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A DICTIONARY OF JAPANESE LOANWORDS

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A DICTIONARY OF JAPANESE LOANWORDS


Toshie M. Evans

GREENWOOD PRESS Westport, Connecticut London

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Evans, Toshie M. A dictionary of Japanese loanwords / Toshie M. Evans. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-313-28741-4 (alk. paper) 1. English languageForeign words and phrasesJapanese Dictionaries. I. Title. PE1582.J3E93 1997 422'.4956dc20 96-16195 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright 1997 by Toshie M. Evans All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 96-16195 ISBN: 0-313-28741-4 First published in 1997 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. Printed in the United States of America

<gr
The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

To my mother and to the memory of my father

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CONTENTS
Preface Explanatory Notes Pronunciation Key THE DICTIONARY Bibliography ix xi xiii 1 229

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PREFACE
A Dictionary of Japanese Loanwords is a lexical index of terms borrowed from the Japanese language that are listed in standard English dictionaries and in publications that analyze new words. Therefore, this dictionary covers both the loanwords that have withstood the test of time and those whose test has just started. American standard dictionaries keep records of borrowings from the Japanese language; most of them, however, do not furnish quotations. A Dictionary of Japanese Loanwords adds a special contribution by providing illustrative quotations for many entries. These quotations were collected from books, newspapers, magazines, advertisements, and databases, all of which were published or distributed in the United States between 1964 and 1995. They give details about the entry, demonstrate how it is used in a natural context, and indicate the degree of its assimilation into American English. Recent studies report that Japanese is the second most productive source of new loanwords to English, which indicates that the English-speaking world is paying attention to Japan more closely than ever before. The entries and illustrative quotations present the aspects of Japan that Americans have been exposed to and have adopted. Karaoke, for example, first appeared in English in 1979, when English-speaking societies observed and read about a karaoke fever in Japan. Today, Americans find themselves enjoying karaoke. Karaoke Showcase, a weekly television talent contest, appeared on 120 U.S. stations in June 1992. A phenomenon like this is shown in this book in the form of lexical entries. The impact that Japan has made on America covers all aspects of life: aesthetics, architecture, arts and crafts, astronomy, biology, botany, business management, clothing, economics, education, electronics, fine art, food and food technology, medicine, oceanography, pathology, philosophy, physics, politics,

Preface

religion, sports, technology, trade, weaponry, zoology, and so on. Some entries are not accompanied by a quotation; nevertheless, when dictionaries record words they indicate that these words are somehow linked to people's everyday lives. A Dictionary of Japanese Loanwords is also meant to be fun to read. I hope that it will provide the meaning for Japanese words the reader has come across on many occasions, and that it will be an occasion for happy browsing. At all stages of preparing the manuscript for this book, I had to rely on the help and advice of many people. I would like to thank: Takashi Aoki, Masu Freeman, Diana Goff, Hiroshi Kanesato, Chikako Kobayashi, Yutaka Matsuda, Noriko Matsumura, Peggy Kopman-Owens, Brett P. Palmer of MerriamWebster, Sword Museum in Tokyo, Reiko Takeda of the Paper Museum in Tokyo, Hiroko Wiancko, and the staff of Yame Chamber of Commerce in Fukuoka Prefecture. Special thanks to Elaine Y. Montgomery.

EXPLANATORY NOTES
PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION The entries were selected from the sources listed in the bibliography when they were clearly classified as Japanese loans or when their Japanese origin was evident. Some terms that were listed only in the older edition of the source were excluded. Japanese loans of low frequency and distribution were also excluded. THE ENTRIES Main entries appear in boldface, regardless of being written as one word or two, hyphenated or compounded. Variant spellings also appear as main entries, but only the more frequent spellings are accompanied by the definition, pronunciation, and etymology. When the date of borrowing is recorded in the source, this book also provides it after the etymology. The first date is the earliest instance of borrowing of the entry word. When the entry word was borrowed earlier in a variant spelling, the date is followed by a colon, which is followed by a variant spelling, its borrowing date, and the source. Example: katana . . . [etymology] 1874: catan 1613 (OED) The entry word, katana, was borrowed in 1874, but was borrowed as "catan" in 1613, and the source of this information is the Oxford English Dictionary. Pronunciations The pronunciation is given to the Japanese entry words selected from the source that records the pronunciation heard or most likely to be heard in the United States. Pronunciations are not provided for newer entry words whose

Xll

Explanatory Notes

American sounds have yet to be recorded. The sources are American dictionaries and books of new words and New Shogakukan Random House EnglishJapanese Dictionary (2nd edition) published in Japan. The pronunciations are based on the system of the International Phonetic Alphabet. They are given within brackets immediately following the entry word. Definitions The definition has been kept simple and informative. Separate definitions are given to discrete meanings of the term, and are labeled 1, 2, etc. Quotations Illustrative quotations are given whenever possible. Information about authors), title, date, and page number of the publication is provided in parentheses. These quotations were collected from books, newspapers, magazines, advertisements, and databases published or distributed in the United States between 1985 and 1995. The time frame was in some cases expanded back to 1964. Etymologies Etymologies follow the last quotation in brackets. The symbol < means "derived from." The etymologies in this book are based on the sources listed in the bibliography. When the sources disagree on the etymon or do not list one, this book does not attempt to provide any etymologies. Sources of Borrowing Dates Acronym AS B1 B2 B3 BDC LRNWl LRNW2 OED OED:AS OEDNW OEDS RCD RHD WCD Source American Speech (Fall 1993) The Barnhart Dictionary of New English (1973) The Second Barnhart Dictionary of New English (1980) The Third Barnhart Dictionary of New English (1990) The Barnhart Dictionary Companion (1982-93) The Longman Register of New Words (1989) The Longman Register of New Words (1990) The Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989) The Oxford English Dictionary: Additions Series (1993) The Oxford English Dictionary of New Words (1991) The Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary (1972-86) Random House Webster's College Dictionary (1991) Random House Dictionary of the English Language (2nd ed., 1987) Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed., 1993)

PRONUNCIATION KEY
VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS
i: i e ae a a: o: u ee i e a
0

a
0

in see in bit in get in bat in hot in father in order in put

u:
A 9

00

ei ou ai au oi

u a a oa i ow oi

in in in in in in in in

too up about day boat kite how oil

CONSONANTS Customary Letter Values


P b t d k g f s in pen in bed in tent in desk in kit in gum in fan in sit z h m n 1 w r in zip in hill in mat in net in lily in wit in right

XIV

Pronunciation Key

Special Symbols J 3 tj STRESS primary stress as in [klaimit] secondary stress as in [kdmanteri] sh in s in ch in ship measure chair dj rj j j in ng in y in jump wing yes

A DICTIONARY OF JAPANESE LOANWORDS

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A
abukumalite [aebskuimalait, abihkama-] n. a mineral of the apatite group: (Y,Ca)5(Si0 4 ,P0 4 )3(OH,F). Syn. britholite-(Y). Britholite contains Ce as well as variable amounts of Al and Si replacing P and differs from abukumalite {britholite-Y) only in that the latter contains Y and Th. (Keith Frye, ed., The Encyclopedia of Mineralogy, 1981, p. 23) [< Abukuma a plateau in Fukushima Prefecture + -lite] aburachan seed [aibsretjain] n. the seed of Benzoin praecox.

Parabenzoin praecox (Sieb. & Zucc) Nakai. Benzoin praecox Sieb. & Zucc; Lindera praecox (Sieb. & Zucc.) Bl. ABURA-CHAN. Deciduous shrub to small tree. (Jisaburo Ohwi, Flora of Japan, 1965, p. 472) [< aburachan < abura oil + chan < chain (turpentine) pitch] aburagiri [dbaragiri] n. a deciduous tree, Aleurites cordata.

Aleurites cordata (Thunb.) R. Br. ABURA-GIRI (oil Paulownia). . . . Medium-sized tree. (Egbert H. Walker, Flora of Okinawa and the Southern Ryukyu Islands, 1976, p. 646) [< aburagiri < abura oil + giri < kiri paulownia] adsuki or adsuki bean [aedzuiki, -su:-] n. see adzuki. adzuki or adzuki bean [aedzuiki] n. 1. an annual leguminous plant, angularis. Also, adsuki (bean) or azuki (bean). Phaseolus

Adzuki can be grown on light or heavy soil, provided it is well drained, but will not tolerate alkaline (chalky) soil. (Joy Larkcom, Oriental Vegetables, 1991, p. 58)

ai

Adzuki beans are not frost-hardy, but show more adaptability to colder temperatures than some beans. (Ibid., p. 58) 2. the dark red edible bean of this plant. Based on recipes his grandfather used, most [of Brian Kito's hand-made confections] are comprised of sweet sticky rice and a paste made of red azuki beans and sugar. (Los Angeles Times, Sept. 4, 1985, Part II, p. 1) Adzuki has always been an important bean in Japan, where it ranks second only to soya bean. (Joy Larkcom, Oriental Vegetables, 1991, p. 58) Sugary, tropical fruit syrups are poured atop mounds of shaved ice; aficionados like them with sweetened adzuki beans and ice cream. (The New York Times, May 9, 1993, Sec. 5, p. 29) What do people buy in an Asian mall in suburban Chicago? The answer is an intriguing mix of standard American products and imported items. Del Monte canned peas are stocked next to Azuki beans. (American Demographics, May 1994, p. 37) [< azuki] 1889: adsuki 1727 (OED) ai [ai] n. see ayu. aikido [aikiidou, aiki-] n. a form of self-defense that employs throws and joint manipulation techniques, and emphasizes the coordination of intrinsic energy. David Dye, head of the Aikido Federation of California, believes that by learning a few of the fundamental tumbling rolls of Aikido, motorcyclists can reduce the number and severity of any injuries they might sustain in an accident. (Cycle World, Sept. 1985, p. 15) As much as any transformative practice that commands a significant following today, certain martial arts facilitate a many-sided integral development of human nature. Some, such as aikido, are superior to modern sports in their reliance upon spiritual principles, and superior to quiet meditation in their cultivation of stillness in action. (Psychology Today, May/June 1992, p. 47) The Japanese throwing and joint-locking art aikido and the modified Chinese karate system known as American kenpo are currently experiencing unprecedented popularity. (Black Belt, Oct. 1994, p. 52) attributive use. In fact, one of [David] Dye's students, a motorcycle police officer, thinks his Aikido training helped him to walk away uninjured from a recent crash. (Cycle World, Sept. 1985, p. 15) Apple Computer is more sensitive than most companies to the stress that comes with overworkit offers massage on the premises, sponsors an equestrian club, and gives aikido lessons to help workers blow off steam. (Fortune, Mar. 12, 1990, p. 44) The Fox studio, under new management, pulled the plug on the project this month, leaving its million-dollar aikido sensei [Steven Seagal] scrambling to borrow money for production payrolls. (Newsweek, Nov. 30, 1992, p. 87) [< aikido < ai < au to harmonize + ki spirit + do way] 1956 (OED)

akamushi mite

aikidoist [aikiidouist] n. a person who practices aikido. Aikido is a devastating martial art, the full power of which is rarely seen. . . . An Aikidoist who knows this power will only demonstrate their full abilities on another Aikidoist who is fully trained to receive and survive it. (Greg O'Connor, The Aikido Student Handbook, 1993, p. 17) [< aikido + -ist] aikuchi [aikuitji] n., pi. -chi, a dagger without a guard. The following morning he took his aikuchi (a small dagger) and cut the hair off his forehead. (Stephen Turnbull, The Lone Samurai and the Martial Arts, 1990, p. 94) [< aikuchi < ai < au to fit + kuchi mouth] Aino [ainou] n., pi. -no or-s, see ainu. Ainu [ainu:] n., pi. -nu or-s, 1. a member of an indigenous people of Japan, who live in Hokkaido, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands. Also, Aino. Historically, the Ainu (Ainu means human in the Ainu language) were an indigenous hunting and gathering population who occupied most of northern Honshu as late as the Nara period (A.D. 710-94). (Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden, eds., Japan: A Country Study, 5th ed., 1992, p. 93) 2. the language of the Ainu. This was a time when Japanese-style education was in fashion, and the language was taught emphatically at school. My father thus led a double linguistic life, using Japanese at school and Ainu at home. (Kayano Shigeru, Our Land Was a Forest, trans. Kyoko Selden and Lili Selden, 1994, p. 61) attributive use. Inside, the year-old Ainu Museum [at Shiraoi, Hokkaido] offers the most complete picture you'll find of the disappearing Ainu culture. (Sunset, 1985, p. 68) A survey conducted in 1986 found 24,381 Ainu in Hokkaido, but because exogamy is common fewer than one-third can claim four Ainu grandparents, and very few were fluent in the Ainu language. (Richard Bo wring and Peter Kornicki, eds., Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, 1993, p. 244) [< ainu < Ainu ainu person] 1819 (OED) akamatsu [aiksmditsu:] n. a Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora. Hinoki has long been preferred for monumental architecture but dwindling supplies forced substitution of red pine (akamatsu) and zelkova (keyaki) in the medieval period. (Richard Bowring and Peter Kornicki, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, 1993, p. 204) [< akamatsu < aka red + matsu pine] akamushi mite [dikamuiji] n. see tsutsugamushi mite.

4 akebi [aekabi, dikei-, d:ka-] n. a deciduous woody vine, Akebia [< akebi] Akebia [9ki:bi9] n. an eastern Asian genus of deciduous vine. quinata.

akebi

Whatever the provenance of the purple-flowering Akebia, it may well have been those fabulous gardens of Versailles that first awakened in Andr6 Michaux his profound and lifelong love of flowers. (Henry Savage, Jr. and Elizabeth J. Savage, Andre and Francois Andre Michaux, 1986, p. 6) Classification. Akebia (eastern Asia) comprises five deciduous, monoecious species with fragrant female flowers lacking petals, and sausage-like fruits, grayish-violet with a white pulp. (Bayard Hora, ed., The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Book of Trees and Forests of the World, 1990, Vol. 3, p. 400) [akeb(i) + -id] akeki [aekski] n. see hiba. akenobeite [aeksnoubiait] n. a type of granitic rock. [< Akenobe a mine in Hyogo Prefecture + -tie] Akita [akiita, a:-] n. a large dog of Japanese breed. Now, in some American communities at least, Apricas are as ubiquitous as Toyotas and as trendy as Akitas. (The New York Times, Oct. 12, 1985, p. 33) The breed's popularity in the United States following World War II may be attributed to American servicemen of the occupational forces, who admired the noble dogs that they took them home to their families. They were attracted to the Akita because of the breed's intelligence and adaptability to different situations. The Akita Club of America was founded in 1956. (The Complete Dog Book, Official Publication of the American Kennel Club, 18th ed., 1992, p. 233) Question: What happened to Nicole Brown Simpson's dog, the one that barked and barked after her slaying, then led neighbors to her body? Who is taking care of it? Answer: USA Today has reported that Jason Simpson, O.J. Simpson's son from his first marriage, is caring for Kato, the white Akita, at O.J.'s estate. (The Phoenix Gazette, Oct. 15, 1994, p. A2) [< Akita (inu) < Akita a prefecture in northern Japan + inu dog] 1928 (OED) ama [dims, ae-, -ma:] n., pi. -ma or -s, a female diver who dives for fish, shellfish and seaweed. AMA is the name applied to the "diving women" of Japan who for at least 2000 years have dived in the coastal WATER of the PACIFIC OCEAN and the Sea of Japan to gather shellfish and ALGAE from the seafloor. . . . The number of ama has steadily declined over recent years. Of those who remain, many find that the tourists who come to watch them work are more lucrative than the harvest. (Donald G. Groves and Lee M. Hunt, Ocean World Encyclopedia, 1980, pp. 7-8)

Amidism

Splendid diving ladiesamawho demonstrate their skills near the island [Mikimoto Pearl Island in Toba, Mie Prefecture] are a compensation. No longer hunting for pearls, they are still kept busy bringing up the sea vegetables of which Japanese are so fond. Demonstrations are frequent. (Fodors Japan 1988, Gail Chasan, ed., 1988, p. 334) At Toba Aquarium, ama-san (women divers), at one time heavily employed in pearl farming, now play with tanked dolphins. They can still hold their breath for a lungbusting amount of time, and some actually do work the outlying islands, diving for seaweed and abalone. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 506) [< ama literally, sea woman] 1954 (OED) amado [dm9dou] n., pi. -do, a set of sliding doors placed on the outer side of a house. The panels called amado are made of wood, and when in place they form part of the exterior wall of the house. They are put up at night to make the house secure and taken down every morning and stored away to let in air and light. (Lensey Namioka, Japan: A Traveler's Companion, 1979, p. 68) [< amado < ama < ame rain + do <to sliding door] 1880 (OED) amanori [dimanoiri, -nou-] n. see nori. Amaterasu or Amaterasu-Omikami [d:ma:terd:su] n. the Sun Goddess, the highest deity in Shinto mythology. The emperor . . . is said to be a direct descendant of the sun goddess Amaterasu. After the Second World War the Americans ordered him to renounce his divinity. They felt that a living god was too tempting a focus for fanatical nationalism The emperor had never claimed anything like the omnipotence that Americans associated with divinity. (William S. Dietrich, The Shadow of the Rising Sun, 1983, p. 136) Worshipers on a recent rainy Saturday crowded before the gate [of the Grand Shrine of Ise] clapping their hands and bowing in prayer to the invisible mirror, to AmaterasuOmikami, as the Sun Goddess is known, and to the August line of emperors who claim descent from her mythical grandson. (Los Angeles Times, Jun. 4, 1990, p. A4) Amaterasu, the sungodess, is a key figure in the Shinto pantheon. . . . The most famous story of Amaterasu tells of a falling-out between her and Susanowo, her brother. (Brian P. Katz, Deities and Demons of the Far East, 1995, p. 58) [< Amaterasu Omikami Great Divinity Illuminating Heaven] Amidism [aemsdizsm] n. the Buddhist sect of Amitabha, which emphasizes salvation by faith and promises rebirth in the Land of Bliss to its followers. Compare Zen. In that country [Japan] a powerful movement, Amidism, has preached that salvation lies in faith alone and all rules of conduct are irrelevant. (Richard Gombrich, Introduction, in The World of Buddhism, ed. Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich, 1984, p. 14) [< Amida < Amid(a) Amitabha + -ism]

6 Amidist [aem9dist] n. a follower of Amidism. adj. of or relating to Amidism.

Amidist

By the middle of the Tang dynasty (eighth century), Amidism had become a powerful movement, as is attested by the popularity of Amidist literature and the innumerable icons and votive inscriptions devoted to the Buddha of the western paradise. (Mircea Eliade, ed., The Encyclopedia of Religion, 1987, Vol. 1, p. 236) [Amid(a) + -ist] andon n., pi. -don, a small standing lantern. Smaller standing lanterns, usually made of iron, are known as andon. Andon became popular during the Edo period (1600-1868) for interior illumination, especially within the home. . . . Some andon are made of paper with a rigid wooden frame and open top. These usually contained lamps burning rapseed oil or candles; the modern version is often wired for electricity. (Kondansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983, Vol. l,p. 368) The andon is usually placed on the floor, though it can also be stood on a desk or a shelf. The basic pattern is to have a hollow, upright wooden frame around the sides of which a shade made of shoji paper is affixed, leaving the ends open to allow heat to escape. This is then mounted on a stand. (Koji Yagi, A Japanese Touch for your Home, (1982) 1984, p. 71) A traditional form more commonly seen in today's home is the andon, a box or cylinder shape on short legs, to set on the floor. Most of these are equipped with handles so that they can be moved easily from one part of a room to another (or outdoors). (The New York Times, Jan. 19, 1986, Sec. 10, p. 12) [< andon < an going + don lantern] ansu [dinsu:, -zu:] n. 1. a deciduous tree, Purunus armeniaca.

Purunus ansu (Maxim.) Komar, P. armeniaca var. ansu Maxim. (Jisaburo Ohwi, Flora of Japan, 1965, p. 542) 2. a fruit of this tree, an apricot. [< anzu apricot] Aoyama's fluid [aujdimsz] n. see the quotation for the meaning. [A] solution of cadmium chloride and neutral formalin used for fixing tissues prior to osmic acid impregnation of the Golgi apparatusf.] (By permission. From Webster's Third New International Dictionary 1993 by Merriam-Webster Inc.) [< (Fumio) Aoyama (twentieth century), an anatomist] aragoto [aersgoutou] n. in a kabuki drama, an exaggerated acting and producing style used in portraying characters who display superhuman prowess. In the bombastic style of kabuki called aragoto, a character usually gestures with his fingers splayed out and the entire hand held so that palm and fingers form a flat plane. (Matazo Nakamura, Kabuki Backstage, Onstage, trans. Mark Oshima, 1990, p. 138)

Atari Democrat

adj. of or relating to this style of acting and producing. The man who possesses the name [Danjuro] is the standard-bearer of Kabuki's aragoto style, perhaps the one that is most accessible to foreigners because of its wildly flamboyant makeup, mannerisms and costumes. (The New York Times, Jul. 7, 1985, Sec. 2, p. 4) The Royce Hall program opens with the new Danjuro XII playing opposite his uncle, Shoroku II, in an aragoto showpiece called "Shibaraku." (Los Angeles Times, Aug. 4, 1985, Calendar, p. 35) [< aragoto < ara- rough + goto < koto business] 1985 (BDC) arakawaite [dirakdiwsait] n.a bluish-green, monoclinic mineral: (Cu,Zn)3 (P0 4 )(OH)32H 2 0. Syn. veszelyite. [< Arakawa a mine in Akita Prefecture + -tie] arigato [drigditou] interj. thank you. [< arigato < arigatai literally, improbable] Arisaka or Arisaka rifle [ae:risd:ko, dirssdika] n. a series of Japanese Army bolt-action rifles designed by Col. Nariakira Arisaka. Arisaka[,] the popular designation for the 6.5mm (later 7.7mm) rifle of the Japanese Army, its official rifle from 1906 to 1945. A carbine was also known by that name. (Chester Mueller and John Olson, Shooter's Bible: Small Arms Lexicon and Concise Encyclopedia, lsted., 1968, p. 17) Most of the rifles used by the Japanese were almost entirely made up of the types commonly referred to as the 'Arisaka' rifles. (A. J. Barker, Japanese Army Handbook: 1939-1945, 1979, p. 30) [< (Nariakira) Arisaka (1852-1915)] Arita or Arita ware [anita] n. a variety of ceramics produced in the Arita region, Saga Prefecture. Today Tokyo's department stores are filled with Arita ware, the traditional and . . . more radical variants. Wealthy buyers may spend up to $35,000 for a plate bought directly from the galleries of the best kilns. (The New York Times, May 1, 1990, p. A4) This painted and gilded design imitated that of the Japanese Arita wares in both form and style. (Emmanuel Cooper, A History of World Pottery, (1972) 1991, p. 102, caption) The term Arita is currently used in the West to denote those pieces from the Arita area painted solely in underglaze blue. (Huon Mallalieu, gen. ed., The Illustrated History of Antiques, 1991, p. 411) [< Arita a town in Saga Prefecture] 1876 (OED) Atari Democrat [stdiri:, aet-] n. a political and economic philosophy in the early 1980s that encouraged high technology as a means to employment and economic growth.

Atari Socialism

He [Paul E. Tsongas] described himself in those years as an Atari Democrat, a member of the young generation of politicians and economists who looked to high technology as a source of jobs and economic growth. (The New York Times, Feb. 25, 1992, p. A17) [< Atari an American company that produces video games and home computers < atari literally, success, hit] 1983 (BDC) Atari Socialism [atdiri, aet-] n. the French Socialist government program under Francois Mitterrand that strove to apply government control over advanced technology and industrialization. [< Atari: BDC classifies this term as U.S. use and "Informal (standard English used primarily in news papers, magazines, on radio and television, and the conduct of daily business)." The Barnhart Dictionary Companion, 2.2(1983): 34] 1983 (BDC) Atarize [aeteraiz] v.t. to become an Atari democrat [< atarif) + -ize] 1983 (BDC) aucuba [oikjuba] n. an evergreen shrub, Aucuba Japonica. Standard green-leafed aucuba grows at moderate rate 6-10 (sometimes 15) ft. and almost as wide. . . . All aucubas make choice tub plants for shady patio or in the house. (Kathleen Norris Brenzel, ed., Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995, p. 172) [< aoki < aokiba < ao green + ki tree + ba<ha leaf] 1819 (OED) awabi [swdibi] n. the Japanese abalone, Haliotis gigantea. The typical diet consisted of kezurimono (shaved dried bonito), awabi (abalone), and other fish and shellfish. (Gaku Homma, The Folk Art of Japanese Country Cooking, 1991, p. 26) [< awabi] 1889 (OED) ayu [d:ju:] n. a small freshwater fish, Plecoglossus altivelis. Also, ai. The ayu is, and has been for many years, the most highly esteemed freshwater food fish in Japan. . . . Although it is best known as a Japanese species, the ayu is widely distributed in the maritime countries of the W. N. Pacific being known from Manchuria, China, Korea, and Formosa. (Alwyne Wheeler, Fishes of the World, 1975, p. 288) The ayu is the only species in its family. . . . Its body is olive brown with a pale yellow blotch on the side. The dorsal fin is expanded and, like the other fins, has a reddish tint. . . . The fish mature in the upper reaches of rivers and, unlike most other salmonoids, move downstream towards the sea to breed. (Keith Banister and Andrew Campbell, eds., The Encyclopedia ofAquatic Life, (1985) 1988, p. 54) Both houses are now restaurants serving tea and sweets or meals of ayu, a sort of small trout caught in the Hozu River. (The New York Times, May 30, 1993, Sec. 5, p. 25) [< ayu]

azuki

Azuchi-Momoyama [dizutfi: moimsjdimQ] n. a period of Japanese history (1568-1600) which was characterized by political unification, the construction of great castles, the decline of Buddhism, and the rise of temporal culture. Also, Momoyama. attributive use. From the mid-sixteenth century, as Nobunaga and Hideyoshi secured control over the country, the Kyoto region (Kyoto, Sakai, and Osaka) again became the center of cultural leadership. This epoch is frequently known as the Azuchi-Momoyama era after Nobunaga's great castle at Azuchi and Hideyoshi's citadel at Momoyama. These towering castles were symbols of the power and ambition not only of the unifiers but of the daimyo who followed them in warfare and cultural style. (Yoshiaki Shimizu, ed., Japan: The Shaping of Daimyo Culture, 1988, p. 25) The use of color was part of a freshly descriptive approach to nature in the yamato-e painting of the Momoyama period. (Art in America, May 1992, p. 91) [< Azuchi the location of Nobunaga's Azuchi Castle in Shiga Prefecture + Momoyama the location of Hideyoshi's Fushimi Castle in Kyoto Prefecture] azuki or azuki bean [aezuiki] n. see adzuki.

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B
baiu [baiu:, -ju:] n. the spring or early-summer rainy season in Japan and China. Also, bai-u, Baiu or Bai-u. Continental depressions, passing eastward over central China and the Yellow Sea in spring and early summer, bring heavy overcasts, high humidity, and rain to China and Japan. Bai-u, mai-yu, or plum rains, as they are called, are an extended period of unstable weather caused by stagnation of the polar front. (John E. Oliver and Rhodes W. Fairbridge, eds., The Encyclopedia of Climatology, 1987, p. 123) Towards the end of spring, temperatures and humidity rise everywhere, marking the approach of the early summer rainy season, the baiu. . . . Rainfall is not continuous, but it can be torrential. (Richard Bowring and Peter Kornicki, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, 1993, p. 10) attributive use. The Baiu front is known as the most activated subtropical front . . . , which appears over China and Japan during June and July and accompanies severe subsynoptic-scale rainfalls. (Monthly Weather Review, Feb. 1988, p. 281) [< baiu < bai Japanese apricot + u rain] 1910 (OED) Baka or Baka bomb [bdika] n. the Allied code name for a flying bomb which was guided on to its target by a suicide pilot, and was used in World War II. Also, baka. The MXY-7 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) was a manned flying bomb, developed as a KAMIKAZE weapon. The Allied code name Bakawhich was Japanese for "fool"was considered by many Americans as more appropriate for this desperation weapon. Bomber-type aircraft ("mother" planes) were to take off with the Baka attached to their belly, fly to the vicinity of U.S. warships, and then release the suicider to crash into the ship. (Norman Polmar and Thomas B. Allen, World War II, 1991, p. 131)

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bancha

Americans called this weapon baka (idiot bomb or screwball), as if in search of comic relief from the apprehension it generated. Pilots and antiaircraft gunners found the speedy rockets almost impossible to hit once they were launched. (George Feifer, Tennozan, 1992, p. 209) [< baka idiot] bancha or bancha tea [bdintja:] n. a green tea made from low-grade leaves. Bancha is the proletariat of Japanese teas. It is made from larger leaves left over . . . or from tougher, more mature leaves harvested later in the season. (The New York Times, Sept. 16,1990, Sec. 5, p. 6) All Japanese tea is graded. At the bottom, but nonetheless quite good, is banchacommon, coarse tea. . . . Yellow rather than green and usually slightly astringent. (Donald Richie, A Taste of Japan. (1985)1992, p. 108) [< bancha < ban- coarse + cha tea] bandite [baendaait] n. a type of fine-grained extrusive rock. [< Band(ai) a mountain in Fukushima Prefecture + -tie] banzai [bainzai, baen-] 1. inter j . a cry of enthusiasm or patriotism. The workers [of the Seikan Tunnel] sent up a chorus of "Banzai!" The cheer served as a Japanese equivalent to the golden spike that joined the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads in 1986. (The New York Times, Mar. 19, 1985, p. A2) "Banzai!" means "10,000 years" and is the Japanese equivalent of "Viva!" or "Long live the king!" But the word became a controversial symbol of Japan's aggressive past because of its widespread use by Japanese soldiers in World War II. (The Washington Post, Nov. 12, 1990, p. A21) At 3 a.m. the next morning, 36 light tanks and 1,000 soldiers, led by officers brandishing samurai-style swords and screaming "Banzai!" ("Long live the emperor!"), came spilling down what the Marines called Hill 500. (San Jose Mercury News, Dec. 28, 1994. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [< banzai literally, ten thousand years] 1893 (OED) banzai attack or banzai charge [bdinzai, baen-] n. a suicidal attack by Japanese troops in World War II. Banzai attacks . . . were frantic, usually disorganized charges, born of despair, mounted by Japanese troops shouting "Banzai!" as they rushed forward toward the enemy lines. (Thomas Parrish, ed., The Simon and Schuster Encyclopedia of World War II, 1978, p. 49) Banzai Charge A wild, frontal Japanese attack aimed at killing as many enemy as possible while dying in battle. (Norman Polmar and Thomas B. Allen, World War II, 1991, p. 133) Their code of Bushido made no allowance for surrender, and it glorified death with suicidal banzai charges and gut-cutting hara-kiri rituals. (Washington Post, Sept. 26, 1994, p. A l l )

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Mass suicides of Japanese civilians on Saipan and Tinian and equally horrendous banzai charges by outgunned and outnumbered troops bolstered the conviction among U.S. strategists that invading Japan's home islands would claim tremendous numbers of American and Japanese lives. (Jan Jose Mercury News, Dec. 28, 1994. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [< banzai] baren [bdiren, bae-] n. a disk wrapped in a bamboo sheath, used in woodblock printing for rubbing and pressing the paper on the inked block. The baren was made up of a disc of twisted cord which fitted into the shallow depression of another disc, itself composed of layers of paper and cloth. They were both held together by means of a bamboo sheath, the ends of which were twisted together at the back to form a handle. (Julia Hutt, Understanding Far Eastern Art, 1987, p. 53) The image was printed from the woodblock by forcefully impressing the back of the paper with a baren using rhythmical circular or semi-circular movements. . . . It was composed of a flat disk, approximately 5 inches (13cm) wide. (Amy Newland and Chris Uhlenbeck, consulting eds., Ukiyo-e to Shin hanga, 1990, p. 35) The exposed back side of the paper is rubbed with a baren, a disk-shaped pad, which causes the transfer of ink from the block onto the front side of the paper. (Penelope E. Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 307) [< baren] 1895 (OED) basho [bdijou] n., pi. -sho or -s, a fifteen-day tournament of traditional Japanese sumo. Konishiki is the first foreigner to reach the rank ozeki (champion). He has won two of the last three bimonthly bashos (sumo tournaments). (Sports Illustrated, May 18, 1992, p. 72) Sumo tournaments are called basho. (Lora Sharnoff, Grand Sumo, rev. ed., 1993, p. 66) The January tournament, or Hatsu Basho, dates back to the eighteenth century. (Clyde Newton, Dynamic Sumo, 1994, p. 25) [< basho sumo tournament] 1976 (B2) beddo [bedou] n. a bed with electronic movement for making various motions, such as rocking and rotating. [< beddo bed: The Japanese term beddo was borrowed from English in the nineteenth century and refers to any type of "bed." The English beddo is a type of beddo installed in love hotels.] 1969 (B1) bekko [bekou] n. tortoiseshell. Bekko or bekko-no is the word for tortoiseshell, the best variety of which is taken from the hawksbill turtle. (Alex R. Newman and Egerton Ryerson, Japanese Art: A Collector's Guide, 1964, p. 78) [< bekko literally, soft-shelled turtle shell]

14 bento [bentou] n.,pl. -to or -s, a box lunch. Also, obento or o-bento.

bento

The school lunch, obentoliterally "honorable lunch box"is extremely important in the lives of most Japanese women. To take a lunch box to school is to take a little bit of mother with you. The standard tricolor obento is packed in a rectangular plastic box about the size of a book. (National Geographic, Apr. 1990, p. 66) The o-bento (the "o" is honorific) in its most elaborate incarnation is served in gorgeous multilayered lacquered boxes as an accompaniment to outdoor tea ceremonies or for flowerviewing parties held in spring. (Paula Consolo, ed., Fodor's Japan, 1994, p. 58) In addition to its regular menu, for lunch Sushi Raku [in North Tarry town, Westchester] offers a number of bento, a complete meal served in an assembly of lacquered boxes containing soup, rice and a choice of one or two more substantial components, such as tuna teriyaki, sushi or sashimi, charbroiled mackerel. (The New York Times, Jan. 8, 1995, Sec. 13WC,p. 19) attributive use. BLOSSOM BENTO BOX LUNCH[:] Pickled Vegetables[,] Rice Crackers[,] California Sushi Salad[,] Strawberries[,] Ginger Cookies[,] Plum Wine Cooler[.] . . . Carry lunch to a favorite spot in the garden. Nibble crisp rice crackers and salty Japanese pickled vegetables with plum wine coolers as you contemplate the flowersand sushi combinations. (Sunset, Mar. 1993, p. 154) O-bento come in all kinds; they are made at home, ordered out and delivered, bought at the bento store, eaten at restaurant. (The Japan Forum Newsletter, Tokyo: The Japan Forum, 1995, n. 5, p. 14) The [Tokyo] police said some of the containers that released the [poison] gas onto the trains resembled bento lunch boxes, while others resembled a beer can in a plastic bag. (The New York Times, Mar. 20, 1995, p. A16) [< bento] Beta n. see Betamax. Betamax n. a proprietary name for the videocassette format developed by Sony Corporation. Also, Beta. Trademark. The first Betamax had a playing time of one hour, long enough to record the average television program, but the VHS standard prevailed largely because it could record for twice as long. (The New York Times Magazine, Jan. 16, 1994, p. 14) [< betamakusu < beta(-beta) mimesis implying "all over" + makusu maximum] 1975 (OED.AS) biwa [biiwai] n. a Japanese lute with four or five strings that are plucked with a plectrum. The tale [Heike Monogatari] was being recited by entertainers who accompanied themselves on the biwa, an instrument resembling the mandolin. (Arthur E. Tiedemann, ed., An Introduction to Japanese Civilization, 191 A, p. 402) Yoshiyuki Yamashita is 91 years old now, his fingers are stiff that he says it is hard for

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him to pick up his biwa, the battered wooden lute that he carried for decades through farming villages across Japan's southern reaches. (The New York Times, Nov. 16, 1992, P-A4) [< biwa] Bizen [biizen] adj. of or relating to unglazed stoneware produced in the eastern Okayama Prefecture. Bizen ware has a dark-gray stoneware body that generally fires to a brick-red, brown, or deep-bronze colour. The surface of Bizen ware ranges from an unglazed matt to a glossy sheen; age has given some pieces a bronzelike patina and others the appearance of polished wood. (The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., 1995, p. 247) The red, ocher and brown clays used to shape these pots at the Shigaraki, Tamba and Bizen kilns show through the shimmering glazes, producing the same sort of pulsing colors and spontaneous movement that we associate with Abstract Expressionist paintings. (The New York Times, Nov. 19, 1989, Sec. 2, p. H40) The sculptures have a Western resonance, too. A Bizen stoneware vase that appears to be draped in red-brown cloth is a trompel'oell object of the type American and European craftsmen have made for centuries. (The New York Times, Jan. 2, 1994, Sec. 2, p. H36) [< Bizen the former name of the southeastern region of Okayama Prefecture] black belt 1. a high level of proficiency in most Japanese and Korean martial arts. After having progressed through the ranks of the colored belts, the next level of progress is the black belt (kuro obi), which is divided into ten further levels [in Shorinjiryu karate]. (Masayuki Kukan Hisataka, Essential Shorinjiryu Karatedo, 1994, p. 215) 2. a person who has achieved this level of proficiency. While students [of martial arts schools] in Japan, Korea or Taiwan are usually classified as white or black belts (novice or expert), in the United States each belt comes with a testing fee, and, not surprisingly, there are a range of hues, from white to yellow to purple to black. (The New York Times, Feb. 16, 1992, Sec. 3, p. F10) 3. the black sash awarded to a person who has achieved this level of proficiency. The white obi [belt] is worn by all kyu ranks until reaching yudansha (black belt) level. Then a black belt is worn. (Greg O'Connor, The Aikido Student Handbook, 1993, p. 36) [translation of kuro obi < kuro black + obi belt] 1913 (OED) black mist wide-scale corruption in government during Eisaku Sato's administration (1964-1972). During the mid-sixties, there were the so-called black mist scandals, which involved links between organized crime and key politicians. The black mist was so thick that no one could see what was happening. (William J. Holstein, The Japanese Power Game, 1990, pp. 118-19) [translation of kuroi kiri < kuroi black + kiri mist] 1966 (BP)

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Bon

Bon [bom] n. Buddhist observance honoring the spirits of deceased ancestors, observed on July 13-15 or in August. Also, Obon. Buddhist observance honoring the spirits of ancestors; traditionally observed from 13-15 July (August in some areas). Also called Urabon or Obon. Urabon is said to be a ChineseJapanese rendering of the Sanskrit ullambana, a memorial ceremony to rescue the souls of the dead from the tortures of hell. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983, Vol. l,p. 160) The three-day observance of Bon, a holiday season nearly as joyous as New Year's, would begin the next morning. (Time, Aug. 26, 1985, p. 20) According to common belief, the spirits of ancestors come back home during this period called Obon, a time set aside to appreciate life and one's heritage. (The Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 5, 1991, p. 10) attributive use. The Southern California Japanese American community is in the thick of the two-month Obon season, as Buddhist temples of the Pure Land Sectthe predominant school among Japanese Americanshold festivals and carnivals highlighted by the traditional dance bon odori. (The Los Angeles Times, Jul. 1985, Part II, p. 1) Obon festivals range in style from solemn to the spry, from quiet visits to family graves to lively dancing and parades of floats, fireworks, or paper boats drifting down a river. (The Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 5, 1991, p. 10) [< bon < urabon] bonsai [bdnsai, boun-, -zai, - - ] n., pi. -sai, 1. a tree or shrub that is dwarfed, shaped, and planted in a specially-designed container. Many bonsai are grown for the enjoyment of their fruit or flowers. (Randy T. Clark, Outstanding American Bonsai, 1989, p. 46) You could pay hundreds of dollars for a living Bonsai that requires countless hours of attention. Or you could own a stunningly lifelike Bonsai tree for only $9.95! (Parade Magazine, Sept. 4, 1994, p. 20, advertisement) attributive use. By transplanting tiny cactus and succulents into mame bonsai containers (the smallest kind), you can create a desertlike landscape that fits in the palm of your hand. (Sunset, Dec. 1994, p. 85) 2. the art of growing such plants. [Mitsuo] Umehara teaches bonsai in California and believes that it is common experience of peace and beauty which needs to be shared. (Randy T. Clark, Outstanding American Bonsai, 1989, p. 46) attributive use. After World War 2, bonsai culture spread even more widely throughout the worldparticularly in the U.S.A. due, to a great extent, to the American forces that were stationed in Japan. (Deborah R. Koreshoff, Bonsai, 1984, p. 11) [< bonsai < bon tray + sai plant] 1950 (OED)

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bonseki [bdnseikii, boun-] n. the art of creating a miniature dry landscape by arranging stones and sand on a tray designed for this art. Bonsai (potted dwarf trees on plates), bonkei(miniaturQ landscapes on trays), and bonseki (dry representations, as rocks and sand, on trays) became other expressions of the cultivation of the little. (Milton Walter Meyer, Japan: A Concise History, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 87) [< bonseki < bon tray + seki stone] bonze [bdnz] n. a Buddhist monk. The king was deported to China but a bonze (Buddhist priest) who enjoyed great prestige started a revolt and called in the Japanese, who sent a war fleet. (Oscar Luzzato-Bilitz, Oriental Lacquer, trans. Pauline L. Phillips, 1969, p. 121) When the Zen bonzes who welcomed him [Francis Xavier] as a friend hear him declare that the satori (illuminations) of their illustrious Chinese precursors were stuff and nonsense, they expel him from their temples. (Nicolas Bouvier, The Japanese Chronicles, trans. Anne Dickerson, 1992, p. 53) [probably, < French bonze < Portuguese bonzo < Japanese bozu Buddhist priest] 1688: Bonso 1588 (OED) brown belt 1. an intermediate level of proficiency in most Japanese and Korean martial arts. After learning to fall safely, the beginner is taught nage no kata, shime no kata, and okuno kata. These kata constitute his [Henry Seishiro Okazaki's] basic instruction in judo and are prerequisites for promotion to green belt and third brown belt. (Black Belt, yearbook/winter, 1991, p. 57) 2. a person who has achieved this level of proficiency. She [Chanese Hall] is a brown belt, which is one level below the expert black belt, in not one, but two styles of karate. Chanese is a brown belt in Okinawa Kempo Karate and Japanese Shotokan Karate. More astonishingly, she held a brown belt in both disciplines at age 4. (Jet, Nov. 21, 1994, p. 49) 3. the brown sash awarded to a person who has achieved this level of proficiency. [< translation of cha obi < cha brown + obi belt] 1937 (B1) bu [bjui] n. 1. see the quotation for the meaning. BU A Japanese coin (or rather, unit of coinage, ichibu meaning 1 bu), the quarter of a ryo and the quadruple of the shu. First introduced in 1599. . . . In one form or another it continued in circulation until the introduction of Japan's modern coinage during the early 1870s. (Ewald Junge, World Coin Encyclopedia, 1984, p. 53) 2. a unit of length, equivalent to 0.1 inch, used until the introduction of the metric system during the 1950s. 3. a unit of area. See tsubo. [< bu part, portion]

18 budo [buidou] n. the martial arts developed in Japan. Also, budo.

budo

The bugei were developed systematically from the tenth century onward; but the budo are largely twentieth century products stemming from concepts which can first be positively identified about mid twentieth century. (Donn F. Draeger and Robert W. Smith, Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts, 1980, p. 90) Some . . . Western contributions to the budo include weight training, scientific stretching warm-ups, and weight divisions in competition. (Black Belt, May 1993, p. 108) For the last decade I have been conducting research on a variety of martial arts forms as practiced in the United States. These arts have their origins in a variety of East Asian culturesthose of China, Korea, Japan, etc.but I am most familiar with the arts known as budo ("martial ways") which are the modern outgrowth of fighting techniques developed during the feudal era in Japan. (John J. Donohue, Warrior Dreams, 1994, p. 2) [< budo < bu martial + do way] 1964 (B3) bugaku [buigdikui] n. an ancient dance and music associated with the imperial court of Japan. Also, Bugaku. Bugaku is a ritual courtly dance which has survived since the Heian period [794-1185]. It was appreciated also by the samurai and intellectual middle calsses during the later Edo period [1600-1868]. (Lawrence Smith, Victor Harris, and Timothy Clark, eds., Japanese Art: Masterpieces in the British Museum, 1990, p. 150) [< bugaku < bu dance + gaku music] bullet train a high-speed passenger train. Also, shinkansen. Japanese "bullet trains" were on time, fast, frequent, and comfortable. Although "bullet train" is a term used for Japan's Shinkansen, it can describe any high-speed railroad that exceeds 100 mph. (USA Today, Sept. 1989, p. 27) On peak days, the system serves 500,000 passengers riding 1,000 Shinkansen "bullet trains" over 730 miles of track between Tokyo and distant Hakata, in Kyushu. The stretch includes the Tokyo-Osaka commuter link, the most heavily traveled rail corridor in the world. (Business Week, Oct. 25, 1991, p. 84) With seven giant trading companiesincluding such familiar names as Samsung, Hyundai and Lucky GoldstarSouth Korea is rapidly becoming Japan's head-to-head technological rival. By 2000, South Korea will have its own bullet train. (St. Louis PostDispatch, Oct. 31, 1994. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [translation of dangan ressha < dangan bullet + ressha train] 1966 (B3) bunraku [bunrdikui] n. the traditional Japanese puppet theater. Bunraku, puppet theater native to Osaka, was regarded as a serious dramatic medium for adults (unlike puppetry in many Western countries), and flourished along with Kabuki since the Tokugawa period [1600-1868]. . . . A narrator, who sings all parts, and a samisen-\A2iy'mg chorus are the main elements of bunraku. The narrator-singer conveys the emotional content of the play and generates the illusion of life into the large puppets. (Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden, Japan: A Country Study, 5th ed. 1992, p. 182)

butoh attributive use.

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In recent years, the classic eight-hour version [of Chushingura ], first performed 250 years ago, has been a staple of Kabuki and bunraku puppet theaters. (The Washington Post, Dec. 14, 1994, p. A29) [< bunraku < Bunraku-(za) the name of the puppet theater troupe organized by Uemura Bunrakuken (1737-1810) in the early nineteenth century] 1920 (WCD) burakumin [buirskuimin] n. pi. the members of Japan's largest minority group. Also, Burakumin. Some of the worst prejudice in Japan is reserved for a minority group indistinguishable by race or religion from other Japanesethe Burakumin. Burakumin are defined by birth, poverty, and the kind of work they do. (World Press Review, Aug. 1988, p. 56) The burakumin were Japan's official outcasts for more than a century, given jobs that were considered unclean, like butchering and leather work. The hereditary designation was officially abolished a century ago, but the burakumin, who are ethnic Japanese, are still subject to ruthless discrimination and generally live in tight-knit communities. (The New York Times, Jan. 24, 1995, p. A8) [< burakumin < buraku hamlet + min people] 1967 (B2) bushido [buijidou] n. in feudal Japan, the ethical code of the warrior class that emphasizes bravery, honor, discipline, self-sacrifice, and loyalty. Filial piety could easily be extended to cover the loyalty that a samurai has to his lord, as well as the loyalty he has to his father. Confucian ideals such as these were to become the basis for the moral code of the samurai, bushido. (Stephen R. Turnbull, The Book of the Samurai, 1982, p. 121) 2. the spirit of this ethical code. If he [a martial art student] does something wrong, he knows he has breached his honor and has broken a code of discipline that transcends words. There is no bushido (way of the warrior) or written guideline that has a more powerful effect than a person's own honor. (Karate/Kung Fu Illustrated, Feb. 1994, p. 52) [< bushido < bushi warrior + do way] 1898 (OED) butoh [buitou] n. a form of avant-garde dance created in the 1950s. Also, Butoh. Mr. [Tatsumi] Hijikata was known as the father of Butoh, a Japanese theater-dance form that grew out of a rebellion against traditional dance and theater and was influenced by Japanese esthetics and Western modern dance, particularly the Expressionist dance of Mary Wigman. Mr. Hijikata coined the term "Butoh" for the form, which he developed in the late 1950's, first calling it Ankoku Butoh. (The New York Times, Jan. 25, 1986, p. 10) In the performing arts, American audiences have begun to show an interest in the Japanese forms of kabuki, noh, kyogen, bugaku, and now butoh. (Drama Review, Summer 1986, p. 112) Butoh, the dominant experimental dance style from Japan, has generally been distinguished by its slow-moving performers and a sense of devastation. Cycles of death and

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butsu

rebirth, subliminally linked to images of Hiroshima, make up its essential themes. (The New York Times, Oct. 24, 1992, p. 13) attributive use. As for the Butoh style, the Muteki-Sha group (which has just performed so movingly in Montreal and New York) will be succeeded by Kazuo Ohno, a founder of Butoh, who will share a week at the Joyce Theater in November with a younger dancer, Kuniko Kisanuki. (The New York Times, Oct. 13, 1985, Sec, 2, p. 14) To [Ethan] Hoffman, the work [titled "21,000 Leagues"] symbolizes birtha recurring Butoh theme. (The New York Times Magazine, Nov. 1, 1987, p. 68) The vital avant-garde butoh dance was a major development after the war. (Robert E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden, eds., Japan: A Country Study, 5th ed., 1992, p. 185) [< buto < (ankoku) buto < ankoku darkness + buto dance] butsu [butsui, biiitsui] n., pi. -su, 1. a representation of Buddha. 2. Buddha. The tales [Konjaku Monogatari] also place Buddhism above Shinto in degree of importance, judged from the placement of Buddha before kami when the text mentions the two simultaneously. The compound word for Buddha (butsu) and kami (shin) always appears as butsu-shin. (American Historical Review, Feb. 1994, p. 134) [< butsu(da) Buddha] butsudan [butsuiddin, -so-] n., pi. -dan or -s, a small Buddhist family altar containing an image of Buddha and ancestral mortuary tablets. A tall butsudan, a family altar, dominated the interior, but one of the two living rooms was American, with easy chairs instead of tatami. (Newsweek, Jul. 29, 1985, p. 37) Each night she continued to dance for her beloved, but, now too old to move very well, she wants a picture of herself to hang before the butsudan. (Robert A. Rosenstone, Mirror in the Shrine, 1988, p. 169) In accordance with the precepts of the geomancer, whom we consulted concurrently with the architect in designing the house, the butsudan, the altar of the ancestors, cover the north wall. (Laurence Caillet, The House of Yamazaki, trans. Megan Backus, 1994, p. 221) [< butsudan < butsu Buddha + dan altar] byobu [bioubui] n., pi. -bu, a set of hinged standing screens covered with paper or silk and decorated with calligraphy or paintings. Also, byobu. Byobu are meant to be freestanding and may consist of two, four, six, or eight panels, joined together. (Miyeko Murase, Masterpieces of Japanese Screen Painting, 1990, p. 8) Prices for good [antique] tansu, the folding screens painted on silk or paper called byobu . . . have increased steadily. (The New York Times, Apr. 25, 1993, Sec. 5, p. 6) [< byobu < by6 blocking + bu<fu wind] 1971 (B1)

c
chanoyu [tjdmoujui, -noi-] n. the ritual of preparing, serving, and drinking powdered green tea stirred in hot water. The Urasenke Chanoyu Center that recently opened in New York City demonstrates the importance of environment to the learning experience. The center's purpose is to teach the Japanese tea ceremony, chanoyu, and the appreciation of its related arts of painting, calligraphy, lacquerwork, ceramics and textiles to people in the United States. (American Craft, Aug./Sept., 1981, p. 19) The delicate implements, revered by the Japanese as artworks, are integral to chanoyu, the traditional "way of tea" ceremony, and represent an ancient aesthetic, a social code and evolved spiritual ideals. (Los Angeles Times, Mar. 12, 1986, Part VI, p. 2) When I was living in Tantakabayashi near Kobe, my landlord was in the habit of inviting me to his home next-door to the tea ceremonies (chanoyu) he held every Saturday afternoon. (Jack Seward, The Japanese, 1992, p. 123) Since chanoyu is also a performing art whose success depends on the participation of both host and guest, the tea devotee has to be familiar with the ritualized gestures and carefully choreographed movements used in preparing, serving, receiving, and drinking tea. (Asian Art, Winter 1993, p. 13) [< chanoyu < cha tea + no (particle) of + yu hot water] cho [tjou] n., pi. -cho, a unit of area, equal to 2.45 acres, used until 1966. Also, cho. Although a few surveys of the largest landlords in the country, those owning 50 cho or more of land, do exist, no attempt was ever made to survey landlords as a whole. (Ann Waswo, Japanese Landlords, 1977, p. 6) Typically, a proprietor dispatched his own officials to the countryside to measure all of the agricultural and residential land in a certain region, using the cho (approximately one

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chonin

hectare) as their standard. (John Whitney Hall, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1991, Vol. 4, p. 481) [< cho] chonin n. the townspeople during the Edo period [1600-1868]. Also, chonin. The chonin, or "townsmen," as they were called, naturally had to pay strict deference to the samurai class and abide by the government's rather harsh regulations, but they grew steadily in prosperity, managed their own internal affairs in the various villagelike units into which the commercial parts of the cities were divided, and developed a vigorous culture of their own in the larger cities. (Edwin O. Reischauer, Japan: The Story of a Nation, 4th ed., 1990, p. 83) A period during the Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1867) marked by active cultural development, especially among the chonin (townspeople and merchants) of urban Edo (modern Tokyo). This culture is characterized by the term ukiyo, "floating world." (Dorothy Perkins, Encyclopedia of Japan, 1991, p. 113) In Kyoto, Osaka, and Edo (now Tokyo), sophisticated cities expanded during the period, fashionable dress became an important indicator of wealth and aesthetic sensibility for the chonin and was no longer the exclusive preserve of the elite. . . . Actors and highly refined courtesans created a world of glamour that set the fashion for samurai and chonin alike. (The Magazine Antiques, Dec. 1992, p. 833) [< chonin < cho town + nin person] chorogi [tjoirougii, tjou-] n. a perennial plant, Stachys affinis.

