Optimization Theory and Application Minimal surface vs. Hyperbolic Paraboloid 1 2 3 4 Minimal surface of square plan Hyperbolic Paraboloid of square plan Minimal surface of rhomboid plan (membrane center below mid-height) Hyperbolic Paraboloid of rhomboid plan (membrane center at mid-height)
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Tensile structures

Fiber Orientation (Schierle, 1968) 1 Orthogonal (causes shear stress) 2 Principal curvature (avoids shear stress) 3 Principal curvature vs. 4 Generating lines 5 Principal curvature orientation (small deflections) 6 Generating line orientation (large deflections) Lesson: Orient fibers in principal curvature Avoid generating line orientation

Tensile structures

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Test model

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Edge Conditions

1, 2 Edge Cable

3, 4 Edge Arch

5, 6 Edge Frame

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Edge Cable

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Edge Arch

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Edge Frame

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Surface Conditions Saddle shapes

Arch shapes

Wave shapes

Point shapes

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Saddle Shapes 1 2 Square / cable edge Hexagon / cable edge

3 4

Square / arch edge Oval / arch edge

5 6
Tensile structures

Square / beam edge Hexagon / beam edge


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Saddle Shapes

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Expo 64 Lausanne
Architect: Saugey / Schierle Engineer: Froadvaux et Weber 26 restaurants featured regional cuisines Symbolized sailing and mountain peaks

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Tensile structures

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Arch Shapes

1, 2 Single arch / edge cable

3, 4 Twin arch / edge cable

Twin arch / edge arch

Single arch / edge arch

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Arch Shapes

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Skating rink Munich Architect: Ackermann Engineer: Schlaich / Bergermann

Prismatic steel truss arch, 100 m span Anticlastic cable nets Wood slats Translucent fabric

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Wave Shapes 1 2 3 4 Ridge/valley cables, cable edge Ridge/valley cables, beam edge Ridge/valley beams, beam edge Ridge beam/valley cable beam edge

5 6
5 6

Ridge/valley cables, closed end Ridge/valley cables, circular plan

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Wave Shapes

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Circular Wave Shapes

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Point Shapes 1 Mast punctures fabric 2 Radial cables 3 4 5 6 7 8 Ring with radial cables Loop cable Dish top Eye cable Twin mast rows Three mast rows

9 Suspension cables 10 Supporting cables

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Point Shapes

Sea World Africa USA Architect: Schierle Engineer: ASI

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German Pavilion, Montreal Expo 1967


Architect: Rolf Gutbrot / Frei Otto Engineer: Fritz Leonhard

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German Pavilion Montreal Expo 67 Cable net of 75x75 cm meshes Translucent membrane suspended from cable net

Tensile structures

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Retractable roof Bad Hersfeld Architect: Frei Otto Architect: Bodo Rush
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Retractable umbrellas Medina

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Design Process

Stretch fabric models

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Design Process computer models Cutting patterns by triangulation

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Design optimization
Edge and surface curvature (Schierle, 1971) Usual optimum L/f = 10 L = span f = sag
L

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Erection

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Details

Edge cable Prestress turn buckle Fabric holder webbing

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Balance Forces

Balanced
Tensile structures Copyright Prof Schierle 2011

Unbalanced
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Balance Forces

Balanced tension ring

Unbalanced Tension ring requires costly footings

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Olympic facilities Munich Architect: Guenter Behnisch / Frei Otto Engineer: Fritz Leonhard Design competition model

Design metaphor: Spider web over landscape

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Olympic Stadium Munich Architect: Guenter Behnisch Engineer: Leonhardt und Andrae

The roof consists of 7 saddle-shape cable nets Anticlastic curvature provides stability: Concave cables support gravity Convex cables resist wind uplift Cable net supported by: Masts at rear Ring cable Flying buttress

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Stretch fabric model

Piano wire model


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Cable net of 75 cm (2.5 ft) square mesh (flat squares formed anticlastic rhomboids)

Tensile structures

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edge cable soil anchor

edge cable

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Cable net lifted into space

Flat squares meshes deformed into rhomboids to assume anticlastic curvature

Twin cables facilitate the deformation

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Cable net assumed anticlastic shape

Anticlastic net with acrylic glass roof

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Arena roof Translucent skin below cable net: Two layers of translucent fabric 4 thermal insulation between fabric

Glass wall with cantilever trusses

Tensile structures

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Swim arena Point shape cable net (high and low points) Translucent skin below net consists of: Two layers of translucent fabric 4 thermal insulation between fabric

External mast support

Tensile structures

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Acrylic panels of 3x3m (10x10) with neoprene joints are supported by 75x75 cm (2.5x2.5) net of twin cables

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Cable details

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Mast details

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Pneumatic

Air Supported

Air Inflated Fuji pavilion Osaka Expo 1970

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Pneumatic structure types: Left: Air inflated Right: Air supported 1 Air inflated cushion 2 Air inflated vault 3 Air inflated dome 4 Air inflated dome grid 5 Air supported dome 6 Air supported vault 7 Air supported vault with cables 8 Air supported dome grid

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US Pavilion Expo Osaka (1970) Architect: Davis Brody Engineer: Geiger, Berger Size: 465 x 265 ft Steel cables Teflon-coated fiberglass fabric

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Silverdome Pontiac, MI (1975) Architect: O'Dell Hewlett & Luckenbach Engineer: Geiger/Berger Building data: Capacity: 90,000 Size: 770 x 600 Air pressure: 5 psf 10 - 75 hp fans 15 - 100 hp fans 50 revolving doors 93 pressure balance doors

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Cable Truss
G G Schierle & UC Berkeley students

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Cable trusses 1 Lintel trusses 2 Concave trusses 3 Lintel truss with compression braces 4 Lintel truss with compression struts 5 Concave truss with tension braces 6 Concave truss with tension struts 7 Concave/lintel truss with braces 8 Concave/lintel truss with struts 9 Gable truss with radial strut 10 Gable truss with center compression struts 11 Radial brace truss 12 Flat chord truss with compression struts
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Auditorium Utica, NY Architect: Gehron & Seltzer Engineer: Lev Zetlin

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Cable truss test models Left top: Left bottom: Below: 2-way lintel truss Flat truss Truss dome

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Flat chord truss load bearing mode 1 2 3 Four-bay cable truss Polygon supporting P1, P2 Polygons supporting P1, P2, P3

Externally stabilized truss

Internally stabilized truss

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Olympic pool 4 multipurpose gyms Cable trusses, 120 span

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Loyola University Pavilion Architect: Kahn, Kappe, Lottery, Boccato Engineer: Reiss and Brown Consultant: Dr Schierle Spanning the long way provides openings to join outdoor seating for large events

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Watts Tower Crescent Architect: Ado / Schierle Engineer: ASI

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Stadium roof Oldenburg, Germany Engineer: Schlaich Bergermann Cable truss & anticlastic membrane panels

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Tensile structures are fun

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