S. affinis (-S. sieboldii) [CHINESE or JAPANESE ARTICHOKE, CHOROGI, KNOTROOT] has tuberous roots which are cultivated in Japan. (David M. Moore, ed.-in-chief, The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of Plants and Earth Sciences, 1988, Vol. 3, p. 323) [< chorogi] cobang [koubaerj] n. see kobang. comfort woman a woman who was forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers by the Japanese government during World War II. Lee [Yong Yeo] was forced to become a "comfort woman," the euphemism used to describe the estimated 200,000 Asian women, mainly Koreans, who were enslaved as prostitutes by Japan during the war. (The Washington Post, Aug. 12, 1992, p. A23) Astounding though it seems, it wasn't until this year that Korean "comfort women" overcame their shame sufficiently to tell of their unwilling role in World War II as sexual conscripts for the Japanese Army. (Newsweek, Jan. 4, 1993, p. 37) Her account, like so many others in the book, comes from testimony offered several years ago when the now-aging former comfort women began telling what had been done in the name of keeping Japanese soldiers out of trouble. (The New York Times, Sept. 10, 1995, Book Review, p. 41)

co-prosperity sphere

23

In the last few years the world has learned a bit about the Korean, Chinese and even Dutch "comfort women" who were forced to provide sex for the Japanese Army abroad. Yet the Japanese Government's efforts to gather Japanese prostitutes on behalf of American soldiers is much less known. (The New York Times, Oct. 27, 1995, p. A8) attributive use. South Korea doesn't plan to let Japan bury the comfort women issue. Government and private groups are compiling evidence that Japan used force and deceit to enslave women. (Los Angeles Times, Aug. 8, 1992, p. A3) The Foreign Ministry indicates that a compensation fund for the women might be raised from donations made by individuals and companies. This approach seeks to satisfy what the government now, years after the existence of the euphemistically named "comfort women" program first became known, acknowledges to be a terrible wrong. (Los Angeles Times, Sept. 4, 1994, p. M4) [translation of ianfu < ian comfort +fu woman] co-prosperity sphere the sphere under the Japanese leadership during World War II. The British system rested on the political cohesion of their empirean approach reflected in Japan's call for a "Co-prosperity Sphere" in Asiawhile Germans stressed the military seizure of territory and utilization of the territory's resources. (Merion Harries and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun, 1991, p. 195) [translation of kyoei-ken < kyoei co-prosperity + ken sphere] 1941 (OED)

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D
daibutsu [daibutsu, -buit-] n. a great statue of the Buddha that reaches or exceeds sixteen feet in height. Also, Daibutsu. Kamakura's 13th-century statue of Daibutsu or Great Buddha, is a national treasure. (Architectural Digest, Mar 1991, p. 69, caption) Daibutsu ("great Buddha") are huge statues of the great sage. (Brian P. Katz, Deities and Demons of the Far East, 1995, p. 51, caption) [< daibutsu < dai great + butsu < butsuda Buddha] daikon [daikon] n. a radish, Raphanus sativus longipinnatus. We offer here the refreshment of a Japanese-style luncheon. A gingery salad of watercress and crisp, faintly astringent daikon is set off by the richness of smoked salmon. (Gourmet, M. 1991, p. 66) A constant presence in Asian and especially Japanese markets, daikon is a radish that looks nothing like its little red Western cousins. It's usually about a foot and a half long and two to three inches in diameter with a white or pale brown peel. . . . Daikon doesn't have much taste, but it does have a delightful and refreshing crunch. It is often used in soups, thinly sliced or cut into very fine julienne on a benriner cutter. (James Peterson, Splendid Soups, 1993, p. 20) Diners have to strain to spot Oriental influences at the Harvest [in Long Island]. There is a ginger-spiked sauce accompanying a whole striped bass here and a garnish of shredded daikon, Japanese radish, there. (The New York Times, Aug. 21, 1994, Sec. 13LI, p. 20) [< daikon < dai big + kon root] 1876 (WCD) daimiate [daimieit] n. in premodern Japan, a local political division ruled by a feudal lord. [< daimi(o) < daimyo + -ate] 1870: daimiote 1870 (OED)

26 daimio [daimiou, -mjou] n.f pi. -mio or -s, see daimyo.

daimio

daimyo [daimiou, -mjou] n., pi. -myo or -s, in premodern Japan, the largest of the feudal lords. Also, daimyo and daimio. There were many ranks of samurai covering a wide range of social status, which changed from era to era. In the Edo period [1600-1868] the shogun was the supreme military ruler, the first major status group below him being the daimyo, who were lords of the manor who owned estates and governed their own territories. (Michael Finn, Martial Am, 1988, p. 87) The daimyo (pronounced dime-YOH) were the largest of the local landholding lords and the main rulers at the local level in pre-modern Japan. Their name derived from the Japanese word components dai, meaning large, and myo from myoden meaning named or privately held land. . . . [B]y the end of the 16th century daimyo refered specifically to military lords whose holdings were worth at least 10,000 koku, the standard unit used to measure annual grain production, especially rice. (ArtNews, Oct. 1988, p. I l l ) The daimyo usually maintained one castle that served as his home base and several auxiliary castles or fortresses in strategic spots. (Mikiso Hane, Premodern Japan, 1991, p. 95) [< daimyo < dai large + myo < myoden private land] 1727 (WCD) Dai Nippon [dainipdn, nipan, niipon] n. an official name of Japan under the Meiji Constitution (1889-1947). American misunderstandings about Japan are also rife. Dai Nippon is no longer the Prussianesque centrally-managed economic machine of legends past. (Forbes, Mar. 16, 1992, p. 25) Yamazaki Yasuo was a tall, lithe man, with a pointed nose and wide-set eyes, who defended the cult of the emperor and the values of Great Japan (Dai Nippon) with heated passion. (Laurence Caillet, The House of Yamazaki, trans. Megan Backus, 1994, p. 209) [< Dai Nippon Teikoku < Dai great + Nippon Japan + Teikoku Empire] dairi [dairii] n. the imperial residence within the palace compound. North of this [administrative] palace was a small courtyard enclosing one or more buildings called the daigokuden (imperial council hall). Finally, a small residential complex outside the cloistered area was known as the dairi (imperial residence). (Jane McAllister and Kathleen Preciado, Ancient Japan, 1992, p. 266) [< dairi < dai imperial palace + ri within] 1780: dayro 1662 (OED) daisho [daijou] n., pi. -sho, a pair of swords, katana and wakizashi, worn by a samurai. It was the privilege of the samurai to wear a pair of swords: the three-foot-long katana and the two-foot wakizashi. . . . As a set they were called daisho. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Summer 1991, p. 62, caption) [< daisho < dai big + sho small] 1923 (OED)

dohyo

27

dan [ddin, daen] n. in Japanese and Korean martial arts, the rank that classifies students and masters who wear the black belt. Compare kyu and shodan. The efficiency grades in judo are divided into pupil (kyu) and master (dan) grades. (Mark C. Young, ed., The Guinness Book of Records 1995, 1994, p. 260) The upper ten ranks (yudansha) are also divided into ten degrees (the Dan grades) [in Shorinjiryu Kenkokan], and all wear a black belt. (Masayuki Kukan Hisakata, Essential Shorinji Karatedo, 1994, p. 62) [< dan a grade] 1941 (OED) d a n g o [daerjgou] n. a practice of bid-rigging discussions held among large construction companies. Many of the Government contracts are let through bid-rigging, a practice known as dango, that the Government acknowledges is widespread. (The New York Times, Feb. 17, 1994, p. A15) [< dango < dan talking + go together] daruma [doruimo] n. a red papier-mache doll that is a good luck symbol. Motorola has even borrowed a quaint Japanese custom. Several senior managers bought daruma dolls in Japan. These papier-mache figures come without eyes. The ritual calls for blacking in one eye when you make a wish, then blacking in the other only after the wish comes true. (Business Week, Nov. 13, 1989, p. 114) A popular toy made for the New Year is the daruma, a weighted oval doll that always bounces upright after being pushed down. The daruma symbolizes the ability of people to bounce back after suffering bad luck. (Instructor, Nov./Dec. 1991, p. 34) [< daruma after the Indian Zen monk, Bodhidharma] 1963 (B2) dashi [ddiji, daijii] n. a broth made from dried bonito and seaweed. It was a happy choice, with a kimono-clad server delivering course after course of Japanese delicacies, from soup (dashi with seaweed) to sukiyaki with sashimi, grilled fish, tempura, rice and melon in between and big bottles of Asahi lager. (The New York Times, Dec. 29, 1991, Sec. 5, p. 14) The basic Japanese broth, dashi, is prepared from bonito that has been dried using an elaborate process of salting and airing. . . . There are also packets of instant dashi. (James Peterson, Splendid Soups, 1993, p. 10) [< dashi < dashi (jiru )< dashi extraction + jiru < shim soup] 1968 (OED) do [dou] n. any of the seven administrative divisions into which Japan was divided during the eighth and ninth centuries. [< do road] d o h y o n. the sumo ring, which is a two-foot-high, eighteen-foot-square clay stage with the inner circle formed by rice straw bales. Americans worried about economic rivals across the Pacific, take heart. Good old Yankee

28

dojo 1

competitiveness is alive and well in the ancient Japanese dohyo, or sumo ring. Last week, a 490-pound Hawaiian of Samoan ancestry, known as Konishiki, bulldozed Japan's highest-ranked wrestler to win the coveted Emperor's Cup. (U.S. News & World Report, Dec. 11, 1989, p. 14) The center of any sumo stadium is the dohyo, demarcated by tawara, rice-straw bales filled with earth and small stones and covered with sand. (Lora Sharnoff, Grand Sumo, rev. ed., 1993, p. 71) The 474-pound Akebono and the 313-pound Takanohana are such large talents on the sumo landscape that the sport is said to be entering the Ake-Taka era. They may now also be remembered together for something other than their prowess in the dohyo. (Sports Illustrated, Jan. 10, 1994, p. 12) [< dohyo < dohyo(ba) < do earth + hyo rice straw bale + ba place] dojo 1 [doud30u] n. a slender freshwater fish, Misgurnus anguillicaudata.

In Hell Tofu cuisine, a bowl of boiling broth is loaded with cold tofu and eel-shaped fish called dojo. (Discover, June 1988, p. 24) [< dojo] dojo 2 [doud^ou] n. a facility where martial arts are taught and practiced. The dojoas a martial arts school is called in Japaneseis now a familiar tenant in commercial buildings and malls. (The New York Times, Aug. 28, 1988, Sec. 3, p. 4) [Melanie] Murphy currently runs two dojos where she teaches an Okinawan Karate style called Shudokan. (Women's Sports and Fitness, Nov./Dec. 1992, p. 53) When he was 13, Jim [Dickey] transferred to the dojo, the karate school, in our neighborhood, run by Shihan William Oliver. (The New York Times, Jan. 2, 1994, Sec. 13CY, p. 11) [< dojo < do training +jo place] 1942 (OED) dokusan [doukuisaen, ddko-] n. in Zen Buddhism training, a formal private meeting of a master and a student in the master's room. He [Richard Baker] was seldom available . . . for dokusan, the intimate knee-to-knee meetings between teacher and student in which students ask teachers about the innermost mysteries of Zen. (California, Mar. 1988, p. 80) [< dokusan < doku alone + san visiting a person who is superior] 1976 (B3) dotaku n., pi. -ku. a bronze bell of the Yayoi period (ca 300B.C - c a A.D. 300). The original purpose of the bronze bell (dotaku) was to make a sound when hit with a stick or clapper. (Richard Pearson, Ancient Japan, 1992, p. 164) Possibly derived from Korea, dotaku were first created to be rung and later were made strictly as esthetic objects. Their most striking feature is the fabric of patterns and images in low relief that plays over their surfaces. Amid curving lines like eddying water are scenes from rural lifemen fishing, women farmingand remarkable depictions of wild animals, ranging from storks rendered with calligraphic economy to turtles seen as if in

dotaku

29

X-ray from above, to little beetles flitting across the surface of a pond. (The New York Times, Aug. 30, 1992, Sec. 2, pp. 27 and 30) From the Yayoi period in the exhibition come the beautiful bronze bells (dotaku) shaped like tall flowerpots with arcs above them, their blue-green surfaces decorated with austere patterns. (The Christian Science Monitor, Sept. 23, 1992, p. 14) [< dotaku < do bronze + taku bell] 1911 (OED:AS)

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E
ekiben [eikiben, eko-] n. a box lunch sold at train stations and on bullet trains. Today, ekiben is to the urgently paced and omnipresent world of Japanese train culture what Kentucky Fried Chicken, A&W Root Beer, and McDonald's are to the gulp-it-asyou-run world of the American drive-in restaurant. (Junichi Kamekura, Mamoru Watanabe, and Gideon Bosker, Introduction, in Ekiben, 1989, p. 2) While traveling on the train, enjoy an ekibenshort for eki (train station) and bento (box lunch). These box lunches, often wrapped in decorative paper with chopsticks attached, may contain fish, vegetables, pickles, sushi, chicken, pork, beef, or many other tasty but unfamiliar items. (Charles H. Northup, The Japan Vacation Planner, 1992, p. 132) A sub-variety of bento is ekibenbento sold at railway stationswhich varies widely from region to region. (Rex Shelley, Culture Shock! Japan, 1993, p. 201) attributive use. This gastronomic package is so popular that Japan Railway (JR) annually publishes an inexpensive black-and-white ekiben guidebook listing the names and ingredients of box lunches featured at train stations across the country. (Junichi Kamekura, Mamoru Watanabe, and Gideon Bosker, Introduction, in Ekiben, 1989, p. 2) For many passengers . . . Mt Fuji is less fascinating than the vast collection of ekiben lunch boxes that two Shinkansen attendants are pushing down the wide aisle on carts featuring such selections as unaju teishoku (a set lunch of eel) at 1,600 yen ($11.50) and the makunouchi bento (assorted lunch box) with its smoked fish, pickled vegetables and rice at 1,000 yen ($7.20). (Chicago Tribune, Oct. 6, 1989, Sec. 1, p. 6) [< ekiben < eki station + ben < bento box lunch] emakimono [eimaikomounou, emo-, i-] n., pi. -no or -s, a horizontal narrative scroll with text and colorful illustrations, unrolled from right to left. Also, makimono and E-Makimono.

32

endaka

Lives of various sainted monks and priests, histories of monasteries and temples, episodes from political and military history were all fine subjects for the E-Makimono (Rolled Pictures) which became the major form of painting. These narrative scrolls, unrolled a section at a time from right to left, were usually painted in bright color on paper. (John D. La Plante, Asian Art, 2nd ed., 1985, pp. 269-70) The most familiar commingling picture-and-written-word forms are certain narrative emakimono (horizontal picture scrolls). While many East Asian painting traditions incorporate caption, poem, or artist's signature into the pictorial composition, these narrative emakimono expand the graphic mix to present a complex story with extensive literary text combined with many successive pictures. (Arthur Nolletti, Jr. and David Desser, eds., Reframing Japanese Cinema, 1992, p. 262) [< emakimono < e painting + maki rolling + mono thing] 1882 (OED) endaka [enddiko] n. the appreciation of the yen, the Japanese currency. The new reality of endaka (the high yen) has Japanese companies scrambling to shape and manage more complex business strategies. (Fortune, Sept. 29, 1986, p. 136) The chief executives of at least twelve major companies, including Seiko Epson, Kawasaki Steel and All Nippon Airways, have all died suddenly this year. . . . The immediate causes of death ranged widely, from pneumonia to heart attacks. But many Japanese are convinced that the real killer was endaka, which means a strong yen. (Time, August 3,1987, p. 46) Globe-trotting and import-buying Japanese may love endaka, or the rising yen, which has finally hit 100 yen to the dollar, down from 125.8 yen in January. (Business Week, Aug. 30,1993, p. 52) The murder [of an American sailor by his shipmates in Sasebo, Nagasaki Prefecture], which had grabbed headlines in the U.S., didn't worry the regular patrons I met one evening at Tadashi Eda's sushi bar as much as endakathe dizzying rise in the yen's valuewhich has meant American sailors, paid in eroded dollars, were spending less and less in local shops, bars, and restaurants. (National Geographic, Jan. 1994, p. 102) attributive use. With new production lines starting up in America, Europe, and Asia, the Japanese are likely to surmount the yen's new heights as deftly as they did the high yen endaka crisis of 1986. (Business Week, Oct. 12, 1992, p. 49) "We are on the verge of an endaka boom," said C.H. Kwan, head of Asian economic research at the Nomura Research Institute in Tokyo, using a Japanese word for the rise of the yen. (The New York Times, May 23, 1994, p. Dl) Try late 1985, just weeks after finance ministers, meeting at Manhattan's Plaza Hotel, agreed to devalue the dollar against major world currencies. So began the endaka, or strong yen, era. (Business Week, Apr. 10, 1995, p. 118) [< endaka < en yen + daka < taka high] 1986 (BDC) engawa [erjgdiwai] n. a narrow wooden passage of a house serving as a walkway or as a floor extension. The engawa is a Japanese-inspired deck that is really a simple walkway around the

enokidake

33

house. Like other decks attached to the house, it is an outdoor extension of living space.However, it is not an activity area with a strictly utilitarian function; rather, its size and proportions suggest quiet and detached observation or gentle movement. (Robert J. Beckstrom, Deck Plans, 1985, p. 42) Although it's fully enclosed, the 3-by 71/2-foot glass-walled space is a little like the traditional Japanese engawaa narrow deck that extends a room outdoors. (Sunset, Mar. 1986, p. 139) In practical terms, an engawa can serve three useful purposes. If its length abuts more than one room, it can form an exterior hallway. Typically set one step above the ground level, the engawa can serve as a single broad step. And here [in America] as in Japan, the engawa can become a display platform to set off choice container plants or art objects. (Lynne Gilberg, ed., Sunset Deck Plans, 1991, p. 92) [< engawa < en edge + -gawa side] enka [erjko, -kai] n. pi. popular Japanese ballads, distinguished by slow tempo, melancholic melodies, sad lyric lines, and melismatic vocal style. Once the young people enter the business world, explains [Syuji] Fujii, many of them abandon classical music for enka, which combines both Western and traditional music elements in a kind of Japanese equivalent of American country and western. (Time, Aug. 1,1983, p. 78) When Osaka Yusen started out, it stuck to basics, such as enka, Japan's own crooning country-Western music. (The Arizona Republic, Nov. 20, 1991, p. A6) [< enka < en(zetsu) ka < enzetsu public speech + ka song] 1983 (BDC) e n o k i or enoki mushroom [enouki, i-, ii-] n. a mushroom, velutipes. Also, enokidake or enoki take. Flammulina

Japanese enoki mushrooms first became available about five years ago. They have tinselslim white stems, tiny button caps and come clustered together in a plastic bag. (The New York Times, Mar. 17, 1985, Sec. 11NJ, p. 14) Enoki (enokitake) (Flammulina velutipes): With their long stems and perfumey flavor, these are best used raw in salads or quickly sauteed. (The Washington Post, May 7, 1986, p.E6) Cultivation kits make it easy to grow edible mushrooms indoors. . . . Most available are button mushrooms that grow in a box of compost, but other types are worth trying, too. Look for delicate-flavored, long-stemmed enoki (sometimes sold as enokitake). (Sunset, Nov. 1990, p. 158) A platter arrives with cabbage, watercress, scallions, bean curd, enoki mushrooms, bamboo shoots and cellophane noodles [at Shabu-Tatsu in Manhattan]. (The New York Times, Oct. 28, 1994, p. C20) [< enoki(take) (WCD) < enoki hackberry, Celtis sinensis + -take mushroom] 1977

enokidake [enoukiddikii] n. also, -take [-tdikii]. See enoki.

34 eroduction [irodAkJon] n. a pornographic movie.

eroduction

The eroductions are the limpest of soft-core, and though there is much breast and buttock display, though there are simulations of intercourse, none of the working parts are ever shown. (Donald Richie, A Lateral View, 1992, p. 156) [< erodakushon < ero ero(tic) + (puro)dakushon (pro)duction] 1969 (B1)

eta [eite] n., pi. -ta or -s, 1. an outcast class of medieval Japan. Also, Eta. In 1871 the government lifted all class restrictions on roles in society and decreed legal equality for everyone, including the semi-outcast elements, once known as eta but now usually called burakumin. (Edwin O. Reischauer, Japan: The Story of a Nation, 4th ed., 1990, p. 83) 2. a member of this class. The eta had no way out of their predicament being doomed by birth to their outcast status. . . . They were marked off by their trade, being concerned with the disposal of animal carcasses, with their skins, and with the leather goods made from them. (Charles J. Dunn, Everyday Life in Imperial Japan, 1989, p. 145) [<eta] 1S91 (OED) Euroyen the Japanese currency, on deposit in a Euro-lending center. Euroyen financing can be characterized as short term, yen-dominated borrowings in which the interest rate is calculated at a spread over the Euroyen rate index. (Lodging Hospitality, Jan. 1990, p. 26) [< Euro + yen < en Japan's monetary] 1980 (B3)

F
fuchi [fuitfii] n., pi -chi, an ornamental metal ring attached to the hilt of a Japanese sword. The fuchi was a collar fitted round the hilt at the guard end. (Julia Hutt, Understanding Far Eastern Art, 1987, p. 127) [< fuchi edge] fugi or fugi cherry [fuid3i] n. see fuji 2 . fugu [fuigui] n. any of various poisonous blowfish, the family eaten as a delicacy. Tetraodontidae,

Some of them [puffers] carry one of the deadliest poisons in nature, known as tetraodontoxin. . . . Yet pufferfishes are eaten as a delicacy, known as fugu, in Japan. (Maurice Burton and Robert Burton, Encyclopedia of Fish, 1975, p. 177) It has taken four and a half years for fugu to be approved for sale in the United States by the Federal Food and Drug Administration, and the 264 pounds of fugu that arrived here Thursday have been subjected to far more rigorous inspections than any seafood in the United States. (The New York Times, Apr. 5, 1989, p. Cl) Chefs in the United States who are preparing fugu must attend at least one seminar conducted by the Fugu Buyers' Association, which was formed to import the fish. (The New York Times, Apr. 5, 1989, p. C10) The fugu is a poisonous species of blowfish found off Japan. As unappetizing as that sounds, fugu is catching on in the U. S.mostly among executives eager to prove their derring-do.(Business Week, May 28,1990, p. 108) The fugu . . . was the star of the party [at the Feast of Many Moons, an Asian food festival to benefit Citymeals-on-Wheels]. Everyone wanted to eat it and play culinary Russian roulette. (The New York Times, Mar. 9, 1994, p. C4)

36 attributive use.

fuji*

We agreed to try the fugu appetizers (price: $50 per person), . . . Minutes later, we were starting at our first course: fugu tempura [at Restaurant Nippon in Manhattan]. (Metropolitan Home, Nov. 1989, p. 77) Fugu skin in an amber aspic (nikogori) has a slightly astringent taste. . . . At Restaurant Nippon fugu sashimi platters cost $35 to $60 per person. (The New York Times, Apr. 5, 1990, p. C10) figurative use. Is steak tartare the fugu fish of the 90's? Yes, according to the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta. (The New York Times Magazine, Jan. 16, 1994, p. 11) [<fugu] 1909 (OED) fuji 1 [fuid3i] n. a deciduous climbing shrub, Wistaria sinensis.

No lovelier massing of purple blossoms is to be found than those of the ever-popular wistaria (fuji), whose clusters of soft flowers trail downward as they are trained to grow on arbors and trellises. (Clarence Hornung, Introduction, in Traditional Japanese Stencil Design, ed. Clarence Hornung, 1985, p. vi) [<fuji] fuji 2 or fuji cherry [fu:d3i] n. a flowering cherry, Prunus subhirtella. Also, fugi or fugi cherry. Fuji Weeping Cherry: The magnificent tree that attracts so many visitors to Washington, D. C. each spring. . . . Prunus subhirtella pendula. (Spring Hill 1992 Spring Planting Guide, 1992, p. 34) [< Fuji Mt. Fuji, where this tree originally comes from] Fuji 3 [fud3i] n. a fabric of acetate-rayon blend or rayon, used for dresses and blouses. Fuji A dress and blouse fabric having a dull filament yarn warp and a spun yarn filling. . . . The warp generally was acetate, although sometimes viscose rayon, and the filling a spun yarn either of an acetate-rayon blend or all spun rayon. . . . Originally a trademark. (Isabel B. Wingate, Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles, 6th ed., (1979)1984, p. 254)

[<M]
Fuji 4 silk [fuid3i] n. a plain weave fabric made of spun silk. The original Fuji silk was made in Japan of Hanneri silk yarn. It was made in many qualities, piece dyed and used for undergarments. (Isabel B. Wingate, Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles, 6th ed., (1979) 1984, p. 254) [< translation of Fuji ginu < Fuji Fuji (Gasu Boseki, Inc.) + ginu < kinu silk: trade name used in the early twentieth century] fun [fum] n. see momme.

fusuma

37

functional food a food product containing an element related to a tertiary function, based on the concept proposed by the Japanese Ministry of Education research team in the late 1980s. Functionalized foods are based on the concept that foods have three purposes. Their primary function is as a source of nutrition to maintain life. Their secondary function is to provide sensory appeal. Lastly, some foods have a tertiary, "body-regulating," function to prevent, cure, or assist in the recuperation from disease. In a broad sense, "functional foods" are foods that possess all three functions, while "functionalized foods" are more narrowly defined as products specifically aimed at foods' tertiary purpose. (Prepared Foods, Jul. 1994, p. 82) [translation of kinosei shokuhin < kinosei functional + shokuhin foods] 1990 (OEDNW) funori [fuinouri] n. 1. a general term for red algae, the genus 2. a glue made from these algae. The era when married women washed their hair with funori (a seaweed glue) or with wheat flourand then only on visits to the homes of their birthwas long past. (Laurence Caillet, The House of Yamazaki, trans. Megan Backus, 1991, p. 140) [< funori] furo [fuirou] n., pi. -ro or -s, 1. a short, deep bathtub for soaking in hot water. Also, ofuro. The Japanese bath (furo) is designed to be used by more than one person. It is deep enough for the water to cover the shoulders of a seated person, so that if one sits with knees tucked up, two or more people may sit together. . . . In Japan , small children often enter the tub with their mother or father. (Koji Yagi, A Japanese Touch for your Home, (1982) 1984, p. 73) You do not bathe in the ofuro in the Western sense; it is for soaking and relaxing after you have washed yourself. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 97) 2. rooms or buildings equipped with this type of bathtub. Most nisei (second generation) children went to Japanese language school after regular school, joined local temples and clubs, and used the community furo (bath). (Sunset, Jun. 1985, p. 79) [<furo] 1960-1965 (RCD) fusuma [filisomdi] n., pi. -ma, a panel used as a sliding door and partition, made of a wooden frame covered with layered paper or cloth decorated with paintings or calligraphy. Compare shoji. Opaque sliding doors (fusuma) are used, as a general rule, to divide Japanese-style rooms with tatami from each other, and are removed when occasion demands to make a large reception area. (Koji Yagi, A Japanese Touch for your Home, (1982) 1984, p. 54) Another type of sliding screen, more important as a format for painting, is the fusuma, made of several layers of paper stretched over light, wood-lattice sliding doors. The final Gloiopeltis.

38

futon

layer of paper (or sometimes cloth) is frequently ornamented with a painted scene or with abstract designs. (Miyeko Murase, Masterpieces of Japanese Screen Painting, 1990, p. 8) Like medieval European tapestries that were hung to insulate stone halls, Japanese paintings in the form of fusuma (sliding panels) were integral to their architectural settings. (The Magazine Antiques, Sept. 1994, p. 332) [< fusuma < fusuma shoji] 1880 (OED) futon [fuitan] n., pi. -ton or -s, 1. a set of bedding consisting of a pliable mattress with tufts and a quilt used on a tatami floor. Also, kakebuton and shikibuton. The futon serves a functional role and consists of two oblong coverings stuffed with cotton. The flatter and heavier of the two is the shiki-buton used for the bottom mattress; the kake-buton is placed over the top as the cover. (Theodore F. Welch and Hiroki Kato, Japan Today! 1990, p. 36) The maid will lay down comfortable bedding: a shikibuton (one or two soft, thick mats you sleep on), a kakebuton ( a soft, thick comforter), and a pillow stuffed with buckwheat or rice hulls. (Charles H. Northup, The Japan Vacation Planner, 1992, p. 70) attributive use. At the end of the day, futon mattresses, pillows, and blankets are brought out and laid on the tatami floor. Then in the morning, these are returned to the closet and the room is rearranged for use by the family. (Koji Yagi, A Japanese Touch for Your Home, 1982, p. 42) 2. a pliable mattress with tufts used on a raised frame that converts from sofa to bed. Futons are easily converted between uses. It's a sofa, a lounger, or a bed. Versatile futon furnishings convert easily and add function and style to any room in your home. (Phoenix Living, Oct. 1995, p. 13) attributive use. The company [Quinnehticut Woolen Company in Taftville, CT] has already begun diversifying by making woolen batting for a futon manufacturer in Manchester. (The New York Times, Mar. 26, 1995, Sec. 13CN, p. 2) A revolution is taking place in homes all across America as millions wake up to futon furnishings as the sensible alternative to uncomfortable, old-fashioned convertible sofas. (Phoenix Living, Oct. 1995, p. 13) [< futon mattress] 1876 (OED)

G
gagaku [gaigdikui] n. a type of ancient ceremonial music of the Japanese imperial court. Of more lasting importance was gagaku, being performed at court by 702. Gagaku (elegant music) became the designation of the standard varieties of court music as they were developed and survived through the centuries to modern times. (Delmer M. Brown, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1993, Vol. 1, p. 498) [< gagaku < ga elegant + gaku music] 1893 (OED) gaijin [gaid^in] n., pi. -jin, a foreigner in Japan. Schulhof"Mickey"is a polished, urbane New Yorker who came to Sony sixteen years ago. He is utterly bound to the company, and is probably as close to its founder, Akio Morita, as a gaijin (foreigner) can be. (Vanity Fair, Feb. 1990, p. 136) There are extraordinary Black peoplepioneers in a sensewho are making a life in Japan. . . . Some people feel that the Japanese see themselves as a superior race and have done so for centuries, perhaps due to their homogeneity. But in Japan, one is Japanese or one is gaijin (foreigner), and from my experience all gaijin are treated relatively equally. (Essence, Oct. 1991, p. 123) Jackie shares a four-room apartment in the upper-middle-class Setagaya ward with two other hostesses, Liza and Deborah, and Steve, an Englishman who tends bar at a hangout for gaijin (foreigners) in Roppongi [Tokyo]. (Los Angeles Times Magazine, Nov. 8, 1992, p. 24) The Japanese term for a foreigner is gai-koku-jin (literally 'outside-country-person'); nowadays this is normally abbreviated to gaijin, a term originally carrying pejorative overtones but so widely accepted by gaijin themselves that it has come into general currency. (Richard Tames, A Traveller's History of Japan, 1993, p. 136) [< gaijin < gai(koku)-jin < gaikoku foreign country + -jin person] 1964 (WCD)

40

geisha

geisha [geijo, gii-] n., pi. -sha or -s, n. a Japanese woman who provides entertainment by singing and dancing for dinner guests. As any geisha of Shimbashi [Tokyo] will tell you, "gei" in Japanese means "art," and a geisha is one who practices artin her case, by singing, dancing and playing the traditional Japanese instrument called a samisenfor rich men in the private restaurants of Tokyo and Kyoto. (The Washington Post, Oct. 29, 1991, p. Cl) Geisha are not regarded as prostitutes, any more than surgeons are to be equated with seamstresses, for a geisha's training has much less to do with sex than hairdos and music and courteous speech. Kyoto is a center for geisha, with 210 of them and another 71 maiko, but their prices are as impressive as their appearance. A few businessmen can easily spend more than $1,000 on a dinner with a geisha, sating their culinary appetites alone. (The New York Times, Jan. 24, 1995, p. A8) attributive use. The hostesses, who did not appear Japanese, were recruited through advertisements in The Village Voice, she [Kaoru Kobayashi] said, and trained by her in geisha graces. (The New York Times, Jul. 12, 1985, p. A14) For the "flower and willow world," as the geisha world is known, the flap underscored the hard times into which at least part of the business has fallen. (Los Angeles Times, Jul. 17, 1989, Part I, p. 10) Geisha houses and Buddhist temples suffer a decline in attendance [in Kyoto after Kobe was destroyed by an earthquake]. (The New York Times, Jan. 24, 1995, p. A8, subhead) [< geisha < gei art + -sha person] 1895 (OED) gengo [gerjgou] n.\. the era name determined by the reign of an emperor. Amid much suspense and pomp shortly after noon today, the government announced the new gengo, or era name, by which all dates will be fixed as long as Emperor Akihito lives. (The Washington Post, Jan. 8, 1989, p. A25) 2. this system. Even in this global economy, Japan clings to some of its ancient ways. Instead of adopting a Western-style calendar, the country counts its years on a cycle that begins and ends with the reign of the current emperor, a system called gengo. (This year, for example, is Heisei 5, or the fifth year of the current emperor's reign, named for "achieving peace.") (Los Angeles Times Magazine, Jun. 6, 1993, p. 54) [< gengo < gen era + go title] 1979 (BDC) genro [genrou, -rou] n., pi. -ro or -s, an elder statesman. Also, Genro. A general election victory also would boost Nakasone's influence in selecting his successora decision the present genroelder statesmenwant to make themselves. (Los Angeles Times, May 5, 1986, Part I, p. 10) The bureaucracy, which was becoming increasingly centralized and influential, was nominally under the direction of the emperor, but he invariably acted on the advice of the Genro. The term, which originally referred to seven restoration leaders, later came to mean senior statesmen. These influential individuals often acted through the Privy

gl

41

Council, which advised the emperor on matters of constitutional interpretation, emergency decrees, martial law, treaties and international law. (Louis D. Hayes, Introduction to Japanese Politics, 1992, p. 22) [< genro < gen chief + ro elder] 1876 (OED) Genroku or Genroku era [genroukui] n. a period of Japanese history, 1688 1704, characterized by active cultural development among artisans, townspeople, and merchants of Kyoto, Osaka, and Edo (now Tokyo). The Japanese decorative style, first appearing in Fujiwara [894-1185] and Kamakura [1185-1333] art and suddenly revived during the Momoyama period [1568-1600], came to full flower during Genroku. (Sherman E. Lee, A History of Far Eastern Art, 4th ed., 1982, p. 484) Genroku, the era name . . . for the years 1688-1704, is commonly used to refer to the entire rule of the fifth Tokugawa shogun, TOKUGAWA TSUNAYOSHI, from 1680 to 1709. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983, Vol. 3, p. 22) The late 17th and early 18th centuries witnessed a vigorous cultural efflorescence centering on the merchant city of Osaka. This is commonly known as the culture of the Genroku era. (Martin Collcutt, Marius Jansen, and Isao Kumakura, Cultural Atlas of Japan, 1988, p. 155) [< Genroku < gen big + roku fortune] geta [gets] n., pi. -ta or -s, footwear consisting of a wooden platform with a thong that goes between the big toe and the second toe; the platform of a common geta is raised about an inch or an inch and a half by two supports. Geta are wooden clogs. . . . They are usually 5 cm high but amagetageta for the raincan be 7-10 cm high. . . . Geta for men are of plain wood with black straps, but women use lacquered black or vermillion geta with colourful straps of velvet or silk. (Rex Shelley, Culture Shock!: Japan, 1993, pp. 55-56) I was eleven when he brought me back a pair of geta clogs with leather thongs from the city. . . . The other children had geta with straw or bamboo-leaf thongs. (Laurence Caillet, The House of Yamazaki, trans. Megan Backus, 1994, p. 77) [< geta < ge low + ta footwear] 1884 (OED) gi [gii] n. the uniform worn for martial arts. Also, gie. Most of the women wore a white or black "gi," a loose-fitting martial-arts garment that consists of pants and a wraparound top tied at the waist with a belt [at a martial arts camp in Geneva, N Y]. (The New York Times, Jun. 23, 1985, Sec. 1, p. 44) In America, the strict dress code of the traditional school has been relaxed to reflect the plurality of tastes and interpretations of martial artists. It is possible to purchase gi in all colorswhite, black, red, blue, even American flag patternsand stylesfull sleeve, "sport top," and so on. (John J. Donohue, Warrior Dreams, 1994, p. 78) [< gi < (judo)-gi <judo + -gi < ki clothes]

42 gie [gfi] n. see gi. gingko [girjkou] n. see ginkgo.

gie

ginkgo [girjkou] n.,pl. -es or -s, 1. cap. a monotypic genus of gymno- spermous, of the family Ginkgoaceae. The genus Ginkgo, represented today by the widely cultivated Chinese species G. biloba L., has an evolutionary lineage that dates back to the lower Jurassic, about 190 million years ago. (American Journal of Botany, May 1992, p. 522) 2. a representative tree of the genus Ginkgo; Ginkgo biloba; a maidenhair tree. Also, gingko and icho. Within its walls, at night, with the rains and mists drifting down between the maples, pines, and ginkgoes, the paper lanterns glowing like moons, you felt as if you had been magically transported to the heart of an alpine forest. (Summit, Summer 1993, p. 50) A gingko, once a dwarf, is now up to the bedroom window, two stories above the terrace. (The New York Times, Sept. 4, 1994, Sec. 1, p. B42) attributive use. Kumamoto is a singularly attractive town, famed for its gingko trees, which line the boulevards in the perfection of their autumn gold. (Travel/Holiday, Nov. 1982, p. 64) For two years, he [Stuart Sabowitz] has been a one-man raking machine, collecting oak, maple and gingko leaves in Riverside Park for composting. (The New York Times, Aug. 21, 1994, Sec. 13CY,p. 8) The wooden bowl had two kinds of rice mixed with soft, smooth gingko nuts, rough chestnuts, pine nuts, red dates, mung beans and red beans. (The New York Times, Mar. 31,1995, p. C22) [< ginkyo < gin silver + kyo apricot] 1858 (OED) glocalization the business policy developed in the late 1980s focusing on global expansion, in which regional needs and conditions are considered in the management system. Glocalization The trend among multinational corporations of dispersing power from their headquarters to far-flung branch offices. To compete successfully, global companies delegate decision making to local managers, which helps them act more like local firms, adapting the corporate culture to local conditions. (U.S. News & World Report, Dec. 31, 1990/Jan.7, 1991, p. 84) "Glocalization" is what happens when a global company localizes its products, changing items to fit regional tastes. . . . McDonald's, which sells Big Macs the world over, now offers McLaks in Norway and teriyaki burgers in Japan. (The Oregonian, Dec. 14, 1994, p. B1. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [< gurokaru < guro(baru) glo(bal) + (ro)karu (lo)cal] 1989 (OEDNW) go [gou] n. a game played by two people with black and white stones on a board marked with nineteen vertical and nineteen horizontal lines, with the object of

Godzilla

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capturing the opponent's stones and controlling the board space. Also, G o and igo. Modern go is played on a wooden board, the surface of which engraved with 19 vertical and 19 horizontal lines, thus producing 361 intersections. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983, Vol. 3, p. 37) Go (also called igo) is thought to have originated in ancient China, arriving in Japan during the Asuka period (552-645). (Yoshiaki Shimizu, ed., Japan: The Shaping of Daimyo Culture, 1185-1868, 1988, p. 297) At the University of Virginia's Darden School, second-year students have been grouped into teams and told to play Go, an ancient Chinese board game, as part of a capstone course that melds strategy, leadership, and management of change. (Business Week, Oct. 26,1992, p. 64) The best games are those whose rules are simple but whose strategies are complex. By this definition, the ancient game go is the best game ever devised. (Cathy N. Davidson, 36 Views of Mt. Fuji, 1993, p. 125) [<go stone] 1890 (OED) goban [goubdm] n. see gomoku. gobo [goubou] n. an edible burdock, Arctium lappa. Gobo, the slender brown root the Japanese cultivate and eat, is now grown in the West and is available almost year round. It is the same plant as burdock, a common weed. Look for it in markets that carry Oriental vegetables. (Sunset, May 1973, p. 266) Next was grilled fish, chopped up with bamboo shoots and goboa vegetable that resembles celery but is less crunchyand sprinkled with a fiery red spice. (The New York Times, Jun. 23, 1985, Sec. 10, p. 31) [< gobo] Godzilla [gadzilo] n. a dinosaur-like movie monster. When he debuted in the 1950s, Godzilla was in every sense a villain in Japanese monster movies. Since the 1960s, however, he's been on the side of the angels, defending Japan against the likes of Megalon and the Smog Monster. (Bill Logan, ed., All-Japan, 1984, p. 189) HE STOMPS. He roars. He rises from his prehistoric slumber on a distant Pacific island to wreak havoc on the United States. No, it's not Marlon Brando but another gargantuan creature who takes a wrong turn at Tahiti: Godzilla. (Entertainment Weekly, Jun. 24, 1994, p. 10) After getting the better of Mothra, King Ghidorah, the Smog Monster and Megalon, to name but a few, GODZILLA is to be put down. Toho Co. will lay the lizard to rest after his 22nd movies, Godzilla vs. Destroyer, due in December. A Toho producer said there were "no more ideas left." (Time, Jul. 31, 1995, p. 71) One thing isn't changing: Godzilla, a supposed 260 feet tall and crushing 50,000 tons, will still look like a rampaging sofa. (People Weekly, Aug. 21, 1995, p. 17)

44 figurative use.

gomoku

In the coming months, new technological Godzilla will be stirring. The '90s will see additional evolutionary leaps for the box that dominates our living rooms. . . . News media already battered by recession, defecting youth, cable and VCR competition, and tabloid telecasts have little relief in sight. (Columbia Journalism Review, Mar. 1992, p. 19) Like some atmospheric Godzilla, the climate event known as El Nino makes gargantuan footprints along the equator around the world, leaving drought and flood, famine and fire in its path. (Sacramento Bee, Dec. 19, 1994, p. AI. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) Yen casts a Godzilla shadow over talks. (The Wall Street Journal, April 13, 1995, p. A10, headline) The new spirit has spread so thoroughly and rapidly, but with so little comment, that it's easy to forget how recently the United States was seen as an economic Godzilla. Nobody talks about Coca-Colonization anymore . . . 'Coke welcomes you to Hanoi,' say a pair of signs in the shape of giant bottles bracketing the airport highway. (The New York Times, Dec. 17, 1995, Sec. 4, p. 1) [< Gojira a movie monster. The story of Godzilla was first filmed in 1954.] gomoku [goumoukui] n. a game played on a go board with two players attempting to place five stones in a row either vertically or horizontally or diagonally. Also, go-moku or goban. [< gomoku narabe < go five + moku a counter used in go games + narabe < naraberu to place] gomoku-zogan [goumoukui zougdn] n. a type of inlay used for the decoration of sword mounts. In another form of decoration called gomoku-zogan, used on tsuba and other mounts, the surface is covered with tiny pieces of brass and copper wire inlaid in iron, and resembling pine needles floating on a pond or lake. (H. Batterson Boger, The Traditional Arts of Japan, 1964, p. 127) [< gomoku zogan < gomoku variegated + zogan inlay] gumi [guimi] n. an evergreen or deciduous shrub or small tree, Elaeagnus ultiflora, with a small, edible red fruit. [< gumi] guribori [guniboni] n. a technique in which alternating layers of metal are engraved using a V-shaped steel cutter to reveal the various layers. Guri bori is a work in which carving and welding is done on sword fittings in imitation of guri lacquer work. It consists of several sheets of metal. . . . The carving, which is done in V-shaped channels with sloping sides, cuts through these layers. (H. Batterson Boger, The Traditional Arts of Japan, 1964, p. 126) [< guribori < guri scroll pattern + bori < hori carving] m-

gyoza

45

gyoza or gyoza dumpling [giouzo] n. an appetizer of dumplings stuffed with minced meat or seafood and vegetables. Other possibilities as appetizers [at Naomi in Great Neck] are the savory fried gyoza dumplings with a tangy vinegar-spiked dipping sauce, the blander steamed shumai dumplings, and the morsels of chicken yakitori. (The New York Times, Jan. 20, 1985, Sec. 21LI, p. 19) The best bargains on the menu [at Ichiban in Boston] . . . are undoubtedly Mrs. Chan's gyoza dumplings ($2.50 for five) and the huge bowls of homemade noodles. (Boston Magazine, Sept. 1993, p. 126) The best appetizers [at Ozumo in Bethpage] were a special Japanese eggplant and the light tasty gyoza, which are pork- and vegetable-filled dumplings. (The New York Times, Apr. 24, 1994, Sec. 14LI, p. 25) [< gyoza]

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H
habatsu [hobditsui] n., pi. -su, a faction in a political party.
The party 'colleagues' against whom an LDP candidate fights in parliamentary elections almost always belong to different LDP habatsu (cliques). (Karel van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese Power, Vintage ed., 1990, p. 57) [< habatsu < ha party + batsu clique] 1971 (B2) habu [hdibui] n. a poisonous pit viper, Trimeresurus flavoviridis, certain islands of the Ryukyu group between Japan and Taiwan. native to

The places with the highest incidence of bites . . . are certain islands of the Ryukyu group, between Japan and Taiwan, where about 0.2 per cent of the population suffer bites every year, mostly due to the habu, Trimeresurus flavoviridis, but as this in not a particularly deadly snake the vast majority of victims recover. (Chris Mattison, Snakes of the World, 1986, p. 118) The largest of the Asian terrestrial pit vipers, this Habu normally is pale or dark brown, greenish-brown, or olive in color. It is patterned with irregular blotches, varying in shades of green or brown and bordered with yellow or greenish-yellow. (John M. Mehrtens, Living Snakes of the World in Color, 1987, p. 363) [<habu] 1818 (OED) habutae [hdibotai] n. see habutai. habutai or habutai silk [hdibotai] n. a lightweight plain-weave silk fabric. Also, habutae. China silk, or habutai, is an unweighted all-silk fabric of close, firm, but uneven texture woven of low-quality, unthrown raw silk in the gum. (George S. Brady and Henry R. Clauser, Materials Handbook, 12th ed., 1986, p. 734)

48

hagi

There is a hierarchy among fine silks: weave-patterned damask is more formal than plainweave habutae, which in turn is higher than silk crepe. (Liza Crihfield Dalby, Kimono: Fashioning Culture, 1993, p. 174) [< habutae < ha feather + butae <futa-e two-ply] 1822 (OED) hagi [hdigi] n., pi. -gi, a bush clover, Lespedeza bicolor.

The emperor could look from his sleeping quarters into a garden filled with low mounds of hagi, or bush clover, soothing green in summer and brilliant yellow in autumn. (National Geographic, Nov. 1989, p. 648) Her elegant uchikake, worn low on her shoulders, is decorated in the Rimpa manner with a man and woman pounding mochi against a background of blooming hagi (lespedeza, or bush clover) and a winding, highly stylized river. (Donald Jenkins, The Floating World Revisited, 1993, p. 129) [< hagi] hai [hai] adv., n. yes. [< hai] haikai [haikai] n., pi. -kai, originally, an improvised linked-verse that emphasizes wit and humor, in the seventeenth century, began to emerge as a serious poetic genre, haiku. Puppet-play writers, novelists, and poetssuch as the great Basho Matsuo (1644-1694), who elevated the witty poetry called haikai into high artdrew upon classical Chinese and Japanese learning even when they wrote comedies and parodies. (Caroline V. Haberfeld, ed., Fodor's Japan 92, 1991, pp. 55-56) [< haikai < haikai no renga < haikai jocosity + no (particle) of + renga linked verse] 1899 (OED) haiku [haikui] n., pi. -ku, 1. a verse form of seventeen syllables consisting of three metrical units of five, seven, and five syllables and including a seasonal allusion. Also, haikai and hokku. The haiku made its point in only seventeen syllables, 5-7-5. This extreme brevity demanded a bright wit and was the invention of the "cockney" city society of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The form began as the opening section of a chain type of poem known as haikai but soon became established in its own right. It has remained popular down to the present day and now enjoys a considerable vogue in the West as well as in Japan. (W. Scott Morton, Japan: Its History and Culture, 3rd ed., 1994, p. 131) 2. a poem written after the form of this verse. English-language haiku does not usually count syllables. But the English traditional form still often uses three lines in a short-long-short format because of its satisfying sound. In English modern haiku, even the number of lines may vary. One line, two lines, and three lines may be considered haiku. (Writer's Digest, May 1987, p. 29) In an age of anxiety and cynicism, [James] Luguri's haiku remind us of the innocence of

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childhood, informed by a vision of completeness, wholeness and perfection. (The Christian Century, May 20-27, 1987, p. 487) [< haiku < haikai no ku < haikai jocosity + no (particle) of + ku verse] 1899 (OED) hakama [hdikomdi] n. an ankle-length, pleated, and divided skirt worn over a kimono. In traditional clothingkimonos for women; the weirdly elegant, broad-legged pants called hakama for menJapanese people usually look far more dashing and graceful than they do in the drab Western-style clothes that have become their workday uniforms. (Rolling Stone, Oct. 4, 1990, p. 117) Women can also wear a hakama [in aikido] (usually dark blue or black long split skirt) at any time they wish to. (Andrea Siegel, Introduction, Women in Aikido, 1993, p. xvi) [< hakama] 1871 (OED) hanami [hondimi] n. cherry blossom viewing. The annual season for cherry blossom viewing, or hanami, lasts only a week or soprecious little time for one of Japan's most festive informal rituals. (The New York Times, Apr. 11, 1989, p. AI5) In reality, the hanami were wild, boisterous celebrations with a great deal of singing and drinking and dancing. (Gary J. Katzenstein, Funny Business, 1989, p. 193) In addition to the hanami-zake (flower-viewing) parties, there are welcome, farewell and job-transfer parties at work, repeated nights on the town with colleagues and customers. (Los Angeles Times, Apr. 16, 1991, p. H5) For centuries the Japanese have marked the blooming of the cherry trees with an activity called hanami, or flower viewing. (Travel Holiday, May 1993, pp. 51-52) [< hanami < hana cherry blossom, flower + mi viewing] 1891 (OED) hanamichi [hamomiitji] n. a kabuki stage setting made of an elevated walkway running from the stage through the auditorium to the rear of the orchestra. The eerie bobbing of the green fire is a magical bit of stagecraft in a production full of magic touches and ingenious and elaborate scene changes, complete with a handsome traditional Kabuki curtain and a hanamichi or runway on which the actors exit through the audience to maximum dramatic effect. (The New York Times, Jul. 15, 1985, p. C15) [< hanamichi < hana flower + michi passage] 1971 (B2) hanashika [hdinojiiko] n. a professional storyteller. [< hanashika < hanashi story + < -ka expert] 1891 (OED) hanga [hdirjgdi] n. a block print, used in reference to Western-style works. There was no general term for a print until the word hanga, meaning printed picture, was introduced in 1905 by early creative printmakers in order to discuss their own works. It

50

haniwa

soon came into general use for all prints and is now used interchangeably for either reproductions or multiple originals just as the noun "print" is commonly used in English. (Helen Merritt, Modern Japanese Woodblock Prints, 1990, p. 17) [< hanga < han printing block + ga picture] h a n i w a or haniwa figure [hainiwa] n., pi. -wa, unglazed clay cylinders and hollow sculptures placed on the burial mound built for the elite between the fourth and seventh centuries. From the simple beauty of primitive stone tools that may date back to 200,000 B.C., to the haunting countenances of the large clay haniwa figures that once graced the burial mounds of the Kofun period, A.D. 250-600, the artifacts on exhibit stand as testimony to the artistic and technological achievements of Japan's indigenous cultures, and reflect the diversity, inventiveness and richness of the nation's ancient past. (Smithsonian, Sept. 1992, p. 146) He [Robert G. Sawers] made the raku pot . . . and the haniwa -style head himself. (Architectural Digest, Dec. 1992, p. 60) Haniwa were planted like trees on the outer edge of burial mounds and . . . centuries ago . . . you would have seen these archaic, empty-eyed figures standing like groves of terra-cotta trees all around a burial mound. (Art News, Apr. 1993, p. 107) With Japanese culture, the range of media broadens considerably, to encompass work as historically far-flung as a "haniwa" figure from the sixth to seventh century B.C. to Utamaro's 18th-century wood-block print titled "The Flirt." (The New York Times, Nov. 25, 1994, p. C3) [< haniwa < hani clay + wa ring] 1931 (OED) haori [hauri] n. a knee-length loose coat worn over a kimono. The Art Institute [of Chicago] has both a woman's haori and a man's haori, which are informal three-quarter-length outer coats. (Museum Studies, 1992, vol. 18, p. 36)

[< haori] mi

(OED)

happi or happi coat [haepi] n. a Japanese jacket with wide, loose sleeves and an open front. There is also an annual auction of bananas by two happi coat-clad women, hawking their merchandise in an amusing old-style Japanese dialect [at Yushima Shrine in Tokyo]. (The New York Times, Jan. 30, 1994, Sec. 5, p. 13) Happi coats are another popular item for both men and women and most useful as a cover-up over bathing suits. (Antoinette Deland, Wink Dulles, and Robert Young Pelton, Fielding's Far East 1994/95, 1994, p. 208) [< happi] 1880 (OED) haragei [hdirogei] n. an indirect communication skill that enables negotiators to reach mutual understanding without confrontation. Haragei, "belly talk," depends as much on what was not said as what was. Haragei was

Hashimoto's disease

51

the way one conveyed strong feelings, when articulating them would diminish their depth and be too direct. (Gary J. Katzenstein, Funny Business, 1989, p. 65) Even today Japanese politicians approve of mind-to-mind communication known as ishin-denshin (tacit or intuitive understanding) or haragei. Hara literally means stomach or belly, but in this case mind, intention, spirit; gei means art, accomplishment. Haragei thus means "stomach art," or implicit understanding. (Quansheng Zhao, Japanese Policymaking, 1993, p. 138) [< haragei < hara belly + gei art] harai-goshi [hdiraigouji] n. a throwing technique in judo, sweeping hip throw. Harai-goshi is a hip technique which probably needs a little more practice to perfect than o-goshi. (Brian Caffary and Desmond Marwood, The Judo Handbook, 1989, p. 44) [< harai goshi < harai sweeping + goshi < koshi waist] 1941 (OED) hara-kiri [hdirokiri, hae-, -kii-] n. 1. ritual suicide by disembowelment. More formally known as seppuku. Also, harakiri. Harakiri or belly-cutting is the commonly used word for the ritualistic suicide formally known as seppuku. It is a formal ceremony with a whole set of rules dealing with the location, the size of area, details of how the stomach should be cut, and who can commit harakiri. (Rex Shelly, Culture Shock!: Japan, 1993, p. 37) 2. suicide or self-destructive act. Madam Butterfly . . . waited with the young son . . . only to see Pinkerton return with an American wife. Cio Cio San immediately committed hara-kiri. (Los Angeles Times, Jul. 7, 1985, Part VII, p. 13) Some army leaders, notably [Korechika] Anami and [Motojiro] Sugiyama, chose instead to commit harakiri, and at least 524 other Japanese preferred suicide to living with the shame of defeat. (R. L. Sims, A Political History of Modern Japan, 1991, p. 274) [< harakiri < hara belly + kiri cutting] 1840 (WCD) harakiri swap a currency trade that ends in a financial loss or a very small profit, practiced by brokers to attract new customers. [< harakiri] 1984 (BDC) hashigakari [hdijigokdiri] n. in the Noh theater, a balustraded walkway that connects the main stage to an actor's dressing room. Also, hashi-gakari. The play begins when the secondary character . . . enters the performance space. He advances along the bridge or walkway (hashi-gakari) to the name-announcing place . . . on the main stage. (The Drama Review, Winter 1991, p. 95) [< hashigakari < hashi bridge + gakari < kakaru to bridge] 1967 (B2) Hashimoto's disease [hdijimoutouz] n. a disease of the thyroid gland. In Hashimoto's disease, the thyroid gland feels small, firm, and finely nodular, with a

52

hatamoto

characteristic bandlike depression circling the gland and creating a butterfly shape. (Edith (Edith McMahon et al., eds., Disease, 1992, p. 1000) [< (Hakaru) Hashimoto (1881-1934), a surgeon] 1962: Hashimoto's goitre 1937 (OED) hatamoto [hditemoutou] n. pi. direct vassals of the Tokugawa (1603-1867). Shogunate

The shogun distributed the balance of his rural holdings to vassals known as hatamoto, or bannermen. (James L. McClain, John M. Merriman, and Ugawa Kaoru, eds., Edo and Paris, 1994, p. 10) [< hatamoto < hata banner + moto under] 1871 (OED) hayashi [haijdiji, ho-] n. an orchestra that plays for actors, dancers, singers, and other kinds of traditional Japanese art performers. Also on stage are musicians performing on a set of three drums and on the flute, an ensemble known collectively as the hayashi. (The New York Times, May 4, 1986, Sec. 2, p. 20) [< hayashi < hayasu to encourage] 1971 (B2) hechima [hotjiimo, hetjomo] n. 1. an annual vine, Luff a cylindrica. 2. a washing sponge made of the dried fibrous part of the fruit of this plant. Hechima is a dried gourd, rather like a sponge but without its absorbent power. (Jack Seward, The Japanese, 1992, p. 47) [< hechima] 1883 (OED) Heian [heiam] adj. of or relating to the Heian Period (794-1185), which is characterized by the emergence of indigenous Japanese culture. Blackening the teeth, a Heian convention, remained fashionable in Japan through the early part of this century. (The New Yorker, Dec. 18, 1989, p. 32) The Chinese system of writing with ideographs had earlier been adopted, but during the Heian Era a phonetic syllabic system of Japanese writing, known as kana, was developed, stimulating the creation of poetry and prose works, mainly diaries and novels, by members of the court, especially women. (Dorothy Perkins, Encyclopedia of Japan, 1991, p. 123) [< Heian < Heian-kyo the capital of Japan during this period] 1893 (OED) heimin [heimin] n. the common people in the Japanese social scale, a term officially used by the government from 1869 to 1947. Compare kazoku and shizoku. In 1870 the common people, classified as heimin, were permitted to adopt family names. (Mikiso Hane, Modern Japan, 2nd ed., 1992, p. 92) [< heimin < hei ordinary + min people] 1875 (OED)

hibachi Heisei [heisei] n. the reign of Emperor Akihito ( 1 9 3 3 - ) , begun in 1989.

53

In deciding upon the era's name, which is used to date years in all official Japanese documents, the Government drew upon a committee of scholars who combed the Chinese classics for proper ideographs and finally settled on Heisei. This new coinage combines the characters that form part of the words "peace" and "achievement." (The New York Times, Jan. 8, 1989, p. A15) [< Heisei < hei peace + sei achieving] hell camp a rigorous management training program. Can Japan's best-known management training school, the Kanrisha Yosei "hell camp," successfully export its grueling 13-day leadership development program"ribbons of shame," "sad salesman's song" and allfrom the foothills of Mount Fuji to the corporate slopes of the U. S.? The incentives are certainly there, and the camp's operators intend to find out. Starting early next year, Kanrisha Yosei will offer U.S. executives the chance to sign up for 13-day hell camp programs in Malibu, Calif. Price: $2,480 a head. (Forbes, Dec. 28, 1987, p. 110) [partial translation of jigoku no kunren < jigoku hell + no (particle) of + kunren training; a phrase used by the institution, Kanrisha Y6sei-jo, that developed this training] hiba or hiba arborvitae [hiibo] n. a large evergreen tree, Thujopsis Also, akeki. dolabrata.

The Hiba . . . is a large, evergreen tree up to 30 metres (100 feet) in height found throughout central and southern Japan where it is a very important timber tree. (Scott Leathart, Trees of the World, 1977, p. 44) The Hiba Arbor-vitae is a pyramidal tree to 15m (50ft) but it is often shrubby in cultivation. . . . The soft, durable wood is used locally in Japan for general construction work and the bark for caulking boards. (Bayard Hora, ed., The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Book of Trees and Forests of the World, 1990, Vol. 1, p. 94) [< hiba < hinoki no ha < hinoki a tall evergreen tree, Chamaecyparis no (particle) of + ha leaf] obtusa +

hibachi [hibditji] n., pi. -chi or -s, 1. a brazier used indoors for burning charcoal as a source of heat. In an old-style shop, the selling activity took place in a front room on a tatami (straw mat) platform about one foot above the ground level. Customers removed their shoes, warmed themselves by sitting on the floor next to a hibachi (earthen container with glowing embers) and were served tea and sweets. (Places, Summer 1992, p. 81) 2. a portable brazier with a grill, used for outdoor cooking. Double stamped steel hibachi, lightweight & portable. Goes with you to the backyard or even the beach for tasty cookouts! (Los Angeles Times, Jul. 7, 1985, Part I, p. 13, advertisement) [< hibachi < hi fire + bachi < hachi pot] 1874: hebachi 1863 (OED)

54

hibakusha

hibakusha [hiibokuijo, -bdi-] n., pi. -sha, a survivor of the atomic air raid over Nagasaki and Hiroshima in 1945. Earlier, [Kaz] Suyeishi, who is a hibakusha (atomic bomb survivor), broke down in tears when she recalled the events of Aug. 6, 1945. (Los Angeles Times, Aug. 6, 1990, p. Bl) The hibakusha, or survivors of Hiroshima, many of whom experienced the war as small children, are often willing to tell their stories, and the museum provides information on contacting some of them, usually through an organization called the Hibakusha Testimony Group. (The New York Times Magazine, Mar. 3, 1991, p. 34) [< hibakusha 1970 (Bl) < hi- affected + baku < baku(geki) bomb (attack) + -sha person]

H i g a s h i y a m a [higdijijdimo] adj. of or relating to the Higashiyama period of Japanese art history, during the second half of the fifteenth century, which is characterized by understatement, natural materials, and low-keyed color in architecture and painting. The influence behind the tea ceremony, indeed behind much of the Higashiyama style, was the deeply introspective quality of Zen Buddhism, which sought the inner meaning in both nature and art. (Stephen R. Turnbull, The Book of the Samurai, 1982, p. 65) [< Higashiyama a section of Kyoto]

hijiki [hiidsiikii] n. an edible seaweed, Hizikia fusiformis. Also, hiziki. Hijiki is high in calcium, low in calories and rich in iron, iodine, protein and vitamin A. (Susan Fuller Slack, Japanese Cooking, 1985, p. 9) For good measure, some imaginative toques are cooking the sea creatures with oceanborn vegetables: alaria, arame, hiziki, kelp. (Time, Jan. 6, 1992, p. 70) Although hijiki (Hizikia fusiforme) and arame (Eisenia bicyclis) are both dark brown sea grasses that are easy to cook . . . there are a few important differences. Hijiki is thicker, somewhat coarser, and has a strong ocean flavor. (John Belleme and Jan Belleme, Cooking with Japanese Foods, 1993, p. 152) [< hijiki] hinin [hinin] n.,pl. -in, 1. the lowest social class in the Edo period (1600-1868), legally abolished in 1871. The two bottom classes, eta and hinin, did not associate with each other by choice but were often thrown together. . . . The upper classes treated them both atrociously. Hinin could sometimes obtain the status of heimin, or "commoner," by paying a fee called "feet washing" money. (Edwin M. Reingold, Chrysanthemums and Thorns, 1992, p. 160) 2. a member of this class. The hinin were itinerant entertainers, beggars, scavengers, prostitutes, and castoff commoners. The [Tokugawa] Bakufu [1603-1867] used the hinin to work in prisons and to execute and bury criminals. The government did not recognize the outcastes as legal entities. They were ignored in official surveys, and entire outcaste communities were left out of some official maps. (Mikiso Hane, Modern Japan, 1992, p. 34)

Hizen

55

The authorities often ordered hinin to move into a buraku after having committed some crime. (Edwin M. Reingold, Chrysanthemums and Thorns, 1992, p. 160) [< hinin < hi- non + nin human] 1884 (OED) hinoki or hinoki cypress [hinouki] n. 1. a tall evergreen tree, Chamaecyparis obtusa. One of the two Japanese species, the Hinoki Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa), is the only member of the genus with blunt, scale-like leaves. It is a graceful, pyramidal tree reaching heights of 30 to 36 metres (100 to 120 feet) in extensive forests in the south of Honshu. (Scott Leathart, Trees of the World, 1977, p. 37) Released from the constraints of bonsai, a hinoki cypress and a white pine are now about five feet tall. (The New York Times, Sept. 4, 1994, Sec. 1, p. 42) 2. the wood of this tree. The sculptures [the Nio, two 28-foot-tall guardian figures made in 1203] are built around a core of 10 massive timbers bound together. Hinoki, or Japanese cypress, a wood that ages remarkably well, was used. (The New York Times, Dec. 28, 1991, p. 9) [< hinoki < hi fire + no (particle) of + ki tree] 1884: finoki 1727 (OED) Hirado or Hirado ware [hirdidou] n. a type of blue-and-white porcelain, originally produced in Mikawachi, Nagasaki Prefecture in the seventeenth century. Hirado blue-and-white, also famed for its quality, is hardly identifiable before 19thcentury pieces with designs of playing boys, painted in a fine, purplish blue. (Robert J. Charleston, ed., World Ceramics, 1977, p. 68) [< Hirado a feudal domain in Nagasaki Prefecture that patronized the original kiln of this porcelain] 1881 (OED) hiragana [hiirogdino] n. cursive Japanese syllabary of forty-six characters. Compare kana and katakana. Toshi . . . circled eight club names, all written in hiragana, katakana or kanji, the two sets of Japanese characters and one set of Chinese ideograms that form the Japanese language. (GQ, Sept., 1990, p. 424) The early hiragana was also known as onnade, "women's hand." This system of writing became widespread in the Heian Era (794-1185). (Dorothy Perkins, Encyclopedia of Japan, 1991, p. 127) [< hiragana < hira plain + gana < kana < karina provisional letter] 1859: firokanna 1822 (OED) Hizen or Hizen ware [hiizen] n. a variety of porcelain produced in the region formally called Hizen Province, which nowadays includes Saga Prefecture and part of Nagasaki Prefecture. [< Hizen a former province] 1875: Fisen 1727 (OED)

56 hiziki [hiiziikii] n. see hijiki. hokku [hdkui, hoi-] n. 1. seventeen-syllable verse form, haiku.

hiziki

After the end of the classical tradition as such in the sixteenth century, some changes did take place. But, contrary to what one might expect, the verse form got shorter with the emergence of the hokku, known as haiku in the West. (Steven D. Carter, Introduction, in Traditional Japanese Poetry, trans. Steven D. Carter, 1991, p. 3) 2. the first stanza in a Japanese linked verse. Both [haiku and senryu] forms and the hokku, which was the first part of renga, consist of three lines of five, seven and five syllables as in the first three lines of a waka. (Hugh Cortazzi, The Japanese Achievement, 1990, p. 162) [< hokku < hok < hotsu starting + ku verse] 1898 (OED) honcho [hdntjou] n. a leader. Slang. Dear Hillary, I [Jane Bryant Quinn] see you're the president's honcho for health reform, which suits me fine. (Newsweek, Feb. 22, 1993, p. 47) v.t. to direct (personnel and projects). [< hancho < han group + cho leader] 1947 (OED) hooch [huitj] n. 1. a thatched hut built in southeastern Asia. Also, hoochie or hootch. At Chu Lai [in Vietnam], she [Jean Roth] was so fearful of the rats that ran through her hooch that she wore a knife strapped to her leg. (The New York Times Magazine, Nov. 7, 1993, p. 43) 2. a shelter or dwelling. The lifeguard [at Arroyo, Somalia] is an artillery corporal . . . and is in the process of building his own permanent 'hooch.' (The New York Times, Mar. 12, 1993, p. A4) [< uchi house] 1964 (OED) hoochie [huitji] n. see hooch. hootch [huitj] n. see hooch.

I
iaido [iiaidou] n. the art of quick drawing, wielding, and sheathing a Japanese sword. Also, iai-do. All iaido techniques are practiced without a partner and consist of four separate actions, Nukitsuke is the drawing of the sword from the scabbard; kiritsuke is the cut or cuts used to dispatch the enemy; chiburi is the symbolic action of shaking the blood from the blade; and noto is the resheathing of the sword. (Michael Finn, Martial Arts, 1988, p. 171) Being a martial art way, Iaido is not concerned with the effectiveness of the technique but rather it concentrates upon the development of perfect form, as laid down by the Japanese governing body. The sword is carried on the left side, in the belt, with the sharp edge uppermost. (David Mitchell, The Overlook Martial Arts Handbook, 1988, p. 25) [David] Ito studies iaido, the martial art of the Japanese sword. . . . Iaido is about understanding your mind, about the discipline life requires as demonstrated by the discipline required to move a sword through the air for an hour at a time. (The Orange County Register, Aug. 4, 1994, p. dl6. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [< iaido < iai drawing a sword quickly and simultaneously cutting enemies down + do way] 1976 (B2) ibota or ibota privet [aiboute] n. a deciduous shrub, Ligustrum obtusifolium. [< ibota < ibota no ki < ibo tori no ki < ibo wart + tori < toru to remove + no (particle) of + ki tree] ichibufntfiibui] n. a silver coin, circulated between 1837 and 1874. Also, ichibu gin and itzibu. Every foreigner wanted itzibu to convert into gold. (Pat Barr, The Coming of the Barbarians, 1967, p. 87)

58

ichibu gin

Ichibu gin A small, rectangular Japanese silver coin, minted between 1837 and 1869. At its introduction, the piece weighed about 8.7 grams, measured 16 millimeters by 24, and essentially pure silver. Later issues showed a deterioration in silver fineness, while sizes and weights remained unchanged. . . . The ichibu gin (and other pre-modern Japanese coins) were essentially products of the feudal shogunate. (Richard G. Doty, The Macmillan Encyclopedic Dictionary of Numismatics, 1982, p. 172) The Japanese currency of the 1850s consisted of gold ont-ryo pieces and smaller-denomination gold coins and silver pieces representing fractions of a gold ryo. Most of these latter were silver quarter-ry<? pieces (ichibugin). . . . If a foreigner were to be allowed to exchange Mexican silver dollars for Japanese token silver coinage by weight, a dollar would exchange for three ichibu coins. (Marius B. Jansen, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 19S9, Vol. 5, p. 601) [< ichibu < ichibugin < ichi one + bu the quarter of a ryo + gin silver] 1900: itzebu 1616 (OED) ichibu gin [iitfiibu gin] n. see ichibu. icho [litfou] n. a maidenhair tree. Also, icho, gingko and ginkgo. The gingko tree (icho) . . . is to be found lining the city streets as well as adorning the grounds of temples and shrines. (Clarence Hornung, Introduction, in Traditional Japanese Stencil Designs, ed. Clarence Hornung, 1985, p. vi) After Kawashima, turn right under the icho trees, whose leaf is heart-shaped, a common Tokyo design motif. (Rick Kennedy, Little Adventures in Tokyo, 1992, p. 36) [< icho] I-go [frgou] n. see go. ikebana fnkeibdino, Ik-, -i-] n. the art of arranging flowers and other plants in accordance with prescribed rules. In Japan, students of flower arranging often study far longer than four years, as those enrolled in Yoshio Ikezaki's beginning ikebana class at UCLA Extension learn. (Los Angeles Times, Apr. 16, 1988, Part V, p. 6) Ikebana, the traditional Japanese art of flower arranging, evolved from the simple Buddhist floral offerings left in temples as far back as the eighth century. (The New York Times Magazine, Jul. 24, 1988, p. 12) She [Patricia Swerda] is a master of ikebana, the Japanese art of flower arranging. As such, she's part of an artistic tradition that goes back 1,400 years and goes forward to, well, no one is quite sure. (Journal-American [Bellevue, WA]), Oct. 1, 1993. NewsBank Reference PLUS) Rima [Synnestvedt] learned the art of ikebana, or Japanese flower arranging, from her grandmother. (Philadelphia Magazine, Dec. 1994, p. 120) [< ikebana < ike < ikeru to keep something alive + bana < hana flower] 1901 (OED)

lppon ikunolite [ikuinoulait] n. a lead-gray, trigonal mineral: Bi4(S,Se)3. [< Ikuno a mine in Hyogo Prefecture + -lite] 1959 (OED)

59

Imari or Imari ware [imairi] n. a variety of porcelain produced in the Arita region, Saga Prefecture. In Europe, the name Imari ware is generally applied to three-colour Arita ware combining underglaze blue with iron-red enamel and gold in japan patterns derived from Chinese provincial ware of the late Ming dynasty. (Elisabeth Cameron, Encyclopedia of Pottery and Porcelain, 1986, pp. 169-70) The so-called Imari wares, made at Arita, were elaborately decorated and stimulated by the establishment of the Dutch East India Company's trading post, it was produced in large quantities, mainly for export. (Emmanuel Cooper, A History of World Pottery, (1988) 1991, p. 61) They [chopstick rests] typically come in packages of five . . . five humorous eggplants, five cute turtles, five blocks of Imari ware design. (Conde Nast Traveler, Sept. 1991, p. 36) [< Imari a city in western Saga Prefecture from which porcelain produced in the Arita region was shipped out] 1875 (OED) inkyo [frjkjou] n. traditional practice of retirement of the household head. Among many indications of this role fitness requirement is the practice of retirement (inkyo) by an aged father from the "office" of headship [of the household] so that a young, vigorous successor can take over. (Takie Sugiyama Lebra, Above the Clouds, 1993, p. 109) [< inkyo < in seclusion + kyo staying] 1871 (OED) inro [inrou] n.,pl. -ro, a small ornamental box with three to five compartments, suspended from the sash of a kimono, originally used for carrying medicine. Generally, inro are of elliptical shape, about four inches in diameter and five inches in length, consisting of a series of three to five shallow boxes that fit snugly into one another. The boxes together each act as a cover for the one below, and the top box has its own individual cover which is the top piece for the whole group of containers. (Antiques & Collecting Hobbies, Jun. 1990, p. 36) An inro is a miniature lacquer-ware container with several compartments that fit together. It can be hung from the obi (sash) of a kimono by means of a silk cord and a miniature carving known as a netsuke. . . . The original function of an inro was to carry the seals . . . and red ink paste with which the Japanese stamped their names on documents. (Dorothy Perkins, Encyclopedia of Japan, 1991, pp. 145-56) [< inro < in seal + ro basket] 1617 (OED) ippon [ipan, fi-] n. a full point in judo, which ends the match. The 14-year-old [Hillary] Wolf . . . defeated 28-year-old Jean Kilmer by an ipponthe largest possible margin of victory in judo. (Sports Illustrated, Jul. 29, 1991, p. 79)

60

iroha

A judo match is won by a score of "ippon" which ends the match. A match which goes to full term without an ippon is decided by lesser scores. . . . Ippon can be scored by clean, forceful throw; by holding the opponent mainly on his back for 30 seconds under control, but not necessarily immobile; or by submission to a strangle, a choke or lock applied against the elbow. (David Wallechinsky, The Complete Book of the Olympics, 1992 ed., p. 400) [< ippon < ip- < ichi one! + -pon < -hon a counter for long, cylindrical objects; the term is used in kendo and judo when the use of a decisive technique defeats the opponent] 1967 (B*) iroha fiirouhai] n. a syllabary. The Japanese phonetic syllabary of 47 syllables, sometimes called iroha from the first three syllables of a mnemonic poem in which they are all incorporated. (B. W. Robinson, Glossary, Japanese Sword-Fittings and Associated Metalwork, 1980, p. 367) He [Kukai (774-835)] is also credited by tradition with such achievements as the introduction of tea to Japan and p e invention of the hiragana syllabary, together with Tro Ha\ the poem which came to be thought of as 'the Japanese alphabet'. Its forty-seven syllables not only use all the sounds of the language except the final 'n' consonant but elegantly express the Buddhist preoccupation with the transience of existence. (Richard Tames, Traveller s History of Japan, 1993, p. 41) [< iroha] 1890: irofa 184^ (OED) Ishihara test fujihdiro] n. a color vision test. In the United States, the most commonly used tests are the Ishihara, the Dvorine, and the Farnsworth tests. The Ishihara and Dvorine tests use pseudoisochromatic (false-same color) plates. These plates have colored and gray spots in patterns which can be seen by average people but cannot be seen by the color deficient. (Mary Margaret Olsen and Kenneth R. Harris, Color Vision Deficiency and Color Blindness, 1989, p. 24) [< (Shinobu) Ishihara (1879-1963), an ophthalmologist] 1924 (OED) ishikawaite fujikdiwoait] n. a black, orthorhombic mineral: (U,Fe,Y etc.)(Nb, Ta)04. [< Ishikawa a district in Fukushima Prefecture + -ite] 1922 (OED) ishime [fijiimei] n. a rough-surface effect produced by using a hammering technique in Japanese sword-mount making. Surfaces were textured using punches which, if rough faced and used in a random pattern, imitated the surface of stone (ishime). (Ian Bottomley and Anthony Hopson, Arms & Armor of the Samurai, 1993, pp. 159-60) [< ishime < ishi stone + me grain] Issei [iisei] n. the first generation of Japanese immigrants to the United States or Canada. Compare, Nisei and sansei.

itzibu

61

Among Japanese Americans, first generation immigrants bom in Japan are called Issei. (Pamela Goyan Kittler and Kathryn Sucher, Food and Culture in America, 1989, p. 272) The issei are the parents of the NISEI. . . . The first issei were mostly young men who came to this country as laborers, many of whom intended to return to Japan after saving money from wages earned in the United States. Later, as more of these men decided to make America their home over a longer period, a higher proportion of women began immigrate, especially after the GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENT of 1907-08. (Brian Niiya, ed., Japanese American History, 1993, p. 180) [< issei < is- < ichi one, first + sei generation] 1937 (WCD) itai-itai disease [iitai iitai] n. a bone and kidney disease caused by cadmium poisoning from industrial waste. The Japanese itai-itai disease or "ouch-ouch" disease in English, so called because of its victim's cries provoked by sudden pains that occur in various parts of the body, has been found to be due to cadmium pollution of water. (Jay M. Arena, ed., Poisoning, 5th ed., 1986, p. 329) Itai-itai disease, characterized by nephropathy and osteomalacia, occurred in the inhabitants of cadmium-polluted areas of the Jinzu River basin in Toyama Prefecture. (Archives of Environmental Health, 1990, vol. 45, p. 283) The diagnosis of Itai-itai disease is made when patients fulfill the following four criteria . . . ; (1) to live in an area polluted with cadmium; (2) to have symptoms which appear in adult age (especially after menopause) and are not congenital; (3) to exhibit renal tubulopathy, and (4) to have osteomalacia accompanied by osteoporosis (according to biopsy or radiogram). (Nephron, 1995, vol. 69, p. 14) [< itai-itai (byo) < itai-itai ouch-ouch + by6 disease] 1969 (OED) itzibu [itsibui] n. see ichibu.

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J
janken [d3aerjken] n. a game played with the hands by using fist and fingersigns representing rock, paper, or scissors. Rock, paper, scissors (jankenpon) is the classic way to decide who will be "it" in Japan. Grownups play this game too at geisha parties, where "it" must down a cup of sake. (Bill Logan, ed., All-Japan, 1984, p. 182) Then everyone might play party games with lots of innuendo, like janken-pon, the Japanese childhood game that an American would recognize as rock-paper-scissors. (The Washington Post, Oct. 29, 1991, p. C2) Together we went barefoot to school and played games like baseball and jan ken po. (Ronald Takaki, Issei and Nisei, 1994, p. 7) [< janken] 1967: Jan-ken-poh 1936 (OED) jidaimono [d3iidaimounou] n. the genre of historical play in puppet plays and kabuki theater. Most puppet plays were jidaimono, or period pieces. They concerned heroes of earlier ages, and facts and legends about them were drawn from military epics, noh texts, and popular stories. (John Whitney Hall, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1991, Vol. 4, p. 755) [< jidaimono < jidai historical + mono piece] 1957 (OED) jigotai [c&gatai] n. a defensive stance in judo. The defensive posture, or jigotai, is adopted by placing your feet farther apart than in the shizentai posture, almost as if you were sitting on a horse. (George R. Parulski, Jr., The Complete Book of Judo, 1984, p. 21) [< jigotai <ji self + go defense + tai posture] 1950 (OED)

64

jimigaki

jimigaki [d3iimiigaikfi] n. a highly polished surface on metalwork. Also, j i migaki. Zaramaki imitates stone, and in the variety of ground known as jimigaki the surface is given the highest possible polish, and is exceptionally beautiful when produced on the violet-black shakudo. (H. Batterson Boger, The Traditional Arts of Japan, 1964, p. 126) [< jimigaki < migaki-ji < migaki polishing +7/ ground] jingu [d3irjgui] n. an imperial Shinto shrine. Compare jinja. These shrines are built in the Shimmei style, supposedly untainted by Buddhist influence and bear the imperial chrysanthemum crest. They are usually called jingu (imperial shrines), rather thanjmya. (June Kinoshita and Nicholas G. Palevsky, Gateway to Japan, 1990, p. 29) [< jingii <jin deity + gu shrine] jinja [d3ind3di] n. a Shinto shrine. Cmpare jingu. A Shinto shrine (jinja) usually was a simple affair. Constructed of wood, it consisted of a single room, sometimes partitioned, raised from the ground, with steps at the side or in front. (Milton Walter Meyer, Japan: A Concise History, 1993, p. 29) [< jinja <jin deity +ja < sha shrine] jinkai senjitsu [d3irjkai send3itsui] n. the strategy of throwing waves of people into action. [< jinkai senjutsu <jin people + kai ocean + senjutsu tactics] 1971 (B1) jinrikisha [d3inrikjai, -Jo] n. a small two-wheeled passenger vehicle pulled by a person. Also, rickshaw and kuruma. At twilight, there remain the hand-pulled jinrikisha and the traditional geishas who entertain the rich and famous. (Los Angeles Times, Jan. 27, 1985, Part I, p. 30) The jinrikisha or literally the 'man-power-vehicle' was a prominent feature of life in Japan in the 1870s, 80s and 90s. (Hugh Cortazzi, Victorians in Japan, 1987, p. 311) v.i. to travel by means of a jinrikisha. [< jinrikisha (OED) jito [d3iitou] n. a land steward who was assigned to the great estates by the Kamakura Shogunate (1185-1333) and functioned as a tax collector, officer, and estate manager. Yoritomo attempted to systemize land distribution by appointing to each estate stewards (jito), or overseers, responsible directly to him. (Milton W. Meyer, Japan: A Concise History, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 68) [<jito<ji local + to chief] 1902: gito 1845 (OED) <jin person + < riki power + sha vehicle] 1876: jinriksha 1874

Jomon jiujitsu [d3Uid3itsui] n. see jujitsu.

65

Jodo [d3oudou] n. 1. the Pure Land, the paradise of the Buddha Amida in Buddhism. Also, Jodo. This Buddha, Lord of the Western Paradise of the 'Pure Land' (Jodo: hence 'doctrine of the Pure Land', Jodo-kyo), receives into his paradise those whoeven without any form of Buddhist practicethink of him with a believing heart and call on his name in the devotional formula Namu-Amida-Butsu, 'surrender to the Buddha Amida'. (Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich, eds., The World of Buddhism, 1984, pp. 221-22) 2. a Buddhist sect. See Jodo-shu. [< Jodo <jo pure + do land] Jodo Shinshu [ d3dudou Jinjui] n. a Buddhist sect, the True Pure Land. Also, Jodo-shinshu and Shin. Organized East Asia Buddhism entered Hawaii in 1889 when the young Japanese priest Soryu Kagahi of the Honpa (or Nishi) Hongwanji . . . Branch of Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land School) arrived in Honolulu. (Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich, eds. The World of Buddhism, 1984, p. 281) Making only minor clarifications to Honen's Jodo, Shinran founded the sect of Jodoshinshu, or True Pure Land, which (the name abbreviated to Shin) is the largest Buddhist sect in Japan today. (Andrew Powell, Living Buddhism, 1989, p. 102) [< Jodo Shin shu < Jodo Pure Land + Shin true + shu sect] Jodo-shu [d36udou] n. a Buddhist sect, the Pure Land, that practices Amidism and emphasizes salvation by faith alone. Also, Jodo. Honen . . . is regarded as the founder of an independent Japanese 'sect of the Pure Land', Jodo-shu . . . he decided that man could no longer achieve Enlightenment by his own strength and that the only possible way was surrender to the Buddha Amida and rebirth into the Western Paradise of the Pure Land. (Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich, eds., The World of Buddhism, 1984, p. 223) [< Jodo shu < Jodo Pure Land + shu sect] 1886 (OED) Jomon [d36uman] adj. of or relating to the Japanese neolithic period. Also, Jomon. The early stages of the neolithic age in Japan, known as the Jomon period, extended from about 4500 B.C. to 250 B.C. (Mikiso Hane, Premodern Japan, 1991, p. 11) Jomon clay pottery constitutes the oldest known body of prehistoric ceramics in the world. In the earliest work, abstract surface designs were created by pressing twisted and knotted ropes into the wet clay. (The New York Times, Aug. 30, 1992, Sec. 2, p. H27) The Jomon culture left ritual circles with standing stones, extensive ceremonial areas paved with stones, under which burial pits have been found, and in a few notable cases mounded communal cemeteries. (Richard Pearson, Ancient Japan, 1992, p. 63) [< Jomon <jo rope + mon pattern] 1946 (OED)

66

joro

joro [d36urou] n. the term used for a prostitute in premodern Japan. The total number of licensed prostitutes in the gay quarters of Edo varied between two and three thousand. . . . The highest class were the tayii, who can be described as courtesans. Below these were various grades of prostitutes (joro). (Hugh Cortazzi, The Japanese Achievement, 1990, p. 144) [<joro] 1884 (OED) joruri [d36uruiri] n. 1. the chanting of narrative ballads in the sixteenth century. 2. a puppet play accompanied by this chanting, developed in the seventeenth century and called bunraku in the nineteenth century. As kabuki was developing from simple one-act sketches into a fully fledged theatrical entertainment, it had a powerful rival in the puppet theatre, then known as 'joruri'. (Michael Macintyre, The Shogun Inheritance, 1981, p. 86) [< Joruri < Lady Joruri, a fictional character who was one of the most popular subjects for recitation in the late Muromachi period (1333-1568)] 1890 (OED) judo [d3Uidou] n. a modern form of jujitsu that stresses the application of the principle of flexibility and was developed by Jigoro Kano (1860-1938). Judo is a dance of balance in which attack can spell defeat; sometimes exhaustion and total collapse . . . come more from concentration than from exertion. (Time, Aug. 20, 1984, p. 69) Modern judo is commonly called a sport, a martial art, a way of spiritual harmony, a system of physical education, and a recreational activity. To some extent, all these definitions are accurate. (George R. Parulski, Jr., Black Belt Judo, 1985, p. 3) attributive use. Before the 1984 Olympics, the American judo teaman exuberant band of amateur roughneckshad rashly promised to "make history." (Los Angeles Times, Jul. 28, 1985, Part IX, p. 31) [<judo < ju gentle + do way] 1889 (OED) judogi [d3iiidougi] n. the three-piece judo uniform. The white cotton judo uniform is called a judogi, and consists of three parts: the jacket (uwagi), the trousers (zubon), and the belt (obi). (Daeshik Kim and Kyung Su Shin, Judo, 1983, p. 6) [< judogi < judoJudo + gi < ki clothes] 1954 (OED) judoist [d3iiidouist] n. a student of, or an expert in judo. Also, judoka. Last November, [Mike] Swain, 27, became the first American male to win a world judo championship. . . . He did it the hard way, defeating in succession, four of the world's top judoists, the champions of South Korea, Japan, North Korea and France. (Sports Illustrated, Special Issue, Sept. 14, 1988, p. Ill) Student judoists, if left to themselves, lack motivation for kata and its study and practice.

jujitsu (Tadao Otaki and Donn F. Draeger, Judo: Formal Techniques, (1983) 1990, p. 39) [<judo + -ist] 1950 (OED)

67

judoka [d3Uidoukai] n., pi. -ka or -s, a student of, or an expert in judo. Also, judoist. In March of 1952 he [Mas Oyama] was invited to Chicago by the U. S. Professional Wrestling Association along v/ith judoka Kokichi Endo and pro-wrestler "Great Togo" of California. (Black Belt, Yearbook, Winter 1991, p. 26) Most Judoka do Judo because of the interest, exercise and self-training they get from free-fighting. (Syd Hoare, Judo, 1993, p. 7) [< judoka <judo + -ka expert] 1964 (OED) judoman [d3Uidoumon] n. a person who participates in judo competitions. Although there is a whole structure from national to international to Olympic Judo championships, contest Judomen are relatively few in number compared with the people at club level who do Judo because they like doing it. (Syd Hoare, Judo, 1993, p. 7) [<judo + man] 1969 (B*) jujitsian [d3Uid3itsion] n. a student of, or an expert in jujitsu. Also, ju-jutsian. Jujutsians wear a judogi and hakama as their uniform. (Larry Winderbaum, The Martial Arts Encyclopedia, 1977, p. 69) [< jujitsu < jujutsu <ju gentle +jutsu art + -ian] 1905 (OED) jujitsu [d3Uid3itsui] n. a form of martial arts or self-defense that employs techniques for restraining attackers and redirecting their power against themselves, developed during the Sengoku period (1467-1568). Also, jujutsu or jiujitsu. Learning jujitsu as an effective art and as a means of self-defense requires a great deal of practice. However, once learned it is extremely effective and very easy to do.(George Kirby, Introduction, in Jujitsu: Basic Technique of the Gentle Art, George Kirby, 1983, p. 24) 'Jiu Jitsu', or 'Ju Jutsu' as it is alternatively known, means 'Compliant Techniques'. This is to say that the system yields to the force of an attack and having neutralised it, overcomes with an effective counter attack. (David Mitchell, The Overlook Martial Arts Handbook, 1988, p. 33) Jujutsu . . . is a combat method that focuses on self-defense through the application of various grappling, throwing and takedown techniques. . . . Although jujutsu means "gentle art," it was a preferred style of the samurai warriors of Japan. Because of the potentially devastating nature of the art's techniques, it was not suited to sport competition. (Black Belt, Mar. 1993, p. 31) Jujutsu from Brazil has become one of the hottest martial arts in the United States. (Karate/Kung Fu Illustrated, Jun. 1994, p. 42) [< jujutsu <ju gentle + jutsu art] 1895 (OED)

68

jujitsu politics

jujitsu politics [d3iiid3itsu] n. political tactics in which a person responds to criticism with countercriticism. [< jujutsu] 1991 (AS) jujutsu [d3Uid3Utsui] n. see jujitsu. [ < jujutsu] 1891 (OED) jujutsian [d3ud3Utsion] n. see jujitsian. juku [d3uikui] n. a private institution that gives lessons that are supplementary to regular school study. Proliferation of so-called juku, private tutorial schools which students attend after regular school hours, provide them with the opportunity to catch up if they fall behind academically and thus the juku support the egalitarianism and uniformity of the mainstream schools. (Science, Jan. 16, 1987, p. 235) Over the past ten years, the number of children attending juku has increased by hai fnow more than 16 percent of the primary school children and 45 percent of junior high students. Attending juku can cost well over $200 a month. (Smithsonian, Mar. 1987, p. 49) The secret of Japanese education is the jukuvariously translated as "tutoring school," "cram school," "college-prep school," "after-school school." (Phi Delta Kappan, Oct. 1993, p. 128) attributive use. While regular high school teachers also have a high social status, juku teachers like [Yoshiaki] Takahashi are respected as professionals. He is often asked to give talks at seminars set up by regular teachers around the country. (The Christian Science Monitor, Dec. 2, 1991, p. 14) [<juku a private school] junshi [d3ilnji] n. the practice of self-immolation on the death of one's lord, a phenomenon that was common from the Sengoku period (1467-1568) to the early Edo period (1600-1868). One concrete effect of Confucian thought on the samurai was the banning in 1663 of the practice of junshi (suicide in order to follow a lord in death). Junshi belonged to a past age when the bond between a daimyo and his household was very close, and the argument for it was that a samurai could not serve two masters and therefore when his lord died he must end his own life. (Stephen Turnbull, The Book of the Samurai, 1982, p. 121) [< junshi < jun follow + shi death] 1871 (OED)

K
kabane [kobdmei] n. hereditary titles of lineage in ancient Japan. One of the most important foundations of the Ritsuryo state was laid in 684 by Emperor Tenmu. Tenmu instituted an eight-rank kabane (hereditary titles of nobility) system, which reorganized the traditional court rank system by granting a higher degree of status to those uji that had made useful contributions to the throne. (Joseph M. Kitagawa, On Understanding Japanese Religion, 1987, p. 110) [< kabane surname] 1890 (OED) kabocha or kabocha squash [koboutjo] n. the common name of Japanese pumpkins, Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita maxima, and some hybrids between the two. The kabocha is no more than about 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter, turban-shaped, with a jade green, slightly waxy skin. Its flesh is bright yellow to medium orange, has a rich flavor, and is pleasantly smooth textured. There are a few varieties. . . . This vegetable is grown rather widely on the West Coast and may be purchased in supermarkets here in the autumn. . . . In Japan, it is a summer vegetable. (Shizuo Tsuji, Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art, 1980, p. 93) Piedmont's Kabocha squash, used in tempura dishes, Japanese confections and soups, has been received so well that Japanese imports have begun putting in orders for onions, beans and broccoli. (The Denver Post, Jun. 12, 1994, p. GI. Business NewsBank PLUS) Yuzo's kitchen stuck with traditional ingredients and techniques presented in new combinations. The vegetable dumpling is a fine example: sieved kabocha squash and yamaimo (mountain potato) encased a nugget of sansai okowa (sticky rice and fern fronds). (The New York Times, Aug. 27, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 12) [< kabocha < Kambojia < Cambodia originally exported to Japan] the country from which this plant was

70

kabuki

kabuki [kobuiki] n. a form of traditional Japanese theater characterized by stylized acting, vivid costumes, and makeup. Also, Kabuki. Kabuki comes from the verb 'kabuku', meaning 'to deviate from the normal manners and customs, to do something absurd'. Today kabuki is performed only by men, but the first kabuki performance was given in about 1603 by a girl, a shrine maiden of Kyoto named O-kuni, who 'deviated from the normal customs' by dressing as a man and entertaining the public with satirical dances in the grounds of the Kitano shrine. (Michael Macintyre, The Shogun Inheritance, 1982, p. 86) On Monday, she [Tsutako Nakasone, Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone's wife] took her Canadian, West German, and Italian counterparts to a performance of kabuki, a colorful Japanese drama form characterized by highly exaggerated stage motions, accompanied by drumming and chanting. (The Los Angeles Times, May 7, 1986, Part. I, p. 14) attributive use. He [Ichikawa Ebizo] kicked his left foot into the air, then crouched and, his eyes crossing in classic Kabuki manner, he glared ominously. (The New York Times, Feb. 28, 1985, p. C17) From September 1978 to April 1979, the University of Hawaii at Manoa conducted a special program in kabuki theatre known as "Kabuki-Hawaii 1978-1979." Either Nakamura Matagoro II, Chief Instructor in kabuki at the National Theatre of Japan, or his assistant, Nakamura Matashiro, was in residence from September to March to teach kabuki acting techniques. Other well-known Japanese artists came to Hawaii for varying lengths of time to teach kabuki music and to assist in technical theatre. (The Drama Review, Winter 1989, p. 146) [< kabuki < kabuku (OED) to deviate from the normal manners and customs] 1899

kabuki dance [kobuiki] n. an action whose result is easily predictable. Used in a political context. Also, Kabuki dance. The Scowcroft commission, the Midgetmanners and the built-downers all joined in what Aspin called a Kabuki dance intended to make the double build-down seem like a joint brainstorm. (Time, Jun. 25, 1984, p. 43) Can all rail labor reach an agreement and sell it to the membership without going through the ritualistic Kabuki dance under the Railways Labor Act? (The Journal of Commerce, Feb. 2, 1994, p. 38) [< kabuki] kabuto gane [kdibuitou gainei] n. the pommel of the tachi, a Japanese sword. Fittings for tachi hilts invariably included a pommel, kabuto gane or kashira, shaped like the chape, and a reinforcing band as the base of the fuchi. (Ian Bottomley and Anthony Hopson, Arms & Armor of the Samurai, 1988, p. 68) [< kabuto gane < kabuto helmet + gane < kane metal] kadzura tree [kaedsoro] n. see katsura tree.

kaizen

71

kago [kdigou] n. a means of transport made of bamboo or wood, consisting of a covered litter that is suspended from a central beam running lengthwise from front to rear. It is borne on the shoulders of two men and carries one passenger. Compare norimono. Kago came into use during the middle of the Muromachi period (1333-1568) and developed into an important mode of transportation during the Edo period (1600-1868) when there appeared several variations in form and construction materials. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1981, Vol. 4, p. 104) On the other side of the pass [Sir Edward] Reed, who had been ill, travelled in a kago or palanquin. (Hugh Cortazzi, Victorians in Japan, 1987, p. 219) The simplest type of palanquin of the suspended type, kago, was merely an undecorated, basketlike, open structure made of bamboo and covered with a roof of matting. These rude conveyances were small, and they were carried by one bearer at the front and one at the rear. (Asian Art, Winter 1989, p. 12) [< kago basket] 1857 (OED) kagura [kdiguro] n. a performance of sacred music and dances of Shinto. A program of Yamabushi Kagura music and dance . . . was as interesting in its history as its practice. Based on primarily on Shinto worship and traceable to the turn of the 13th century, the kagura is dance and music of prayer, developed by ascetic monks of the area (the Yamabushi). (The New York Times, Oct. 24, 1994, p. C12) [kagura] 1884 (OED) kaiken [kaiken] n. a dagger without a guard carried by women during the feudal days in Japan. Also, kwaiken. Another interesting weapon within the category of daggers is the kwaiken, which is an early form of either a single-edged or double-edged knife carried by Japanese women. (H. Batterson Boger, The Traditional Arts of Japan, 1964, p. 119) Women of the samurai class carried a small dirk, kaiken, in the fold of their kimono, both a weapon of defence and, in the last resort, as a means of committing suicide. (Ian Bottomley and Anthony Hopson, Arms and Armor of the Samurai, 1988, p. 157) [< kaiken < kai bosom + ken sword] kaizen [kaizen] n. the continuous improvement of productivity, performance, and quality, which is achieved through an on-going team effort of the entire workforce. Also, Kaizen. Jesse Wingard, the plant's manager, said, jobs will be continually restructured to make them easier and more efficient, using a Japanese system called Kaizen [at the refurbished General Motors plant in Fremont, CA]. (Los Angeles Times, Dec. 22, 1985, Part I, p. 30) The Japanese philosophy of kaizencontinuous improvementshould be built into your marketing strategy. Adaptations and improvements will be a necessary element for capturing or keeping market share and will strengthen the supplier-customer relationship. (Business Week, Mar. 22, 1993, p. 18)

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kakebuton

In a company operating with kaizen, pebble after improvement pebble eventually adds up to a mountain of reward. At Belfabwhich garnered Industry Week "America's Best Plants" honors in 1993 and then earned Florida's top quality prize, the Governor's Sterling Award, and a 38% increase in revenue in 1994the proof is in the profits. (Industry Week, Jan. 23, 1995, p. 58) [< kaizen improvement] 1985 (BDC) kakebuton [kdikobuiton] n. a type of bedding. See futon. [< katebuton < kake covering + buton < futon mattress]

kakemono [kdikomounou] n. a hanging scroll of paintings of natural subjects with or without a caption, or calligraphy. The kakemono hanging on the wall at left depicts the Japanese character for "void" [at Kenzo Tanaka's house in Paris]. (Architectural Digest, Oct. 1990, p. 210, caption) [< kakemono < kake < kakeru to hang + mono thing] 1890 (OED) kaki [kdiki] n. a deciduous tree, Diospyros kaki, Japanese persimmon. Native to East Asia, the KAKI is a small tree with deciduous, simple leaves, extensively cultivated in warm climates for its orange- to red-skinned apple-like fruits. (Vernon H. Heywood, chief ed., Popular Encyclopedia of Plants, 1982, p. 185) [< kaki] 1727 (OED) Kakiemon [kdikieiman] n. a type of porcelain first made at the Kakiemon kiln in the mid-seventeenth century. "Kakiemon"taken from the name of a family of distinguished potters some of whose work is decorated in a palette of turquoise, blue, iron red, yellow, black and gildinghas assumed a generic meaning, being used to encompass pieces decorated in the above colours, whether exclusively by the kiln associated with the family, by other kilns or by outside decorators. (Huon Mallalieu, gen. ed., The Illustrated History of Antiques, 1991, pp. 411, 413) adj. of or relating to this type of porcelain. The spare decoration and clear, bright palette of this Meissen version, especially the light turquoise, are faithful to the Kakiemon spirit. (The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Spring 1990, p. 18, caption) [< (Sakaida) Kakiemon (1596-1666), a potter] 1902 (OED) kakke or kakke disease [kaekei] n. the Japanese name for beriberi, an endemic disease that is more common in Asia and is due to an unbalanced diet, chiefly a lack of vitamin B i, or thiamine. Beriberi. . . . Also called athiaminosis, kakke disease. (Walter D. Glanze, ed., Mosby 's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 3rd ed., 1990, p. 140) [< kakke < kak- < kaku leg + -ke ill with] 1874 (OED)

kami-dana

73

Kamakura [kdmokuiro] adj. of or relating to the art and architecture of the Kamakura period (1185-1333), which was characterized by the influence of Buddhism. Painting, too, was imbued with a new and active sense of realism. . . . The Kamakura style stressed bold swift strokes of black ink to indicate the most expressive pose of figure, with a few economically placed strokes to catch the most evocative facial expression. (John D. La Plante, Asian Art, 2nd ed., 1985, p. 274) [< Kamakura a town in Kanagawa Prefecture, where the government was located between 1192 and 1333] 1890 (OED) Kambara earth [kombdiro] n. an absorbent clay like substance found in northern Japan. [< translation of Kambara nendo < Kambara < (Kita)-Kambara-(gun) a county in Niigata Prefecture + nendo clay] kami1 [kdimi] n., pi. -mi, a Shinto deity. The Emperor [Hirohito] was regarded by traditionalist Japanese as the human personification of a kami. The word is a Shinto expression that cannot readily be translated; it means, approximately, an entity possessing qualities essentially superior to those of ordinary existence, something to be revered. (The New York Times, Jan. 7, 1989, p. 6) The Japanese believed that there existed a spiritual essence in all animate and inanimate objects as well as in the forces of nature and even such phenomena as the echo. . . . The more awe-inspiring, extraordinary, mysterious, superior, or even malignant the vessel, the more likely it was that the Japanese regarded its essenceits kamiwith respect. (Jack Seward, The Japanese, 1992, p. 192) The foot soldiers who died in World War II were elevated by Shinto folklore to kami, and Yasukuni [Shrine] is where they are worshiped. (The New York Times, Jul. 30, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 8) [< kami deity] 1727 (OED) kami2 [kaimi] n. a title given to daimyos and governors. Lesser warriors also carried court ranks and offices, including the title of "governor" (kami) of provinces, which had nothing to do with actual jurisdiction. (Takie Sugiyama Lebra, Above the Clouds, 1993, p. 43) [< kami authority] 1886 (OED) kami-dana [kdimiddino] n. a household Shinto shrine. Also, kamidana. This religious parallelism is seen most clearly in the many homes that maintain both butsudan (Buddhist altars) and kamidana (Shinto god shelves), which may be served daily or only on the days of particular religious meaning with offering of food, flowers, andrice-wineand with incense and candles. (Jack Seward, The Japanese, 1992, p. 189) The house without domestic altars is a sad thing. The butsudan, the Buddhist altar, must be dedicated to the dead, and the other Shinto altar, the kami-dana (shelf of the gods), to

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kamikaze

the divinities that protect the house. In Tokyo today, half the homes have no altars: to me, these are no more than poor empty shells. (Laurence Caillet, The House of Yamazaki, trans. Megan Backus, 1994, p. 21) [< kamidana < kami deity + dana < tana shelf] 1876 (OED) kamikaze [kdimikdizi, kaemi-] n. 1. a natural disaster, the typhoon that severely damaged the invading Mongolian fleet in 1274 and 1281. No foreign attacker had seriously threatened Japan's sacred soil since Kublai Khan in 1281. And on that occasion a violent storm had turned back and devastated the Mongol invader's fleet; the Japanese called the magical occurrence kamikaze"divine wind." (American History Illustrated, Mar./Apr. 1992, p. 28) 2. a Japanese pilot trained to make a suicidal crash on a target in World War II. A straight "A" student from Arlington, Tenn., grinned his way through spelling "kamikaze" to win $5,000 and the National Spelling Bee Thursday. The word for a World War II Japanese suicide pilot was a winner for Geoff Hooper, 14. (USA Today, Jun. 4, 1993, Sec. D, p. 1) 3. a suicidal air attack. New emphasis was given to the use of special attack (Tokko) units, suicidal aerial attack forces that first saw service in the Philippines campaign and were known popularly as kamikaze. (Peter Duus, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1988, Vol. 6, p. 366) If the Japanese fleet was to have any chance to success at Leyte, the Philippine island selected as the core of the defense effort, the American carriers must somehow be sunk or disabled; and the only means left was the kamikaze attack. Examples of Japanese suicide tactics had already been seen on land, at sea, and in the air, but they were exalted by the kamikaze into a system. (Meirion Harries and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun, 1991, p. 434) 4. an airplane used for this attack. v.t. to make this suicidal attack. As the government was signing the instrument of surrender in Tokyo, a last-minute plan to kamikaze the Missouri was discovered and thwarted. (The Wall Street Journal, Oct. 7, 1994, p. A l l ) adj. 1. of or relating to this suicidal attack. A temporary exhibit on suicide missions in the museum of the Yasukuni Shrine captures the tragedy of the kamikaze pilots and others engaged in such missions. (The New York Times, Jul. 30, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 8) 2. reckless, self-destructive. In climbing, there's this kamikaze spirit: every Japanese Himalayan expedition inevitably either makes the summit, has members killed, or both. (Backpacker, Aug. 1993, p. 50) A big operator like Meijer plans on taking big losses. They buy huge quantities from their own broker in Grand Rapids, snoop out the cheapest local prices, then beat them. A local grocer who attempts to beat Meijer's price is on a kamikaze mission, with brokers in the back seat. (Indianapolis (IN) Business Journal, Mar. 28, 1994. Business NewsBank PLUS)

kanban

75

Companies have even tried buying market share by offering cut-rate mortgages they'll have to take a loss oncalled "kamikaze pricing" in the industry. (The Detroit News, Jul. 27,1994, Sec. E. Business NewsBank PLUS) They [pelicans] nest almost on top of each other, clumped by species, protecting their featherless young with a chorus of angry voices and kamikaze dives at anyone who ventures near. (The Advocate [Baton Rouge, LA], Jul. 31, 1994, p. 1-b. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [< kamikaze < kami divine + kaze wind] 1896 (OED) kana [kdino] n., pi. -na, phonetic syllabary of two varieties, hiragana katakana. Compare kanji. and

To meet the needs of simpler vernacular expression Japanese syllabaries (kana) were developed by simplifying and standardizing elements from basic Chinese characters. (Martin Collcutt, Marius Jansen, and Isao Kumakura, Cultural Atlas of Japan, 1988, p. 79) [< kana < kanna < karina < kari provisional + na letter] 1874: canna 1727 (OED) kana-majiri [kdmomdidsori] n. a form of Japanese writing, consisting of kanji and kana. Also, kanamajiri. In the Kamakura period [1185-1333], writing which combined Chinese characters and the Japanese syllabary, known as kanamajiri, became the main vehicle for literature, and it remains to this day the primary way of writing the Japanese language. (Hugh Cortazzi, The Japanese Achievement, 1990, p. 89) [< kana majiri < kana + majiri mixture] kanban [kdinbain] n. 1. a card used in a controlled manufacturing system. Also, Kanban. The word "Kanban" refers to a small plastic plate, originally paper . . . which provides the information to workers at each production station. There are, in fact, two types of Kanban cards, each worker takes from the parts container of existing stock to the stock point of the previous stage. The production-Kanban is then left at the stock point as a dispatch signal to replace the inventory used. The two Kanban cards act as a real-time information system indicating production capacity, stock usage, and manpower utilization. (Charles J. McMillan, The Japanese Industrial System, 1984, p. 214) 2. an inventory system that uses this card. American business practitioners and scholars jet to Japan seeking the Holy Grail of Japan's success. They study manufacturing methods, including kanban (Toyota's version of just-in-time inventory), in-house unions, kaizen (continuous improvement philosophy) and robotics. (Dennis Laurie, Yankee Samurai, 1992, p. 12) attributive use. Quality charts are not kept in an executive's office on the fortieth floor. They are on the bulletin board near the production line. By the same token, kanban cards attached to parts

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kanji

carry a series of messages: where the part came from, what is to be done with it, what must happen when it is used up. (Jeremiah J. Sullivan, Invasion of the Salarymen, 1992, p. 160) One of the key tools being used to reduce inventory is disarmingly simple [at Boeing's Renton plant]: six tan wooden boxes, each about 3 feet long. The boxes are the crux of the Japanese "kanban" system the door project is using to control parts movement. Kanban, which essentially means "visual signal," refers to the use of simple cues to keep parts and assemblies flowing, the essence of "pull system" of inventory and production. (Puget Sound Business Journal, Feb. 11, 1994, p. 51) [< kanban < kanban hoshiki < kanban sign board + hoshiki method] 1982 (WCD) kanji [kdind^i] n., pi. -ji or -s, 1. a writing system that uses ideographs of Chinese origin. Compare kana. Three cities in the state [TN] . . . operate "Saturday schools" in which Japanese students take extra lessons in math and language, including kanji, a Japanese writing system. (U. S. News & World Report, May 9, 1988, p. 57) 2. a character of this writing system. And then there are the Chinese characters, or kanji, you need to know about 2,000 of them to read Japanese. (Washington Business, Aug. 26, 1991, p. 18) Kanji have far too strong an esthetic hold on the Japanese and are much too strongly linked with Japan's history and culture to be easily abandoned. They are also very useful in forming abbreviated names, pithy slogans, and short but meaty headlines. (Edwin O. Reischauer and Marius B. Jansen, 7 7 * 6 ? Japanese Today, enl. ed., (1977) 1995, p. 383) [< kanji < kan Chinese (originally a dynasty between 206 B.C. to 221 A.D.) +ji character] 1920 (OED) kanten [kdinten] n. agar-agar, a gelatinous material produced from algae, genus Gelidium. Originally, kanten was made by a complicated process of rinsing tengusa seaweed in fresh water, sun-bleaching, rerinsing, boiling, and molding. The feather-light kanten sticks that we buy today are made in modern factories in a different wayfreeze drying. (Shizuo Tsuji, Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art, (1980) 1981, p. 54) One sea vegetable product, called kanten or agar, is used to make gelatin-like desserts, molded vegetable aspics, and cranberry sauce. (John Belleme and Jan Belleme, Cooking with Japanese Foods, 1993, p. 140) [< kanten < kan cold + ten weather] karaoke [kdiroouki, kae-, -ri-] n. 1. a device that plays musical accompaniments for somebody to sing along. Known as karaoke, or empty orchestra, sets, they give users the feeling of being accompanied in song by their very own back-up band. . . . Almost inevitably, they are going to be exported to the U.S. After exhibiting them at a Las Vegas trade show in January,

karate

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Clarion the largest manufacturer, received orders from American dealers totaling $1 million. (Time, Feb. 28, 1983, p. 47) Many Americans are frustrated crooners who sing in the shower and warble along with their Walkman tapes. . . . Now thousands of closet Sinatras and Madonnas are publicly vocalizing, thanks to a nifty electronic device from Japan called the karaoke. (Time, Jul. 15, 1985, p. 74) Karaoke, a mere machine, is composed of three components: the stereo and speakers that play the instrumental and backup vocal tracks of pop songs; the video screen, upon which the lyrics scroll; andthe most important elementthe microphone into which you wail the lead vocals. (Mademoiselle, Dec. 1993, p. 82) attributive use. The best karaoke involves a laser disk. Such high-end machines can play ordinary audio CDs and laser-disk movies in addition to karaoke disks. (Business Week, Jun. 24, 1991, p. 145) 2. the form of entertainment that uses this device. [Cliff] Collins began devoting his nights to karaoke, and his business grew from a oneunit, one-bar enterprise into the current full-time, four unit shows per week. (The Arizona Republic, Aug. 6, 1995, p. D2) attributive use. Its [trade show] centerpiece was a 50,000-square-foot Cafe Karaoke restaurant, which hosted the biggest karaoke event yet; nonstop contests on five stages simultaneously. Coming next? Karaoke Showcase, a weekly TV talent contest that will appear on 120 stations starting June 6. (Business Week, Jun. 8, 1992, p. 38) The 60,000-square-foot club [in Inglewood, California] currently operates 150 gambling tables, three restaurants, exercise facilities, lounge, private karaoke suites, retail spaceand, of courseace wagering. (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 16, 1994, p. Bl) v. i. to sing along. Do you do it on the road? Sing, that is. Contrary to popular belief that we save our arias for the shower or bathroom, most of us find our most appreciative audiences in the car. Almost four out of five of us (78.4 percent) sing in the carkaraoke with the radiocompared with just around half (48.4 percent) in the tub. (The Arizona Republic/The Phoenix Gazette, Jul. 15, 1995, p. 1) [< karaoke < kara empty + oke < okesutora orchestra] 1979 (OED: AS) karate [korditi] n. a form of self-defense that employs strikes, kicks, chops, and punches combined with various foot maneuvers and hip gyrations. Despite the great variety of styles which express the numerous interpretations of karate's individuality, it is basically a system containing various forms of striking and kicking. (Michael Finn, Martial Arts, 1988, p. 164) They are among a legion of law-enforcement professionals across the nation who say that traditional police training is inadequate and that techniques derived from karate and other advanced forms of hand-to-hand combat make them more confident on the streets and better at their jobs. (The New York Times, Mar. 6, 1992, p. B5)

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Karate classes are an important part of the menu of the Center for Anti-Violence Education [in New York City]. (The New York Times, Jun. 24, 1992, p. B2) "Karate is not just a kick and a punch," he [Tadashi Nakamura] says intensely. "The most difficult enemy you have to face is inside of you, not in front of you." (Modern Maturity, Jan./Feb., 1995, p. 42) v.i. to strike or kick using karate forms. [< karate literally, kara empty + te hand] 1955 (OED) karate-chop a sharp, slanting hand-blow that is used in karate. Also, karate chop and shuto. He [Steve Kiergan] is a Mr. Wizard at coming up with ideas for labs. Recently, he demonstrated kinetic energy by having a student with a martial arts black belt break a brick in half with a deft karate chop. (San Jose Mercury News, Jun. 6, 1995. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) He'll strip off his necktie, put on the rawhide jacket (a bit tight around the midriff) and take possession of the crowd with those soft Seville consonants and the karate-chop gesture lifted from J.F.K. (The New York Times, Apr. 12, 1995, p. AI) v. /. to strike with a karate-chop. The karate "chop." It's the most famous technique in the martial arts. How many times have you heard somebody joke "Get back, or I'll karate chop you." Barney Fife was always slicing the Mayberry air with his chops . . . Everyone knows how to karate chop, from the highest black belt to the lowest nerd. You just shape your hand into a blade, tuck your thumb, and voila! You have a karate chop ready to carve up the nearest opponent. (Black Belt, Jul. 1995, p. 66) figurative use. With a single karate chop, for example, "Inventing Japan" disposes of the notion that it was either absent-mindedness or a fervent devotion to free trade that led the United States to tolerate inequitable Japanese trade practices for 20 years after the occupation had ended; rather, he points out, American tolerance resulted from a conscious decision that to strengthen the Japanese economy in this way was sound Cold War strategy. (Washington Post National Weekly Edition, Jan. 6-12, 1992, p. 35) [< karate choppu < karate + choppu chop; the expression karate choppu has been used in professional wrestling in Japan since the early 1950s.] 1966 (OED) karateka [korditikcii] n., pi. -ka or -s, a student of, or an expert in karate. Riding on the crest of this popularity, the Korean karateka [Mas Oyama] opened a small dojo in Tateyama [Japan]. (Black Belt, Yearbook, Winter 1991, p. 26) About 115 karateka, or students, a large number of them black belts, are enrolled at Mr. [Masataka] Mori's Broadway dojo. (The New York Times, Mar. 20, 1994, Sec. 13, p. 3) [< karateka < karate + -ka expert] 1966 (OED) karate sticks see nunchaku.

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Karatsu ware [korditsui] n. a type of pottery produced in the Karatsu region, Saga Prefecture. Karatsu ware was made of coarse, hard clay containing iron and coated with a hard feldspath glaze that crackled. Simple designs such as flowers, grasses or abstract patterns were often painted under the glaze. . . . Karatsu kilns produced functional objects for daily use, such as rice bowls, dishes and storage jars, which were shipped all over Japan. (Dorothy Perkins, Encyclopedia of Japan, 1991, p. 169) [< Karatsu a city in western Saga Prefecture from which this pottery was shipped out] karoshi [korouji] n. death from overwork. Tetsunojo Uehata, the medical authority who coined the word, defines karoshi as a "condition in which psychologically unsound work processes are allowed to continue in a way that disrupt the worker's normal work and life rhythms, leading to a buildup of fatigue in the body and chronic condition of overwork accompanied by a worsening of pre-existent high blood pressure and hardening of the arteries and finally resulting in a fatal breakdown." (U. S. News & World Report, Mar. 18, 1991, p. 24) The Term karoshi made its grim debut in Japan more than 10 years ago, but public awareness has been translated into action only recently. (World Press Review, Mar. 1991, p. 50) attributive use. A karoshi hot line established by the council in seven major cities last year documented 976 cases. (Chicago Tribune, Apr. 22, 1990, Sec. 1, p. 18) With the [Jun] Ishii case, regulators have expanded karoshi compensation to Japan's legions of salaried workers. (Business Week, Aug. 3, 1992, p. 35) Each year about 30 deaths are officially recognized as resulting from overwork, which means the Government compensates the families of the deceased. But most such "karoshi" cases deal with blue-collar workers; only rarely is a karoshi death of a whitecollar worker recognized. (The New York Times, Jul. 16, 1992, p. D4) [< karoshi < karo overwork + shi death] kashira [kojiiro] n. the metal pommel of a Japanese sword-hilt. The fuchi and kashira were designed to strengthen the hilt at either end. (Julia Hutt, Understanding Far Eastern Art, 1987, p. 127) [< kashira head] kata [kdto] n., pi. -ta or -s, a series of prescribed movements in judo and karate training. The so-called formal exercises, or "forms" (kata), consist of systematically organized series of techniques performed in a set sequence. They include all the various hand techniques, foot techniques, body shifting, etc. used in kicking, punching, blocking, etc. (Hidetaka Nishiyama and Richard C. Brown, Karate: the Art of "Empty Hand" Fighting, 1990, p. 150)

80

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The practice of kata is the culmination of a practitioner's individual training. . . . One of the highest compliments one can receive after performing a kata is that it looked like an actual fight. This is the goal to strive for in kata practice. (Mark R. Moeller, KarateDo Foundations, 1995, p. 137) [<fcitaform] 1945 (WCD) katakana [kditokdino] n. one of two phonetic syllabaries, used for writing nonChinese loanwords. Compare hiragana. Her [Kristi Yamaguchi's] name was even spelled . . . in the separate phonetic alphabet known as katakana, which is reserved for foreign names in words. (The New York Times, Feb. 26, 1992, p. B13) [< katakana < kata partial + kana provisional letter] 1822: 1727 katakanna (OED) katana [kotdino] n. a curved, single-edged sword worn by the samurai. All nobles and many retainers also carried small dirks with short, flat-sided blades, called katana, thrust through the obi (sash) on the left front of the body. (Ian Bottomley and Anthony Hopson, Arms and Armor of the Samurai, 1988, p. 42) [< katana < kata one side + na<ha blade] 1874: catan 1613 (OED)

Katayama [kditojdimo] n. a genus of freshwater snails including intermediate hosts of Schistosoma japonicum; also known as Oncomelania. Katayama [Syndrome.] . . . Etiology. Infestation with Schistosoma japonicum', katayama snails intermediate host. Infestation with S. mansoni and S. haematobium gives a similar clinical pattern and the term Katayama syndrome may be applied to all three conditions. (Sergio I. Magalini, Sabina C. Magalini, and Giovanni de Francisci, Dictionary of Medical Syndromes, 3rd ed., 1990, p. 490) [< Katayama a hill in Fukuyama, Hiroshima Prefecture] katsu [kditsui] n. the art of resuscitation in judo. The ancient jujutsu masters studied katsu, which was a form of healing. (Michael Finn, Martial Arts, 1988, p. 14) [< katsu live] katsuo [kaetswou] n. bonito, Katsuwonus pelamis.

A tunalike fish called bonito in English and katsuo in Japanese is found in fairly temperate water. (Elizabeth Andoh, An American Taste of Japan, 1985, p. 28) [< katsuo < katauo < kata hard + uo fish] 1899: katsuwo 1727 (OED) katsuobushi [kaetswoubiiiji] n. dried bonito, used for making broth. Also, katsuo-bushi. Bonito flakes (katsuobushi): dried bonito fish, a type of mackerel, shaved into flakes; sold

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in cellophane packages in Oriental groceries and some fish markets. (American Health, Jan./Feb. 1991, p. 81) To make best dashi, the dried bonito fillets (katsuo-bushi) must be shaved just before they are used on a special gadget called a katsuo-kezuri-ki. (James Peterson, Splendid Soups, 1993, p. 10) [< katsuobushi < katsuo bonito + bushi < hoshi dried] 1891 (OED) katsura or katsura tree [kaetsoro] n. a large deciduous tree, Cercidiphyllum japonicum. Also, kadzura tree. Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Katsura tree) A native of Japan, planted for its beautiful foliage. It usually grows with several stems to form a broad, spreading dome with leaves and branches reaching to the ground, a most graceful structure. (James Bush-Brown and Louise Bush-Brown, America's Garden Book, rev. ed., 1980, p. 155) Eventually, hundreds of fossils were collected to fill gaps in Washington's murky past, a time when the land was dominated by a warm climate forest of conifers, tropical ferns, tree-size ferns called cycads and other plants such as laurel, gingko, a primitive avocado and a Japanese plant called katsura. (Seattle Times, Jul. 26,1994. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [< katsura] katsuramono [kotsuiromounou] n. a type of Noh play where the leading character is a woman and the theme is romance. [< kazuramono < kazura the term used for a wig in Noh theater + mono piece] 1932 (OED) Kawasaki disease [kdiwosdiki] n. a multisystemic disease affecting primarily children. Also, Kawasaki syndrome. In a study made of 100 Kawasaki disease-afflicted youngsters by New York HospitalCornell University, 52 percent were white, 19 percent black, 14 percent Hispanic and 16 percent Asian. Of the Asians, the majority were Japanese. (The New York Times, Oct. 29, 1989, Sec. 21LI, p. 5) Kawasaki syndrome is a worldwide multisystemic disease also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. It occurs mainly in children but occasionally in adults, at times in epidemic fashion. (Steven A. Schroeder, Lawrence M. Tierney, Jr., Stephen J. Mcphee, Maxine A. Papadakis, and Marcus A. Krupp, Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment, 1992, p. 1028) [< Kawasaki byo < (Tomisaku) Kawasaki, a pediatrician who described the disease in 1967 + byo disease] 1980 (Bl) kaya [kdijo] n. 1. a large evergreen tree, Torreya nucifera. The Kaya (Torreya nucifera) from Japan differs from American species in having bright, reddish-brown shoots and needles which are strictly parallel to one another and arched downwards. (Scott Leathart, Trees of the World, 1977, p. 26)

82 2. the wood of this tree.

kazoku

Hachiman is made of Japanese nutmeg (kaya, Torreya nucifera). (Yoshiaki Shimizu, ed., Japan: the Shaping of Daimyo Culture, 1988, p. 130) [< kaya] 1889: kai 1727 (OED) kazoku [kozoukui] n. the nobility in the Japanese social scale, a term officially used from 1869 to 1947. Also, kwazoku. Compare heimin and shizoku. Next came the regularization and simplification of samurai ranks from the complexity they had known. Lords and court nobles were to be distinguished as kazoku, samurai as shizoku. (Marius B. Jansen, Introduction, in The Cambridge History of Japan, ed. Marius B. Jansen, Vol. 5, 1989, p. 25) [< kazoku < ka noble + zoku clan] Kegon [keigan] adj. of or relating to a Japanese Buddhist sect that flourished in the eighth century. The Kegon sect, whose doctrine forms one of the finest edifices of the Buddhist philosophy of China, was transmitted to Japan in 736. It bases itself on the Indian Avatamsakasutra, according to which the whole universe, all being, is the Buddha Vairocana. (Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich, The World of Buddhism, 1984, p. 216) [< Kegon < Kegon shu < Kegon Flower Garland + shu sect] keiretsu [keiretsui] n. a business empire after World War II. If Citicorp owned 10 percent of Dupont, Ford, Bechtel, Caterpillar, and several other U. S. giants, and if each of these companies owned 5 percent of other group members, this would be the beginnings of an American-style keiretsu. (William J. Holstein, The Japanese Power Game, 1990, p. 201) Keiretsu are interlocking business groups that supplanted the zaibatsu in the 1950s. These are vertically integrated monopolies made up of banks, manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors. Keiretsu determine pricing, distribution channels, and delivery times. (Carolyn R. Gipson, The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of International Trade and Finance, 1993, p. 225) attributive use. Under postwar Japan's keiretsu system, as many as 40 firms are linked tightly together by an impenetrable matrix of crossheld stocks, exclusionary distribution networks, lowinterest bank loans, discriminatory purchasing policies and other exclusive arrangements between member corporations. (The Chicago Tribune, Jan. 14, 1991, p. 1) [Robert F.] Graham insists that Novelus [System Inc.] can hold its own by playing a keiretsu card. Last spring, Novellus and Lam Research Corp . . . teamed up to offer special package deals to chipmakers. The two even service each other's system if something goes wrong. (Business Week, Jan. 27, 1992, p. 60) [< keiretsu < kei linking + retsu line] kembei [kembei] n. see kenbei.

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Kempeitai [kempeitai] n. the military police between 1931 and 1945. Also, Kempei Tai and kempeitai. They might also be subjected to the menacing attentions of the dreaded Kempeitai, the military police force which came under Tojo's control as Army Minister and which operated with ruthless zeal. (R. I. Sims, A Political History of Modern Japan, 1991, p. 266) The kempeitai routinely used electric and water tortures, filling a man's stomach and then jumping on him until the water was expelled through every orifice. (Meirion Harries and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun, 1991, p. 476) Flown to Tokyo, they [the eight captured American fliers] had expected to be treated as prisoners of war. But they were tortured by the Kempei Tai, the Japanese gestapo, including water torture. (Smithsonian, Jun. 1992, p. 128) [< kempeitai military police] 1947 (OED) ken 1 [ken] n. the length of the standard architectural module, used until 1966. The ken of the inaka-ma method of 6 shaku (l,818mm.=6.0ft) . . . was incorporated as the official unit of the Japanese system of measures. (Heino Engel, Measure and Construction of the Japanese House, 1985, p. 22) [< ten between] 1884: kin 1727 (OED) ken 2 [ken] n., pi. ken, a prefecture. The lands taken over from the Shogun . . . were brought directly under the Court's control as/w (cities) and ken (prefectures) administered by imperial officials [in the late nineteenth century]. (William G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration, 1972, p. 328) Today Japan's administrative structure is described as "to-do-fu-ken." The only to (metropolitan) is Tokyo; the single do (district) is Hokkaido; fu (urban prefectures) include Osaka and Kyoto; and there are 47 ken (prefectures). (Martin Collcutt, Marius Jansen, and Isao Kumakura, Cultural Atlas of Japan, 1988, p. 21) [<ken] 1882 (OED) ken 3 [ken] n. a game played with hand gestures. ken. . . . Any of a number of games for two or more persons, played by extending the fists, the open hand, a number of fingers, and so forth. . . . Some form of ken was probably brought to Nagasaki from China at the beginning of the Edo period (160 0-1868). Ken games became popular among the common people and were often played at drinking parties. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd, 1983, p. 193) Kyuzo played a game of gestures called ken, which gained instant popularity. This game had several different sets of gestures; the one that the actors performed was based on the gestures of animals. (Stephen Addiss, ed., Japanese Ghosts and Demons, 1985, p. 170) The background scenery has been eliminated, placing full attention on the women playing and watching a game of kitsune-ken. . . . Kitsune-ken, similar to "scissors-rockpaper," was a popular hand game that was frequently played at parties, and it appears in a

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number of prints depicting entertainment scenes. The game was played by two people. (Donald Jenkins, The Floating World Revisited, 1993, p. 122, caption) [< ken fist] 1890 (OED) k e n 4 [ken] n. a straight, double-edged sword. Also, tsurugi. Several [blades in the exhibition, "Court and Samurai in an Age of Transition"] . . . are short, straight blades (ken, or tsurugi) . . . indicating that straight, double-edged blades were still being made in the medieval period. (Naomi Noble Richard, ed., Court and Samurai in an Age of Transition, 1989, p. 27) [< ken sword] kenbei [kenbei] n. dislike of the United States, a Japanese attitude toward America described in the early 1990s. Also, kembei. If we don't change our ways, what the Japanese call "kenbei"contempt for Americawill continue to grow in Asia and, as George Bush should know, even among frustrated Americans. (The New York Times, Jan. 12, 1992, Sec. 4, p. 19) Last fall some Tokyo-based foreign journalists discovered and wrote about kembei, which means "resentment of America." Their stories unleashed fears that a new strain of anti-Americanism was emerging. (Time, Feb. 10, 1992, p. 22) [< kenbei < ken disliking + bei < beikoku the United States of America] 1991 (AS) kendo [kendou] n. a modern form of swordsmanship, fencing with a bamboo sword using the techniques of the two-handed sword. Generally, kendo is taught as a system of sporting combat, in which the practitioners wear protective armour and try to score points on designated targets with a bamboo sword (or shinai). (Ian Bottomley and Anthony Hopson, Arms & Armor of the Samurai, 1988, p. 132) [< kendo < ken sword + do way] 1921 (OED) kendoist [kendouist] n. a student of, or an expert in kendo. With each thrust of the sword at specific body points . . . the kendoist shouts, not only naming the body point in Japanese but also summoning kiai, or spirit. (The New York Times, Feb. 12, 1989, Sec. 22WC, p. 33) [< kendo + -ist] kenjutsu [kend3u:tsu:] n. a classical form of swordsmanship developed during the feudal period. Kenjutsu is an aggresive method of swordsmanship. It pits blade against blade in a decisive and unique manner. (Donn F. Draeger and Robert W. Smith, Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts, 1980, p. 99) [< kenjutsu < ken sword + jutsu art]

Kikuchi lines kesagatame [kesogotdimei, -mi] n. a grappling technique in judo, scarf hold.

85

You and your opponent have lost your balance and have both fallen to the mat. Your wish is to secure your opponent with a kesagatame. (George R. Parulski, Jr., Black-Belt Judo, 1985, p. 58) [< kesagatame < kesa surplice + gatame < katame locking] 1932 (OED) keyaki [kijdiki] n. 1. a large, deciduous tree, Zelkova serrata. Also, kiaki. 2. the wood of this tree. A thin walled keyaki bowl (keyaki, a hard wood with a conspicuous grain frequently used for objects turned on a lathe, is known in the West as zelkova) is $90. (The New York Times, May 19, 1991, Sec. 5, p. 6) [< keyaki] 1904 (OED) kiaki [kidiki] n. see keyaki. Kibei [kiibei] n., pi. -bei or -s, a Japanese American who was born in the United States but educated in Japan and whose parents had immigrated from Japan. Also, kibei. Compare Nisei. One element of the Japanese community that became important in the [relocation] camps were the Kibei. The Kibei were also Nisei, but they had been sent to Japan at an early age to be reared by relatives and receive a Japanese education; they usually returned to the United States in their teens. (Stephan Themstrom, ed., Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, 1980, p. 566) Sugihara Jozo was born in San Francisco in 1916. . . . At the age of three, he returned as a kibei with his family to Japan, where he lived until he was 20: culturally Japanese, but legally holding American citizenship by virtue of birthplace. (Journal of Japanese Studies, Summer 1990, p. 396) Kibei remain a subgroup of the nisei, distinct in their degree of Japanese- and Englishlanguage ability, their socialization as Japanese or Americans, and their identity. (Brian Nitta, ed., Japanese American History, 1993, p. 201) [< kibei < ki- returning + bei < bei(koku) the United States of America. The term was coined by the Japanese Americans.] kiku [kiiku:] n. a perennial plant, Chrysanthemum morifolium.

In Japan this design is generally called 'Howo Moyo'; this is combined with 'Kiku' or 'Chrysanthemum,' which is the Queen of Flowers. (Antiques & Collecting Hobbies, 1988, p. 29) [< kiku] Kikuchi lines [kikiiitfi] n. in crystallography, a pattern obtained when an electron beam is diffracted by a crystalline solid. Also, Kikuchi patterns. [< (Seishi) Kikuchi (1902-1974), the physicist who observed the line first]

86

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kikumon [kikoman, ki:-] n. one of the two badges of the Japanese Imperial family, a stylized chrysanthemum flower with sixteen petals. Also, kiku mon. The kiku mon is the chrysanthemoid form. It is also the Imperial Mon although it has been used in the past by other families. (Alex R. Newman and Egerton Ryerson, Japanese Art: A Collector's Guide, 1964, p. 92) [< kikumon < kiku chrysanthemum + mon badge] kikyo [kiikiou] n. a perennial plant, Platycodon grandiflorum; also known as balloon-flower or Chinese bellflower. Also, kikyo. Many other plant and floral forms have contributed to enrich the Japanese vocabulary of decoration. . . . There is the arrowroot (kuzu), known to be one of the "seven roots of autumn"; bellflower (kikyo), indigo in color . . . and the tea berry (chanomi). (Clarence Hornung, Introduction, in Traditional Japanese Stencil Designs, ed. Clarence Hornung, 1985, p. vi) [< kikyo] 1899: kikiyo 1884 (OED) kimon [kimdn, ki:-] n. in a house, the direction from which a demon enters and brings misfortune. [< kimon < ki demon + mon gate] 1871 (OED) kimono [kimounou, ko-, -no] n. 1. a robe-like garment with long, wide sleeves, worn with a wide sash, obi. The kimono is a universal symbol of Japana symbol of traditional beauty with a sense of timelessness and endurance. (School Arts, Apr. 1993, p. 31) A man's kimono falls straight from shoulder to ankle with no excess length to be tucked up. A woman's kimono must be longer than her height and adjusted to ankle length by Mousing over a tie at the hips. (Lisa Crihfield Dalby, Kimono: Fashioning Culture, 1993, p. 168) The Japanese traditionally wear the kimono with the left side tucked over the right. But when used to dress a dead body, the kimono is arranged the opposite way. (The New York Times Magazine, Nov. 5, 1995, p. 35) 2. a dress or gown fashioned after this garment. With strategically placed color and luxurious fabrics, Isaac Mizrahi adds oriental flair to an evening dress and cascading black velvet and red silk kimonosa reference to "the Japanese sensibility of hiding precious things." (Vogue, Oct. 1992, p. 350, caption) [< kimono < ki < kiru to wear + mono thing] 1886 (OED) kimonoed [kimounod] adj. wearing a kimono. A group of elderly kimonoed women watched me with undisguised interest, and from their smiles, I assumed that I was giving a delightful performance. (The New York Times, Dec. 15,1985, Sec. 10, p. 33) [< kimono + -ed] 1894 (OED)

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kimono sleeve [kimouno] n. an extra-large sleeve panel that extends from shoulder to waist and is part of the bodice of a garment. The Kimono Sleeve This is one area in which I differ from The Vogue Sewing Book. What is termed kimono sleeve in that book is really a tunic sleeve in that it is a variation of the basic Roman T shape of the early tunics. The kimono sleeve is nothing more than a hanging rectangle of fabric attached to a dropped shoulder or other sleeve piece. (Beverly Jane Thomas, A Practical Approach to Costume Design and Construction, 1982, p. 138) The kimono sleeve has been used by designers since the late 19th century for coats, dresses, jackets, and SWEATERS. (Georgina O'Hara, The Encyclopedia of Fashion, 1986, p. 150) [< kimono] kin [km] n. a unit of weight used until the introduction of the metric system in the 1950s. Commercially, one kin equals 1.3277 pounds or 756 kin equal approximately 1000 pounds. (Isabel B. Wingate, Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles, 6th ed., 1984, p. 331) [< kin the term used for "pound"] kinken seiji [kinken seid3i:] n. political influence secured by large contributions to political parties. In the wake of the 1974 elections and the Lockheed scandal, the newspapers became obsessed with kinken seiji, money politics, and seiji rinri, political ethics. (Karel van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese Power, Vintage ed., 1990, p. 132) [< kinken seiji < kin money + ken power + seiji politics] 1978 (BDC) kiri [ki:ri] n. 1. a tall deciduous tree, Paulownia tomentosa.

The paulownia (kiri) runs a close second to the chrysanthemum as an imperial crest. (Clarence Hornung, Introduction, in Traditional Japanese Stencil Designs, ed. Clarence Hornung, 1985, p. vi) 2. the wood of this tree. Kiri wood The name given to wood from the Japanese tree Paulownia tomentosa. (David M. Moore, ed.-in-chief, The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encylopedia of Plants and Earth Sciences, Vol. II, 1988, p. 193) [< kiri paulownia] 1727 (OED) kirigami [knrigdimi] n. the art of cutting paper into decorative forms. attributive use. Besides the Candy Man, the festival [Matsuri, A Festival of Japan] will include . . . demonstration of flower arranging and children's activities, such as origami and kirigami lessons, kite-making and ukiyo-e printing. (The Arizona Republic, Feb. 19, 1993, pp. Dl, D5) [< kirigami < kiri cutting + garni < kami paper]

88

kirimon

kirimon [kfromdn, ki-] n. one of the two badges of the Imperial family, a stylized paulownia consisting of three leaves surmounted by seven flower buds in the center and five on each side. [< kirimon < kiri paulownia + mon badge] kirin [kiirin] n. a Chinese mythical animal, a popular artwork motif. The kirin is a creature of good omen with a bearded humanoid face, two horns, a domelike protrusion on its head, and four horns on its back, the tail of a shishi [a mythical lion] and cloven hooves. (Lawrence Smith, Victor Harris, and Timothy Clark, Japanese Art: Masterpieces in the British Museum, 1990, p. 156, caption) [< kirin] 1727 (OED) koan [kouain] n., pi. -an or -s, in Zen Buddhism, a paradoxical question for meditation. Also, koan. Since the koan eludes solution by means of discursive understanding, it makes clear to the student the limitations of thought and eventually forces him to transcend it in an intuitive leap, which takes him into a world beyond logical contradictions and dualistic modes of thought. (Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, Franz-Karl Ehrhard, and Michael S. Diener, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, trans. Michael H. Kohn, 1991, p. 117) [< koan < ko public + an notice] 1945 (WCD) koban 1 [koubain] n.f pi. -n or -s, a police substation. As much a neighborhood caretaker as an enforcer of the law, the Japanese police officer keeps watch from one of the 15,000 such koban across the country. (Los Angeles Times, May 19, 1985, Part I, p. 2) Strongly supported by the local press, and cited in such publications as Asia Week and the New York Times, the kobans are attractive and functional and functional extentions of police services. (Law and Order, Dec. 1989, p. 20) There are . . . small boxescalled kobanthroughout the city neighborhoods which are constantly manned by two police officers. . . . The kobans are supplemented by foot patrolmen, both in uniform and undercover, who walk Tokyo's small streets. (The Washington Post, Oct. 13, p. C4) Police are distributed throughout populated areas through the use of small police stations called koban. Police keep track of visitors and the coming and going of the population. They visit each household twice a year to collect data on who lives there and the kinds of valuables they keep. Such visits are also an opportunity to pass on crime-prevention information. (Louis D. Hayes, Introduction to Japanese Politics, 1992, p. 208) The corner kiosk you see outside Lexington Market this Christmas may look like a Fotomat, but it's actually Baltimore's newest police station. Called a "koban," the 8-by12-foot station the first of a half-dozen that could be built in the city's busiest commercial districtsis named after Japan's highly successful community policing centers. (The Baltimore Sun, Sept. 20, 1994, p. IB. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [< koban < ko public + ban watching] 1967 (B2)

ko-gatana koban 2 [koubam] n. see kobang.

89

kobang [koubaerj] n. a gold coin used from 1609 to 1870, the value of which varied through time. Also, cobang and koban. Four pretty itzibuequivalent to about six shillingswould buy a whole cobang of goldand a cobang of gold was worth about eighteen shillings and fourpence outside Japan. (Pat Barr, The Coming of the Barbarians, 1967, p. 87) Four bu of gold equaled one ryo (just over 18 grammes), which was the weight of the most common gold coin, known as the koban. (Charles J. Dunn, Everyday Life in Imperial Japan, 1989, p. 98) [< koban < ko- small + ban size] 1860: coban 1616 (OED) Kobe beef [koubi, -bei] n. tender meat from Japanese cattle produced in Japan. The primary role of Wagyu cattle . . . was for draught work and this was largely undertaken by the males, the females being fattened for beefespecially virgin heifers. It is from the latter that the famous Kobe or Matsuzaka beef was developed. (Valerie Porter, Cattle, 1991, p. 265) This was Kobe beef, the most famous, expensive, and delicious beef in the world, taken from an ancient strain of Japanese black cattle that are raised on a diet of beer and sakesoaked grain and pampered throughout their lives with massage and acupuncture. (Vogue, Aug. 1991, p. 302) Beef! Not any tough, stringy, imported beef, but finely marbled Kobe beef, more precious than pearls. (Clayton Naff, About Face, 1994, p. 61) [< Kobe the city in Hyogo Prefecture where the cattle are processed] kobeite [koubiait] n. a black, orthorhombic mineral: (Y,Fe,U)(Ti,Nb,Ta)2 (0,OH)6. [< Kobe a village in Kyoto Prefecture + -ite] 1950 (OED) kogai 1 [kougai] n., pi. -gai, a sword accessory. Also, kogai. kogai A hair-pin or skewer-like implement carried in a slot in the scabbard opposite the kodzuka. (B. W. Robinson, Glossary, Japanese Sword-Fittings and Associated Metalwork, 1980, p. 367) [< kogai < kamigaki < kami hair + gaki < kaki scratching] kogai 2 [kougai] n. environmental pollution. Kogai, environmental disruption, has come to the forefront as a political issue; the women were the first to see it clearly. (William Scott, Japan: Its History and Culture, 1994, p. 261) [< kogai < ko public + gai damage] 1970 (OED) ko-gatana [kougotdmo] n.,pl. -na, see ko-katana.

90 koi [koi] n., pi. koi, carp, Cyprinus carpio.

koi

All koi belong to one species, Cyprinus carpio, of which about one hundred varieties have been developed. However, these are not genetically fixed, which means that spawning one variety produces offspring of other varieties. (Anne McDowall, ed., The Tetra Encyclopedia of Koi, 1989, p. 122) One of the most refreshing experiences that a Japanese garden can offer is the chance to feed the koi. These brilliant relatives of the common goldfish, prized for their colorful patterns, are a kind of carp. Like a special garden stone, a magnificently patterned koi is considered a treasure. (Cedric Crocker, ed., Creating Japanese Gardens, 1989, p. 71) In a masterful aesthetic judgment, the Japanese bred koiwhich are kept as pool fish in Japanto look their best when seen from above. The best of these fish, therefore, have broad backs and striking color patterns on their top surfaces; what is seen from the side is considered less important. . . . Small specimens do well in aquaria, but full-grown koi can be three feet long, and need a sizable pool. (Joseph S. Levine, The Complete Fishkeeper, 1991, p. 91) Children enjoy the ponds at the Waterford Gardens. . . . Today, aside from 16,000 square feet of greenhouses featuring exotic plants, Waterford also carries Japanese koi, the aristocrat of ornamental fish. (The New York Times, May 15, 1994, Sec. 14NJ, p. 12) [<koi] 1878 (OED) koi-cha [koitjo] n. in the tea ceremony, powdered tea prepared to a thick brew. Also, koicha. Thick tea (koicha), the more formal, is creamy in consistency, though bitter in taste. It is drunk in small quantities by all the guests from the same bowl. ((Martin Collcutt, Marius Jansen, and Isao Kumakura, Cultural Atlas of Japan, 1988, p. 151) The [tea] masters were preparing the thick green tea known as koicha, not once as is traditional, but twicea startling breach of protocol. (The New York Times, Apr. 9, 1990, P-A4) [< koicha < koi thick + < cha tea] 1890: koitsjaa 1727 (OED) koji [koud3i] n. a yeast prepared from steamed rice, barley, or soybeans inoculated with the spores of a mold, Aspergillus oryzae. Mi so is prepared by mixing cooked soybeans with salt and kojia starter prepared by inoculating and incubating cooked rice or barley with beneficial mold spores. (Vegetarian Times, Mar. 1995, p. 90) [ < A r n o l d ] 1878 (OED) kojic acid [koud3ik] n. a crystalline antibiotic used in insecticides and as an antifungal and antimicrobial agent. Kojic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4-pyrone . . . is a nonaromatic cyclic compound with a hydroxyl group that is more acidic . . . than phenol. (Inorganic Chemistry, 1988, vol. 27, p. 2771) [< koj(i) +-ic] 1913 (OED)

konbu

91

kojiri [koudsiiri:] n., pi, -ri, the chape of a scabbard. The cap at the bottom of the scabbard (kojiri) is boat shaped and made of iron. (Sebastian Izzard, ed., One Hundred Masterpieces from the Collection of Dr. Walter A. Compton, 1992, p. 244) [< kojiri] ko-katana [koukotdmo] n., pi. -na. a small sword. Also, kokatana or ko-gatana. The scabbard of the short sword (wakizashi) contained built-in sheaths for the ko-gatana or sheath knife with its rectangular push-on grip, kozuka, and the hairpin-like kogai. (H. Russell Robinson, Indroduction, in Japanese Arms & Armor, 1969, p. 53) Kokatana (utility knife). (Lawrence Smith, Victor Harris and Timothy Clark, Japanese Art: Masterpieces in the British Museum, 1990, p. 88, caption) [< kogatana < ko- small + gatana < katana sword] kokeshi [koukoji] n. a wooden doll with a cylindrical torso, a round head, and a girl's face. Tohoku [northeastern Japan] is associated with kokeshi, simple wooden dolls with globular heads affixed to a cylindrical body. (June Kinoshita and Nicholas G. Palevsky, Gateway to Japan, 1990, p. 106) [< kokeshi] 1959 (OED) koku [kouku:] n., pi. -ku, a unit of dry capacity equal to 180.39 liters (5.12 bushels), used until the introduction of the metric system in the 1950s. The unit of rice used for this purpose was the koku, which is equivalent to about five bushels, and would, in fact, feed one person for a year. (Charles J. Dunn, Everyday Life in
Imperial Japan, 1989, p. 15)

[< koku] 1727 (OED) kombu [kdmbu:] n. an edible seaweed, Laminaria. Also, konbu. All Japanese konbu is of the Laminaria family and is mainly harvested off the northernmost island of Hoakkido. The deep olive brown kelp leaf is from 2V2 to 12 inches (6 to 30 cm) wide and may reach lengths of many yards. Leaves are dried in the sun, cut, folded, and packaged. (Shizuo Tsuji, Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art, 1980, p. 72) KOMBU (Kelp). The natural taste-enhancing properties of Laminaria japonica and Laminaria ochotensis, two of many commonly used sea vegetables in Japan, have been known for centuries. These sturdy kelps are used primarily for stock making, though they're cooked and eaten as vegetables, too. (Elizabeth Andoh, An American Taste of Japan, 1985, p. 29) [< kombu] 1884 (OED) konbu [kdnbu:] n. see kombu.

92

Kondo effect

Kondo effect [kdndou] n. the increase in electrical resistance of certain dilute alloys of magnetic materials as the temperature is decreased. [< (Jun) Kondo ( 1 9 3 0 - ) , a physicist] konjac [kdnjaek] n. see konnyaku. konnyaku [kanjaeku:] n. 1. a perennial plant, Amorphophallus konjac. konjac. Also,

KONJAC FLOURa product of the konjac roothas been used as a traditional foodstuff in Far East nations. For more than a thousand years, Japan has used it for making gels and noodles which are stable in boiling water. In Japan, there are shops which sell only foods made with konjac (konnyaku), ranging from chewy desserts to colored soup dumplings. (Food Technology, Mar. 1991, p. 82) 2. a food product processed from the root of this plant. It is the dense, gelatinous, dark brown to hazy gray cake . . . that is called konnyaku. Konnyaku's flavor is neutral, and it is not porous enough to easily absorb flavors from food it is cooked with. (Shizuo Tsuji, Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art, 1980, p. 73) There was also sashimi made of konnyaku (a root called devil's tongue), a firm but slippery gray substance, one of many characteristically Japanese foods valued as much for its texture and consistency as for its elusive flavor. (The New York Times, Apr. 6, 1986, Sec. 10, p. 6) [< konnyaku] 1954: konjak 1884 (OED) Korin [koirin] adj. of or relating to a painter, Ogata Korin (1658-1716). Also, Korin. It is characteristic of the Sotatsu-Korin school that motifs can usually be traced to a literary source, although little if any effort is made to illustrate the scene literally; there is only an allusion to the settings or the accoutrements, or a suggested mood or flavor that can perhaps be sensed by the Japanese if not by us. (Sherman E. Lee, A History of Far Eastern Art, 5th ed. Edited by Naomi Noble Richard, 1994, p. 538) [< (Ogata) Korin] 1898 (OED) koro [kourou] n. the small pot of an incense burner. Covered Incense Burner . . . A serene and highly refined landscape reminiscent of many traditional Japanese painting adorns a koro. (Architectural Digest, May 1992, p. 181, caption) [< koro < ko incense + ro burner] 1822 (OED) kotatsu [koutd:tsu:] n. a means of heating the body, consisting either of a frame placed over the source of heat, or of a low table with an electric heater attached underneath and covered with a quilt. For warming the body, the heat was concentrated in a kotatsu; this was a charcoal heater with a framework rather like a table placed over it, and then this was covered with a quilt

koza

93

large enough to spread over the legs of those who sat at it, so that hot air found its way up through the clothing. (Charles J. Dunn, Everyday Life in Imperial Japan, 1989, p. 159) The standard locale for these [winter] evenings of family togetherness is the kotatsu, or "heated table"a long table that has an electric heating element underneath and a feather comforter around the sides to keep the heat in. (The Washington Post, Mar. 4, 1991, p. A9) attributive use. The floor is a tatami mat; the futon bedding is folded away during the day. The only furnishings are a shin-high kotatsu table with a heat lamp attached underneath (in winter, a quilt is inserted between the two layers of table-top and draped down to the floor; it keeps your feet toasty), legless chairs, and cushions. (Bon Appetit, Oct. 1993, p. 120) [< kotatsu] \X16 (OED) koto [koutou] n. a musical instrument with thirteen nylon or silk strings, plucked with ivory plectra worn on the thumb, index finger, and middle finger of the right hand. Koto. Long zither, with movable frets, of Japan. It is the most important Japanese member of the family of East Asian long zithers. (Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, 1984, Vol. 2, p. 465) Acacia . . . performed intriguing, slow-motion trip-hop songs, in sound-collage arrangements that incorporated everything from hard-rock to a Japanese koto. (The New York Times, Aug. 17, 1995, p. C13) Today, [Miya] Masaoka is an instructor at the San Francisco Community Center where she teaches composition, music theory, ear training and koto. (The Rafu Shimpo, Nov. 22, 1995, p. 1) [<koto] 1795 (OED)

kotoite [koutouait] n. a colorless, orthorhombic mineral: Mg3B206. [< (Bunjiro) Koto (1856-1935), a geologist + -ite] koza [kouzo] n. a hierarchically organized academic unit. Japan also employs a hierarchical university research system called koza, in which a senior professor controls and directs most of the research of the assistant professors, instructors and graduate students on his team. (Los Angeles Times, Jun. 24, 1990, p. D10) The koza is the basic academic unit, copied from the old German system, consisting of a powerful professor and a surrounding corps of two assistant professors and one or more lecturers and assistants. (Science, Oct. 23, 1992, p. 567) attributive use. Where gakubatsu rivalry and elitism impeded interuniversity collaboration, the koza system sometimes stifled creativity and initiative on the part of younger scholars. (John Dower, Japan in War and Peace, 1993, p. 66) [< koza < ko lecture + za chair] 1972 (B2)

94 kozo [kouzou] n. a small deciduous tree, Broussonetia kazinoki.

kozo

Kozo is a loosely applied term for a variety of papermaking mulberry trees. . . . It was one of the earliest cultivated plants used for paper and produces the toughest and strongest fibers. (Bernard Toale, The Art of Papermaking, 1983, p. 9) [< kozo] kudzu [kudzu:] n. 1. a perennial climbing vine, Pueraria lobata. Also, kuzu. KudzuThe fast-growing vine has smothered portions of the Southeastern United States. A bill was introduced in the Georgia Legislature this year to make it a crime for a property owner to allow kudzu to grow from his property to another property. (The Orlando Sentinel, Mar. 17, 1994, caption. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) In the early 1900s, the Burks Hotel on the old courthouse square in Fayetteville boasted gas lights, its own water system and a sweeping front porch and balcony with kudzu planted for shade. (The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Constitution, Dec. 29, 1994, p. Ml. Business NewsBank PLUS) attributive use. At Vanderbilt University in Nashville, for example, studies have been made on turning kudzu leaves into ethanol fuel and using kudzu roots as a starch source. (Los Angeles Times, Apr. 23, 1988, Part I, p .20) Ready for kudzu jelly? That's just the latest specialty food in a growing local industry. (Triad Business [Greensboro, NC]), Sept. 26, 1994. Business NewsBank PLUS) 2. starch prepared from the root of this vine. As a thickener, kuzu starchextracted from the root of the vineis excellent: it produces a sparkling, translucent sauce and adds shiny gloss to soups. (Shizuo Tsuji, Japanese Cooking A Simple Art, (1980)1981, p. 94) An essential ingredient in the vegetarian or any kitchen, kuzu is a delicate flour product from the root of kuzu vine. Kuzu can be found in health food stores as well as Japanese shops. (Lesley Downer, Japanese Vegetarian Cooking, 1986, p. 33) [< kuzu] IS16 (WCD) Kuge [kuigei] n. the court nobility in feudal Japan. Also, kuge. The Imperial Palace was restored to its former grandeur, and residences were provided for the entire court nobility (kuge). (Japan: Profile of a Nation. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1994, p. 47) [< kuge] 1727: Cangue 1577 (OED) Kumaso [kuimdisou] n., pi. -so or -s, a tribe mentioned in eighth-century chronicles. The tribes of Kumaso and Hayato in Kyushu and the Ezo in the north resisted the imperial forces for centuries. The racial origins of the Kumaso and Hayato are not known. (Mikiso Hane, Premodern Japan, 1991, p. 42) [< Kumaso]

kurogo kumite [kumfiti, -tei] n. sparring in martial arts.

95

The sparring in most martial arts schools is best described as "air tag." The same is true of traditional karate kumite (point sparring), where blows are stopped short of contact and only one or two strikes are delivered before the action is stopped and the fighters are reset. (Black Belt, Dec. 1995, p. 69) attributive use. The seventh annual Funakoshi Shotokan Karate Championships, recently held in San Jose, California, featured approximately 350 entrants in kata (forms) divisions and 360 in kumite (sparring) divisions. (Karate/Kung Fu Illustrated, Apr. 1995, p. 65) [< kumite < kumi < kumu to fight + te trick] 1965 (B2) Kumon n. a systematic, inductive method of teaching mathematics. Repetition has been a winning formula at home for Kumon for almost 35 years now. Will it continue so here? If it does, Americans may one day consume Japanese educational methods as freely as they now consume Japanese cars and TV sets. (Forbes, Jul. 20, 1992, p. 82) [< (Tom) Kumon, a mathematics teacher who developed this teaching method in the late 1950s] 1989 (AS) kura [kuiro] n., pi. -ra or -s, a storehouse whose exterior walls are covered with thick layers of clay and plaster, built between the mid-seventeenth and early twentieth centuries. To protect tax-rice and valuables, merchants and tax collectors built kura, storehouses with thick walls of earth and plaster, often made sparkling white by mixing in ground oyster shells. The river at Edo's Nihonbashi . . . was lined with kura. (June Kinoshita and Nicholas G. Palevsky, Gateway to Japan, 1990, p. 55) One of the best things about Kurashiki is one of the few things that are indigenous; its architecture. The town's oft-praised kura, or storehouses, date back to the mid-1600's, their sturdy simplicity said to capture the character of the frugal, solid merchants who built them. Facades are characterized by white walls with grilled doors and windows, and rows of black clay tiles set into a 30-centimeter-thick plaster-covered mud surface. (The New York Times, Jan. 1, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 9) [< kura storage] 1880 (OED) kurikata [ku:rikd:ta:] n. the cord ring on a scabbard. The cord ring (kurikata) and retaining hook . . . are carved in the round as a mythical lion dog. (Sebastian Izzard, ed., One Hundred Masterpieces from the Collection of Dr. Walter A. Compton, 1992, p. 266) [< kurikata < kuri chestnut + kata shape] kurogo [kuirougou] n. a stage assistant who wears a black costume and acts inconspicuously while changing scenes and dancers' costumes in traditional Japanese theater.

96

kuromaku

In addition to the regular performers, the koken (stage assistant) serves a valuable function on the [kabuki] stage. . . . The koken is also known as kurogo ("black costume") since he is often dressed all in black. (Japan: Profile of a Nation. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1994, p. 281) [< kurogo literally, black costume] kuromaku [kuiromdiku:] n. a person who exerts power and influence behind the scenes. [Shin] Kamemaru, 77, is regarded as the most powerful fund-raiser in the biggest Liberal Democratic Party factionthe ultimate kuromaku, or "behind-the-curtain" figure wielding unseen power. (The Washington Post, Sept. 6, 1992, p. A38) The English equivalent would perhaps be godfather or string-puller or kingmaker, but a kuromaku was more than all these. The word implied a person of very special caliber, and more recently it suggested links to both organized crime and politics at the highest level. (Victor O'Reilly, Rules of the Hunt, 1995, p. 32) [< kuromaku < kuro black + maku curtain (a black curtain was used on the kabuki stage)] 1974 ( # ) Kuroshio or Kuroshio Current [kuiroujiiou] n. a major warm ocean current. Kuroshio is defined as a strong, belt-like, northeasterly flowing current located along the western margin of the North Pacific, running off the east coast of northern part of the Philippines and extending to the east coast of Japan. (Rhodes W. Fairbridge, The Encyclopedia of Oceanography, 1966, p. 433) Their [National Geographic] photographs provide a rare glimpse of exotic specimens in the great Kuroshio (Black Stream), Japan's Gulf Stream. (Science Digest, Jul. 1986, p. 44) The middle depths, especially off central Japan, are a hidden oasis of life, fed by nutrients eroded from the surrounding mountains or pumped in by the Kuroshio current, Japan's equivalent of the Atlantic Ocean's Gulf Stream, which rubs against the Japanese coast as it heads northeast toward the Aleutians. (National Geographic, Oct. 1990, p. 8) If you are looking for a warmer place to spend the winter these islands may be on your itinerary. But keep in mind that this area [Nansei Shoto] lies along the route of summer and fall typhoons and that it is the home of the north-flowing Kuroshio Current. (Cruising World, Jan. 1994, p. 55) [< kuroshio < kuro black + shio current] 1967: 1885 Kurosiwo (OED)

Kuroshio Extension [ku:roufi:ou] n. a warm ocean current that flows eastward across the northern Pacific Ocean. The major part of the Kuroshio then sweeps the area south of Japanese Islands. . . . The portion of stream in the Pacific after it leaves the Japanese Islands is called the Kuroshio Extension. The existence of the Kuroshio Extension can be traced as far east as the longitudes of about 180 and in considerable intensity to about 160E. (Rhodes W. Fairbridge, The Encyclopedia of Oceanography, 1966, p. 433)

kuzushi

97

After leaving the coast of Japan, the Kuroshio splits, with one branch continuing east as the Kuroshio Extension and the other turning to the southwest to become the Kuroshio Countercurrent. (Donald G. Groves and Lee M. Hunt, Ocean World Encyclopedia, 1980, p. 194) [< kuroshio] kuruma [kuruimo, kuromo] n. 1. a jinrikisha. Also, rickshaw. In 1878 Isabella Bird went from Tokyo to Nikko by 'kuruma' [she meant jinrikisha]. (Hugh Cortazzi, Victorians in Japan, 1987, p. 234) 2. a carriage drawn by an ox, used by nobles in premodern Japan. In 1169 the kuruma, or carriages of nobles, were decorated with hyomon lacquer. (Melvin Jahss and Betty Jahss, Inro and Other Miniature Forms of Japanese Lacquer Art, 1971, p. 60) [< kuruma vehicle] 1880; 1727 khuruma (OED) Kurume or Kurume azalea [kuromei, kuruimei] n. an azalea. Kurume Azaleas were . . . first used as greenhouse or indoor plants, but they proved hardier than the Indian Hybrids and soon became an important landscape plant. (Fred C. Galle, Azaleas, rev. ed., 1987, p. 122) Kurume. . . . Compact, twiggy plants, densely foliaged with small leaves. Small flowers are borne in incredible profusion. Plants mounded or tiered, handsome even out of bloom. (Kathleen Norris Brenzel, ed., Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995, p. 457) [< Kurume a city in Fukuoka Prefecture] 1920 (OED) Kutani or Kutani ware [kutdini] n. richly decorated porcelain produced in Ishikawa Prefecture. The term Kutani ware, describing lavishly enamelled porcelain made or decorated in Ishikawa prefecture, was introduced in the early 19th century. (Elisabeth Cameron, Encyclopedia of Pottery and Porcelain, 1986, p. 191) Red, green, purple and gold are also common on Kutani ware. Design motifs such as flowers and trees, were inspired by the Kano and Tosa school of Japanese paintings, Ming and Qing (Ch'ing) dynasty Chinese porcelain, and colorful textiles. (Dorothy Perkins, Encyclopedia of Japan, 1991, p. 187) [< Kutani a village in Ishikawa Prefectre] 1880 (OED) kuzu [kuzu:] n. see kudzu. kuzushi [kuziiiji] n. techniques for breaking an opponent's balance in judo. Compare tsukuri. Getting your opponent into a position at which it will be easy to throw him is the name of the kuzushi game. (George R. Parulski, Jr., The Complete Book of Judo, 1984, p. 16) [< kuzushi breaking] 1950 (OED)

98 kwaiken [kwaiken] n. see kaiken. kwazoku [kwdizouku:] n. see kazoku.

kwaiken

kyogen [kiougen] n. in Noh theater, a brief comic play performed as an interlude between Noh plays. Also, kyogen. An all-day Noh performance was an exhausting event, in need of relief. This was provided by Kyogen ("crazy words"), comic vignettes given between Noh plays. Kyogen is the world of Noh turned topsy-turvy, the protagonists are not anguished ghosts, but bumbling humans. (June Kinoshita and Nicholas G. Palevsky, Gateway to Japan, 1990, p. 84) attributive use. [Samuel] Beckett's contribution to the dance form is limited to "Quad I and II." But his "Act Without Words I," a mime play here adapted to the earthy Kyogen style, and "Tied to a Stick," a traditional Kyogen comedy, will also be presented. (The New York Times, Mar. 1986, p. C18) [< kyogen < kyo crazy + gen words] 1911: Kiogen 1899 (OED) kyu [kjii:] n. the rank given to students whose proficiency is lower than the black belt level in Japanese martial arts. Compare dan and shodan. The Kyu . . . grades are the novice grade, while the Dan grades imply a degree of mastery. (Syd Hoare, Judo, 1993, p. 9) It usually takes three to four years of ascent through the kyu or gup grades to reach 1 stdegree black belt. (John Corcoran and Emil Farkas, The Original Martial Arts Encyclopedia, rev. ed., 1994, p. 2) [< kyu grade] 1937 (OED) kyudo [kjuidou] n. Japanese archery, a martial art whose practice is linked to Zen philosophy. Trainees at this Honolulu [International Zen Dojo's Chozen-ji] temple arise at 5 a. m. to meditate before breakfast and their normal duties tending the temple and herb garden. Evening activities include training in music, ceramics, and martial arts such as kyudo, an approach to archery that incorporates the same three disciplines of concentration, breathing, and posture that are emphasized in meditation. (National Geographic, Apr. 1986, p. 535) Kyudo is Japanese archery, a martial art born of war which has evolved into a graceful, contemplativeritual.(Rick Kennedy, Little Adventures in Tokyo, 1992, p. 19) The bow continued to be an important Japanese weapon of war into the 17th century, and eventually was adapted into a sport/meditative system called kyudo. (Black Belt, Mar. 1993, p. 26) [< kyudo < kyii bow + do way] 1967 (B1)

L
linked verse verse form consisting of five-seven-five-seven-seven syllables, composed by two or more poets in alternation. Also, renga. The linked verse that became popular from about the fourteenth century on was composed by three or more poets who divided the waka into two "links" (one made up of the first three lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables and the other of the last two lines of 7 and 7 syllables), which could be joined together endlessly. (H. Paul Varley, Japanese Culture, 3rd ed., 1984, p. 39) In medieval Japan, the group composition of linked verse, or renga, became the dominant poetical practice, often combined with another form of group art, the tea ceremony. (Donald Jenkins, The Floating World Revisited, 1993, p. 48) [translation of renga < ren- linked + <ga<ka poem] love hotel an establishment that provides rooms accommodating various sexual fantasies. Yes, believe it or not, budget travelers in Japan can cut costs by staying at "love hotels." These unbelievable hotels are found in all metro areas of Japan and are used by privacystarved Japanese lovers for a few hours of erotic frolicking. The rooms are by the hour and the peak hours. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 1986, p. 109) The story I have been aching to tell . . . is the tale of my night in the love hotel. I was accompanied by my wife, Madeline. . . . Love hotels are everywhere in Japan. They come in the shape of ships, castles, London Bridge, space rockets. (Life, Sept. 1989, p. 17) All over the country, a special breed of hotels exists just for couples who want a quick fling in complete confidentiality. These establishments use state-of-the-art automation, permitting guests to pick a room, check in, eat and drink, enjoy themselves, pay the bill and departall without seeing, or being seen by, another human being. According to hotel industry estimates, Japan has more than 20,000 such places, known here as "love

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hotels," "fashion hotels" or "abeku hotels"the Japanese pronunciation of the French word "avecT or "with." Generally renting rooms for two hours at a time. (The Washington Post, Aug. 13, 1990, p. A14) When the first love hotel opened in Tokyo in the midseventies, the press went to town. It was called simply Hoteru Japan and was praised for its Italian-style interior. (Cosmopolitan, Aug. 1991, p. 90) "It's too bright here now," moaned Isoji Mochizuki, manager of the tiny Hotel Villa Shinjuku [in Tokyo], a 'love hotel' along a once-dark alley where rooms are let by the hour. (The New York Times, Oct. 22, 1993, p. A4) "Love hotels" have become a favored treat for couples, most of them marriedfantasy refuges from crowded quarters and hectic lives [in Japan]. (Time, Feb. 15, 1993, p. 51, caption) [< rabu hoteru < rabu love + hoteru hotel: the term has been in use since the early 1970s in Japan] 1982 (BDC) low profile n. 1. a modest attitude adopted deliberately to be inconspicuous. Also, low silhouette. Partying on Padre Island: This spring break, beer companies kept a low profile. (Business Week, Jun. 24, 1991, p. 52, caption) He [Thomas McLarty] intends to be an honest broker who will carry out orders, keep a low profile and make sure that those who disagree do so, as he puts it, "in an agreeable way." (Time, Dec. 28, 1992, p. 25) Since defeating Lech Walesa, Poland's first democratically elected President and a staunch anti-Communist, Mr. Kwasniewski . . . has kept a low profile, trying to allow passions at home to cool. (The New York Times, Nov. 29, 1995, p. A3) The preacher [Jim Bakker], whose smiling face once appeared on television sets in millions of homes across the country, plans to keep a low profile, said his attorney, Jim Toms. (The Arizona Republic, Dec. 1994, p. A10) 2. the state of being inconspicuous. While we Americans have our symbols of industriousnessEdison, for examplethey have a low profile these days. (Psychology Today, Dec. 1982, p. 7) The $300-million DDF [Drug Discovery Facility] covers seven acres and has a low silhouette because it is only four stories tall. (The New Jersey Business Magazine, Mar. 1, 1993. Business NewsBank PLUS) adj. not readily noticeable. The first lady in recent days has shed the low-profile image she adopted after health-care reform foundered in the Congress and the Republican sweep on Election Day. (The Arizona Republic, Dec. 1, 1994, p. A8) The low-profile visit under the cover of darkness was something of a breakthrough. For the 15 months since he first arrived in Gaza, Mr. [Yasir] Arafat has not been able to visit Israel. His visit today seemed to indicate a new openness by the Israeli Government, now under the stewardship of Shimon Peres. (The New York Times, Nov. 10, 1995, p. A8) Mary Heilmann's abstractionsColor Field by way of early 70's Process Artprovide a

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nice counterpoint to the adjacent Marden show, in terms of both her low-profile career and the unprecious nonchalance with which she makes her paintings. (The New York Times, Nov. 17, 1995, p. C28) At the top of the cliff is a Jersey City neighborhood called the Heights, and since the dawn of local history, residents of the two communities have climbed up and down the hill on a system of improvised staircases and paths. Some of the travelers, residents and officials say, are drug dealers or customers looking for a low-profile route. (The New York Times, Nov. 19, 1995, Sec. 13NJ, p. 6) [translation of tei shisei < tei low + shisei posture] 1964 (B 3 )

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M
machi [mditji] n., pi. -chi or -s, the second smallest political division. The ruled classes of late medieval Japan were clustered in villages (mura) and town wards (machi). (John Whitney Hall, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1991, Vol. 4, p. 79) First, there are 47 major administrative divisions of the total area of Japan. . . . As of March 1988, the entire area of all these major divisions was subdivided into 3,246 administrative units. These included 591 villages (-mura), 2,000 towns (-machi), and 655 cities (-shi). (Ardath W. Burks, Japan: A Post Industrial Power, 3rd ed., 1991, p. 18) [< machi] mai [mai] n. a classical dance form characterized by slow, graceful movement. Compare odori. In mai, the dancer never jumps into the air. In other words, a mai dancer moves smoothly and heavily, keeping the center of gravity low, his body always in contact with the ground. (Matazo Nakamura, Kabuki Backstage, Onstage, trans. Mark Oshima, 1990, p. 25) [< mai dancing] maiko [maikou] n. a young apprentice to a geisha. Don't forget an early evening walk through the Gion geisha district [in Kyoto], perhaps seeing a geisha and the maiko apprentice she is training to dance, sing and entertain in the ancient manner. (Los Angeles Times, Feb. 3, 1985, Sec. VII, p. 13) Kyoto is the training center [of geisha], and the younger apprentice girls from age ten to sixteen are called maiko. (Theodore Welch, Japan Today!, 1990, p. 38) As Japanese travelers try to get to know their own country better, costume tours are all the rage. . . . Several firms take tourists into the life of the maiko, or apprentice geisha,

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in the former Imperial capital of Kyoto for a night of wearing resplendent kimonos and makeup of traditional courtesansfor a modern fee of $490. (Wall Street Journal, Aug. 10, 1994, p. A4) [< maiko < mai dancing + -ko person] 1904 (OED) makimono [mdikomounou] n. a horizontal narrative scroll with text and colorful illustrations, unrolled from right to left. Also, emakimono and E-Makimono. The makimono, or handscroll, originated not in Japan but in China. . . . But whereas the Chinese used the handscroll to depict landscape, the Japanese largely ignored landscape and developed the narrative-figural handscroll to a level hardly reached by surviving Chinese examples. (Sherman E. Lee, A History of Far Eastern Art, 4th ed., 1982, p. 324) [< makimono <maki rolling + mono thing] 1882 (OED) makizushi [mdikiziiiji] n. a type of sushi, rolled in a sheet of seaweed and cut into bite-size pieces. Sushi lovers sometimes run up bills as high as $100 as they sit for hours at highly polished wood counters in the intimate bars, not only eating but looking at the thinly sliced and artfully arranged sashimi (thinly sliced raw fish), makizushi (rice, fish and vegetables rolled in sheets of seaweed) and the nigirizushi (thin slices of fish placed atop small cakes of rice). (Los Angeles Times, Mar. 11, 1985, Part I, p. 1) [< makizushi < maki rolling + < zushi < sushi] mama-san [mdimosdm] n. in Japan and other Asian countries, a woman who is in charge of a bar or geisha-house, or a woman of authority in a group. Typically, a smiling, attractive middle-aged or even elderly "mama-san" is the restaurant's proprietor. Professor Ito says many of these women actually own the restaurants but sometimes they manage them for someone else. (Cathy N. Davidson, 36 Views ofMt. Fuji, 1993, p. 93) [< mama mama + -san courtesy title] 1949 (OED) mamushi [momuiji] n. a small venomous pit viper, Agkistrodon blomhoffi. Also, Mamushi. Mamushi [ . ] . . . A pale grey, reddish-brown, or yellow-brown in color, patterned with irregularly shaped lateral blotches, often with lighter centers and bordered with black. The head is dark brown or black with pale grey or beige sides. . . . Adults average eighteen to twenty-four inches in length. . . . The Mamushi is a hardy captive, with longevities in excess of twelve years recorded. (John M. Mehrtens, Living Snakes of the World, 1987, p. 349) This area [Lake Towada National Park in the northeastern section of Japan] was also home to a poisonous variety of pit viper called mamushi. They were highly sought after and used to make sake. (Gaku Homma, The Folk Art of Japanese Country Cooking, 1991, p. 71) [< mamushi]

martial art mana [mdino] n. Chinese characters contrasting to kana. Compare kana. [< mana < ma- real + na letter]

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manga [maerjgo] n. a Japanese comic book or magazine for children and adults. Some of the men are reading books, but more are reading either "sports papers" or thick volumes of comics, the size of telephone books, known as manga. (The Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 1986, p. 36) The ones for women were like soap operas; the men's manga, however, were a bizarre mix of caricatured violence, nasty sex, and heroic adventure. The range of subject matter was enormous: There was even a manga on physics. (Funny Business, Gary J. Katzenstein, 1989, pp. 69-70) [Osamu] Tezuka played the major part in expanding manga (comic books) beyond the youth market, so that today in Japan adults are the primary readers. (The most popular series sell about 2.5 million copies a week, and the average manga is 320 pages long and is favored commuter readingat 16 pages per minute. (Art in America, Jan. 1991, p. 147) JAPAN'S PASSION FOR ITS COMIC BOOKS AND ANIMATED FILMS has taken hold in the United States. They have grown from an underground hobby for American collectors into a mini-industry that generated $10 million in comic book sales and $50 million in home video sales last year. In Manhattan, two stores that specialize in the comic books, known as manga, and home videos, or anime, have opened in the last two years. (The New York Times, Sept. 17, 1995, Sec. 2, p. 32) attributive use. Publishers disagree on how far the non fiction manga market can grow. Optimists say comics may be the perfect answer in an age of information overload because they cover a story or idea quickly. (Fortune, Oct. 9, 1989, p. 149) Manga hotbeds are found in New York, Boston, California and Hawaii, while Atlanta registers a healthy blip of interest in the Southeast, says Trish Ledoux of Viz Communications, a distributor of manga. Two dozen Atlanta outlets sell 2,500 of the books per week. (The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Constitution, Nov. 7, 1994. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) Mike Richardson, one of the largest comic book publishers in the United States, says America is primed for a manga boom. His companyPortland-based Dark Horse Publicationsis expanding its line of English versions of manga from masters such as Otomo. Richardson's company is one of only two U.S. publishers of manga. (The Oregonian, Feb. 11, 1995, p. C1. DC NewsBank Comprehensive) [< manga < man random + ga sketch] martial art any of the arts of self-defense or combat, such as judo and karate. A martial art is a classical fighting system in which the emphasis is on victory in combat, but which has the secondary motivation of self-perfection through training and includes a moral duty to society. (Michael Finn, Martial Arts, 1988, p. 23) Women who have been training in the martial arts for more than 10 years have not only

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maru

seen dojo (school) culture change as women have moved up the ranks, they have also contributed to that change, understanding that these arts are not about macho display of power but about achieving a self-sustaining sense of security and peace. (Women's Sports and Fitness, Nov./Dec. 1992, p. 52) Mastery of any of the martial arts involves more than the development of expert fighting skills. All martial arts styles incorporate "philosophies" that are intended to enhance human potential in spiritual and mental, as well as physical, endeavors. (The Journal of Creative Behavior, 1994, vol. 28, p. 133) If you associate "martial arts" with breaking a block of wood with your bare hands, think again: The basic stances, kick and punches at the core of the many Oriental forms are far less intimidatingand far less violent. They're also a great way to strengthen and tone your whole body, one reason martial arts classes are cropping up in gyms across the country. (American Health, Feb. 1995, p. 42) [translation of bujutsu] 1933 (OED) maru [mdiru:] n. a Japanese merchant ship. Maru is familiar to any navy men and other sailors. It's a Japanese merchant ship. (Eugene T. Maleska, A Pleasure in Words, 1981, p. 219) [< maru a suffix commonly used for naming ships and swords] m a r u m i or marumi kumquat [moriiimi] n. a round kumquat, japonica. Also, Marumi. Compare nagami. Fortunella

The round-fruited Marumi was introduced into Florida from Japan in 1885, and the Meiwa and Hong Kong kumquat between 1910 and 1912. (Josephine Bacon, The Citrus Cookbook, 1983, p. 23) [< marumi < maru round + mi fruit] maruyu n. a system of small tax-free savings accounts. Also, maru-yu. Tax evasionthrough abuse of the savings system (maru-yu)is rife, and in electoral fraud, industrial espionage and the bribery of public officials Japan can compete with the best. (Peter Tasker, The Japanese: A Major Exploration of Modern Japan, 1987, p. 73) attributive use. The [Japanese] government proposes to cut back the cherished maruyu system of tax-free savings accounts. (Business Week, Nov. 10, 1986, p. 64) [< maruyu < maru circle + yii excellent] matsu [maetsu:, mditsu:] n. 1. a tall evergreen tree, Pinus massoniana.

The most common trees found throughout the archipelago are the matsu and sugi, a Japanese pine and cedar, respectively. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 11) 2. the wood of this tree. Almost all boxes have a wood core (kiji). . . . Pine (matsu) and cypress (hinoki) are considered the best wood for cores because they are white, nonresinous, and fairly

mawashi free from knots. (Barbra Teri Okada, A Sprinkling of Gold, 1983, p.21) [< matsu] 1863 (OED) matsuri [maetsuiri] n., pi. -ri, an annual local festival.

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This is the time of matsuri, the summer festivals of Miyazaki. Ritual street combats, the fishing fleet's Sea Crossing Festival, village processions and a "fire flowers" display of 9,000 fireworks will cap this harvest season. (Travel-Holiday, Jun. 1986, p. 65) There are two categories of holidays in Japan: matsuri (festivals), which are largely of Shinto origin and relate to the cultivation of rice and the spiritual well-being of the community; and nenchu gyo [sic] (annual events), mainly of Chinese or Buddhist origin. (Ronald E. Dolan and Robert L. Worden, eds., Japan: A Country Study, 5th ed., 1992, p. 108) [< matsuri celebrating] 1727 (OED) matsutake [mditsutdiki] n. a large, edible mushroom, Armillaria matsutake.

The matsutake is a dark brown mushroom with a thick, meaty stem. (Shizuo Tsuji, Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art, 1980, p. 75) But for the unintimidated, it is the price tag of the matsutake, or pine-tree mushrooms, that is so breathtaking: a few inches high and, in fact, rather mushroom-like in appearance, single well-shaped matsutake can cost as much as $80; even an average one will run $40 per stem. (The Washington Post, Nov. 21,1988, p. A 16) We start off with matsutake, some rare seasonal mushrooms that are the local equivalent of black truffles. (Condi Nast Traveler, Aug. 1990, p. 101) Matsutakethe name in Japanese means pine mushroomgrow uncultivated from the roots of the red pine tree. (The New York Times, Nov. 11, 1992, p. C3) [< matsutake < matsu pine + take mushroom] mawashi n. the cotton or silk belt worn by a sumo wrestler. The belt is the mawashi, about 15 yards of silk wrapped six times around the midsection, with a very secure knot in the backa knot strong enough to bear the weight of 400 pounds of struggling wrestler lifted off the floor. (The New York Times, Mar. 3, 1985, Sec. l,p. 34) Sumo wrestlingJapan's national sportpits fleshy titans against each other in 20second bouts of pushing and shoving. You win by forcing your opponent outside the 15foot ring or to the ground. This is usually done by grabbing the other guy's belt, called a mawashi, and pulling, heaving, or pushing him down. (Science World, Oct. 23, 1992, pp. 18-19) The belt worn by the sumotori is called the mawashi. The mawashi is made of either cotton canvas or silk, depending on the rank of the wearer and the circumstance. The length of the mawashi is determined by the girth of the man. (Dorothea N. Buckingham, The Essential Guide to Sumo, 1994, p. 129) [< mawashi encircling]

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mebos [miibas] n. a confection of plums, dried and preserved in salt and sugar. [probably, Afrikaans mebos < Japanese umeboshi dried, salted Japanese apricot] 1793 (OED) mechatronics a technology that combines mechanical engineering and microelectronics, developed in Japan in the mid 1970s. Dubbed "mechatronics," the strategy [a new way of thinking about product design] involves integrating mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, and computer science into fundamental design process, rather than engineering each set of requirements separately as the product is run through the development process. (The Chronicle of Higher Education, Jun. 2, 1993, p. A15) [< mekatoronikusu (LRNW*) < meka mechanics + -toronikusu (elec)tronics] 1985

medaka [midaeko, moddiko] n. a small freshwater fish, Oryzias latipes. O. latipes[.] RICEFISH, JAPANESE MEDAKA [.] . . . Inhabits the paddy fields of lowland Japan. . . . It is a slim-bodied fish with a flattened head and an almost straight dorsal profile; the dorsal fin is placed far back near the tail fin. (Alwyne C. Wheeler, Fishes of the World, 1915, p. 213) [< medaka < me eye + daka < taka high] 1933 (WCD) medake [middiki, -kei] n. a slender Japanese bamboo, Arundinaria simonii. M E D A K E Arundinaria simonii[.] . . . Vertical growth pattern, moderate spreader. (Kathleen Norris Brenzell, ed., Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995, p. 177) [< medake < me- female + dake < take bamboo] 1896 (OED) Meiji [meid3i] adj. of or relating to the period between 1868 and 1912, the reign of Emperor Mutsuhito (1852-1912). Meiji Japan was thefirstnon-Western state to adopt a constitutional form of government. (Martin Collcutt, Marius Jansen, and Isao Kumakura, Cultural Atlas of Japan, 1988, p. 181) After coming to power in 1868 the Meiji government once sought means to save the economy. It established modern economic institutionsa nationwide monetary system, modern banking institutions, Western types of taxes, and a national budget. (Edwin O. Reischauer and Marius B. Jansen, The Japanese Today, enl. ed. (1977) 1995, p. 300) [< Meiji < mei bright + ji governing] menuki [monuiki] n. pi. small carved metal fittings on each side of a sword hilt. [< menuki < me eye + nuki piercing] miai [miai] n. in a Japanese arranged marriage, the initial formal introduction of a prospective couple. Also, omiai and o-miai.

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To help employees end unwanted single status, Sumitomo Bank, Tokai Bank, Nomura Securities, and other financial institutions with offices abroad are offering them special leave to return to Japan and go a-courting. Usually the bachelors work with the aid of matchmakers who line up a series of miai, or meetings with prospective brides. (Fortune, Jun. 19, 1989, p. 9) In pre-Meiji Japan, marriage based on individual choice and mutual attraction prevailed among commoners, but after the Restoration, the samurai code spread downward and miai marriage became an almost universal practice. (Arthur Nolletti, Jr. and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema, 1992, p. 102) In the contemporary miai, an initial meeting between two candidates for marriage is arranged through a third party, either a relative or a friend. If both sides are favorably impressed, they can continue to date and form a deeper understanding and attachment. (Sumiko Iwao, The Japanese Woman, 1993, p. 32) [< miai seeing each other] 1890 (OED) mikado [mikdidou] n. 1. the formerly used title of the emperor. Also, Mikado. During the 1879 six-week visit to Japan, she [Julia Dent Grant] was given a remarkable service known as "Mikado" porcelain. The term mikado means "an emperor of Japan." 04 Journal of American Material Culture, Summer/Autumn 1989, p. 165) They [samurai] supported the daimyo, the daimyo supported the shogun, and the shogun ruled in the name of the mikado. (Christopher Nicle, Bloody Sunset, 1994, p. 53) 2. cap. a locomotive with two-eight-two engines. The two-wheel trailing truck . . . was also responsible for the most ubiquitous freight engine of all: the Mikado. The first of these were built by Baldwin in 1897 for Japan; hence the name. (Nils Huxtable, Classic North American Steam, 1990) 1993, p. 65) Just fifteen years later [1915], the railroad was investing a vast amount of money in 2-82sthe "Mikado" typewhich were twice the size and strength of the older ten-wheelers. (Ron Ziel, American Locomotive in Historic Photographs, 1993, p. 64) 3. see the quotation for the meaning. [A] strong to vivid reddish orange[.] (By permission. From Webster's Third New International Dictionary 1993 by Merriam-Webster Inc.) [< mikado < mi (honorific prefix) + kado gate (of the imperial palace)] 1875: Mikaddo 1727 (OED) mikado brown [mikdidou] n. see the quotation for the meaning. [A] moderate brown that is yellower, lighter, and stronger than auburn, lighter, stronger, and slightly redder than chestnut brown, and yellower and stronger than toast brown called also stroller tan[.] (By permission. From Webster's Third New International Dictionary 1993 by Merriam-Webster Inc.) [< mikado] mikado orange [mikdidou] n.\. see the quotation for the meaning. [A] moderate orange that is yellower and stronger than honeydew, yellower, stronger,

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Mikado pheasant

and slightly lighter than Persian orange, and stronger and slightly redder and darker than average apricot[.] (By permission. From Webster's Third New International Dictionary 1993 by Merriam-Webster Inc.) 2. cap. the commercial name of a direct dye whose generic name is Orange 15. [< mikado] Mikado pheasant [mikdidou] n. a pheasant, Syrmaticus mikado.

The Mikado Pheasant is principally distinguishable from other species by the strong colouring of the male's plumage which is a beautiful blue-black, with a violet border to the feathers on the back, rump and chest, and a white border on the scapular feathers, the secondaries and their coverts. (Francesco B. Salvadori, Rare Animals of the World, 1990, p. 108) [< Mikado < Mikado kiji < Mikado + kiji pheasant] 1922 (OED) Mikado Yellow G [mikdidou] n. the commercial name of a direct dye whose generic name is Yellow 6. [< mikado] mikan [mikain] n. citrus fruit, Citrus unshu.Also, atsuma orange. Satsuma mandarin or S-

mikan[.] Tangerine-like citrus fruits grown in great quantities in Japan and the most important Japanese citrus fruit. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983, p. 170) The Japanese say their stomachs are small and have room for only the mikan, the local tangerine, so imports of U. S. oranges are limited. (Fortune, Nov. 27, 1986, p. 8) You should try the Japanese tangerine, the mikan, which is relatively cheap. (Rex Shelley, Culture Shock!: Japan, 1993, p. 77) [< mikan < mi < mitsu sweet + kan citrus] 1947 (OED) Mikimoto pearl [rriikimoutou] n. cultured pearls produced by the technique perfected by Kokichi Mikimoto. Even though Mikimoto pearls come in a range of qualities, they are known for having a higher luster and fewer flaws than average Akoya pearl. . . . Only those pearls which have an 18-karat-gold Mikimoto signature clasp are true Mikimoto pearls. Either a pearl or a diamond will be in the center of it. Also, when you buy Mikimoto pearls, ask the jeweler for the Mikimoto certificate of authenticity that should come with them. (Renee Newman, The Pearl Buying Guide, 1992, p. 31) [< Mikimoto < Mikomoto pearl] 1956 (OED) shinju < (Kokikchi) Mikimoto (1859-1954) + shinju

Minamata disease [mmomdito] n. a severe neurologic disorder due to poisoning by ingestion of organic mercury from contaminated fish and shellfish. It leads to permanent disability or death.

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More than a half-dozen separate courts have issued a surprising series of decisions virtually ordering Government officials to recognize 2,000 more people who say they are victims of Minamata disease, and to negotiate compensation for them quickly, before they die. (The New York Times, Jan. 16, 1991, p. A3) The best example of this shift was his [Morihiro Hosokawa's] attitude toward those suffering from what is called Minamata disease. Hundreds of people from Mr. Hosokawa's native prefecture of Kumamoto in southwest Japan have suffered painful long-term disorders and birth defects because of industrial poisoning of the waters at Minamata Bay. (The New York Times, Aug. 11, 1993, p. A7) [< Minamata byo < Minamata 1957 (OED) a town in Kumamoto Prefecture + byo disease]

mingei [mirjgei] n. traditional handicraft. Also, Mingei. The term mingei, meaning "people's art," was coined in 1925 by Sotetsu Yanai, the Japanese art critic and philosopher, and characterizes simple utilitarian objects handmade by anonymous craftsmen and used by ordinary people in daily life. According to mingei doctrine, such works have a spontaneity and natural beauty arising unself-consciously out of devotion to function. (American Craft, Feb./Mar. 1992, p. 21) attributive use. On a visit to the Nezu museum of Fine Arts to show a visitor more work in the Mingei tradition, Joan Mondale made it clear how much she would like to be potting again. (House Beautiful, Apr. 1995, pp. 71, 152) [< mingei < min(shu-teki) democratic + (ko)gei handicraft] 1960 (OED) mirin [mirin] n. a heavy and sweet cooking sake. MIRIN. . . : Heavily sweetened wine, like a thin golden colored syrup, used only in cooking to add a mild sweetness and to glaze grilled foods when used in a basting sauce. The alcohol content is 13-14 percent. (Shizuo Tsuji, Japanese Cooking: A Simple Art, 1980, p. 76) The broth is made by steeping seaweed in chicken stock and spiking it with soy sauce, sake and mirin, a sweet and syrupy rice wine. (The New York Times, Oct. 18, 1985, p. C16) A very sweet, sakelike cooking wine, mirin is often used as a marinade for Japanese grilled fish. (James Peterson, Splendid Soups, 1993, p. 25) [< mirin] Mishima [miijomo] n. a type of pottery decorated by a Korean method. Known in Japan as mishima, the enduring popular technique of inlaying stamped patterns with slip was learned from Korean punch 'ong-ware bowls of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. (Louise Allison Cort, Seto and Mino Ceramics, 1992, p. 159) [< Mishima < Mishima-de pottery with patterns that resemble the style of kana writing used in a calendar issued by Mishima Shrine in Mishima, Shizuoka Prefecture in the late fourteenth century]

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miso [misou] n. fermented soybean paste, used as a soup base, marinade, or sauce. In Hawaii, fermented soy bean pastemisois a favorite marinade and seasoning for barbecued foods. It adds a rich flavor and helps develop an appealing brown surface on the grilled foods. Miso tastes like a cross between peanut butter and a gravy base sauce like the British Marmite or Australian Vegemite. Miso comes in buff to brown tones. (Sunset, Jul 1985, p. 157) For soup making, the most useful fermented soybean product is miso, which most Japanese eat every day of their lives. (James Peterson, Splendid Soups, 1993, p. 32) MISO A strong soybean paste made from soybeans, salt, a fermenting agent and rice or barley. It is often fermented for up to three years. (The New York Times, Aug. 9, 1995, p. C3) [< miso] 1905: Midsu 1727 (OED) Mitsukurina [mitsukoriino, -rai-] n. the goblin shark, Mitsukurina owstoni.

The most bizarre member of the Lamniformes is undoubtedly the goblin shark, Mitsukurina owstoni . . . , which derives its common name from its unusual white to pale grey semitransparent skin. This grotesque creature . . . with its soft, flabby body, overhanging, flat blade-like snout, protrusible jaws, and pointed teeth resembles, at least superficially, the fossil genus Scapanorhynchus of the upper Cretaceous more than any living species of shark. At one time Scapanorhynchus and Mitsukurina were believed to be the same species; however, recent studies have discovered that differences in the teeth and fins separate the two. (Victor Gruschka Springer, Sharks in Question, 1989, p. 103) [< (Kakichi) Mitsukur(i) (1857-1909), the zoologist who identified this shark + -ina] mitsumata [rriitsumdito] n. a deciduous shrub, Edgeworthis papyrifera, Japanese handmade paper. used for

Mitsumata is harvested after its third year of growth and produces a soft, absorbent, finegrained, slightly orange sheet. The fiber contains a bitter chemical that repels insects from papers produced with it. (Bernard Toale, The Art of Papermaking, 1983, p. 9) The fibers most commonly used for paper making in Japankozo, ganpi and mitsumataare carefully freed from nonfibrous impurities by soaking, scraping and repeated washings, and boiling with ash lye. (The New York Times, May 11, 1986, Sec. 20, p. 6) [< mitsumata < mitsu three + mata forked] 1891: mitzumata 1889 (OED) Miyagawanella [rriiijogaiwonelo] n. see the quotation for the meaning. A genus of the family Chlamydiaceae that includes the causative agents of psittacosis (Miyagawanella psittaci), omithosis (M. ornithosis), and lymphogranuloma (M. lymphogranulomatosis). (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 4th ed., 1979, p. 853) [< (Yoneji) Minagawa (1885-1959), a bacteriologist + n + -ella ]

Momoyama mochi n. a cake made from soaked, steamed, and pounded glutinous rice.

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New Year's Day is the most important date of the year. To prepare, many families still get together and pound the fine pearly mochi rice to a pulp, forming snowy mounded cakes to be eaten plain, with soy sauce or sweet red azuki bean paste. To try mochi at its best, seek out Shishido Bakery in Wailuku, Maui, where it is available daily. (TravelHoliday, Nov. 1985, p. 62) Rice, and sake, the wine fermented from it, are presented as offerings to the indigenous Shinto gods. Mochi, pounded rice cake, is a common offering to the imported deities of Buddhism. (The New York Times, Mar. 25, 1990, Sec. 5, p. 6) Mochi is made of glutinous rice, mochi-gome mochi-gome, . . . and it is regarded as, if not a separate cuisine, a unique and special food. The mochi-gome is cooked and pounded into a paste while still warm. Much is made of the pounding, mochi tsuki, which is done with a huge wooden mortar and large wooden mallet. (Donald Richie, A Taste of Japan, (1985) 1992, p. 78) For hundreds of years, Japanese people have been celebrating the New Year by eating an extremely chewy type of rice cake known as mochi. And for just as long, some people have been dying because the mochi is so sticky it gets stuck in the throat. (The New York Times, Jan. 4, 1995, p. A4) [< mochi] 1880: musho 1616 (OEDS) mokko [moukou] n., pi. -ko, a sword-guard design with four lobes. The four-lobed (mokko) copper plate has heart-shaped . . . openings as the indentations. (Sebastian Izzard, ed., One Hundred Masterpieces from the Collection of Dr. Walter A. Compton, 1992, p. 248) [< mokko the term used for a badge design] mokume [moukom] n. an alloy used in decorative metalwork. [T]he lamination of various metals, or mokume (the Japanese word for wood grain), developed by the Japanese and successfully mastered by Tiffany [and his company in the late nineteenth century]. (The Magazine Antiques, Oct. 1987, p. 816) [< mokume < moku wood + me grain] 1884 (OED) momme [mdmi] n. a unit of weight equivalent to 3.75 grams, used in Japan until the introduction of the metric system during the 1950s. Today it is used in cultured-pearl trading. When pearl dealers buy large lots of cultured pearls, they are usually charged according to the weight of the pearls. The measure generally used is the momme, an ancient Japanese unit of weight which equals 3.75 grams or 18.75 carats. (Renee Newman, The Pearl Buying Guide, 1992, p. 79) [< momme] 1868: 1727 Mome (OED) Momoyama [momojdimo] n. see Azuchi-Momoyama.

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mompe [mdmpi] n. wraparound women's pants worn by farm workers and by Japanese women during World War II. Also, mompei. The best-known in the West is perhaps mompe or workwear, the indigo-dyed clothing traditionally worn by farmers, which enjoyed a recent craze among fashionable Westerners. (Michael Freeman, Sian Evans, and Mimi Lipton, In the Oriental Style, 1990, p. 158) The downhill road that had reached its nadir when most women were brow-beaten into wearing the wartime mompedrab, baggy trousers that are the most unfeminine and most unfashionable of all conceivable garments for womenwas at last beginning to slant upward. (Jack Seward, The Japanese, 1992, p. 216) [< mompe] 1965: mompei 1947 (OED) mompei [mdmpei] n. see mompe. mon [man] n. the badge of a family, used only by the aristocracy and the military in the feudal age and nowadays adopted by the general public. The Mon were the heraldic crests worn by samurai on their clothing and armour in order to identify which clan a samurai belonged to or served. (Harry Coo, Samurai: The Story of a Warrior Tradition, 1993, p. 124) [<mon] ISIS(OED)

mondo [mdndou] n. in Zen, a session in which very rapid Zen dialogue is exchanged between masters or between master and student. The mondo is a technique in which rapid questioning and answering between master and pupil is so speeded up that the ordinary process of thought is suddenly transcended. (Herbert Stroup, Four Religions of Asia, 1968, p. 157) [< mondo < mon questioning + <do answering] 1927 (OED) moose [mu:s] n. a young Japanese or Korean woman who is the mistress of an American serviceman stationed in her country. Slang. [< musume a girl] 1953 (OED) mousmee [musmei] n. a young woman who works in a teashop, used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. [< musume a girl] 1905: musumee 1880 (OED) moxa [mdkso] n. a small, conical, soft, grey tuft of dried leaves of mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris var. indica, used as a cautery. Moxa is a combustible substance made of the fine hairs densely matted on the undersurface of the leaves of yomogi (mugwort; Artemisia vulgaris va. indica). (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1996. Vol. 5, p. 261) Acupuncture . . . and the burning of pinches of moxa (a substance obtained from the leaves of the wormwood plant) on the surface of the skin are two ways to attack the prob-

muraji lem of blocked junctions. (Rick Kennedy, Little Adventures in Tokyo, 1992, p. 132) [< mogusa < moegusa < moe burning + gusa < kusa plant] 1677 (OED) moxibustion the use of a moxa as a cautery.

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Moxibusdon A form of Treatment, often used in conjunction with acupuncture, in which a cone (moxa) of wormwood leaves or of certain other plant material is burned just above the skin to relieve internal pain. The burning material is thought to act as a counterirritant (that is, its irritation of nerve endings in the skin alleviates deep-seated pain in the same area). (Charles B. Clayman, ed., The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine, 1989, p. 699) Similar to jujutsu's joint locks, pressure-point techniques must also be learned in handson practice. It is impossible to get the "right feel" for attacking points without actually tapping a partner and being struck in return. Because these same points are manipulated in treatments such as acupuncture, shiatsu, and moxibustion, partners must be aware that pressure-point training can have implications on the health of the practitioners. (Black Belt, Mar. 1993, p. 38) [< mox(a) + i + (com)bustion] mume [miiimei] n. see ume. mura [muiro] n., pi. -ra or -s, a rural community, the smallest political division in Japan. The term "village" (mura) is now used for these artificial large units, while the original village has slipped to the informal status of buraku, or "hamlet." (Edwin O. Reischauer and Marius B. Jensen, The Japanese Today, enl. ed., (1977) 1995, p. 132) [< mura] muraji [murd:d3i] n. in ancient Japan, one of the two highest hereditary titles of a powerful family or clan. Compare omi. The highest two [of the hereditary titles] (omi and muraji) were granted only to the heads of powerful clans who served the Yamato kings directly and who resided in the neighborhood of the capital. (Delmer M. Brown, ed., Cambridge History of Japan, 1993, Vol. 1, p. 136) [< muraji] 1901 (OED) 1910 (OED)

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N
Nabeshima or Nabeshima ware [naebojiimo] n. a type of porcelain produced in Saga Prefecture. On the finest Nabeshima ware the Chinese doucai (contrasting colour) technique was employedthat is, the use of underglaze blue to outline the design (and perhaps also as a "wash"), with the design being filled in with clear enamels. (Huon Mallalieu, gen. ed., The Illustrated History of Antiques, 1991, p. 414) [< Nabeshima a feudal clan for whom this porcelain was exclusively produced from 1628 to 1871] 1971: Nabeshimayaki 1886 (OED) nagami or nagami kumquat [nogdimi] n. a kumquat tree that bears small, oval, orange-like fruit, Fortunella margarita. Compare marumi. The most popular kumquat variety in the United States is 'Nagami'. The fruit is small and oval with very few seeds. In some climates, 'Nagami' is slightly tart and has been relegated for use in preserves or for decorations. (Richard Ray and Lance Walheim, Citrus, 1980, p. 108) [< nagami < naga long + mi fruit] nagatelite [nogditolait] n. a black, monoclinic mineral: (Ca,Ce)2(Al,Fe3,Fe2)3 (OH)(Si,P) 3 0 12 . [< Nagate(jima) headland on the Noto peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture + -lite] nakodo [nokoudou] n. a person who acts as a go-between in an arranged marriage. What are called "arranged marriages" in many English-language publications are actually marriages resulting from arranged introductions, omiai in Japanese. Such introductions

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may be arranged by relatives, friends, business acquaintances, a boss, or professional matchmakers called nakodo. (Ian L. McQueen, Japan: A Budget Travel Guide, 1st Kodansha International ed., 1992, p. 187) The arranged marriage is very alien to Western thinking, but the Japanese point out its advantages. The nakodo, or go-between, who brings the couple together is a friend of both families who can see the economic, social, even emotional ramifications of the union for both sides without misty-eyed sentiment confusing the issue. (Peter Popham, The Insider's Guide to Japan, 2nd. ed., rev., 1992, p. 39) [< nakodo < nakabito < naka between + < bito < hito person] 1890 (OED) nanako [nondrkou] n. a type of decorative metalwork. Nanako . . . : a surface treatment with the appearance of fish roe, consisting of minute hemispherical and individually punched granulations. It was much used on the copperand-gold alloy shakudo. (Kanzan Sato, Glossary, The Japanese Sword, trans. Joe Earle, 1983, p. 200) [< nanako fish roe] nandin [naendon] n. see nandina. nandina [naendimo, naendaino] n. an evergreen shrub, Nandina domestica. nandin. Also,

In terms of stamina and garden usefulness, nandina simply excels. It's quite drought tolerant (many do well on rainfall alone), is relatively hardy, grows in sun or shade, and makes a fine filler in bouquets. (Sunset, Nov. 1991, p. 100) Beyond the bonsai collection . . . is a traditional area: bamboo, nandina, oak and flowering peach. (The New York Times, May 16, 1993, Sec. 6, p. 48) [< nandin < nanten < nan south + ten heaven + -a] 1781 (RHD) Nanga [naerjgo] adj. of or relating to a style of painting characterized by the unique blend of Chinese-inspired brushwork and Japanese decorative lyricism which flourished in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Nanga artists were often willfully eccentric and rootless, making art for their circle or bibulous buddies while high on life and whatever else. (Los Angeles Times, Apr. 22, 1985, Part VI, p. 1) Japanese bunjin ('scholar') or Nanga ('southern painting') painters certainly felt their opposition to an official academic stylein their case the Japanese Kano styleevery bit as intensely as their Chinese counterparts. The ethos of the scholars was to stress their 'amateur' status. (Lawrence Smith, Victor Harris, and Timothy Clark, Japanese Art: Masterpieces in the British Museum, 1990, p. 180) Nanga painters favoured eccentric, untrammelled brushwork and a union of the sister arts of poetry, calligraphy, painting and even music. (Richard Bowring and Peter Kornicki, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, 1993, p. 193) [< nanga < nan(shu)ga < nanshii southern school + ga painting] 1958 (OED)

nashiji napa or napa cabbage [naepo] n. a variety of Chinese cabbage, Brassica var. pekinensis, with an upright head of overlapping leaves. Also, nappa.

119 rapa

Nappa, a leafy, white to light green cabbage often used as a substitute for lettuce. (The New York Times, Apr. 28, 1985, Sec. 21, p. 12) The Far Eastern membersnapa and long napaare somewhat sweeter with a slight zestiness and moist crispness; they are good raw or cooked, and their mild flavor makes them easy to combine with many foods. (Sunset, Feb. 1986, p. 99, caption) Shredded carrots provide contrast to the delicate light green of the napa cabbage. (The Arizona Republic/Phoenix Gazette, Sept. 21, 1994, p. FD2) [< nappa greens] 1980 (WCD) nappa [naepo] n. see napa. Nara [ndiro] adj. of or relating to the period between 710 and 784, characterized by the adoption of Chinese culture and the formation of a political system recast in the Chinese mode. Some idea of the impact of China on Japan during the Nara Period be gained by considering the fact that when the new capital was established at Nara, it was laid out on the grid system, with streets running north-south and east-west in imitation of the T'ang capital city of Ch'ang-an. This profound desire to adopt T'ang culture is the outstanding characteristic of the Nara period. (John D. La Plante, Asian Art, 2nd ed., 1985, p. 252) [< Nara a city in Nara Prefecture] 1902 (OED) narikin [naerikin] n. a parvenu. The Ginza of Meiji [1868-1912] is commonly called a place of the narikin. A narikin is a minor piece in Oriental chess that is suddenly converted into a piece of great power. It here refers to the nouveau riche. (Edward Seidensticker, Low City, High City, 1983, p. 199) Japanese who had been raised to despise personal wealth and think only of the nation's well-being were shocked to see the ostentation of the newly rich, or narikin as they called them. (Clayton Naff, About Face, 1994, p. 29) [< narikin in Japanese chess, shogi, a promoted chessman] 1920 (OED) nashi [naeji, nd:Ji] n., pi. -shi, the generic name of Japanese pears, genus Pyrus. The Emperor [Hirohito] was content to visit a local orchard where he picked three nashi, Japanese pears. (Time, Oct. 22, 1984, p. 81) She gave me a nashi (a hard, juicy fruit, something between an apple and a pear). (Alan Booth, The Road to Sata, 1985, p. 196) [< nashi] nashiji [noJi:d3i] n. pear-skin effect, a lacquer decoration technique in which gold or silver dust is buried in transparent lacquer. Also, nashi ji.

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nashi ji A ground name because small, irregular gold flakes are sprinkled in several layers in an orange-toned lacquer medium and then polished so as to resemble a "pear's skin." (Barbra Teri Okada, Glossary, A Sprinkling of Gold, 1983, p. 137) As for traditional lacquer, there are still some masters, Gonroku Matsuda, 89 and deemed a living national treasure. . . . His powdered gold maki-e and glossy gold-flecked nashi-ji, or pear-skin, surfaces are extraordinary. (The New York Times, Sept. 22, 1985, Sec. 10, p. 6) [< nashiji < nashi pear +ji ground] 1881 (OED) nemawashi [nemowdiji] n. efforts made behind the scenes prior to a vote or a debate for securing a consensus. "Nemawashi," literally translated, means "digging around the root," or laying the groundwork. This is necessary in order to build support or to secure an informal consensus before making a formal decision. An idea must gain acceptance and support throughout a business on an informal basis at all levels if it is to have a chance of being adopted. Group decision-making is an essential, indispensable aspect of "nemawashi." (Colorado Business Magazine, May 1993, p. 76) [< nemawashi < ne root + mawashi enclosing ] nembutsu [nembuitsu:] n. a prayer to Amida, the repetition of butsu as a means of salvation. Also, Nembutsu. namu-amida-

Honen [1133-1212] originally presented the nembutsu as the religious act that one must perform in order to be bom into the next world where Buddhahood will be achieved. . . . Shinran [1173-1262] taught that whoever enters into this belief is assured of salvation from the first nembutsu spoken. After that, whenever the nembutsu is invoked, it is not a repetition of this assurance but, rather, an act of gratitude for salvation already assured. (Kozo Yamamura, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1990, Vol. 3, p. 550) [< nembutsu < nen reciting + butsu Buddha] netsuke [netsuki, -kei] n., pi. -ke, a small decorative toggle made of ivory, wood, metal or ceramic, used to secure inro to the kimono sash. At the major auction houses such as Sotheby's and Christie's, and at Oriental art dealers in New York, London and elsewhere, prices of $10,000 to $25,000 for a single netsuke are commonplace, prices of $40,000 to $50,000 are almost commonplace, and word goes around netsuke-circles all the time about private single-piece sales to collectors for $75,000 to $100,000 and more. (Parade Magazine, May 4, 1986, p. 12) Since late 18th Century, [Bishu] Saito and his ancestors . . . have engaged in one of Japan's most exclusive occupationscarving raw ivory into small, intricate ornaments called netsukes that are used to attach pouches to the sashes of traditional kimonos. (Chicago Tribune,Oct. 29, 1989, Sec. 1, p. 22) Ivory netsuke . . . are expressions of the skill and creativeness of the artist. (Antiques and Collecting Hobbies, Jun. 1990, p. 56) [< netsuke < ne root + tsuke attaching] 1876 (WCD)

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Nichiren [nitjoren] n. a Buddhist sect that preaches that the Lotus Sutra alone brings salvation by reciting the daimoku formula, "Namu Myohorengekyo." adj. of or relating to this Buddhist sect. The Nichiren sect, named after its founder Nichiren . . . offered an easier way to salivation. . . . Nichiren believed that everyone could be brought to salivation merely through the act of reciting with sincerity the name of the sutra in the formula known as the daimoku. (Richard Bowring and Peter Kornicki, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, 1993, p. 162) [< Nichiren < Nichiren shu < Nichiren (1222-1282), the founder of this sect + shu sect] nigirizushi [nigf:rizu:Ji] n. a type of sushi, a bite-size of rice seasoned with vinegar, topped with a slice of seafood or cooked eggs and cut into bite-size pieces. Compare makizushi. The most familiar form of sushislices of raw fish on bite-sized mounds of vinegared rice and properly called nigirizushiwas not invented until 1818. (Vogue, Sept. 1991, p. 592) Nigirizushi is raw or cooked fish, shrimp, eel, squid, or octopus on little blocks of delicately flavored rice. (Diana Rowland, Japanese Business Etiquette, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 135) [< nigirizushi < nigiri squeezing + -zushi < sushi] Nihon [nirhoin] n. Japan. Also, Nippon. With more than three thousand islands, this archipelagocalled Nihon, or "The Source of the Sun," by its peopleextends along the eastern rim of the Asian continent from the northeast to the southwest for about 1,350 miles. (Jack Seward, The Japanese, 1992, p. 16) [< Nihon literally, the origion of the sun] 1890 (OED) Nihonmachi [niihommaitji:] n. in San Francisco, a business district that is inhabited by Japanese-American people. Japanese immigrants initially came to San Francisco . . . in the late 1800s, settling in the eastern part of the city adjacent to Chinatown. These issei, or first-generation Japanese, soon established a small Nihonmachi. Temples, communal baths, teahouses, bookstores, restaurants, hotels, and shops flourished there until the 1906 earthquake, when fire destroyed that part of the city. (USAir Magazine, Sept. 1990, p. 50) [< Nihonmachi < Nihon Japan + machi town] Nikkei or Nikkei Stock Average n. index of more than two hundred leading stocks traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, informally called Nikkei Dow and Nikkei Index. That sense [of relief] was almost palpable here Thursday, when the 225-stock Nikkei index appeared to struggle most of the day. (The New York Times, May 8, 1992, p. C5)

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With the Nikkei stock average languishing as Japan slips further into recession, Tokyo's financial regulators are getting desperate. (Business Week, Feb. 22, 1993, p. 85) [< Nikkei < Ni(hon) + Kei(zai Shimbun) a leading newspaper of financial news, Japan Economic Journal] Nikkei Index 1974 (OED:AS) Nikkei Dow n. see Nikkei. Nikkei Index n. see Nikkei. Nikko fir [niikou, nl-] n. an evergreen tree, Abies brachyphylla.

Common in the mountains of central Japan, Nikko fir is a good ornamental tree because its needles tend to grow rather vertically, thus displaying their bright silver bands on the lower surfaces. Its timber is poor and is not exported. (Herbert Edlin et al., The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees, Timbers and Forests of the World, 1978, p. 103) [< Nikko a town in Tochigi Prefecture] nikubori [niikuibon:] n. relief carving. When relief chasing (niku-bori), they employed a dozen or more variations, from tiny hairline chiseling (kebori) to spectacular kata-kiri-bori effects, in which every stroke is a tiny world of lights and shade. (Art & Antiques, Sept. 1990, p. 130) [< nikubori < niku thickness + -bori < hori carving] ningyoite [nirjgiouait] n. a brownish-green or brown orthorhombic mineral of the rhabdophane group: (U,Ca,Ce)2(P0 4 )2*l-2H 2 0. [< Ningyo a mine located between Tottori Prefecture and Okayama Prefecture] 1959 (OED) ninja [nindjo] n., pi. -ja o r - s , 1. in the feudal period, a person who was hired for covert operations and had training in the martial art and combat technique known as ninjutsu. Also, Ninja The Ninja, or 'Stealers In' were the secret agents of ancient Japan. . . . Ninja weaponry included the knife, the short sword, the spear and a variety of throwing weapons such as the 'Shuriken' or 'Star Wheel'. (David Mitchell, The Overlook Martial Arts Handbook, (1984) 1988, p. 30) adj. of or relating to ninja. Based on a timeless understanding of human attitudes and physiology that far transcends the rigid limits of temporally inspired techniques, all of the ninja fighting methods serve as practical, reliable routes of self-protection that utilize the natural physical and emotional response tendencies of the human being. (Stephen K. Hayes, Warrior Ways of Enlightenment, vol. 2 of Ninja, 1981, p. 67) 2. a person who practices ninjutsu. In July 1864, the soldiers of the Confederate States of America met the Union army in the

ninjutsu

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now-legendary Battle of Atlanta. . . . More than 100 years later, another group of warriors gathered in Atlanta. . . . They were ninja, and unlike the Confederacy, theyand the ancient martial art they practicehave survived into modem times. (Black Belt, Oct. 1992, p. 39) According to ninjutsu black belt Dr. Raymond Hayes . . . today's ninja are simply looking for a comprehensive, traditional art that teaches total self-sufficiency. (Black Belt, Nov. 1994, p. 40) attributive use. I'm just a bit nervous. I'm inside a recreated Japanese ninja training hall [in Germantown, OH]barren wood on wood, and on the walls a collection of exotic chains, knives, swords, whips, staffs, and other sadistic tools that would make a hardened dominatrix blush. (Omni, Mar. 1990, p. 64) For our purpose, the Ninja uniform will consist of: (a) black ski mask . . . ; (b) black overjacket; (c) black belt or sash; (d) black coveralls, with blousing ties at the wrists and ankles; and (e) black tabi. (Ashida Kim, Secrets of the Ninja, Carol Publishing Group ed., 1995, p. 2) A panther-lean man stood on Second Avenue, a ninja mask covering his face, a painting lodged securely under his arm. (The New York Times, Jan. 22, 1995, Sec. 13CY, p. 7) 3. a crude sabotage device made of a base with protruding nails and used for puncturing tires in order to disrupt the Israeli armed forces. [< ninja < nin stealth + -ja < -sha person] 1964 (OED:AS) ninja squad [nind3o] n. a. small group of trained fighters who are motivated by religious fervor and specialize in military assault. [< ninja] 1992 (BDC)

ninjitsu [nind3itsu:] n. see ninjutsu. ninjutsu [nind3iltsu:] n. the martial art and technique of stealth used by the ninja. The 'Ninja' practised the techniques of 'Ninjutsu' which allowed them to scale sheer walls, drop from great heights without injury and kill by a variety of methods. (David Mitchell, The Overlook Martial Arts Handbook, (1984) 1988, p. 30) It should be remembered that the art of ninjutsu was not developed or practiced for the sake of the art itself, nor were there any symbolic goals such as belt rankings or sports titles involved. (Stephen K. Hayes, Warrior Ways of Enlightenment, vol. 2 of Ninja, 1981, p. 67) The 1980s saw a fascination with ninjutsu, the ancient Japanese martial art used by feudal assassins and spies. Ninjutsu was popularized in the West by American Stephen K. Hayes, who traveled to Japan to study with 34th-generation togakure-ryu ninja master Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi. (Black Belt, Oct. 1994, p. 48) attributive use. The "ninja mania" of the '80s gave way to ninja bashing in the '90s, leaving only a loyal

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few to practice the art. Approximately 300 of these hard-core ninjutsu stylists recently journeyed from around the world to attend the 1992 Atlanta Tai Kai, an intensive training camp for the stalwart followers of the "shadow warrior's" martial art. (Black Belt, Oct. 1992, pp. 39-40) [< ninjutsu < nin stealth + jutsu technique] Nintendo [nintendou] n. 1. a video game system developed and marketed by Nintendo Corporation. Trademark. In his [Kazuhiko Nishi's] view, for example, the giant home video screen will also connect to satellite transmissions of sophisticated Nintendo-style games. (Newsweek, Apr. 1,1991, p. 63) 2. any game designed for this system. [< Nintendo ] Nintendo epilepsy [nintendou] n. a light-induced seizure that occurs in some children who play video games. In one report, the "Super Mario Bros." game brought on a seizure in a 13-year-old with photosensitive epilepsy, a rare form of the disorder in which seizures are triggered by flashing lights. The child's doctor . . . dubbed her condition "Nintendo epilepsy." (American Health, Oct. 1990, p. 22) [< Nintendo] 1990 (BDC) Nintendo generation [nintendou] n. the children growing up with the computer games popularized in the 1980s and 1990s. Children are influenced as much or more by Nintendo than by television, which defined their parents' generation. The signs of this first Nintendo generation are everywhere. (Rolling Stone, Jan. 9, 1992, p. 46) With contests like these [for designing and building a futuristic car], Erector is hoping to reclaim today's Nintendo generation. (The New York Times, Mar. 26, 1995, See. 13CY, p. 8) [< Nintendo] 1989 (BDC) Nip [nip] n. derogatory name for a Japanese. [< Nipponese) Japanese] 1942 (OED) Nippon [nipdn, niipon, - -] n. Japan. Also, Nihon . To discover Nippon, one must look for the keys to the reality of a country, doubtless the only one in the world, which can depend only on its spiritual resources and the genius of its civilization to create the material wealth indispensable to its life in a naked, arid land where legends and myths evoke only misery, servitude, calamity, and death. (JeanClaude Courdy, The Japanese: Everyday Life in the Empire of the Rising Sun, trans. Raymond Rosenthal, 1984, p. 16) She [Kosuzu Mao, a manager of a Japanese impersonator of Elvis Presley] sees America

No

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as one big Pub Elvis, ripe and ready for the arrival of Nippon's heir to the throne. (Insight, Apr. 27, 1992, p. 34) [< Nippon] 1890: Nipon 1727 (OED) Nipponese [riiponfiz] n. 1. the Japanese. Meanwhile, Toyota, Honda and Fujitsu aren't wavering under rising anti-Nipponese sentiment. Ad campaigns and an accent on philanthropy position them as companies with deep American roots. (Adweek's Marketing Week, Dec. 3, 1990) 2. a Japanese. 3. the Japanese language. adj. of or relating to Japan, its people, language, or culture. A Nipponese Sambo (U. S. News & World Report, Aug. 15, 1988, p.14) [< Nippon + -ese] 1927: Niponese 1859 (OED) Nipponian [nipounion] adj. Japanese. [< Nippon + -ian] 1909 (OED) Nipponism [nipomzm] n. Japanism. [< Nippon + -ism] 1914 (OED) Nipponize [niponaiz] v.t. to Japanize. [< Nippon + -ize] Nisei [niisei] n., pi. -sei, a Japanese American who was born and educated in the United States or Canada and whose parents had immigrated from Japan. Also, nisei. Compare Issei, sansei and kibei. To many Nisei, second generations Japanese-Americans who were interned along with their Issei or immigrant parents, the goals are disturbingly reminiscent of trips that occurred in the 1930s. Those trips were designed to familiarize the Nisei about Japanese culture and language. (Los Angeles Times, Feb. 7, 1986, Part I, p. 34) Many [donations made in New York area to the victims of the Kobe earthquake] were from nisei, or second-generation, Japanese Americansoften elderly women. (The New York Times, Jan. 21, 1995, p. B26) [< nisei < ni two, second + -sei generation] 1929 (WCD) No [nou] n. a classic form of dance-drama in which actors perform wearing symbolic, stylized masks. It was developed in the fourteenth century. Also, no, Noh, noh, or Nogaku. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries grew the form of theatre which came to be known as noh, 'the display of talent'. (Michael Macintyre, The Shogun Inheritance, 1981, p. 85)

126

nogaku

Noh is not acted but "danced," and the moments of greatest intensity in Noh are expressed in danceslow and stately at first, gradually mounting to controlled intensity. (Martin Collcutt, Marius Jansen, and Isao Kumamura, Cultural Atlas of Japan, 1988, p. 124) attributive use. Many plays have used masks to tell their story, but there haven't been many masks where a mask figures into the action. In Wakako Yamauchi's "The Memento" at the East West Players, an ancient Noh mask almost becomes a character. (Los Angeles Times, Feb. 17, 1986, Part V, p. 1) Developed in the 14th century from a folk tradition of traveling players, No plays are lyric dramas that recount ancient legends and historical feats. (The New York Times, Jan. 15,1995, Sec. 2, p. 32) [<no talent] 1871 (OED) nogaku [nougdiku:, nougoku:] n. see No. [< nogaku < no talent + gaku music] 1916 (OED) Noh [nou] n. see No. [<no talent] 1917 (OED) nokyo [noukiou] n., pi. -o, a union of agricultural cooperatives, a major political force. Also, Nokyo. With assets of $447 billion, Nokyo's 3,688 local cooperatives are involved in finance, distribution and social activities that reach deeply into every farming community in Japan. (Forbes, Jul. 22, 1991, p. 84) [< Nokyo < No(gyo) Kyo(do) (Kumiai) Agricultural Cooperative (Association)] nori [noiri, nou-] n. a food prepared from sea algae, genus Porphra. Glossy greenish-black flakes of nori seaweed are scattered over the tangle of soba. (The New York Times, Jun. 16, 1985, Sec. 10. p. 12) Plain nori works well snipped or crumbled to top plain or seasoned rice, green salads, baked potatoes, and grilled fish, and to tuck into omelets. You can also saute nori shreds for extra crispness, then mix with sesame seed; serve as suggested for plain nori, or as an appetizer. (Sunset, May 1991, p. 172) Japanese nori (Porphyra tenera) is a sea vegetable that has been dried and pressed into thin sheets. Versatile and easy to prepare, nori is rich in protein and is abundant in a wide range of nutrients. . . . Nori is also quickly gaining worldwide popularity due partly to the proliferation of successful sushi bars that offer various combinations of rice and vegetables or fish wrapped in nori. (John Belleme and Jan Belleme, Cooking with Japanese Foods, 1993, p. 146) [<nori] 1892 (OED) norimono [ndiromounou, noiri-] n. see norimon.

noshi

127

norimon [ndrimdn] n. a means of transport, a variety of k a g o built for the nobility, decorated with lacquer and silk screens. It was used from the Muromachi period (1333-1568) to the late Edo period (1600-1868). Also, norimono. Compare kago. NORIMONO, an adaptation of the kago, was larger and more elaborate, often finished in expensive style with lacquered fittings and silk screens. (Alex R. Newman and Egerton Ryerson, Japanese Art, 1964, p. 139) The norimon was the Japanese form of palanquin and was, for long and rather inflexible western bodies, a fiendishly uncomfortable means of transport. (Pat Barr, The Coming of the Barbarians, 1967, p. 56) The term norimono is used to distinguish ornate palanquins decorated with lacquer and limited to passengers of high status. These were subdivided into distinct types intended for men and women. Built in the form of a small chamber, they were entered through sliding doors on the sides. (Asian Art, Winter 1989, p. 13) These were not the flimsy, rude kago of the Tokaido's lower-class travelers. These were norimon, the transport of nobility. (Lucia St. Clair Robson, The Tokaido Road, 1991, p. 466) [< norimon SL dialect of western Kyushu < norimono < norimono (kago) < nori < noru to ride + mono thing + kago basket] 1727: neremon 1616 (OED) norito [noriitou, nourotou] n., pi. -to, in a Shinto ceremony, a formulaic statement addressed to the deities in classical Japanese language. Norito consist of various types: those expressing thanksgiving, those seeking the blessings or protection of the deities, those commemorating a particular legendary or historical event in the religious calendar, and those embodying specific prayers for individuals. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983, Vol. 6, p. 38) I consulted some high-ranking priests about whether the fixed language of norito, or Shinto prayer, could be compared with keigo . . . but they denied any similarity, arguing that the language of prayer was fixed . . . dating back some 1,200 years. (Joy Hendry, Wrapping Culture, 1993, p. 149) [< norito < nori < noru to state with awe + -to word] noshi [noufi] n. a strip of dried, stretched abalone wrapped in a decoratively folded piece of paper and used for formal gift presentation. The paper used for the former [gifts for happy or auspicious occasions associated with celebrations of life] is decorated with an emblem known as a noshi . . . properly a small piece of abalone wrapped in a hexagonally shaped open envelope, but often simply printed on the paper itself. (Joy Hendry, Wrapping Culture, 1993, p. 15) Noshi, or gift envelopes, are part of the traditional presentation at the time of engagement. (Whole Earth Review, Winter, 1990, p. 15, caption) [< noshi <noshi awabi < noshi stretched + awabi abalone] 1891: nosi 1855 (OED)

128 notan [noutain] n. in painting, the combination of lights and darks.

notan

The artist adhered to the principles that [Ernest E.] Fenollosa believed were the hallmarks of good painting, that is harmony of line, notan (light and shade), and color. (Felice Fischer, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Fall 1992, p. 14) [< notan < no dark + tan light] nunchaku [nAntJdiku:, nXntJaek] n., pi. -ku or -s, an Okinawan martial art weapon. Also, karate sticks. Brought into popularity by the "Little Dragon," Bruce Lee, the nunchaku consists of two sticks of equal size and weight connected at one end with a chain or cord, although there are exceptions to stick size and number. . . . When manipulated correctly, the nunchaku is a very versatile weapon for it can club, strike, block, smash, whip, pinch, and choke. (George R. Parulski, Jr., The Art of Karate Weapons, 1984, p. 47) The Los Angeles Police Department agreed Tuesday to discontinue use of a controversial martial arts weapon called nunchakus while arresting anti-abortion protesters. (Los Angeles Times, Jun. 12, 1991, p. A3) Some states allow you to carry nunchaku and the like to and from martial arts class, others do not. Some ban the use, possession and sale of such implements altogether. (Black Belt, Aug. 1994, p. 80) [< nunchaku] 1970 (OED)

o
Obaku or Obaku Zen Buddhism n. a Zen Buddhist sect. Also, Obaku. The only new sect to be introduced during this period [1600-1868] was a Zen sect known as the Obaku (Ch. Hwang-po) branch, introduced by Chinese priest Yin-yuan (J. Ingen), (1592-1673). . . . Obaku has much in common with the Rinzai branch. Both zazen and the koan are considered the best approaches to satori, "Enlightenment," but the nembutsu, or invocation of the name of Amida, is also esteemed. Amida is honored, not indeed as a transcendental Buddha but as the Buddha-spirit in daily life. (Ernest Dale Saunders, Buddhism in Japan, 1964, pp. 252-53) Encouraged by both the shogunate and the emperor, Obaku spread rapidly and soon became one of the three main sects of Japanese Zen, along with Soto and Rinzai. Led by their abbot Ingen, monks such as Mokuan, Sokuhi, and Dokutan brought with them not only Chinese conceptions of Zen practice, sutra chanting, and temple construction but also Chinese styles of brushwork that were to have a considerable influence on their Japanese counterparts. (Stephen Addis, The Art of Zen, 1989, p. 74) A style of architecture that made its first appearance in Japan in the 17th century was associated with monasteries of Obaku Zen Buddhism. (Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 248) [< Obaku shu < Obaku a mountain in Fujian Province, China + shu sect] 1833 (OED.AS) oban [oubaen] n. see obang. obang [oubaerj] n. an oval gold coin. Also, oban. Oban Largest of the oval-shaped Japanese gold coins, to the value of 10 ryos. They were struck at intervals from 1591-1860 and are among the most decorative of gold pieces. (Ewald Junge, World Coin Encyclopedia, 1984, p. 185)

130

obento

There was also a larger gold coin still, oban, theoretically weighing ten ryo, but actually between eight and nine. (Charles J. Dunn, Everyday Life in Imperial Japan, 1989, p. 98) [< oban < 6- large + ban size] 1863: Oeban 1662 (OED) obento [oubentou] n. see bento. obi [oubi] n. 1. a long sash worn with a kimono, tightly wound around the waist and tied in the back. During the early 1600s men and women alike wore a three-inch obi. By 1680, women wore an obi twice that width. Fifty years later the woman's obi was ten inches wide, and by 1800 a foot-wide obi covered a woman's torso from pubic bone to sternum. (Liza Crihfield Dalby, Kimono, 1993, p. 45) 2. a type of sash worn with Western clothes. obi-styled sash [A] sash that is approximately 4 to 5 inches wide at the center and tapers to 1 to lh2 inch at the ends. It is worn wrapped around the waist twice and tied with ends hanging down front. . . . Adapted in 1980s from original obi. (Charlotte Mankey Calasibetta, Fairchild's Dictionary of Fashion, 2nd ed., 1988, p. 37) There were glossy leather trench coats and suits, soft pants suits with obi-wrapped waists, lots of sweaters belted over skinny skirts in every length . . . and suits with flared or pleated calf-length skirts. (The New York Times, Mar. 7, 1993, p. B8) [<obi] IS1S (OED) obon [oubom] n. see bon. odori [oudouri] n. a form of folk dancing, characterized by dynamic movement and linked to popular theater. Compare mai. Even if there is none of the spectacular jumps and leaps of ballet, odori has the performer constantly lifting his feet off the ground. The dancer stamps out a rhythm, perhaps reminiscent of the feet of an ancient iron worker pumping the pedal of a bellows. (Matsuzo Nakamura, Kabuki Backstage, Onstage, trans. Mark Oshima, 1990, p. 25) [< odori dancing] office lady a woman who is assigned to do light office work without any possibility of promotion. Also, O L . The directors at Brother [in Nagoya] agreed to accept me as their first office lady (OL) from the United States. (Jeannie Lo, Office Ladies/Factory Women, 1990, p. 3) Much of this fervor [of giving men chocolate on Valentine's Day] is aimed at OLs, or "Office Ladies," the women who change from their designer clothes into the company uniform in the corporate locker room each morning, then spend the day typing letters and serving green tea in the office. (The Washington Post, Feb. 14, 1991, p. B3) The second group of Japanese visitors [to Hawaii] who spend a large amount of money on shopping are young single working women, commonly known as office ladies, or OLs. (Joseph J. Tobin, ed., Re-Made in Japan, 1992, p. 206)

Okazaki fragment

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The court ordered the publishing firm and one of its employees to pay $12,500 for violating her rights [of not being sexually harassed]. The ruling, which shockedthe Japanese establishment, was a victory for Japan's fledgling feminist movementand for "office ladies" everywhere. (Newsweek, April 27, 1992, p. 30) In Japan, it's nothing new for women to find themselves stuck at the bottom of the corporate ladder. The first barrier to success is Japan's two-track hiring system, which leaves fewer than 3% of the professional positions at blue chip companies open to women. As a result, ambitious women who fail to secure one of these full-time jobs often end up as "office ladies" who file, wear uniforms, and politely bow while serving tea to guests and male colleagues. (Business Week, Jul. 13, 1992, p. 43) [< ofisu redii < ofisu office + redii lady] ofuro [oufuirou] n. see furo. o-goshi [ougdiji] n. a throwing technique in judo, major hip throw. O-goshi is an ideal throw for the beginner as . . . it provides an instruction to the basis of all hip techniques. (Brian Caffary, The Judo Handbook, 1989, p. 50) [< ogoshi < o- major + goshi < koshi hip] 1954 (OED) oiran [oiron, -raen] n., pi. -ran, a courtesan in the highest rank at the government-regulated red-light district, Yoshiwara, during the Edo period(1600-1868). It was the custom of the oiran to promenade daily about dusk on the main thoroughfare of the quarter [Yoshiwara during Edo period]. (Andrew Dickson, Japanese Painters of the Floating World, 1966, p. 12) The aizuri-e, 'blue-colored print' of an oiran, a senior courtesan, on parade, dates from around 1830. (Amy Newland and Chris Uhlenbeck, consult, eds., Ukiyo-e to Shin Hanga, 1990, p. 128, caption) At the age of seventeen, the shinzo took examinations again, and those who passed this time entered the highest of three major prostitute categories, that of oiran. (Jack Seward, The Japanese, 1992, p. 138) [< oiran] 1871 (OED) ojime [6ud3imei] n. a bead sliding on a cord to keep an inro closed. A silk cord was threaded through cord channels at either side of the [inro] body and passed through the ojime ('sliding bead') above. (Julia Hutt, Understanding Far Eastern Art, 1987, p. 176) Ojime, the little beads that hold inro cords taut at the top of the case, comprise an entire collectible art field in themselves. (Edwin C. Symmes, Jr., Netsuke, 1991, p. 24) [< ojime < o cord +jime < shime tightening] 1889 (OED) Okazaki fragment [oukdizoki, oukozdiki] n. small disconnected pieces of bacterial DNA that form during replication and eventually link with each other to form a double helical strand.

132

okimono

[< (Reiji) Okazaki (1930-1975), a molecular biologist, leader of the research team that first described the fragments] 1969 (OED) okimono [dukimounou] n., pi. -no, a decorative object, usually a standing ornament made of wood, ivory, porcelain or metal. Some okimono (standing things)table ornaments that could be described as larger versions of netsuke and more revered in the West than in Japanwere visually stunning and of fine craftsmanship. (Huon Mallalieu, gen. ed., The Illustrated History of Antiques, 1991, p. 227) Hotei, and a vast array of other subject matter in okimonos, netsuke and larger figures, masterfully carved of hippo ivory, are available as a wonderful addition to your collection of Orientalia. (Antiques & Collecting Hobbies, Jan. 1992, p. 61) [< okimono < oki < oku to put + mono thing] 1886 (OED) Okinawan [oukonauwon, -ndrwon] n. a native of Okinawa Prefecture. Also, Ryukyu and Ryukuan. Kikuko Miyagi, 65, a teacher, is one of the many Okinawans who has concluded from her own experience that all sides in all wars are wrong. (The New York Times, Jun. 22, 1995, p.A8) 2. the dialect of the natives of Okinawa Prefecture. Tsuruo meets tourists as they debark from cruise ships and raises his T-shirt to reveal a stomach on which he has printed, in Japanese, "I teach Okinawan." (The New York Times, Jan. 16, 1985, Sec. 17, p. C17) adj. of or relating to Okinawa, its people, culture, or language. In all of the dances, the feet are flexed when raised. Instead of implying awkwardness as in Western dance, the Okinawan flexed foot is graceful. (Dance Magazine, Apr. 1987, p. 93) Although Okinawa has been a part of Japan since 1874, karate practitioners still prefer to make a distinction between Okinawan karate and Japanese karate. "One of the major differences between Okinawan and Japanese karate styles is in the applications of the techniques," [Grant] Campbell explains. . . . The Japanese were not taught the hidden applications of Okinawan kata (training sequences). (Black Belt, Feb. 1995, p. 74) [< Okinaw(a) the largest of the Ryukyu Islands + -an] 1944 (OED) OL see office lady. omi [oumi] n. one of the two highest hereditary titles of a powerful family or clan in ancient Japan. Compare muraji. Among the patriarchal chieftains, those claiming direct descent from the legendary first emperor, Jimmu, or from the founding gods occupied the highest places in the political and social hierarchy. The former were given the title of omi and the latter muraji. (Mikiso Hane, Premodern Japan, 1991, p. 16) [< omi] 1901 (OED)

onsen

133

o-muraji [oumurddji] n. the chieftain of a powerful clan who was entitled to hold a key government position in ancient Japan. Compare muraji. The chieftains of the most powerful uji with the title of omi or muraji were identified as o-omi and 6-muraji, respectively. (Takie Sugiyama Lebra, Above the Clouds, 1993, p. 31) [< omuraji < 6- grand + muraji] 1901 (OED) on [dn] n. social and psychological indebtedness, a burden a Japanese carries as a result of receiving a favor from a superior. Until 1945 Japanese children were taught that they owed a debt of gratitude for everything that ancestors, teachers and superiors had ever done to make the world habitable. This load, which all Japanese still carry to some extent . . . is referred to as on. (Karel van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese Power, Vintage ed., 1990, p. 193) [<on] 1946 (OED) onnagata [dnogdito] n. 1. in Kabuki theater, a male actor who impersonates a woman. Also, oyama. A monotype print of a kabuki actor and onnagata, Tamasaburo Bando, is a subject for Susan Carter Carter of Port Jefferson. (The New York Times, Mar. 13, 1994, p. CIO) 2. the role itself. In the onnagata, or female, role of an old peasant woman . . . Ennosuke extends hospitality to a group of monks. (Dance Magazine, Feb. 1990, p. 86) Those assuming female impersonations were designated as onnagata (or oyama); some actors in these roles garnered national acclaim. (Milton Walter Meyer, Japan: A Concise History, 1993, p. 112) [< onnagata < onna female + -gata similar to] 1901 (OED) onsen [dnsen] n., pi. -sen, 1. a hot spring whose water contains mineral elements and is thought to have healing properties. Built on a geothermal cauldron, the island [Kyushu] percolates with countless onsenhot springswhose waters are fired by giant subterranean magma flows and whose steamy spas have for decades lured workaholic Japanese in need of a soothing tub or a romantic interlude. (National Geographic, Jan. 1994, p. 104) 2. a hot-spring resort. The particular onsen was like an indoor jungle, a large irregular shaped pool with so much lush vegetation hanging over it that if a macaw had flashed by in the inevitable mist it would have lookedrightat home. (Los Angeles Times, Apr. 18, 1993, p. L7) When Japanese find social or business pressure too much to bear, they gather a few friends or colleagues and head for an onsen, a hot spring resort. Sometimes they take their children with them, either as a reward for passing a particularly difficult exam or just for fun. After a leisurely bath and a midday feast at the onsen, they are usually back in town by early evening. (The New York Times, Aug. 27, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 10) [< onsen < on hot + sen spring] 1933 (OED)

134

origami

origami [o:rogd:mi] n. 1. the art of folding paper to create a variety of shapes and ornamental objects. Origami, the ancient Japanese art of paper folding, brings a whole new dimension to an art lesson. Origami is an addiction. (School Arts, Oct. 1991, p. 16) Without using scissors or glue, a skilled practitioner of origami can crease and fold sheets of paper into an astonishingly wide array of formsranging from cranes and winged demons to tessellated squares and rectangles. (Science News, Jan. 21, 1995, p. 44) Michael Shall, a leading American expert in origami, the popular Japanese art of paper folding, died on Feb. 9. . . . He studied and worked with Lillian Oppenheimer, who for generations a loosely organized group that she operated from her home, the Origami Center of America. In 1980, he helped to found an affiliated group that is now called Origami, USA. The organization has grown to include more than 60 affiliate clubs across the country. (The New York Times, Feb. 16, 1995, p. D23) 2. an object made by this art. adj. of or relating to this art or an object created by this art. To the Japanese sensibility, the success of a completed origami figure depends on the creator's eye for form, structure, and proportion. (Discover, Jun. 1988, p. 56) The origami holiday tree, with gorillas, dinosaurs and whales of folded paper, will be up through Jan. 9 [at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City]. (The New York Times, Dec. 28, 1995, p. Cl 1) [< origami < ori folding + < garni < kami paper] 1922 (OED) orihon [oirihdn] n. a type of book, made of a long strip of paper folded like the bellows of an accordion. Woodblock-printed Buddhist texts appeared as early as the eleventh century in the kansiibon (scroll) format, and by the thirteenth century printed illustrations accompanying these were produced as orihon (accordion or concertina book). (Amy Newland and Chris Uhlenbeck, consulting eds., Ukiyo-e to Shin Hanga, 1990, p. 46) [< orihon < ori folding + hon book] 1907 (OED) osaekomi waza [ousaiikoumi wdizo] n. a grappling technique in j u d o . Also, osaeokomi-waza. In competition, where holds (osaekomi-waza) are used primarily, you achieve a full point if you hold your opponent on his back for 30 seconds. (George R. Parulski, Jr., Black Belt Judo, 1985, p. 52) [< osaekomi-waza < osaekomi pressing down + waza technique] 1932 (OED) oseibo [ouseibou] n. a year-end gift presented by those in socially inferior positions to express appreciation for favors received in the past year. Also, oseibo and seibo. Oseibo, the New Year's gift season, is changing. Traditionally, the Japanese exchange such practical household gifts as edible seaweed assortments and cooking oil. But the

Oyashio

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younger generation prefers more personal gifts, such as 1950s-style jewelry, Santa Claus socks, and designer handkerchiefs. (Business Week, Jan. 16,1987, p. 56) Japan celebrates Christmas these daysin a purely secular, gift-giving way, of course but before Christmas comes oseibo, or end-of-the-year gift season. And if you haven't done your oseibo shopping by Dec. 15 . . . you're way behind the curve. (The Washington Post, Dec. 18, 1989, p. A18) It's traditional in Japan to send a year-end gift, or seibo, to superiors or those to whom some social debt is owing. (American Art, Spring 1992, p. 102) O-seibo, the year-end gift giving, is even more widely observed than the midsummer custom as a token of gratitude for favors and loyalty. It is estimated that the Japanese spend $20 billion at o-seibo each year. (Diana Rowland, Japanese Business Etiquette, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 142) attributive use. Christmas gifts are for friends and loved ones, to make a personal statement; oseibo presents repay an obligation incurred in the past. Thus, Kaneko said, she would give oseibo presents to her children's teachers and the matchmaker who arranged her daughter's wedding. (The Washington Post, Dec. 18, 1989, p. A18) [< oseibo < o (honorific) + seibo < saibo the end of the year] oshibori [oujiboiri:] n. a small, moist, rolled or folded towel served to customers or visitors for cleaning their hands. Also, o-shibori. The first thing you will receive [at a restaurant in Japan] is an o-shibori, a small damp towel, usually warm or hot, on an oblong tray. This is to cleanse your hands, although men in particular will be seen on less formal occasions refreshing their faces as well. (Diana Rowland, Japanese Business Etiquette, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 132) You are given an oshibori, a hot or cold (depending on the season) damp cloth that may be scented. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 112) [< oshibori < o (honorific) + shibori squeezing] 1959 (OED) O-soto-gari [ousoutogdiri] n. a throwing technique in judo, major outer reaping throw. Also, osotogari. Continuing his penetrating countermovement, the defender steps in and reaps the attacker's front leg with an osotogari (outer reaping maneuver), sending the opponent crashing to the ground. (Black Belt, Jun. 1992, p. 33) [< o-soto-gari < 6- grand + soto outside + gari < kari reaping] 1941 (OED) oyama [oujdima:] n. see onnagata. [< oyama] 1963 (OED) Oyashio or Oyashio Current [6ujoJY:ou] n. a major cold ocean current. Oyashio Current . . . originates in the BERING SEA and flows, initially, southwest. As it passes the Kamchatka Peninsula, it entrains WATER from the Sea of Okhotsk and flows

136

ozeki

on to an intersection with the eastward flowing KUROSHIO CURRENT in the vicinity of 40 N latitude. (Donald G. Groves and Lee M. Hunt, Ocean World Encyclopedia, 1980, p. 272) Hokkaido enjoys moderate summer temperatures because of the cooling Oyashio current. (Steven Warshaw, Japan Emerges, 1990, p. 5) [< oyashio < oya- parental + shio current] ozeki [ouzeki] n. 1. the second-highest rank in sumo. Takanohana finished with a record of 11 wins and four losses, however, which the sumo authorities deemed good enough for promotion to ozeki, or champion, the second-highest rank. (The Washington Post, Jan. 28, 1993, p. Cl) Ozeki[.] Sumo's second highest rank, this was the highest rank until that of yokozuna was created in 1890. Only one in about three hundred rikishi reaches ozeki. (Clyde Newton, Dynamic Sumo, 1994, p. 21) The heaviest-ever rikishi, or wrestler, is Samoan-American Salevaa Fuali Atisnoe of Hawaii, alias Konishiki, who weighed in at 580 pounds at Tokyo's Ryogoku Kokugikan on January 4, 1993. He is also the first foreign rikishi to attain the second highest rank of ozeki, or champion. (The Guinness Book of Records 1996, New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1995, p. 298) 2. a title holder of this rank. An ozeki can be demoted. A losing record in two consecutive tournaments will result in his demotion. (Dorothea N. Buckingham, The Essential Guide to Sumo, 1994, p. 149) Akebono's story roughly parallels that of a chief rival, Takanohana, 21, one of the youngest ozeki ("champions") in history. (Sports Illustrated, Jan. 10, 1994, p. 12)

[< ozeki] 1966 ( # 0

p
pachinko [potfirjkou] n. 1. a pinball game played on a vertical machine with a maze of pegs and several holes into which automatically flipped small steel balls fall; when a ball hits a winning hole, the player is rewarded with additional balls. In Kagoshima Prefecture a glowering icon houses a parlor devoted to pachinko, a game akin to pinball that pays off in small steel balls. (National Geographic, Jan. 1994, p. 105, caption) 2. the machine used for this game. Pachinko is a pinball machine, complete with flashing lights and beeps, but made vertical and small (3 feet high by 20 inches wide). In Japan . . . the game has been played for prizes in commercial parlors since the 1940's. . . . Three weeks ago, Eric Silverstein and Robert Weinberg opened a Pachinko Palace in Fort Lee, N. J., and the week after, on the Upper West Side in Manhattan. The stores sell reconditioned pachinko games in 100 different designs. (The New York Times, Nov. 4, 1993, p. C3) adj. of or relating to this game. Recently a weekly magazine, the shukan Bunshun, published articles strongly suggesting that Socialist Party recipients of $90,000 in pachinko donations were helping to block legislation that would have made it easier to monitor the parlors' finances. (The New YorkTimes, Oct. 13, 1989, p. A12) Foreigners peering into a pachinko parlor for the first time are always taken aback by the din: the slur of thousands of steel balls swirling through the system, the blare of a Sousa march, the over-amplified announcements that MACHINE 136 HAS JUST CAUGHT FEVER!!! . . . It is the chaos of combat, another world. (Rick Kennedy, Little Adventures in Tokyo, 1992, p. 78) A Japanese cable radio network, Cable Radio Usen, offers listeners several 'alibi stations' that transmit 24 hours of background noise, including the sound of pachinko parlors and train stations. "Many people ask bar owners to change the channel temporarily from

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Pac-Man

music to an alibi station while they make a call," says Nami Akiyama, a spokeswoman for the company. (The New York Times Magazine, Jul. 6, 1995, p. 8) [< pachinko < pachin onomatopoeia of flickering or clicking + -ko in the state of] 1953 (OED) Pac-Man 1. a video game system developed and marketed by Namco Corporation. Trademark. Also, Pacman, Pac Man. Plessey decided to use Metsun for a bout of Pacman, that zappit video game where a little gremlin turns to swallow a larger pursuer. (Business Month, Apr. 1989, p. 26) 2. the voracious character at the center of this game. It's as if someone turned a giant Pac Man loose in our cornfields. One that chomps through acre after acre of corn and spits out mega-tons of byproducts. That's how one Eddyville farmer described Cargill's new wet corn processing plant in south central Iowa. The giant corn processor chews up an 80-acre cornfield every hour on the hour around the clock, 60,000,000 bushels a year. (Successful Farming, Jan. 1992, p. 18) [< Pac-Man a video game character created by Namco Corporation < Pakku Man < Pakku < paku-paku mimetic of gobbling + man man] 1981 (OED:AS) Pac-Man defense a defensive tactic used by a company that is the target of a takeover bid, in which the targeted company threatens to take over the acquirer and begins buying its common shares. Also, Pacman defense. In one of the few earlier fights among defense contractors, electronics maker Bendix Corp. made a hostile bid in 1981 for Martin Marietta. The battle made famous the socalled Pac-Man defense in which each company tries to gobble up the other. (The Wall Street Journal, Mar. 14, 1994, p. A6) Sources close to Martin Marietta's side of the deal confirmed stock market rumors that the company is thinking about a variation of the so-called Pacman defense. In such a scenario, Martin Marietta would counter Northrop's bid for Grumman by making a hostile bid for Northrop. (New York Newsday, Mar. 15, 1994, Sec. 1, p. 29. ProQuest Business Dateline) [Pac-Man] 1982 (OED.AS)

R
raku [rdiku:] n. 1. low-fired earthenware used for the tea ceremony, created in the late 1600s. Also, raku ware. Raku, used in regard to American pottery, refers to a technique; in Japan, where the term originated, it refers to a ware used largely for tea ceremony pieces. American raku involves taking pieces straight from the kiln in which they have been fired and smothering them in a combustible material like sawdust or straw, which is then ignited. The burning leaves unpredictable marks on the work. (The New York Times, Jun. 29, 1989, p. Cll) Raku ware is coated with a black, a transparent, or occasionally a white glaze, and is fired in a small, single-chamber oxidation kiln at relatively low temperatures. (Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 241) 2. the technique used for creating this earthenware. Raku is an ancient Japanese process in which a low fired clay is bisque fired, glaze fired and while still molten hot, placed in sawdust or hay to carbonize and turn a burnt, charcoal color. (Scottsdale [AZ] Magazine, Summer 1992, p. 123) Raku is a low temperature earthenware process that originated in sixteenth-century Japan. . . . Raku may be made in any style, but the typical piece is thin and asymmetrical form. The surface often looks metallic and the colors are rich and beautiful. Glazes are dipped, pored and painted. (School Arts, Nov. 1994, p. 35) [< Raku yaki < Raku < (Ju)raku(dai) pleasure, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's (15361598) palace + yaki ware] 1875 (OED) ramanasu or ramanasu rose [raemonos] n. a deciduous shrub, Rosa rugosa, that bears edible, tomato-shaped, red fruit. R. rugosa. RAMANAS ROSE, SEA TOMATO. . . . To 3-8 ft. tall. Bowers are 3-4 in. across and in the many varieties, range from single to double and from pure white and

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ramen

creamy yellow through pink to deep purplish red, all wonderfully fragrant. (Kathleen Norris Brenzel, ed., Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995, p. 468) [< hamanasu < hamanashi < hama beach + nashi pear] 1876 (OED) ramen [rdimen] n. 1. Japanese noodles in clear broth garnished with vegetables and slices of meat. Our first cook, 13-year-old Tanya Henson, got her recipe for ramen from a friend in Japan and finds the salad makes a good quick dinner base for almost anything on hand. Tanya uses many kinds of leftover meats and raw vegetables in this dish. (Sunset, Feb. 1986, p. 142) In Japan, ramen, a modified wheat noodle introduced from China, is the fast food of choice. A quick fix for breakfast, lunch, dinner or any point in-between, soup made with these thin, yellow noodles is inexpensive, filling and exquisitely satisfying. (The Arizona Republic, Nov. 6, 1994, p. Tl) attributive use. For meals under $10, try the wonderful, steaming ramen (noodle) shops. (The New York Times, May 17, 1992, Sec. 5, p. 19) 2. dried noodles prepared for this dish or for a package of instant noodles. Already the Nissin Foods plant is producing more ramen each minute than its 16-year-old sister plant in Lancaster, Penn. (Memphis [TN] Business Journal, Dec. 5, 1994. Business NewsBank PLUS) attributive use. In 1993, worldwide sales for the company's [Nissin Foods] instant ramen products reached $2.5 billion. (Memphis [TN] Business Journal, Dec. 5, 1994. Business NewsBank PLUS) [< ramen] randori [raendoiri] n. freeplay exercises in preparation for competition, used as a primary method of instruction in judo. The main training activity of Judo is Randori, or free-fighting. Randori is a series of bouts with people of varying sizes, weights, abilities and temperaments, fought in a fairly relaxed manner with both men trying to score as often as possible with different techniques. (Syd Hoare, Judo, 1993, p. 123) v.i. to practice judo with this form of exercise. [< randori < ran freedom of action + dori < tori doing] 1918 (OED) reiki [reiki] n. a system of complementary therapy in which energy is channeled through touch from one person to another. Also, Reiki. Practitioners claim that Reiki has been used successfully to heal serious as well as minor ailments, rejuvenate spirits, deepen spiritual growth and self-development. (Sherry Suib Cohen, The Magic of Touch, 1986, p. 89) Reiki is a hands-on method of healing in which the healer becomes a sort of prism for

141

cosmic energy. Frieda Hamilton Fox refers to the force as Ki or Chi, a term borrowed from the Orient. (Houston Chronicle, SIRS Researcher, vol. 3, art. 70, Houston, TX, Apr. 16, 1989) Although many services are offered here, I came for one called reiki. This, according to the spa's press release, "is an Asian healing process that provides a transference of energy via the therapist where energy is needed, healing the mind, body and spirit." (The New York Times, July 31, 1994, Sec. 13, p. 9) attributive use. There are Reiki groups all over the world, and although they hold to similar principles, leadership seems to be a question that disturbs many practitioners. In 1982, a group of Reiki Masters decided to form the Reiki Alliance. (Sherry Suib Cohen, The Magic of Touch, 1986, p. 89) By the time [Merrilyn] McDonald had sent reiki energy into my shoulders, neck and back, I was nearly asleep. (The Arizona Republic, Feb. 6, 1994, p. E2) Renee Coltson, a Reiki practitioner, works with humans and horses. Reiki is an ancient healing art rediscovered by a Japanese monk in the mid 1800s. Rei is defined as the intelligence that guides creation; ki, the life force which sustains all living things. "When I perform Reiki on a horse, it's to release the celluar memory of whatever injury it may have," Colston said. (The Arizona Republic, Jan. 24, 1995, p. C6) [< reiki < rei spirit + ki energy] renga [rengo] n. verse form consisting of five-seven-five-seven-seven syllables, composed by two or more poets in alternation. Also, linked verse. In renga . . . groups of versifiers would get together. One person would write the first three lines (5, 7 and 5 syllables) . . . another would write the last two lines (7 and 7 syllables). . . . These last two lines would then provide a lead into a second poem which would be begun by a third member of the party and so on. (Hugh Cortazzi, The Japanese Achievement, 1990, p. 109) [< renga < ren linking + ga<ka poem] 1877 (OED)

ri [ri, ri:] n., pi. ri, 1. a unit of length, equivalent to approximately 2.44 miles, used until the introduction of the metric system in the 1950s. Early in the [Edo] period [1600-1868] the Shogun and various daimyo organized their own message service; it was a relay system, with reliefs at seven ri (1772 miles) intervals. (Charles J. Dunn, Everyday Life in Imperial Japan, 1989, p. 113) The foreign community was restricted by the terms of the treaties of 1858 to travel no more than ten ri, or about twenty-five miles, in each direction from Yokohama, except toward Edo. (Ann Yonemura, Yokohama: Prints from Nineteenth-Century Japan, 1990, p. 127) 2. the smallest unit of local administration in Korea and in ancient Japan. Around 50 households were included in an administrative village (ri). (Delmer M. Brown, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1993, Vol. 1, p. 428) [< ri under the Ritsuryo System, established in the seventh century, the smallest

142 unit of local administration outside Kyoto] 1845 (OED)

rickshaw

rickshaw [rikfo:] n. a small two-wheeled passenger vehicle pulled by a person. Also, jinrikisha and kuruma. On Sunday, Asia's first Planet Hollywood opened [in Hong Kong] with actor Sylvester Stallone showing up in a rickshaw pulled by four women. (The Phoenix Gazette, May 31, 1994, p. Dl) To appeal more to world travelers, Mr. [Ed] Eschmann said, he will introduce a new feature next year, "We're going to have rickshaws take the people from the ferry to the hotel," he said. He figures that there are enough college students who are looking for summer employment to pull the rickshaws. (The New York Times, Aug. 13, 1995, Sec. 13LI,p. 2) Cox & Kings is offering a 20-day Royal India and Nepal tour departing from Kennedy International Airport on Feb. 19. The tour begins in New Delhi, where visitors will ^explore the city via cycle rickshaw and attend Polo Cup matches. Other highlights include a private dinner in the palace of a maharajah; an elephant ride through Royal Chitwan Game Reserve. (The New York Times, Dec. 3, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 3) None of this [abuse from passengers] is as vexing to Mr. [Jageshwar] Singh as the threat that Calcutta, the last city in India with man-powered rickshaws, will abolish the vehicle that is his livelihood. For decades, officials here have been discussing ways to clear the streets of the rickshaw-pullers, who appeared in Calcutta just before World War I, at the height of British imperial power in India, and are seen by many as an embarrassing colonial legacy. (The New York Times, Oct. 4, 1995, p. A4) attributive use. "Even cycle rickshaw drivers ask for 10,000 rupees [about $330] dowrymore than an entire year's salary," said Sultan Jahan Baquri, who heads the Mahila [Women's] Welfare Society of Andhra Pradesh state [India]. (The Washington Post, Jun. 21, 1994, p. A4) Earlier this month, a battalion of the Central Reserve Police Force, angered by the shooting of one of its men by a rebel group in the city of Imphal [India], stormed into the grounds of a hospital, seized an off-duty medical student and seven auto-rickshaw drivers and shot them dead. (The New York Times, Jan. 22, 1995, Sec. 4, p. 6) [< jinrikisha] 1889 (OED)

rikka [riko] n. a classical style of flower arrangement. Also, Rikka. Rikka is a descriptive term given to a style of arrangements originally designed for the Buddhist Temples in Japan. The basic form of such arrangements was a large scalene trianglea triangle with unequal sideswithin which were many smaller triangles, made by drawing lines between the tips of various functional stems. . . . For at its most elaborate the construction of a Rikka demanded not only creative genius but physical stamina, since it might stand fifteen feet high and the handling of the materials would present a considerable problem. (Georgie Davidson, Classical Ikebana, 1970, p. 15) There are four classical styles of IkebanaRikka, Nageire, Seika and Moribana. Each arrangement is identified by the type of container usedspecifically, by its heightand by the way the stems emerge from the container (for instance, vertically or on a slant).

Roju (Black Enterprise, Oct. 1982, p. 98) [< rikka < rik- < ritsu standing + ka flower] 1965: rikkwa 1889 (OED)

143

rin [rfn] n., pi. rin, a monetary unit equivalent to one-thousandth of a yen, used between the 1870s and the 1950s. attributive use. The rin coin, representing one-thousandth of a dollar and intended to equal in value the shoguns' traditional copper-alloy coin, the mon, was not popular and soon disappeared from use. (Joe Cribb, Barrie Cook, and Ian Carradice, The Coin Atlas, 1990, p. 208) [<rin] \%15(OED) Rinzai n. a Zen Buddhist sect that believes in the possibility of sudden enlightenment and puts emphasis on systematic spiritual training, koan; founded by Eisai (1141-1215). adj. of or relating to this sect. Rinzai Zen argues that to have any hope of perceiving the Truth we must be jolted out of our habitual modes of thought and if physical violence can be of some use in this respect, then so be it. It is this obedience and commitment, combined with the arduous pursuit of a very elusive objective, which presumably recommended Rinzai Zen to the military. . . . Zen has brought to the apparently secular arts of swordsmanship, archery and judo an astonishing degree of aesthetic and spiritual refinement. (Andrew Powell, Living Buddhism, 1989, p. 96) [< Rinzai shu < Rinzai < Rinzai (Gien) a Chinese Zen master + shu sect] 1833 (OED.AS) Ritsu [ritsu:] n. a Buddhist sect that was introduced in Japan in the eighth century, gradually lost its popularity, and became almost extinct until revitalized by Eison (1201-1290). The Ritsu, emphasizing ritual and ordination practices, was founded by blind Chinese monk Jianchen (Ganjin), 688-763. (Milton W. Meyer, Japan: A Concise History, 3rd ed., 1993, p. 47) attributive use. The RITSU school, mainly nondenominational, deals with the rules of the order, common to all schools. It stresses the correct transmission and observance of these precepts, or Discipline (ritsu), and through its ordinations it establishes the orthodox lines of all schools. (Ernest Dale Saunders, Buddhism in Japan, 1964, p. 133) [< Ritsu < Risshu < Ris- < Ritsu disciple + shu sect] 1880: Rit 1727 (OED) Roju [roud3u:] n. during the Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1867), senior councilors who were responsible for most shogunate officials. Also, Roju or roju. In theory the office of Shogun was both hereditary and autocratic, but after 1650 the Tokugawa line rarely produced a man capable of absolute rule. For the most part, deci-

144

romaji

sions were taken by those who held posts in his central administration, councillors(/?<?/w), usually four or five in number, who were responsible for general policy and for supervision of the country's other lords. (W. G. Beasley, The Rise of Modern Japan, 1990, p. 4) [Tokugawa] Iemitsu [1604-51] assigned responsibility for overseeing the daimyo estates to the senior councilors (roju), his top advisers and policy makers. (James L. McClain, John M. Merriman, and Ugawa Kaoru, eds., Edo and Paris, 1994, p. 15) [< roju] 1922: rojiu 1874 (OED) romaji [roumod^i] n. a writing system that uses romanized Japanese syllabary. [Abe M.] Halpern was studying the feasibility of requiring the Japanese to replace gradually their very difficult writing system (this included the indigenous hiragana and katakana alphabets plus kanji character-writing) with a totally romanized writing system called romaji. (Jacob Van Staaveren, An American in Japan, 1945-1948, 1994, p. 16) Tokyo, Kyoto, and Hiroshima are ready for English-speaking tourists, with multilingual guides at the major train stations and street signs posted in Japanese and romaji, what the Japanese call the Roman alphabet. (The New York Times, Dec. 1994, Sec. 5, p. 13) [< romaji < roma Roman +ji letter] 1888 (OED) ronin [rounin] n. 1. in feudal Japan, a wandering samurai who had lost his lord. Also, ronin. The masterless warriors (known as ronin) usually retained their samurai status and became teachers of swordsmanship, or Confucianism. Some, however, were assimilated into the townspeople, while others became warrior-farmers known as goshi.(MMso Hane, Premodern Japan, 1991, p. 143) The 90,000 samurai that did rally to [Toyotomi] Hideyori's cause were mainly composed of the disaffected and the dispossessed, and included large numbers of ronin (wave men)samurai who had lost their masters and domains. (Harry Cook, Samurai: The Story of a Warrior Tradition, 1993, p. 101) 2. a student who has failed a university entrance examination and is preparing to retake it the following year. Only two out of every three applicants actually win university admission the first time they take the entrance exams. The remainders are relegated to obscurity or else become ronin (wandering warriors) who doggedly take the exams for two or three years in a row before finally attaining their goal or resigning themselves to defeat. (Robert C. Christopher, The Japanese Mind, 1983, p. 90) Passing the final obstacle isn't easy; only about half get into college on their first try. Many try again, for a year or two, attending prep schools andjwfcw, memorizing facts for exams to come. Such students are called ronin, literally "masterless samurai," and even are referred to in government statistics by this term. (Smithsonian, Mar. 1987, p. 49) [< ronin < ro wandering + nin person] 1871 (OED) roshi [rouji] n. a Z e n priest to whom his teacher has transmitted his Dharma and granted permission to teach koan.

ryokan

145

In Japanese Zen traditions, roshi "teaching masters," are predominantly male, although both men and women have been initiated as masters in the teachings, and women roshis can be found in California. (Los Angeles Times, Mar. 1, 1986, Part II, p. 6) There has sometimes been a tendency in the West to attribute the title of roshi, or some equivalent, to all Zen teachers or leaders of communities. Such titles have a talismanic ring to them, and people often assume that they apply in their most spiritual sense. But they do not confer wisdom or spiritual insight. (Kenneth Kraft, ed., Zen: Tradition and Transition, 1988, p. 206) [< roshi < ro experienced + shi master] 1934 (OED) rumaki [romd:ki] n. an appetizer consisting of marinated chicken livers and water chestnuts wrapped in bacon, broiled or grilled. A departure from the traditional rumaki, this recipe uses a simplified marinadesoy sauce and Vermouth. In assembling the morsels, sandwich the chicken liver pieces between water chestnut halves. The rumaki can be either broiled or grilled. (Elizabeth Hogan, supervising ed., Sunset Hors d'oeuvres, 1978, p. 50) Japanese rumaki is chicken livers and water chestnuts rolled in bacon strips. (Linda Henry, ed., Any time Appetizers, 1985, p. 13) [< harumaki literally, haru spring + maki rolling] 1961 (WCD) ryo [riou] n., pi. ryo, a monetary unit used during the Edo period. Also, ryo. A ryo was a unit of gold currency during the Edo period (1615-1868). The standard gold coin of the Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1867), the koban, was equal in value to one ryo. (Ann Yonemura, Yokohama: Prints from Nineteenth-Century Japan, 1990, p. 173, note) [< ryo] 1899: riyo 1871 (OED) Ryobu or Ryobu Shinto [rioubu:] n. a Shinto sect that believed that the indigenous gods, kami, were incarnations of Buddha and Bodhisattvas; it flourished in the ninth century and was extinct by the nineteenth century. Also, Ryobu. The system known as Ryobu Shinto made it possible to recognize local gods as incarnations of Buddhist deities. The idea of amalgamation was now called honji suijaku or 'traces of descent from the true sources'. (Robert Treat Paine and Alexander Soper, The Art and Architecture of Japan, 3rd ed., 1981, p. 128) [< Ryobu < Ryobu Shinto < Ryo both + bu part + Shinto] ryokan [ridukain] n. an establishment that provides lodging with traditional Japanese-style facilities and services. A ryokan will have Japanese-style rooms with tatami and futon, bedding that is spread out each night and put away in the morning, sliding doors and a Japanese bath. You are given slippers when you arrive and you leave your shoes at the door. (Rex Shelley, Culture Shock!: Japan, 1993, p. 79) There is no lobby, there is no dining room, there are no bellmen, and there is no fitness center at the Tawaraya, the nearly 300-year-old ryokan in Kyoto that is, by common

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ryu

agreement, the greatest inn in Japan. (The New York Times Magazine, Mar. 5, 1995, p. 20) [< ryokan < ryo- traveling + kan inn] 1963 (OED) ryu n., pi. ryu, school or style of traditional Japanese artmartial arts, dancing, flower arrangement, music, etc. Several sword ryu (schools) engaged specialists to engrave their blades, and these are considered original engravings. (Black Belt, Mar. 1995, p. 62) The final certificate was ihejodan, upper rank, which allowed the student to enter into the okuden, the secret tradition of the ryu (school or system of martial arts). (Black Belt, Nov. 1995, p. 31) [< ryu stream] 1879 (OED: AS) Ryukyu [riuikju:, ro-] n. 1. the dialect of the natives of Okinawa Prefecture. Also, Rykyuan and Okinawan. 2. a group of islands southwest of mainland Japan. Karate's birthplace is actually the Ryukyus, a chain of small islands off the coast of southern Japan. (Black Belt, Jan. 1993, p. 94) For centuries, Okinawa was known as Luchu, a trade crossroads. The largest island in the Ryuku chain, it paid tribute to China and Japan until 1892, when Japan took control and changed the name to Okinawa. (Los Angeles Times, Sept. 5, 1990, p. F4) [< Ryukyu < Ryukyu Shoto the Ryukyu Islands, a synonym for the Okinawa Islands, southwest of Japan] 1879 (OED:AS) Ryukyuan [riuikjuion] n. 1. the dialect of the natives of Okinawa Prefecture. Also, Ryukyu and Okinawan. 2. a native of Okinawa Prefecture. adj. of or relating to Okinawa, its people, culture, or language. To understand what miya [shrine] is, you must know something about Ryukyuan life and religion. (Black Belt, Jan. 1993, p. 94) Treasures from the Ryukyuan culture will be displayed here [Shuri Castle, in Naha]lacquer ware, costumes, paintings, calligraphy and historical documents. (Travel and Leisure, Nov. 1992, p. 17) [< Ryukyu < Ryukyu Shoto the Ryukyu Islands, a synonym for Okinawa Islands, the southwest of Japan + -an] 1958 (OED:AS)

s
sabi [sd:bi] n. an aesthetic concept related to simplicity, antiquity, and tranquility, developed in the fifteenth century out of the philosophy of Zen. Compare wabi. The element of sabi, often paired with wabi, adds the nuances of loneliness and old age and also of tranquility achieved at the end of one's life. These two aesthetic concepts became the standard of performance fundamental to the tea ceremony, which developed in the 15th century out of the Zen practice of drinking tea while meditating and finally reverberated in the literature and painting of the period. (Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 175) [< sabi antiquity] 1932 (OED) sai n. a martial art weapon. The sai is of various dimensions, the popular overall length being between fifteen and twenty inches. Made of solid iron, it usually weighs from one to three pounds. The main shaft taper trumpets from a pointed forward end to a blunt, lipped butt end. Projecting from the main shaft about one quarter down the shaft from the butt end are the tines, two in number, positioned opposite each other. (Donn F. Draeger and Robert W. Smith, Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts, (196) 1980, p. 66) Although sai is mainly used to deflect oncoming attacks, it can also be used effectively to block, strike, tab, catch, and throw. (George R. Parulski, Jr., The Art of Karate Weapons, 1984, p. 79) The use of a heavy weapon such as the classical Okinawan sai . . . rather than just a fist . . . may reduce the maximum speed of a strike, but the strike will still be effective due to the mass of the weapon and the reduced area of the striking surface. (Black Belt, Mar. 1995, p. 41, caption) [< sai] 1973 (OED)

148 sakaki [sokdiki] n. an evergreen shrub, Cleyera japonica, presented to Shinto deities, kami.

sakaki whose branches are

Customarily offered on the kamidana, are sakaki (a Shinto shmb), rice salt, sake, a list of the anniversaries of the dead family members, as well as Ebisu image and Inari lanterns to promote trade. (Chris Fawcett, The New Japanese House, 1980, p. 71) A sacred space is marked off with rope and paper streamers . . . and branches of the sakaki tree are decorated with paper to be offered by participants at the [Shinto] altar. (Joy Hendry, Wrapping Culture, 1993, p. 40) [< sakaki tree of prosperity] sake [saeki] n. an alcoholic beverage made from fermented rice. Also, saki and sake [saekei]. Sake is . . . made from rice, but its method of brewing is different from that used in making such other grain-based beverages as, say, beer. The distinctive difference about sake" brewing is that the turning of rice starch to a sugar occurs simultaneously with the fermenting of the sugar to produce alcohol in the final mash. (Donald Richie, A Taste of Japan, 1985, p. 98) The rice wine is the traditional drink at important occasions in Japan. Brides and grooms consecrate their vows by drinking sake from the same cup three times, and a special sake is drunk on New Year's Day for good health, good luck and long life. (Los Angeles Times, Apr. 14, 1990, p. D4) As sushi surged in popularity in the '80s in the West, so did its sidekick, sake. As a result, sake production also traveled from Far East to the West. Four sake breweries in California offer tastings. (Sunset, Mar. 1994, p. 28) Our dinner came to $55 for two with beer and saki, but then we didn't try the rare types [at Jacksan's Sushi House in Breckenridge, CO]. (The New York Times, Nov. 19, 1995, p. 24) [< sake] 1878: saque 1687 (OED) saki [sd:ki] n. see sake. sakura [sokuaro] n. 1. a flowering cherry, genus Prunus. Fragile, exquisite, short-lived, the sakura is savored as a reminder of the brevity of life itselfa blossom that captures all the poignancy of human endeavor. (America West Airlines Magazine, Feb. 1991, p. 34) Sometimes in mid-March comes the news that the cherry blossoms, or sakura, are blooming in Kyushu. (Rick Kennedy, Little Adventure in Tokyo, 1992, p. 98) 2. the wood of this tree. Other woods most often used [for constructing a piece of lacquerware] are paulownia (kiri) and cherry (sakura). (Barbra Teri Okada, A Sprinkling of Gold, 1983, p. 20) [< sakura] 1884 (OED) salariman see salaryman.

samurai

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salaryman n. a Japanese white-collar worker. Also, salariman or sarariman. For millions, the problem is time. Take the typical male urban workera salariman. He is like one of Datsun's cars: Driven. His six-day grind includes a commute of more than an hour, often standing on a train. Arriving before the office officially opens, he puts in 12 hours behind a gun-metal-gray desk. After work, a few drinks with colleagues or clients are usually mandatory; then he begins the long trek home, frequently tipsy, for a bath and a snack before bedtime. (U. S. News & World Report, May 12, 1986, p. 35) [Amy] Yamada, who grew up all over Japan as the daughter of a respectable, constantly transferred Japanese salariman, or company employee, went to work at the Tokyo S&M Club. (The Washington Post, Jun. 1, 1991, p. D6) Books and newspapers are jammed with references to the "Japanese peril." The Japanese "salaryman's" arduous office hours, skimpy vacations and fanatical work ethic are scorned in France and Germany as anathema to an enlightened lifestyle, yet considered a warning of what the future might bring if Japanese firms succeed in dominating the European economy. (The Washington Post National Weekly Edition, Jun. 24-30, 1991, p. 16) The Japanese culture is being transformed. The corporate establishment is under pressure from government and unions to let Japan's overworked "salarymen" relax more and earn more, and the pressure is being compounded by an acute labor shortage. (Newsweek, Apr. 20, 1992, pp. 53-54) It was not yet seven in the morning, but the train was jammed with work-bound sararimenmale salaried employees in their uniforms of blue or gray business suits, white shirts, and conservative ties. (Victor O'Reilly, Rules of the Hunt, 1995, p. 39) [< sarariiman borrowed from the English "salaried man," which was coined in the early twentieth century and referred to a white-collar worker who earned a steady monthly salary, as opposed to a blue-collar worker who usually earned an hourly wage] 1962 (WCD) samisen [saemosen] n. see shamisen. samurai [saemurai] n., pi. -ai or -s, 1. the military class that served the nobles in feudal Japan. The class of provincial warriors that emerged between the 9th and 12th centuries was known as bushi (warriors) or samurai (knights/retainers). (Harry Cook, Samurai: The Book of a Warrior Tradition, 1993, p. 22) 2. a member of this class. Few people realize today that the samurai did not always draw a sword to quell a disturbance or to restore peace. (Junzo Sasamori and Gordon Warner, This is Kendo, 1993, p. 34 3. figurative use. [Ross Perot would be] our answer to the Japanese corporate samurai, a tough little warrior who embodies American know-how at its aggressive, postindustrial best: sun belt, computers, action-oriented management. (Newsweek, Jun. 15, 1992, p. 20)

150

samurai bond

adj. of or relating to the samurai. With the dissolution of the samurai class after 1868, the wearing of swords was outlawed. (Naomi Noble Richard, Court and Samurai in an Age of Transition, 1989, p. 29) [< samurai serving] 1727 (OED) samurai bond [saemurai] n. see the quotation for the meaning. In Japan, a bond issued by a foreign corporation. Samurai bonds are unsecured yendenominated bonds, usually with minimum 5-year maturities. (Carolyn R. Gipson, The McGraw-Hill Dictionary of International Trade and Finance, 1994, p. 330) Today some of the restrictions Dow encountered as a pioneer in samurai bond territory may be easing, making it more practical for CFOs to include the yen in their diversification plans. (Institutional Investor, May 1983, p. 243) [< samurai] -san [saen, sd:n] n. a title equivalent to Mr., Miss, Mrs. or Ms., which can be attached as a suffix to first names, last names, or certain occupations and titles. Who Killed Laura Palmer-san? [in Twin Peaks, a TV drama] (Newsweek, Jan. 20, 1992, p. 4) [ < san < sama] 1878 (OED) Sanda ware [saendo] n. ceramics produced in Sanda, Hyogo Prefecture. [< Sanda a town in southeastern Hyogo Prefecture] sanpaku [sa:npd:ku:] n. eyes that show the white below the iris; this expression is thought to be typical of an unhealthy mental and physical condition. adj. of or relating to this eye expression. [< sampaku < sanpaku(gan) < san three + paku < haku white + gan eye] 1963 (OED) Sanron or Sanron sect [sdinran, -roun] n. a Buddhist sect based on the doctrine of Madhyamika school. By 625 . . . the Sanron sect had been introduced into Japan. It was based on three authoritative treatises of the Indian Madhyamika school (hence its name: 'Sanron' means 'the Three Treatises'). Its doctorine revolvesround the central Mahayana Themes of 'Emptiness' and the 'Middle Path'. . . . The doctrine and writings of the Sanron sect were gradually absorbed by the other schools as the common basis of the Mahayana until it ceased to exist as an independent school. (Heinz Bechert and Richard Gombrich, eds., The World of Buddhism, 1984, p. 215) [< Sanron shu < san three + ron treaty + shu sect] sansei [sdinsei, sainsei] n. a Japanese American whose grandparents immigrated to the United States or Canada. Also, Sansei. Compare Issei and Nisei.

sashimi

151

The choreography for this and the closing number [for the Takarazuka troupe from Japan] has been devised afresh for the New York production by Roger Minami, a sansei or third-generation American of Japanese descent. (The New York Times, Oct. 22, 1989, Sec. 2, p. H10) The Japanese American Historical Society in San Francisco keeps records on the history of Japanese Americans. The third generation, the Sansei (sahn-say) are having their own children, the Yonsei (yohn-say), or fourth generation. (Gary Kawaguchi, Tracing our Japanese Roots, 1995, p. 35) [< sansei < san three, third + -sei generation] 1940 (WCD) sarakin [saerokin] n. a type of financial establishment that lends to salaried workers without security, charging high interest rates. These three billionaire families are moneylenders who make unsecured personal loans at legal rates of up to 40% per annum. They used to be called sarakin. (Forbes, Jul. 20, 1992, p. 169) attributive use. Not only Japanese banks, but also many foreign banks, which had been a large source of sarakin funds, pulled out, precipitating the crisis at Promise and many other concerns. (The New York Times, Jan. 28, 1985, p. D8) [< sarakin < sara(riiman) kin(yu) collar worker + kinyu financing] sarariman n. see salaryman. sasanqua [sosaenkwo] n. a small evergreen tree, Camellia camellia. sasanqua, a type of < sarariiman salaryman, Japanese white-

Right now, while many sasanquas are in bloom, is a good time to buy them for holiday gifts or to plant in the garden. Nurseries carry them in 1-gallon ($5 to $6) or 5-gallon cans ($15 to $25). (Sunset, Dec. 1985, p. 90) Each garden surprises the visitor with an unexpected jewel, be it a wisteria trellis or a prized three-hundred-and-fifty-year-old sasanqua tree (a member of the camellia family and the oldest one still living in Kyoto). (Architectural Digest, May 1993, p. 228) The Sasanquas are perfectly hardy in camellia areas of Pacific Northwest, but flowers are too often damaged by fall and winter rains and frost to call them successful. (Kathleen Norris Brenzel, ed., Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995, p. 202) [< sazanka < sansaka < san mountain + sa tea + ka flower] 1866 (OED) sashimi [sa:Ji:mi] n. pi. fresh fish fillet cut into bite-size pieces, eaten raw with soy sauce and wasabi or ginger dipping sauce. It's likely that sashimi, sliced raw fish, will come with this [kaiseki ryori] meal. . . . Thoroughly dip the sashimi in your soy sauce before eating it, and have some rice in between different types of fish. (Diana Rowland, Japanese Business Etiquette, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 133)

152

satori

HAWAIIAN FISH suitable for sashimi, the classic Japanese presentation of raw fish, are increasingly available in Western markets. You can also use the same fish caught in other water. Sashimi is the ultimate in simplicity and, for the initiated, a refreshing entree. (Sunset, Apr. 1994, p. 176) Normally, tables are intended for customers who desire the fixed-price assortments of sashimi (trimmed morsels of fish or shellfish served without rice) or sushi (cold, vinegary rice topped or rolled with fish or vegetables) or hot dishes from Hatsuhana's kitchen, such as tempura or salmon teriyaki. (Gourmet, Jul. 1994, p. 32) [< sashimi < sashi piercing + mi flesh] 1880 (OED) satori [sotoiri, sotouri] n. the experience of spiritual enlightenment or awakening in Zen, attained by systematic spiritual training or training of deep meditation. Of course, you don't need to achieve Zen satori in order to derive benefit from meditation. Even intense concentrationthe focusing of all attention on a single word or image and a step toward true meditationcan clear the mind of the customary clutter. (Forbes, 1986, Nov. 3, p. 250) I'm in the finest feasible mood, see, because after a lifetime of scream-based driving on Manhattan streets, I have made a decision. I have sought and achieved a nineties kind of satori. I'm imperturbable, that's why. No more yelling and honking. I'm a Zen driver now. Mature. (New York, 1990, p. 21) The goal of Zen practice is satori, an ineffable experience some have described as the feeling of becoming one with the universe. (Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 174) [< satori understanding and spiritual awakening] 1727 (OED) Satsuma [saetsomo, saetsuimo] n. 1. a type of pottery, originally produced in Satsuma Province in the late sixteenth century. Also, Satsuma ware The Black Satsuma or kuro satsuma and White Satsuma or shiro satsuma are terms applied to a coarse and heavy pottery having a thick black glaze covered with either a milk-white or a brownish glaze, depending upon the degree of dark or white glaze most prominent or conspicuous. . . . There are also some with splashes of greenish-brown on a heavy tea-colored glaze, others with a dark-green or brown glaze spattered with golden brown tea-dust, and some with black glazes. (H. Batterson Boger, The Traditional Arts of Japan, 1964,p. 237) 2. a kind of citrus. Also, Satsuma mandarin and mikan The Satsuma mandarin is an important variety for western growers. The earliest to ripen and very hardy, it can be grown in areas normally too cold for citrus. It is popular in the Sacramento Valley and Sierra foothills of California, and the Gulf Coast of Texas. . . . The name technically refers to a group of early ripening mandarins. . . . Most Satsuma available at nurseries are selections of the 'Owari', labeled 'Owari' Satsuma or just Satsuma mandarin. (Richard Ray and Lance Walheim, Citrus, 1980, p. 78) [< Satsuma the former name of Kagoshima Prefecture] 1872 (OED)

sen sawara cypress [sdiworo] n. a tall evergreen tree, Chamaecyparis pisifera.

153

The other species indigenous to Japan and with the same range as the Hinoki but found on damper ground is the Sawara Cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera) in which the leaf scales have fine, incurved points. (Scott Leathart, Trees of the World, 1977, p. 37) [< sawara] sayonara [saejondiro, sdijoundira:] n. farewell. Alohas Fading to Sayonaras (Insight, Oct. 29, 1990, p. 8, headline) Japan's [Naoko] Sawamatsu is the sort of [tennis] player who could spell sayonara for a few seeds. (1992 U. S. Open advertisement, Tennis Magazine, Sept. 1992, p. I l l ) attributive use. Now in Tokyo as an IBM director she [Kate Fickle] lifts a glass at a sayonara party for friends. (Fortune, Apr. 23,1990, p. 156, caption) interjection. Adios, Ollie [Oliver Miller]. Sayonara, big fella. (The Phoenix Gazette, Sept. 8, 1994, Sec. Sports, p. D2) [< sayonara < sayonaraba if so] 1880: sionara 1875 (OED) seibo [seibou] n. see oseibo. sekiwake n. 1. the third-highest rank in sumo wrestling. Compare ozeki and yokozuna. Bom Salevaa Atisnoe in Hawaii, the quarter-tonner stands on the edge of becoming a sekiwake, the sport's third highest rank, something no American has ever achieved. (77m*, Jun. 24, 1985, p. 71) 2. a title holder of this rank. To be promoted, the sekiwake must not only perform well, but there must be an opening at the ozeki level. (Dorothea N. Buckingham, The Essential Guide to Sumo, 1994, p. 159) [< sekiwake] sen [sen] n. 1. a monetary unit, one-hundredth of a yen, used between the 1870s and the 1950s. It is still used for interest computation in financial transaction and foreign currency exchange. The cost of a food item per student meanwhile, had risen considerably, as follows (in yen and sen): canned meats, 3:80 . . . and dried fruit, 2:80 [in 1947]. (Jacob Van Staaveren, An American in Japan, 1945-1948, 1994, p. 194) 2. the coin of this monetary unit. When a European-style decimal coinage was introduced in 1871, the sen remained a currency unit as the 100th part of a yen, and now of pure copper. (Ewald Junge, World Coin Encyclopedia, 1984, p. 229) [<sen] 1815 (OED)

154

Sendai virus

Sendai virus [sendai] n. a parainfluenza virus that causes cell fusion in mammals, used in biological research to produce cell fusion. Recent studies in our laboratory have suggested that lateral motion of Sendai virus envelope proteins in the target cell membrane plays an essential role in virally mediated fusion of human erythrocytes. (Biochemistry, 1990, vol. 29, p. 9119) [< Sendai the city in Miyagi Prefecture where this virus was first identified in 1952] 1958: Sendai 1953 (OED) sennin [senin] n. a mountain hermit who has acquired supernatural power through meditation and self-discipline. The gourd-shaped title cartouche that appears in this impression . . . was inspired by the story of Chokaro, one of the Chinese sennin, or immortals, all of whom had temporarily freed themselves from the cycle of transmigration endured by ordinary mortals. (Matthi Forrer, Hokusai, 1991, catalogue n. 98) A tale about the lust of a wizard (sennin) illustrated how a female body is processed through a male gaze. (American Historical Review, Feb. 1994, p. 142) [< sennin an immortal man] 1908: sennen 1875 (OED) senryu [senriu:] n. a humorous or satirical verse form of seventeen syllables, consisting of three metrical units of five, seven, five syllables respectively. Senryu is a variant form of haiku, also having seventeen syllables, but omitting the seasonal allusion in favour of wry comments on the human predicament. (Richard Tames, A Traveller's History of Japan, 1993, p. 105) [< senryu < (Karai) Senryu (1718-1790), a judge of linked-poetry competitions] 1938 (OED) sensei [sensei] n., pi. -sei or -s, 1. a teacher or instructor. The two sensei [Sumito Ishida Limbocker and Chisa Shimamura] have had to cope with a lack of teaching materials and must translate all lessons from the approved English language syllabus [at Great Fall Elementary School in VA]. (People Weekly, Jan. 14, 1991, p. 100) The knowledge that the student gets from his sensei (teacher) should be precious, like gold. (Karate/Kung Fu Illustrated, Feb. 1994, p. 50) 2. a courtesy title placed after the last name of a teacher or instructor. The founder of aikido, Morihei Ueshiba-sensei, described the essence of aikido as One spirit, Four Souls, Three Origins, and Eight Powers. (William Gleason, Introduction, in The Spiritual Foundation of Aikido, 1995, p. 2) After attending a karate class with Scott Sensei at the Asian Martial Arts Studio, I was hurrying down a hallway at the university of Michigan Recreation Building to attend a karate class with Sandwess Sensei. (Mark R. Moeller, Karate-do Foundations, 1995, p. 25) [sensei] 1884 (OED) (maekuzuke)

seppuku

155

sentoku [sentoku:] n. a pale yellowish-brown alloy of copper, tin, and zinc, introduced from China into Japan in the fifteenth century. Added to these two principal alloys [shakudo and shibuichi] were sentoku, a type of brass which gave various yellow and brown colours, and various lead bronzes which provided the darker browns and greens. (Ian Bottomley and Anthony Hopson, Arms and Armor of the Samurai, 1988, p. 159) [< Sentoku < Sentoku doki < Sentoku the Japanese term for the reign of Chinese Emperor Hsusan (1426-1435) + doki bronze utensils] 1902 (OED) seoi nage n. a throwing technique in judo, shoulder throw. Seoi nage is a powerful weapon against a taller, heavier opponent, as it provides the smaller man with enormous leverage. In seoi nage you are going to get your opponent on your back and then use both hands to throw him off and onto the mat. (Paul Stewart, Sports Illustrated Judo, 1976, p. 51) [< seoi nage < seoi < seou shoulder + nage throwing] 1932 (OED:AS) seppa [seipd:] n., pi. -pa, one of two washers fitted on both sides of the sword guard when a sword is mounted. In assembling a sword, next came the seppa, a pair of oval washers, each of which had an aperture to receive the tang. They were positioned on either side of the tsuba, or sword guard. (Julia Hutt, Understanding Far Eastern Art, 1987, p. 127) [< seppa < sep- < setsu cutting + -pa < ha feather] seppa-dai [seipd: dai] n. a washer platform, the flat surface surrounding the blade-hole in the central area of the sword guard, against which the seppa rests. The central washer platform (seppa-dai) is signed and dated. (Sebastian Izzard, ed., One Hundred Masterpieces from the Collection of Dr. Walter A. Compton, 1992, p. 290, caption) [< seppa dai < seppa cutting feather + dai platform] seppuku [sepu:ku:] n. ritual suicide by disembowelment. Also, hara-kiri. The act of seppuku, which is commonly called harakiri (belly cutting), was only permitted for the samurai class. The warrior was allowed to take his own life to prevent loss of face, or when the sentence of death had been passed for a crime he had committed. (Michael Finn, Martial Arts, 1988, p. 97) Seppuku remains a favorite theme in dramas and movies but virtually disappeared from real life. Except for a rash of such suicides by prominent personages, mostly military, at the end of World War II. The spectacular seppuku of the great novelist Mishima Yukio in 1970 was more a matter of dramatic posturing than an act of duty or valid political protest, and it left the Japanese public, though thrilled by the drama, somehow puzzled and contemptuous. (Edwin O. Reischauer and Marius B. Jansen, The Japanese Today, enl.ed., 1995, pp. 168-69) [< seppuku < sep- < setsu cutting + -puku <fuku belly] 1871 (OED)

156 sesshin [sejm] n. in Zen Buddhism, intensive sessions of meditation.

sesshin

During sesshin, which is considered the high point of Zen training, the monks devote themselves exclusively to meditation. (Ingrid Fischer-Schreber, Franz-Karl Ehrhard, and Michael S. Diener, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, trans. Michael H. Kohn, 1991, p. 191) [< sesshin < ses- < setsu collecting + shin mind] 1972 (B2) Seto or Seto ware [setou] n. a type of pottery produced from the kilns in Seto, Aichi Prefecture. Production of Seto ware, distinguished from Sanage ware by its new repertory of shape glazed with amber yellow or pale ash glaze and by incised, stamped, and sprigged-on decoration, began in the twelfth century. (Louise Allison Cort, Seto and Mino Ceramics, 1992, p. 56) [< Seto a city in northwestern Aichi Prefecture] Seto 1881 (OED) s e w a m o n o [sewomounou] n. a play genre in kabuki theater, a domestic story about townspeople in the early seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The plays themselves were divided into different categories with historical dramas (jidaimono) and domestic tales (sewamono). (Amy Newland and Chris Uhlenbeck, consult, eds., Ukiyo-e to Shin hanga, 1990, pp. 50-51) Sewamono concerned commonersshopkeepers, farmers, prostitutesand were often based on a recent incidenta murder, theft, swindle, or arson case. (John Whitney Hall, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 4, 1991, p. 755) [< sewamono < sewa everyday life + mono piece] 19ll(OED:AS)

shabu-shabu [saebu:Jaebu:] n. a Japanese dish consisting of very thinly sliced beef or pork and vegetables, cooked by diners at the table by briefly dipping the pieces in boiling water or soup stock, and eaten with sauces flavored with miso, soy or sesame. Also, shabu shabu. Mrs. [Amy Sylvester] Katoh prepares the hearty Japanese dish called shabu shabu, thin strips of meat and vegetables cooked in a shiitake broth. (The New York Times, May 19, 1994, p. CIO) [< shabu shabu onomatopoeia of dipping slices of meat in boiling water or soup stock] 1970 (OED) shaku 1 [Ja:ku:] n., pi. -ku, a unit of length equivalent to 11.93 inches, used until the introduction of the metric system in the 1950s. Its basic unit is the Japanese foot called shaku, almost identical with the English foot. (Heino Engel, Measure and Construction of the Japanese House, 1985, p. 22) Its size, one shaku is the largest of the most common Nabeshima dish sizes. (Yoshiaki Shimizu, ed., Japan: The Shaping of Daimyo Culture, 1988, p. 322) [< shaku] 1878: Sackf, Sak, Saku 1727 (OED)

shamisen

157

shaku 2 [Jd:ku:] n., pi. -ku, a flat scepter made of ivory or wood. Originally used by the court nobility as a form of memorandum pad, in later times it was carried by the emperor or as a sign of honor in the presence of the emperor. The triad is composed of Hachiman . . . wearing a courtly robe . . . and holding a wooden ceremonial slat (shaku). (Yoshiaki Shimizu, ed., Japan: The Shaping of Daimyo Culture, 1988, p. 130) [< shaku] 1875 (0D) shakudo [Jaekodou] n. an alloy of copper and 3 to 6 percent gold, patinated to blue-black. Kinko tsuba are distinguished by the use of exquisite precious-metal alloys, primarily shakudo, a mixture of copper and gold patinated to blue-black, and shibuichi, primarily copper and silver patinated to shades of gray. (Connoisseur, Jun. 1991, p. 110) [< shakudo < shaku red + do copper] 1878: syakfdo 1860 (OED) shakuhachi [Jd:kohd:tJi] n. a vertical bamboo flute with four finger holes on the front face, one upper thumb hole on the rear face, and a notched-top mouthpiece. First came contemporary music . . . for instruments honored by time and tradition: the koto, a large zither with harplike carrying power, and the shakuhachi, a husky bamboo recorder. (The New York Times, Mar. 22, 1994, p. C21) A shakuhachi concert to be performed today at 7 P.M. at Bard College in Annandaleon-Hudson will feature the ancient Japanese instrument. . . . This evening's performance will mark the distance that the shakuhachi has traveled from a solo instrument of ancient Japan to integration with the contemporary world of international music. (The New York Times, Feb. 12, 1995, Sec. 13WC, p. 17) [< shakuhachi < shaku a unit of length + hachi eight; one shaku eight sun, the length of a standard shakuhachi instrument (21.46 inches)] 1893 (OED) shamisen [Jaemosen] n. a lute with three strings, plucked with a plectrum. Also, samisen. Shamisen. A Japanese three-string plucked lute. In the Kansai area of Kyoto and Osaka it is traditionally called the samisen. (Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, 1984, p. 361) That reminder is particularly strong in a fragment of a screen, dating from around 1535, that depicts a young woman playing a samisen, a three-stringed plucked lute. (The Christian Science Monitor, Oct. 16, 1990, p. 11) It seemed thoroughly natural for the fortissimo drum extravaganzas to be interspersed with pieces that treated breath and rhythm with more quietude: a dialogue for wooden flutes, a solo for the shamisen (a three-stringed Japanese lute), and a playful conversation among small metal cymbals. This concert was a celebration of organic patterns. (The New York Times, Feb. 24, 1995, p. C5) [< shamisen literally, sha < sa three + mi taste + sen strings] 1871 (OED)

158

shiatsu

shiatsu [Jid:tsu:] n. a massage therapy in which finger pressure is applied over acupuncture points of the body. Also, Shiatsu or shiatzu. Shiatzu: Japanese finger pressure for energy, sexual vitality and relieffrom tension and pain. (Yukiko Irwin, book title, 1976) Presently, there are three major types of Shiatsu being practiced, each of which approaches the goal of balancing energy flow differently: Shiatsu massage, acupressure, and Zen Shiatsu. . . . Shiatsu massage is based largely on Anma techniques and views the body purely from an anatomical or physiologic perspective. In conjunction with the use of massage techniques and manipulations, hard pressure is applied to the body at certain points to elicit the relief of specific symptoms. (Frances Tappan, Healing Massage Techniques, 2nd ed., 1988, p. 189) attributive use. Customers are treated to a range of mostly private label goods ranging from a $15 hammer that pounds hard-to-reach nails to an electric-powered shiatsu massage lounge that goes for $2,795 [at Brookstone in Tampa]. (St. Petersburg [FL] Times, Oct. 23, 1993. Business NewsBank PLUS) figurative use. Brookstone Inc., the Nashua retail chain that specializes in massage chairs and vibrating finger wands, was in desperate need of shiatsu back rub yesterday after its stock plunged 45 percent, making it the day's biggest loser in US trading. (Boston Globe, Dec. 15, 1994, Sec. Business, p. 50. Business NewsBank PLUS) [< shiatsu < shi finger + atsu pressure] 1967 (OED) shiatzu [Jid:tsu:] n. see shiatsu. Shibayama [Ji:bojd:mo] n. a style of lacquer decoration in which pieces of ivory, tortoiseshell, coral, or mother-of-pearl are inlaid into a gold lacquer ground in such a way that they stand out in high relief; created in the late eighteenth century. The Shibayama . . . had a preference for decorating small format articles such as the inro . . . the scale of which was appropriate to the minuteness of their style of decoration. (Julia Hutt, Understanding Far Eastern Art, 1987, p. 174) [< Shibayama zaiku < Shibayama < (Senzo) Shibayama (eighteenth century), a creator of this style of decoration + zaiku < saiku handiwork] 1928 (OED) shibui [Jibu:i] adj. elegant in a subtle, unpretentious, and a deeply moving way. [Ogata] Korin composed the design not only of gold but of inlaid pewter and lead, whose different textures as well as colors lend variety, complexity, and a note of roughness, of that shibui (astringent) quality so important to the Japanese tea master. (Sherman E. Lee, A History of Far Eastern Art, 5th ed. Edited by Naomi Noble Richard, 1994, p. 538) n. this type of elegant beauty, cherished since the fourteenth century. The center [National Training Center of Nissan Motor Corp. in Scottsdale, AZ] was designed to reflect a Japanese sense of shibui, an almost astringent elegance that results

shigellosis

159

when all extraneous elements are eliminated. (Phoenix [AZ] Magazine, Feb. 1990, p. 70) [< shibui astringent, the acid of an unripe persimmon] 1947 (OED) shibuichi [fibowi:tJi] n. an alloy of three parts of copper to one part of silver, which produces a beautiful patina in shades of grey, used extensively for inlay in the decorative arts in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Notations on other drawings include the Japanese names shakudo, a bluish black alloy, and shibuichi, a gray alloy produced in at least two shades. (The Magazine Antiques, Oct. 1987, p. 816) [< shibuichi < shi four + bu parts + ichi one] 1880 (OED) Shiga [Ji:go] n. a bacterium discovered by Kiyoshi Shiga [1870-1957], a bacteriologist. Also, shiga. attributive use. S[higella] dysenteriae (especially serotype 1, known as the shiga bacillus) occurs almost exclusively in developing countries. (The Lancet, June 4, 1994, vol. 343, p. 1413) [< (Kiyoshi) Shiga] shigella [Jigelo] n. 1. cap. a genus Schizomycetes that causes dysentry. The bacterium which causes bacillary dysentery was isolated in 1898 by Kiyoshi Shigu [sic], a Japanese bacteriologist, and the genus was then named Shigella. (Roderick E. McGrew, Encyclopedia of Medical History, 1985, p. 103) Shegella organisms are invasive, Gram negative, facultative enterobacteria that are harbored in the intestinal tract of humans and transferred by the fecal-oral route. (Journal of Environmental Health, Jan./Feb. 1994, p. 23) 2. pi. -e, an individual organism of the genus Shigella. [< (Kiyoshi) Shig(a) + -ella] 1919 (OED) shigellosis [Jigolousis] n. infection with Shigella. Shigellosis is one of the leading food-borne diseases in the United States. . . . Foods most commonly associated with shigellosis are salads (such as potato, tuna, shrimp, macaroni, and chicken). Foods containing ingredients that are cut, diced, chopped, or mixed with other foods, and do not undergo further cooking are likely candidates for shigellosis. (Research Magazine, Jul. 1993, p. 8) Shigellosis is a common diarrhoeal disease that is characterized by loose and often bloody stools and abdominal cramps. (The Lancet, 1994, vol. 343, p. 1413) About 600 passengers and nearly 40 crew members aboard the Viking Serenade fell ill with shigellosis, which is caused by the bacterium Shigella flexneri said Bob Howard, a spekesman for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention here. One person died. Shigellosis causes diarrhea, vomiting and fever and lurks in the feces of infected people. It is often spread by cooks and other people who handle food. (The New York Times, Sept. 6, 1994, p. A12)

160

shiitake

Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery is one of the most commonly encountered diarrheal diseases in Bangladesh and other developing countries. Usually a self-limiting infectious colitis, shigellosis is estimated to be responsible for 650,000 deaths annually in the world, a majority of them occurring in the poor areas of developing countries. (Infection and Immunity, 1995, vol. 63, p. 289) [< shigell(a) + -osis] 1944 (OED) shiitake [fi:itd:kei, -ki] n., pi. -ke or -s, an edible mushroom, Lentinus edodes.

Although growing some varieties of these cutting-edge epicurean favorites at home can be a challenge, one of the tastiest and easiest is the shiitake. (The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Constitution, Oct. 21, 1994. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) Shiittake are shades of brown or tan, with or without cracked caps, some soft whitish "fuzz" around the edges, and have thick stems. (Countryside & Small Stock Journal, Jan./Feb. 1955, p. 50) [< shiitake < shii a tree, genus Castanopsis + take mushroom] 1877 (OED) Shijo [Ji:d30u] n. a school of painting established in the 1790s by Goshun Matsumura (1752-1811). Also, Shijo. Shijo became the first major school apart from Ukiyo-e to design works specifically for the colour woodblock-print mediumin single-sheet surimono, book and album formatsand thus found favour with wide audience or ordinary townspeople, in Edo as well as the cities of western Japan. (Lawrence Smith, Victor Harris and Timothy Clark, Japanese Art: Masterpieces in the British Museum, 1990, p. 181) adj. of or relating to this school. Typical Shijo works by pupils of Goshun . . . are hanging scrolls, handscrolls or albums showing domestic Kyoto subjects, landscape, still-lifes, animals or plantslightly and deftly executed in washes of colour that are allowed to resonate in the unpainted space around them. (Richard Bowring and Peter Kornicki, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, 1993, p. 194) [< Shijo the street in Kyoto where the founder's studio was located] 1884 (OED) shikibuton [Ji:kibju:tan] n. see futon. [< shikibuton < shiki spreading + buton < futon mattress] shikimi [Jikiimi] n. see the quotation for the meaning. An evergreen tree of the family Magnoliaceae that grows wild in the warm areas of Kyushu, Shikoku, and central and western Honshu. . . . The leaves are alternate, oblong, 6-8 centimeters (2.4-3.1 in) long, and fragrant. Around April the plant opens light yellow flowers in the axils in the upper part of the branches. . . . The shikimi is also known abroad and was exported to Europe in 1790. (Kodansha International Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983, Vol. 7, p. 96) [< shikimi < ashiki poisonous + mi fruit] 1881 (OED)

shimpa

161

shikimic acid [Jikimik] n. a crystalline acid obtained from the fruit of skimmia, C6H6(OH)3(COOH). A short and efficient partial synthesis of (-)-chorismic acid (1) from (-)-shikimic acid (4) is reported. Chorismate is the key branch-point intermediate in the shikimic acid pathway, which bacteria, fungi, and lower plants use to biosynthesize inter alia the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan as well as the isoprenoid quinones and folate coenzymes. (Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 112, 1990, p. 8907) [< shikim(i) + -ic] shikimic 1886 (OED) shikken [Jfken] n. the title of shogunal regent during the Kamakura Shogun(1192-1333). They [the Hojo family] did not themselves become the shoguns but exercised the real power as the Hojo regents by retaining in their own hands the post of shikken, or head of the Council, first acquired by Hojo Tokimasa in 1203. (W. Scott Morton, Japan: Its History and Culture, 3rd ed., 1994, p. 70) [< shikken < shik- < shitsu managing + ken authority] shimada [Jimd:do] n. a Japanese coiffure for women, which was most popular in the early seventeenth century. Also, Shimada. attributive use. I demonstrated the technique of suberakashi, which involves lifting up strands of hair from the temples as a way of beginning to construct a chignon on the top of the head, while the bulk of the hair is pulled into a low, large loop with paper ties; I made the classic Shimada chignon, which one often sees depicted in woodblock prints. (Laurence Caillet, The House of Yamazaki, trans., Megan Backus, 1994, p. 207) [< shimada < shimada mage < shimada + mage chignon] 1910 (OED) shime-waza [Ji:meiwd:zo] n. a choking technique in judo. Choking techniques (shime-waza) are important supplementary techniques, unique in that they can easily produce controlled unconsciousness with little or no risk (when correctly applied). (George R. Parulski, Jr., Black Belt Judo, 1985, p. 52) [< shime-waza < shime tightening + waza technique] 1954 (OED) shimose or Shimose gunpowder [Jimousei] n. an explosive consisting chiefly of picric acid, invented by Masachika Shimose (1859-1911). [< (Masachika) Shimose, a naval engineer] shimpa [Jimpa:] n. the first realistic form of Japanese theater, developed in the late nineteenth century in opposition to the highly stylized kabuki theater. Also, Shimpa. Compare shingeki. The two scenes that create the greatest impact come [in East of Eden], first when Cal breaks down because his gestures to help his father are scorned and second, when his father, on his deathbed, communicates for the first time (and in a nonverbal manner) that

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he really loves his son. The latter scene has many parallels in Japanese dramatic art, especially in the shimpa stage presentationsa spin-off from the rigid formalism of Kabuki but degenerated into professionally executed, but nevertheless, what can only be described as "soap." (George Fields, From Bonsai to Levi's, 1983, pp. 192-93) In the late 19th century, Shimpa concerned itself with issues ranging from the SinoJapanese War to the harsh reaction to change sparked by adherence to traditional values. (The New York Times, Nov. 17, 1985, Sec. 2, p. 4) There is a distinction similar to that between plays derived from traditional Japanese drama (kyugeki) and plays influenced by Western drama (shimpa), but this is a difference only of genre, like the distinction between tragedy and comedy. (Arthur Nolletti, Jr. and David Desser, Reframing Japanese Cinema, 1992, p. 231) [< shimpa < shin new + -pa < ha school] Shin [Jin, Ji:n] n., adj. see Jodo Shin-shu. [< (Jodo) Shin-(shu)] 1877 (OED)

shingeki [Jingoki:] n. contemporary Japanese theater, developed in the early twentieth century after Western theater. Also, Shingeki. Compare kabuki and shimpa. The real powerhouse of modern shingeki . . . appeared in the first postwar "boom" year, 1953. This troupe, Shiki (Four Seasons), has moved from Anouilh and Giraudoux to Applause, Mame, and Jesus Christ Superstar. (Bill Logan, ed, All Japan, 1984, p. 161) Shingeki, or "new theater," was a reaction to Shimpa and provided a look at the world beyond Japan. It offered Western classicssuch as Shakespeare, Gorki and Chekhovin translation. (The New York Times, Nov. 17, 1985, Sec. 2, p. 4) In the late nineteenth century, for example, Shimpa, that naturalistic theatrical form created in direct opposition to the stylization of the Kabuki, was avant-garde. Likewise the Shingeki, which in the early twentieth century was created in opposition to the by then codified and generally accepted Shimpa. (Donald Richie, A Lateral View, Stone Bridge Press ed., 1992, p. 132) City audiences also enjoyed modem theater (shingeki), with masterpieces by both indigenous playwrights and translated foreign ones. (Milton Walter Meyer, Japan: A Concise History, 1993, p. 247) [< shingeki < shin new + geki theater, drama] Shingon [Jingan, Ji:n-] n. an esoteric Buddhist sect that stresses ritual, magical practices and verbal transmission of doctrines; founded by Kukai (774-853). The practice of Shingon depends to a great extent on the use of ritual gestures, mudrds, the recitation of short formulas or prayers, mantras, and the pursuit of symbolic trains of thought, kanjo. (Andrew Powell, Living Buddhism, 1989, p. 100) [< Shingon < Shingon shu< Sihin true + gon word + shii sect] 1880: Singon 1727 (OED)

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shinkansen [Ji:nkd:nsen] n. a high-speed passenger train. Also, Shinkansen and bullet train. Japan's Shinkansen bullet trains, which began running in 1964, now cover 1,184 miles, with four more segments under construction. But their top speed is a modest 167 mph. (Business Week, Apr. 19, 1993, p. 107) These trains, called the Shinkansen, revolutionized weekend tourism starting in the 1960's, making Kyoto less than a three-hour trip from Tokyo. (The New York Times, Dec. 4, 1994, Sec. 5, p. 13) The shinkansen is the spine of Japanese transport, running the length of the nation's big island. (The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 18, 1995, p. Al) [< shinkansen < shin new + kan trunk + sen line] 1973 (B2) Shinshu [Jinju:] n. see Jodo Shin-shu. shintai [Jintai] n., pi. -tai or -s, in Shinto, an object of worship that is believed to be the embodied spirit of a deity. The shintai were often the sorts of sacred treasures that the kami were thought to have brought with them from heaven: mirrors, swords, spears, and jewels. (Delmer M. Brown, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1993, Vol. 1, p. 351) [< shintai < shin deity + tai body] Shinto [Jintou] n. Japan's indigenous religion, which venerates nature spirits and ancestors. Also, Shintoism. From prehistoric times the Japanese have revered animistic spirits and deities called kami. Eventually the worship of kami developed into a religious system known as Shinto or "the kami way." (Delmer M. Brown, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1993, Vol. 1, p. 317) attributive use. The god of Rice Fields comes down from his mountain home in the spring and returns in the autumn, and this may have some connection with the old Shinto belief that mountains possess spirits or gods. (Juliet Piggott, Japanese Mythology, rev. ed., 1983, p.54) Well suited to the humid, temperate climate of their compact island homeland, Japanese gardens are the product of a long history and sophisticated, richly symbolic philosophy rooted in Shinto animism and contemplative Zen Buddhist traditions. (Texas Monthly, Aug. 1991, p. 110) As with any Shinto shrine, visitors can buy a plaque for $6 at the little nearby shop, write a message and leave it hanging with the other plaques on the right side of the [Yasukuni] shrine. (The New York Times, Jul. 30, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 8) [< shinto < shin deity + to way] 1875: Sinto 1727 (OED) Shintoism [Jintouizm] n. Japan's indigenous religion. Also, Shinto. For many Japanese, a feeling for the land is an expression of Shintoism, a native shamanism that holds that all natural things are holy, that all living things contain a

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sacred essence of being. (America West: Airline Magazine, Feb. 1991, pp. 38-39) [< shinto + -ism] 1889: Sintooism 1857 (OED) Shintoist [Jintouist] n. a person who believes in Shinto. adj. of or relating to Shinto or a person who believes in this religion. [< shinto+ -ist] 1875: Sintoist 1727 Shintoistic [Jintouistic] adj. of, relating to, or characteristic of Shinto. The next essay is also Shintoistic, extending the idea of deity into the natural world. (Thomas Cleary, The Japanese Art of War, 1991, p. 108) [< shinto + -istic] 1893 (OED) shippo n. cloisonne enamelware. Also, shippo. When they first saw cloisonne in ancient times, they instinctively associated with the word shippo, which means seven treasures (of sutra). These seven treasuresgold, silver, emerald, coral, agate, crystal, and pearlwere the substances most valued in nature. (Lawrence A. Coben and Dorothy C. Ferster, Japanese Cloisonne, 1990, p.4) Cloisonne (shippo), a type of enamelling involving the application of glass on a metal base, had been produced in Japan from very early time, but it became widely used only from the seventeenth century. (Hugh Cortazzi, The Japanese Achievement, 1990, p. 172) [< shippo < shippo yaki < ship- < shichi seven + -p6 < ho treasure + yaki ware] 1875 (OED) shira-kashi [Jirokdiji] n. 1. a tall evergreen tree, Quercus 2. the wood of this tree. OAK, JAPANESE . . . Other names: ohnara (Q. mongolica), konara (Q. glandulifera), kashiwa (Q. dentata), shira-kashi (Q. mysinaefolia). . . . General description: The timber is paler and much milder than European American white oak, due to slow, even growth. . . . Uses: Furniture and cabinetmaking, interior fittings, joinery, panelling, flooring blocks, boat building, charcoal manufacture. (William A. Lioncoln, World Woods in Color, 1986, p. 192) [< shirakashi < shira- white + kashi oak] shishi [Jiiji:] n. a mythical Chinese lion, often used as a decorative motif in traditional Japanese art. A weight of gold, copper, iron or stone, often decorated with a shishi or kirin. (Alex R. Newman and Egerton Ryerson, Japanese Art: Collectors's Guide. 1964, p. 62) This large gold menuki [decorative metal accessories of a sword] are formed as mythical lion dogs (shishi) with peony plants in high relief. (Sebastian Izzard, ed., One Hundred Masterpieces from the Collection of Dr. Walter A. Compton, 1992, p. 274, caption) [< shishi < kara jishi < kara- from China or other foreign countries + jishi < shishi lion] 1970 (OED) mysinaefolia.

shochu shitogi tsuba [Jiitougi: tsiiibo] n. a type of sword guard. Also, shitogi-tsuba.

165

In Nara period (645-794), a type of guard called shitogi-tsuba was developed. . . . The name shitogi comes from a dumpling made by gripping a single handful of pounded rice and forming a lump at the top and the bottom. Such guards were usually of gilt bronze copper, occasionally of gold, and were made for ceremonial swords until the Edo period (1600-1333). (Sebastian Izzard, ed., One Hundred Masterpieces from the Collection of Dr. Walter Compton, 1992, p. 58) [< shitogi tsuba < shitogi rice dumpling + tsuba guard] shizoku [Jiizouku:, ---]n. the class of samurai descent in the Japanese social scale, a term officially used from 1869 to 1947. Compare heimin and kazoku. In 1869, the population was reclassified into five categories. At the top stood one person, the emperor. Below him, on the second rung, was the imperial family, followed by nobility, who were classified without reference to their former specific place in the intricate structure of court ranks. In fourth position were the former samurai, now to be called the shizoku. (Jerrold M. Packard, Sons of Heaven, 1987, p. 215) Equality was to prevail among all classes, theoretically, but in practice, the kazoku and shizoku were still accorded privileged treatment by law. (Mikiso Hane, Modern Japan, 1992, 2nd ed., p. 92) [< shizoku < shi noble + zoku clan] sho 1 [Jou] n. a small mouth organ. Also, sho. Of the many reed instruments, the sho and its larger cousin the U are the most mysterious. They are bamboo pipe mouth organs and they are used for extended ethereal effects. (The New York Times, Feb. 18, 1990, p. C24) Among the wind instruments, the mouth organ or sho . . . has remained important to the gagaku orchestra. This visually striking instrument consists of a bowl-shaped mouthpiece attached to seventeen bamboo pipes of varied length. The pipes have finger holes, and the instrument is played by selectively covering them while drawing air in and out of the mouth, producing chords of a reedy quality. (Delmer M. Brown, The Cambridge History of Japan, 1993, Vol. 1, p. 500) [<sho] 1888 (OED) s h o 2 [Jou] n. a unit of capacity equivalent to approximately 3.18 pints, used until the introduction of the metric system in the 1950s. Also, sho. Then we sprinkle Tomekichi's stele with a sho of sake, because he dearly loved to drink. (Laurence Caillet, The House of Yamazaki, trans. Megan Backus, 1994, p. 259) [< shol876 (OED)

shochu [Joutju:] n. a distilled spirit made from sweet potatoes, grain, waste molasses and other low-cost raw materials. The stuff is as colorless as vodka and, depending on grade, almost tasteless and odorless. Shochu has been around a long timeprobably since the 1500sand until fairly recently

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had an image roughly akin to such low-end propellants in the U.S. as Golden Wedding or Night Train. (Forbes, Jul. 1, 1985, p. 62, 65) In Japan, sake is being challenged by beer, whiskey, soft drinks, and another traditional Japanese beverage called shochu, a distilled spirit resembling vodka. (Country Living, Jun. 1991, p. 128) He [Akira Kimura] orders iced tea mixed with the volatile Japanese vodka called shochu and smiles. (Insight, April 27, 1992, p. 36) [< shochu strong liquor] 1938 (OED) shodan n. 1. the lowest degree of proficiency of the black belt rank in judo. Compare kyu. In traditional karate, an individual acquires the rank of shodan (first-degree black belt) when he has achieved a solid foundation and understanding of basic techniques. (Black Belt, Mar. 1993, p. 49) In Japan, the average martial artist begins training in his early teens. By the time he graduates from high school, he will almost certainly have been promoted to at least shodan (first-degree black belt). Therefore, it is obviously no big deal to be a black belt in Japan. There are millions of them. (Black Belt, Sept. 1995, p. 20) 2. a person who has achieved this level of proficiency. [< shodan < sho beginning + dan grade] 1913 (OED:AS) shogaol [Jougooil] n. one of the principles of ginger. The pungency of ginger is attributed to zingerone, shogaol, and gingerol. (Kenneth T. Farrell, Spices, Condiments, and Seasonings, 1985, p. 124) [< shoga ginger + -ol] shogi [Jougi] n. Japanese chess, played on a board with 81 squares, using 40 chessmen; the object is to checkmate the opponent's king. Also shogi. Adult education is by and large provided by specialized jukus that teach such subjects as English, flower arrangement, aerobics, and shogi (Japanese chess). (Phi Delta Kappan, Oct. 1993, p. 128) [< shogi] 1884 (OED) shogoin [Jougowon] n. a variety of Japanese radish, Raphanus sativus. 'Shogoin' is a well-known round variety: three quarters of its bulk is above ground. (Joy Larkcom, Oriental Vegetables, 1991, p. 112) attributive use. 'Shogoin' types Round, mediumsized roots, develop largely above ground, suited to heavy clay soils. Average size about 7 in (18 cm) diameter, 5 in (13 cm) deep, up to 5 lb (2.2 kg) weight. Green necks; shape ranges from spherical to flattish. (Ibid, p. 115) [< Shogoin (daikon) < Shogoin the town in Sakyo-ku Kyoto, where this radish was originally cultivated + daikon radish]

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shogoin turnip [Jougowon] n. a variety of Japanese turnip, Brassica rapa var. rapifera. [< translation of Shogoin kabura < Shogoin the town in Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, where this turnip was originally cultivated + kabura turnip] shogun [Jougon] n. chief military commander between 1192 and 1867. Yoritomo [1147-1199] extracted permission from Go-Shirakawa to appoint stewards and constables in the province and took himself the title, which existed for centuries but had become an anachronism, of Seii Taishogun (normally shortened to Shogun and meaning Barbarian Suppressing Commander in Chief). (Ian Bottomley and Anthony Hopson, Arms and Armor of the Samurai, 1988, p. 44) Once a year only, a Dutch delegation was permitted to travel to Edo (now Tokyo) to present the Japanese ruler, the shogun, with official gifts and to renew the trade agreements. (The Magazine Antiques, Apr. 1992, p. 634) [< shogun < (Seii Tai)shogun < seii quelling the barbarians + tai great + shogun general] 1875: Shongo Samme 1615 (OED) shogunal [Jougonol] adj. of or relating to a shogun. His [Arai Hakuseki's] effort in this direction included . . . shogunal adoption of the title of king in relations with Korea, and a general enlargement of the monarchal connotations of the symbol of shogunal authority. (Kate Wildman Nakai, Preface, in Shogunal Politics, 1988, p. x) [< shogun + -al] 1899 (OED) shogunate [Jougonot, Jougeneit] n. the office of a shogun. In 1642, an administrative bureau of the shogunate was established in Kurashiki, and the city became a rice and cotton distribution center for surrounding fiefs. (The New York Times, Jun. 23, 1985, Sec. 10, p. 9) [< shogun + -ate] 1871: Siogoonate 1873 (OED) shoji [J6ud3i] n. a sliding door or partition made of light latticework covered with paper or other translucent material. The primary function of shoji . . . is to divide interior from exterior, and also, in modern Japanese houses with both Japanese- and Western-style rooms, to partition off the places where house slippers are wornthe Western-style rooms and the hallwayfrom the tatami rooms where house slippers are not worn. (Koji Yagi, A Japanese Touch for your Home, (1982) 1984, p. 54) The shojis and floors provided an airy white-and-wood framework, carried through in furniture selection. (Sunset, Sept. 1991, p. 96) Another door and window treatment popular from the Momoyama period [1568-1600] on is the shoji. What distinguishes the shoji, whether fixed in place or used as sliding doors, is the translucent white paper pasted over one side of a wood latticework. (Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 218)

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Add elegance to your patio doors with Japanese Shoji. Translucent screens are an affordable solution for privacy and soft diffused lighting. Precision crafted in the U.S. (Sunset, Sept. 1995, p. 142, advertisement) attributive use. Three 30- by 80-inch redwood-framed shoji screens with translucent fiberglass panels slide closed to give the alcove's occupant privacy from outside or from other guests sharing the room. (Sunset, Mar. 1986, p. 139) adj. of or relating to light latticework covered with paper or other translucent material. The shop, in a converted horse stable on West 17th Street near Barneys New York, has a sampling of free standing screens priced from $360 and shoji table lamps from $45. (The New York Times, Aug. 30, 1990, p. C2) These columns of color and light combine images of festive Fourth with the translucence of Japanese shoji screens. Using embroidery hoops as rims for sturdy fiberglass sheets, you can make several lanterns quickly and inexpensively. (Sunset, Jul. 1991, p. 64) [< shoji < (akari) shoji < akari lighting + shoji] shokku [Jdku:] n., pi. -ku, shock or surprise in Japanese political and economic affairs. Pundits and polls alike had predicted a respectable victory for Yasuhiro Nakasone and his Liberal Democrats, so the news last week sent a shokku from the southern tip of Kyushu to northern Hokkaido. (Time, Jan. 2, 1984, p. 64) Japanese life insurance companies alone are believed to have lost as much as $5 billion from currency swings. Says Eugene Davis, a vice president in First Boston Corp.'s Tokyo office, of this dollar shokku: "It's not a pleasant time for [Japanese] investment managers." (Forbes, Mar. 10, 1986, p. 30) Just four years after the yen shokku of 1985, Tokyo looked like the economic terminator of Western dread. (Newsweek, May 18, 1992, p. 53) Indeed, this time is different from previous economic shokku or shocks. For one thing, Japan's economy is more intertwined than ever before with its partners. (Business Week, Mar. 29, 1993, p. 69) [< shokku shock] 1971 (OED) Shorin ryu n. one of the two major karate styles in Okinawa, known as Shurite prior to World War II. Also, shorin-ryu. Shorin-ryu: A classical Okinawan karate system characterized by its fast and speedy movements. Very popular today. (George R. Parulski, Jr., Glossary, The Art of Karate Weapons, 1984, p. 183) Traditional karate has its roots in the early kung fu systems dating back to sixth-century China. A Buddhist monk named Boddhidharma introduced mind and body movements which later developed into blocking and attacking tecniques. The methodologies spread to Okinawa and later Japan, where they were adapted into karate styles such as shotokan, isshin-ryu, shorin-ryu, goju-ryu, etc. (Black Belt, Mar. 1992, p. 19)

shoyu [< Shorin ryu < Shorin-ji school] 1974 (OED.AS)

169 a Buddhist temple in Honan Province, China + ryu

shosagoto [Jousogdutou] n. a type of dance accompanied by chanting and music in kabuki theater. By the beginning of the Genroku era in 1688 there had developed three distinct types of kabuki performance: jidai-mono (historical plays), sewa-mono (domestic plays), which generally portrayed the lives of the townspeople . . . and shosagoto (dance pieces), consisting of dance performances and pantomime. (Japan: Profile of a Nation, Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1994, p. 277) [< shosagoto < shosa posturing + goto < koto piece] shosha n. see sogo shosha. Shotokan n. a style of karate that combines elements of two Okinawan karate schools, created by Gichin Funakoshi in 1935. Shotokan involves the use of great muscle effort. During the punch, muscle contraction is pronounced and this may readily be seen in the contorted faces of Shotokan karateka. (David Mitchell, The Overlook Martial Arts Handbook, 1988, p. 75) attributive use. Shotokan karate was originated by the Okinawan school teacher and president of the Shobukai, Funakoshi Gichin (1868-1957). (David Mitchell, Karate, 1990, p. 12) The slow-motion practice of martial arts can also work as a self-defense against stress. The linear movement of the Japanese Shotokan karate, for instance, or the more circular motions of the Chinese exercise of t'ai chi are performed with meditative mind and breathing techniques. (Los Angeles Magazine, Jan. 1995, p. I l l ) [< Shoto kan < Shoto the founder's pseudonym + kan school] 1963 (OED.AS) Showa [Jouwa:] n. the reign of Emperor Hirohito (1901-1989), from 1926 to 1989. Also, Showa. The year 1940 was the fifteenth year of Showa, the reign of Emperor Hirohito. Deprivations were beginning to cut into civilian life. (Liza Crihfield Dalby, Kimono: Fashioning Culture, 1993, p. 131) adj. of or relating to this period. At the core of the Showa experience lies a story of tremendous economic achievement: the transformation of Japan from a developing country into an advanced industrial nation. (Daedalus, Summer 1990, p. 191) [< Showa < sho enlightened + wa peace] 1927 (OED.AS) shoyu [Jduju:] n. a salty dark-brown liquid condiment made by fermenting water, salt, and a yeast made from soybean and wheat. See also s o y 3 and soy sauce.

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Japanese soy sauce, called shoyu, is less salty than Chinese varieties and should, of course, be used in Japanese recipes. (Jennifer Mulherin, The Macmillan Treasury of Spices and Natural Flavorings, 1988, p. 86) The world's love affair with Japanese soy sauce, shoyu, probably began with Dutch traders in Nagasaki in the 17th century. (John Belleme and Jan Belleme, Cooking with Japanese Foods, 1993, p. 17) [< shoyu < sho a type of condiment made from a fermented, salted and refined mixture of rice, beans, and barley +yu oil] 1880: Soeju 1727 (OED) shubunkin [Juiborjkin, Juiburjkon] n. a variety of goldfish, Carassius Also, Shubunkin. aurarus.

Shubunkins, or Calico Goldfish, are beautiful and hardy fish. They have nacreous scales, i.e. pearly in appearance, and may reach 15cm (6in) or so in body length (23cm/9in in overall length). . . . If you are a beginner, err on the side of caution by choosing only the hardier varieties, such as the Common Goldfish, Fantails and small Shubunkins. (Chris Andrews, Fancy Goldfishes, 1987, pp. 74 and 80) One of the more interesting goldfish is the shubunkin, a colorful strain originating from the Orient. The body is the same shape as the common goldfish but instead of being gold or brown in color they have a multicolored appearance. Their coloring may consist of red, blue, yellow, and green. Their size is similar to the common goldfish. (Tropical Fish Hobbyist, Apr. 1995, pp. 137-38) [< shubunkin] 1917 (OED) shugo [Jugou] n. a military governor in feudal Japan. The Kamakura shugo's scope of authority in normal times consisted mainly of recruiting men for guard service and handling criminal matters. (Kozo Yamamura, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1990, Vol. 3, p. 240) [< shugo protection] 1893 (OED) Shuha [Juiha:] adj. of or relating to any of the thirteen Shinto sects recognized by the Japanese government as private religious organizations between 1876 and 1908. Also, Shuha. Sect Shinto (Kyoha Shinto). Also known as Shuha Shinto, Sect Shinto is the term for the Shinto movement centering upon thirteen groups formed during the nineteenth century. (Mircea Eliade, ed.-in-chief, The Encyclopedia of Religion, 1987, Vol. 13, p. 280) [< Shuha < Shuha Shinto < Shuha sect + Shinto] shunga [Jurjga:] n. erotic paintings, prints, and illustrations. Fragmentary evidence indicates that the earliest Japanese shunga were a diversion of Buddhist artists and artisans, graffiti sketched for relaxation in the midst of more serious endeavors. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983 p. 187) From about 1820 onward, landscapes, warrior prints, birds and flower studies, and still

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lifes increased in importance. Scenes from brothels, bath-houses and the street were also very popular, and shunga or erotic prints were part of the work of many artists. (Antiques & Collecting Magazine, Feb. 1994, p. 58) [< shunga < shun lust + ga picture] 1964 (OED) shunto [Juntou] n. wage negotiations for employees of major companies, carried out each spring by Japanese labor unions. Also, Shunto. The spring shunto, the national wage negotiations for employees of big companies, resulted in a modest increase of 5.2%. (Business Week, Jul. 24, 1989) It's Shunto season, when Japan's labor movement performs its annual rite of spring. During Shunto, literally "spring fight," labor unions across the country go head-to-head with management in a vocal, nationwide campaign for higher wages and better working conditions. (Los Angeles Times, Mar. 3, 1992, p. H3) The great annual spring wage offensive by unions, the shunto, produced only a meager 4.87% average increase, down from an average of 5.6% over the past three years. (Fortune, May 18, 1992, p. 49) [< shunto < shun spring + to struggle] shuriken [Juiriken] n., pi. -ken, a kind of weapon; originally used by ninjas. The ninja* s throwing knife is called a shuriken. This weapon can take countless shapes, but there are two basic types: straight-bladed and multipointed. The straight shuriken vary in size from short needles to broad knives. . . . The multiple pointed star or square shuriken are cut from a single piece of steel, and have anywhere from three to eight points radiating from the center. (Stephen K. Hayes, The Ninja and Their Secret Fighting Art, (1981) 1992, p. 94) Like the nunchaku, the shuriken, the so called "ninja throwing star," has also been classified as a deadly weapon by many state governments. The federal government defines shuriken as "a star-like object intended to injure a person when thrown." While not in a league with a "Saturday night special," a shuriken could put someone's eye out or possibly cause severe head injuries if misused. (Black Belt, Jul. 1994, p. 77) [< shuriken < shu hand + ri inside + ken blade] 1978 (OED.AS) shuto n. a karate technique, striking with the lower outside edge of the palm. Also, karate chop. In the shuto, the planes of the palm and fingers form an angle of 45 degrees, and the thumb is clamped along the base of the index finger. (Stephen K. Hayes, The Ninja, 1992, p. 53 Shutothe knife hand This technique can be very effective, but will fail unless your hand is held correctly, with your thumb tucked in and your remaining fingers pressed together and bent slightly. (Steve Ameil and Liam Keaveney, Karate, 1993, p. 84) Part of Mas Oyama's intense physical training involves shattering rocks with his shuto, or knifehand strike. (Black Belt, Yearbook, Summer 1995, p. 77, caption) [< shuto < shu hand + to sword] 1959 (OED.AS)

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sika deer [siko] n. a Japanese deer, Cervus nippon. The medium-sized, stocky, usually spotted SIKA DEER (Cervus nippon), the only species in the subgenus Sika, wears on its delicate head a pair of antlers with as many as eight, in rare cases ten, tines on each beam. For centuries, Japanese sika deer have been tamed in several temple districts of Japan. They became established in numerous European forests and game parks, particularly since the northern subspecies tolerate a moderate climate well. (Sybil P. Parker, ed., Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, trans. Sally E. Robertson and William P. Keasbey, 1990, Vol. 5, p. 174) [<shika deer] 1891 (OED) skibby [skibi] n. a Japanese prostitute. Derogatory use. [< sukebei lewd] skimmia [skunio] n. the general term for any evergreen shrub of the family Rutaceae. Skimmia[,] a small genus of low evergreen shrubs native to China, Japan and the Himalayas. The leaves are more or less oval-oblong and give a strongish scent when crushed; the fragrant flowers are white, in compact terminal panicles. (David M. Moore, ed.-in-chief, The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of Plants and Earth Science, 1990, Vol. 3, p. 316) [< shikimi < (miyama) shikimi < miyama mountain + shikimi < ashiki mi poisonous fruit + -ia] 1853: skimmi 1727 (OED) skosh [skouj] n. a bit. Slang. Arnie [Arnold Schwarzenegger] plays Harry Tasker, a kind of American James Bond with a tad more toughness, a skosh less savoir-faire and an unhappy wife at home. (The Arizona Republic, Jul. 15, 1994, p. El) [< sukoshi a little] 1952 (WCD) soba [soubo] n. 1. buckwheat noodles. Honmura An, one of the top two or three soba establishments in Tokyo, has opened a New York City branch at 170 Mercer Street in SoHo. . . . Soba is the Japanese word for "buckwheat," for the popular tan-grey noodles made from buckwheat flour. (Vogue, Nov. 1991, p. 324) 2. a bowl of these noodles. Long before America dreamed up fast food, the Japanese had soba, steamy bowls of buckwheat noodles, hastily slurped up at street corners across the land. (The New York Times, Jun. 20, 1990, p. C3) [<soba] 1896 (OED) sobaya [soubojd:] n. a restaurant whose specialty is soba. Also, soba-ya. Perhaps the most common and the cheapest type of restaurant found in Japan, the soba-ya sells Japanese noodle soup. Annually, the Japanese eat as many kilos of noodles as rice.

sokaiya (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 113) [< sobaya < soba + -ya shop] 1958 (OED)

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sodoku [soudouku:] n. rat-bite fever caused by Spirillary minus. S. minus, which is pathogenic for guinea pigs, rats, mice, and monkeys and is the cause of rat-bite fever (sodoku) in man. (Michael J. Brown ed., Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, 5th ed., 1992, p. 1397) [< sodoku < so rat + doku poison] 1926 (OED) sogo shosha [sougou Joujo] n., pi. -sha or -s, a highly diversified general trading company engaged in structuring and facilitating domestic and international trade. Also, shosha. It is the network of a single companyMitsui & Co.linking 11,000 employees in more than 200 offices in 88 countries. This is the sogo shosha (integrated trading company), an institution that helped nurture this country into the world's leading traderas measured by surplusesand promises to lead it into an even broader role in international business. (Los Angeles Times, Jun. 7, 1994, Sec. World Report, p. 2) [< sogo shosha < sogo integrated + shosha trading company] 1967 (OED.AS) Soka Gakkai [souko gaekai] n. a lay religious organization of the Nichiren Shoshu Buddhist sect. NSA's [Nichiren Shoshu Soka Gakkai of America's] parent organization, Soka Gakkai, is one of the largest religious groups in Japan (about 10 percent of the population belongs). Founded by a Tokyo schoolteacher in 1930, it began fielding political candidates in 1955. In 1964 it founded Komeito, which is now the third largest political party in Japanese parliament. (California, Feb. 1990, p. 14) The most famous new religion is the Soka Gakkai. Its leader is a man named Daisaku Ikeda, who is treated by his followers more like a monarch than a priest. (Time, Apr. 3, 1995, p. 34) [< Soka Gakkai < soka creating value + gakkai learned society] 1958 (OED) sokaiya [soukaijd:] n. a small shareholder of a big company who extorts money from the company by threatening to disrupt its annual shareholders meeting. Recently more than a thousand Japanese companies agreed to hold their annual meetings on the same day, hoping to thwart the gangs and their disrupters, sokaiya, by sheer numbers. The companies met with only moderate success and have not broken the gangs' grip. (Edwin M. Reingold, Chrysanthemums and Thorns, 1992, p. 133) Sokaiya, gangsters who extort money from companies by threatening to disclose corporate secrets at the shareholders meetings, have been a fixture of Japanese corporate life for decades. But a recent murder and attacks on several executives have raised fears that the gangsters are getting more violent. (The New York Times, Jun. 28, 1994, p. Dl) [< sokaiya < sokai general meeting + -ya expert] 1971 (OED.AS)

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soroban [so:robd:n] n. a manual computing device consisting of a frame holding vertical parallel rods strung with five movable counters. A second pleasure of doing that is equally central to the Japanese emphasis on repetition within learning is use of the soroban. Unlike the Chinese version of the abacus, this little instrument for calculation has only one wooden counter on the reed above the divider, four in the main section below it. (John Elder, Following the Brush, 1993, pp. 46-47) [< soroban] 1891 (OED) sosaku hanga n. a woodblock print created and processed by an artist. Also, sosaku hanga. Although the traditionally produced popular woodblock print must have seemed almost defunct by 1912, the vigorous seeds of a new sort of graphic art had already been sown by the artist, reformer and educator Yamamoto Kanae (1882-1946) who in 1904 made Japan's first 'creative print' (sosaku hanga), designed, cut and printed by himself. (Lawrence Smith, Victor Harris, and Timothy Clark, Japanese Art: Masterpieces in the British Museum, 1990, p. 233) [< sosaku hanga < sosaku creative + hanga print] 1949 (OED.AS) soshi [souji] n. 1. a bold outlaw hired for agitation and intimidation, or as a bodyguard. Although the Home Minister [Yajiro Shinagawa] engaged in intimidation and violence on a massive scale, through both the police and strong-arm (soshi), and made lavish use of bribes and official recommendation of favoured candidates, the electors still returned a majority of opposition members. (R. L. Sims, Political History of Modern Japan, 1991, p. 83) 2. a young political activist in Meiji period (1868-1912). Those young military men who espoused Japanese fascism often turned to acts of heroism to promote their cause. Such a young man was termed a soshi, one who dedicated himself to the nation. (Milton Walter Meyer, Japan: A Concise History, 1993, p. 194) [< soshi < so energetic + shi gentleman] 1891 (OED) Soto [soutou] n. a Zen Buddhist sect that believes enlightenment comes through deep meditation, zazen. Also, Soto. Soto, in advocating a balance of meditation and physical activity leading to moments of understanding and gradual enlightenment, was especially strong in the provinces. (Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 174) attributive use. Soto Zen maintains that any distinction between religious activitymeditation, prayer and secular activittyeating, washingis entirely false. Pursuing the Buddhist path to Enlightenment, it insists, requires all of life's activities to be undertaken with the mind of meditation. (Andrew Powell, Living Buddhism, 1989, p. 81) [< Soto shii < Soto the abbreviation of Sozan Honjaku and Tozan Ryokai, Chinese Zen masters and founders of this sect + shii sect] 1893 (OED)

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soy [soi] n. 1. an annual leguminous plant, Glycine max. Also, soybean or soya bean. Whatever the reason, the farmers persevered, and evidence suggests that by 1100 B.C. the soybean had been taught to grow straight up and bear larger, more useful seeds. (National Geographic, Jul. 1987, p. 75) 2. the seed of this plant. For centuries Chinese have called the soybean "Yellow Jewel" or "Great Treasure." Now this prodigious bean is seen by some as a weapon against world hunger. (National Geographic, Jul. 1987, pp. 66-67) Currently, soybeans in the United States are used mostly in production of zero-cholesterol cooking oils. (USA Today, Apr. 1990, p. 11) 3. a salty dark-brown liquid condiment made by fermenting salted soybeans and wheat, and extracting the liquid. Also shoyu and soy sauce. There are many types of soy sauce, varying in colour, strength and flavour. It is usually made by fermenting a salted mixture of cooked soy beans with flour and extracting the liquid. (Jennifer Mulherin, The Macmillan Treasury of Spices and Natural Flavorings, 1988, pp. 84 and 86) The day's shipment from Japan includes buri, "grown-up yellowtail," [Barry] Wine explains, served first as sashimi with dots of red pepper beside a little lava box of soy. (New York, Feb. 17, 1992, p. 54) [< Dutch soya, soja < Japanese shoyu] 1699: souy 1696 (OED) soya [soio] n. see soy. [< Dutch soya, soja < Japanese shoyu ] 1761: saio 1679 (OED) soya bean see soy. soya flour finely ground soybeans used in baking. Soy flour and soya flour are the same thing, but not quite: soy flour is ground from raw beans, soya flour from lightly toasted beans. (The Arizona Republic, Jul. 6, 1994, p. FD5) soya oil see soy oil. soybean see soy. soybean oil see soy oil. soy burger a meatless hamburger whose main ingredients are soy protein concentrates. Though soy burgers date back at least 25 years, ADM contends that it scored a breakthrough by isolating soy protein and eliminating the old soy taste and flatulence problems. The original soy burger was designated to extend ground meat, not replace it, (Minneapolis Star and Tribune, Aug. 12, 1993. Business NewsBank PLUS)

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Some of the soy burgers also contain a substance many people are anxious to avoid monosodium glutamate. (The New York Times, Jan. 4, 1994, p. C6) soy flour see soya flor. soy ink a soy-oil-based printing ink. The latest step in the move toward soy inks took place in May when Heartland Press in Spencer, Iowa, printed a section of ASA's [American Soybean Association] magazine, Soybean Digest, using inks containing 15-20% soy oil. (Successful Farming, Sept. 1989, p. 32) soy milk the liquid made from soaked, ground, boiled and strained soybeans. SOY MILK A combination of ground soybeans and water often used like dairy milk for drinking and cooking by people who are allergic to dairy products and those who do not consume animal foods. (The New York Times, Aug. 9, 1995, p. C3) soy oil oil made from soybeans by expression or solvent extraction. Also, soya oil or soybean oil. A few years ago the idea was promulgated that soybean oil could be used to replace petroleum oil, particularly in printing inks. (American Printer, May 1991, p. 38) "If all the ink manufacturers in the United States switched over to making 100 percent soy-based inks, they'd still use only about 1 to 2 percent of the country's annual production of soy oil," [Gary] Asher said. (Daily Journal of Commerce [Portland, OR], Aug. 3, 1993. Business NewsBank PLUS) Long before low-fat and fat-free became popular food industry buzzwords, Barbara Robinson was counting calories and fat intake and substituting soya oil for butter in her condiments, dressing, and marinades. (The Atlanta Constitution, Nov. 3, 1994, Sec. Extra, p. D12. Business NewsBank PLUS) soy sauce see soy 3 . stable an establishment to which a group of sumo wrestlers belong, where they also live and receive their training. At the moment, much of it is in one 20-by-20-foot room: the dirt-floored practice hall of Takasago Beya, one of Tokyo's 40-odd professional sumo stables. This is where they live, four tons of sumo wrestler under one roof. (Health, Mar./Apr. 1993, p. 62) A sumo stable is more of a medieval fraternity than a professional athletic team. (Dorothea N. Buckingham, The Essential Guide to Sumo, 1994, p. 82) The elders of Japan's ancient sport of sumo used to look the other way when aspiring wrestlers had lumps of silicone injected into their scalps to gain the few inches to meet the height requirement. . . . Association spokesman Hanaregoma, who runs one of the dormitory-style "stables" where the wrestlers live and train, said the implants were being banned for "health reasons." (The Phoenix Gazette, Jul. 13, 1994, p. A2) [translation of heya room] 1989 (LRNW^)

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sugi [suigi] n., pi. -gi or -s, a tall evergreen tree, Cryptomeria japonica. The Toshogu Shrine is in a sugi forest (Cryptomeria japonica to the botanist, a first cousin of the giant redwood), whose dark spires, alternating with pale bamboo, give even the Tokyo airport highway the flavor of a primeval forest. (The New York Times Magazine, May 19,1991, p. 26) [< sugi] 1795: suggi 1727 (OED) suiboku [suiibouku:] n. a monochromatic painting in Japanese black ink, sumi. Also, sumi-e. The tea ceremony (cha-no-yu), the use of natural woods and settings in architecture, rock garden, Noh theater, and brush painting (suiboku) all reflect the discipline and simplicity of Zen. (Sheridan M. Tatsuno, Created in Japan, 1990, p. 46) Zen artist-monks disdained the colorful and decorative for the most part and opted for sumie (India ink drawings), also called suiboku ("water and ink" creations). (Winston L. King, Zen and the Way of the Sword, 1993, p. 31) [< suiboku(ga) < sui water + boku Japanese ink + ga painting] 1912 (OED) suimono n. a clear soup made from seaweed and bonito flakes. We were presented with a large number of items in small quantities: pickles, suimono (a simple soup of mushrooms and yuba), tempura vegetables . . . and rice. (Vegetarian Times, July 1994, p. 88) Suimono consists of four parts. The first part is the soup base, sea-vegetable and fish stock known as dashi. . . . The second part is usually a bite-sized piece of protein, such as chicken, fish or tofu. The third part is a secondary solid ingredient which might include a piece of vegetable selected especially to compliment the main ingredient. The fourth part is the garnish. This is the final touch and could feature a special seasoning or a fresh herb selected in honor of the season. (Susan Fuller Slack, Japanese Cooking, 1985, p. 43) [< suimono < sui < suu to sip + mono thing] 1890 (OED.AS) suiseki [su:iseiki:] n. the art of arranging stones. There are two methods of displaying Suiseki: in shallow bonsai dishes filled with either sand, gravel, or even water; or on a stand, which has been specially carved to fit the shape of the stone. (Peter Chan, Bonsai, 1988, p. 142) [< suiseki < sui water + seki stone] 1929 (OED) sukiyaki [suikijdiki] n. a dish consisting of thinly sliced meat, vegetables, tofu, and other ingredients cooked at the table in a skillet or pot containing a mixture of soy sauce and sugar. Japanese think of sukiyaki as something to eat at home. But that won't prevent you from finding superb versions of the braised-meat-and-vegetable dish in restaurants. (Business Week,Feb.\0,l992,p.l31) In Japan, where sukiyaki is just as popular as it is in the West, the dish is classified as a

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nabemono, food cooked usually at the table in a single pot or pan, and is thought of being a winter meal. (Donald Richie, A Taste of Japan, (1985) 1992, p. 21) [< sukiyaki < suki spade + yaki grilling] 1920 (OED) sumi [siiimi] n. a type of black ink made by mixing plant soot and glue, used for ink painting and calligraphy. Also, Sumi. Nara is a city of 300, 000 that seems frozen in time. Its major industries are the production of calligraphic brushes and sumi, a type of ink. (The New York Times, Jan. 13, 1986, p. 4) attributive use. The branches and limbs, which she [Sylvia Pilmack Mangold] renders as segmented, can be like virtuoso expressionistic brush-strokes or have meditative import like Sumi ink drawings. (The New York Times, Mar. 5, 1995, Sec. 13CN, p. 20) Working from drawings of the Kyoto theater, Mr. [David] Harvey fabricated two pairs of white scrims with mirror images of the open pavilion and the bridge, hand painted to resemble the black ink of Sumi-style paintings. (The New York Times, Jan. 15, 1995, Sec. 2, p. 32) [<sumi] 1911 (OED) sumi-e [suimiei] n. a monochromatic painting in Japanese black ink, sumi. Also, suiboku Sumi-e. . . . In general usage the term simply distinguishes monochrome ink painting with line and wash of all periods from colorful painting utilizing heavy pigment. Ink sticks of fine charcoal and glue (sumi), when mixed with water, create a versatile medium of extraordinary tonal richness. (Shin'ichi Miyajima, Glossary, Japanese Ink Painting, 1985, p. 181) [< sumie < sumi Japanese ink + painting] 1965: sumiye 1938 (OED) sumi-gaeshi n. a throwing technique in judo, corner throw. Sumi-gaeshi is . . . a corner throwbecause the technique begins by breaking an opponent's balance to a front corner and then following through with action which propels him over your head in that same corner direction. (Brian Caffary, The Judo Handbook, 1989, p. 94) [< sumi gaeshi < sumi corner + gaeshi < kaesu to overturn] 1941 (OED.AS) sumo or sumo wrestling [suimou] n. a form of traditional Japanese wrestling, in which a wrestler wins by pushing his opponent out of the ring or by making him touch the ground with any part of his body except the soles of his feet. Sumoin which bare-chested men often weighing 400 pounds or more toss and turn in the ringhas long been the most traditional of Japanese sports. (The Wall Street Journal, Jun. 1,1992, p. B7) The equation says that big sumotori are harder to move than small ones. . . . There is more to sumo than rush and crush. Keeping your balance is just as important. That's

sunmi

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another reason sumotori nurture their big bellies. A big stomach lowers a person's center of gravitythe point around which the body's mass is evenly balanced. (Science World, Oct. 23, 1992, pp. 20-21) attributive use. Growling and groaning, grimacing and glaring, a pair of seriously overweight American athletes clad only in bright silk loincloths stepped into an elite circle last week and wrote a new chapter in the centuries-old history of sumo wrestling. (The Washington Post. Mar. 18, 1991, p. A22) [< sumo < sumau to wrestle] 1880 (OED) sumodom [suimoudom] n. sumo wrestlers as a group. Kuhaulua fought under the ring name of Takamiyama, which means High Mountain. He reached sekiwake, the third-highest level in sumodom. (Sports Illustrated, May 18, 1992, p. 78) [< sumo + -dom] sumoist [suimouist] n. a sumo wrestler. Also, sumotori. Sumo is a strictly hierarchical world in which every rikishi (sumoist) is acutely conscious of who occupies what rung and in which a higher-ranked wrestler has free rein to smack around lower-ranked ones. (The Nation, Jun. 1,1992, p. 754) [< sumo + -ist] sumotori [su:mout5:ri, -tou-] n. a sumo wrestler. Also, sumoist More impressive were their mammoth sumo wrestlers. Perry watched as the sumotori strode in, heavy sacks of rice atop their heads. (Smithsonian, Jul. 1994, p. 32) [< sumotori < sumo + tori doing] 1973 (B2) sun [sum] n. a unit of length equivalent to 1.1 inches used until the introduction of the metric system in the 1950s. The dishes in this set are medium-sized, referred to in terms of the old Japanese measurement system as seven sun, an especially practical and popular size manufactured in quantity and decorated in matching sets. (Yoshiaki Shimizu, ed., Japan: The Shaping of the Daimyo Culture, 1988, p. 322) The shaku today is almost the exact equivalent of the English foot but is divided decimally into sun, bu, and rin. (Naomi Noble Richard, ed., Court and Samurai in an Age of Transition, 1989, p. 26) [<sun] 1121 (OED) surimi [suriimi] n. fish meat that is minced, processed, seasoned, and flavored to produce a kneaded end product. When fish meat is minced and washed with water, water-soluble protein is flushed away, the fats and ash content float out, leaving salt-soluble protein. New salt is added to the fish meat at a level of 2 to 3%. The salt-protein mixture is then crushed to obtain a sol or

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"surimi," a food with a highly elastic texture. . . . Surimi, besides going into seafoodlike products, has been used for bacon bits, sausage, salmon jerky, pasta and lunchmeats. It can also be manufactured in a dried form for numerous other uses. (Roy E. Martin and Robert L. Collette, eds., Foreword, in Engineered Seafood Including Surimi, 1990, p. v) Imitation crab is made from a fish called pacific whitefish, surimi or pollack. It is a cooked fish with added sorbitol, modified food starch, sodium tripolyphosphate, and natural and artificial crab flavor and food color. (The Phoenix Gazette, Aug. 24, 1994, p. FD5) attributive use. U.S. imports of surimi from Japan jumped from 2 million pounds in 1979 to almost 30 million pounds in 1983. . . . Currently, steps are being taken by the U. S. surimi industry to become independent of Japan by completing the first commercial surimi plant in Alaska. (Los Angeles Times, Jan. 3, 1985, Part VIII, p. 8) [< surimi < suri grinding + mi meat] 1960 (RCD) surimono [suirimounou] n., pi. -no, a small woodblock print produced for private distribution. Unlike the mass-produced ukiyo-e prints sold by art publishers, surimono were commissioned in limited editions by individuals or private clubs and given as gifts to friends and associates. (Architectural Digest, Jan. 1984, p. 71) Surimono are highly detailed and richly colored woodblock prints, popular in Japan during the late 18th and early 19th century. . . . The subject matter for surimono varied greatly; they might be images of important battles and military figures, scenes from nature, domestic situations, or just depictions of favorite personal objects. (The Sate Press Magazine [AZ], Oct. 18, 1990, p. 9) [< surimono < suri printing + mono thing] 1899 (OED) sushi [suiji:] n. a dish of cold cooked rice, seasoned with sepecially prepared vinegar, shaped into bite-size pieces, and either topped with seafood nigirizushi or wrapped in seaweed with seafood or vegetables makizushi. Sushi is fast becoming as American as hot dogs and apple pie in Los Angeles, where more than 20 tons of raw fish are consumed each week. (Los Angeles Times, Mar. 11, 1985, Part I, p. 1) Sushi, you might say, is the mood ring of foods, perfectly adaptable to whatever phase of eating disorder or neurotic feeding habit you happen to be indulging in at the moment. (Gg,Mar. 1992, p. 140) It's a good bet that Sushi Boy is trying to import low-cost frozen sushi from America in the expectation that Japanese consumers might choose to buy it. (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 25, 1992, p. A8) One Japanese delicacy that has become fashionable in the West is sushi. Nigirizushi is raw or cooked fish, shrimp, eel, squid, or octopus on little blocks of delicately flavored rice. In makizushi, rice and a vegetable or fish are rolled up in a sheet of seaweed, then sliced into pieces. (Diana Rowland, Japanese Business Etiquette, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 135) Making sushi by burying salted fish in rice started in the mountainous areas of Southeast

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Asia around the time of Christ as a way of preserving the fish. (The New York Times, Aug. 2, 1995, p. C3) attributive use. Quicker than a human, inevitable like the tide, the Suzumo Machinery Company's sushi robot, an $86,000 machine with four pairs of white plastic hands, is turning out 1,200 rectangular pieces of sushi every hour in a Queens commissary, for sale later in fast-food restaurants. (The New York Times, Jan. 4, 1995, p. Cl) [< sushi sour] 1893 (OED) sushi bar a counter in a restaurant where each morsel of sushi is prepared and served according to a diner's selection of ingredients. Japanese restaurants with sushi bars have become commonplace throughout New York City, but now people can have sushi to go, delivered to the door or for pickup. (The New York Times, Jan. 16,1985, p. C3) Actually, the sushi bar is a pleasant place to dine [at Shinwa in Alpine, NJ]. . . . It's entertaining to watch the two chefs deftly whipping up nigiri sushi, dabbing the slightly warm vinegared rice with wasabi, the horseradish paste, before topping it with fish, and rolling up rice and tidbits in nori, the sheets of seaweed. (The New York Times, Mar. 6, 1994, Sec. 13NJ,p. 13) Vegetarians usually don't find much to eat at traditional Japanese sushi bars, as most of the foods served include raw fish, or at best, egg. Fortunately, a new breed of sushi bar has evolved in the West, serving sushi rolls (also known as nori-maki) with avocado, carrot, spinach and other vegetable fillings. (Vegetarian Times, May 1995, p. 32) [< sushi] sushiya [suijijd:] n.,pl. -ya, a restaurant whose specialty is sushi. Also, sushiya. Dozens of sushiya, along with scores of other restaurants, line the alleyways of the precinct [Shimbashi]. (Forbes, Mar. 18, 1991, Supplement, p. 53) The best fun in a sushi-ya takes place at the counter. If you sit here, you're expected to pick and choose different sushi, while sitting at a table or on the tatami mat area usually means a fixed plate. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 114) [< sushiya < sushi + -ya shop] 1970 (OED) sutemi-waza n. a throwing technique in judo, sacrifice throw. Sutemi-waza (sacrifice throws). These throws sacrifice your own balance in order to throw an opponent to the ground. (George R. Parulski, Jr., Black Belt Judo, 1985, p. 50) [< sutemi waza < sutemi at the risk of one's life + waza technique] 1906 (OED.AS) Suzuki method [suzuiki] n. a method of teaching the violin, formulated by Shin'ichi Suzuki, a violin teacher, in the 1930s. Suzuki advocates that music

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learning involves the same steps as first-language learning: starting at early age, listening daily, and repeating constantly. The method is extended to the teaching of various other musical instruments. In the Suzuki method, for example, a great deal of parental participation is required during the early years; parents are even asked to take lessons along with the child as well as supervise practice sessions. (The New York Times, Feb. 19, 1986, p. C6) At Diller-Quaile [School of Music in Manhattan], toddlers as young as 20 months learn to keep a beat by clapping and tapping. . . . Violin and cellos come in tiny sizes, so 3and 4-year-olds can play them. Often they learn some form of the Suzuki method, which stresses rote playing. (Business Week, May 18, 1992, p. 158) The Suzuki Method, invented by the Japanese violin teacher Shin'ichi Suzuki, maintains that every child, given the right stimuli and the right conditions (including a group environment), can achieve a high level of performance competence. . . . The Suzuki Method assumes that all children have talent. (The Arizona Republic, Apr. 11, 1993, p. E3) At 4, Colin began studying violin in the Suzuki method with Doris Rothenberg at Julliard. Ms. Rothenberg later founded the Suzuki program at C. W. Post. (The New York Times, Jan. 30, 1994, Sec. 13LI, p. 15) [< Suzuki Mesodo < Suzuki < (Shin'ichi) Suzuki ( 1 8 9 8 - ) + Mesodo method. Suzuki is a trademark of Summy-Birchard Inc.] 1964 (OED.AS) suzuribako [suzuiribaikou] n. a small writing box designed for keeping an inkstone, brushes, and a water dropper. At right are a Shino bowl and a 17th-century suzuribako, or writing box. (Architectural Digest, Aug. 1988, p. 44, caption) [< suzuri bako < suzuri inkstone + bako < hako box] 1967 (OED)

T
tabi [tdibi] n., pi. -bi or -s, an ankle-length sock that encases the big toe separately and four toes together, fastens at the ankle with metal clasps and is worn with a kimono. As I lay cocooned in my soft, thick quilts, Kyoko enters wrapped in a kimono, her footsteps muffled by her clean, white tabi (socks). (Travel-Holiday, Nov. 1987, p. 62) attributive use. The tabi socks hid her aristocratic feet and cushioned them from the chafing of the ties of her straw sandals. (Lucia St. Clair Robson, The Tdkaido Road, 1991, p. 44) [<tabi] 1616 (OED) tachi [taitfii]/?.,/?/. -chi, a single-edged slung sword, used as a weapon prior to the Muromachi period (1333-1568) and later carried on formal occasions. The tachi, a blade some 24 to 50 inches long worn slung with its edge down, and the tanto, a shorter blade or dagger, were regarded as the ultimate weapons of self-defense. (The New York Times, Apr. 1, 1990, Sec. 2, p. 40) [< tachi cutting off] 1948 (OED.AS) tachiai n. the initial charge in sumo wrestling. The moment the referee holds his gunbai (war paddle) flat back against his torso, the two rikishi know it is time to stand up for the initial charge (tachiai). . . . [A]llrikishimust have at least one hand on the ground when beginning the tachiai. . . . The ideal tachiai should be synchronized, so that the two sumotori rise together. (Lora Sharnoff, Grand Sumo, rev. ed., 1993, p. 85) A good form of tachiai is to have the feet and hands form a square, the points being the clenched fists and feet. The center of gravity should be kept as low as possible, and the

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Tago-Sato-Kosaka

head should tilt up to face the opponent. . . . The tachiai (the initial charge of the two men) is begun once both men touch the dohyo with one hand. (Dorothea N. Buckingham, The Essential Guide to Sumo, 1994, p. 185) [< tachiai < tachi standing up + ai together] Tago-Sato-Kosaka [tdigousditoukousdiko] n. a comet discovered in 1969. The hydrogen atoms receive enormous kinetic energy as a consequence of their liberation by the dissociation of H2O and hydroxyl (OH). The combined effect of their high velocities . . . and long lifetimes is to reduce a hydrogen coma which can exceed 30 million km in radius, about 5,000 times larger in radius than the Earth. This was discovered in comet Tago-Sato-Kosaka (1969 IX) using the OAO-2 space observatory. (Stephen P. Maran, ed., The Astronomy and the Astrophysics Encyclopedia, 1992, p. 108) [< Tago-Sato-Kosaka 1969 (fli) the three amateur astronomers who discovered this comet]

tai [tai] n. sea bream, Pagrus major. Tai is Japanese sea bream, a firm, lean white-fleshed fish unlike the bream of other waters. Raw and sliced, it makes a fine sashimi. (Vogue, Sept. 1991, p. 591) [< tai] 1727: tay 1620 (OED) taiko n. see the quotation for the meaning. A generic term for all Japanese drums (-daiko in compound forms), but commonly applied only to cylindrical or barrel drums. . . . The bodies of Japanese drums are made from several varieties of woodzelkova, sandalwood, pine, cherry etc.and vary greatly in thickness. Most skins are of cowhide or horsehide. (Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, 1984, Vol. 3, p. 501) Children, many of them dressed in blue and white kimonos, played her [Nancy Reagan] a song on the taiko, a large drum beaten with sticks. (Los Angeles Times, May 6, 1986, Part I, p. 12) Taiko has its origins in daily lives of common people. Priests used taiko to dispel evil spirits and insects from rice fields. Samurai used taiko to instill fear in the enemy and courage in themselves. . . . Taiko is also replete with continued possibilities, renewal and transformation. (Fun & Gaming [Reno, NV], May 20-26, 1993, p. 4) In ancient Japan, folklore has it, a village's boundaries were determined by the farthest point one could hear the sound of taiko, the big drum. Today taiko is used to transmit old legends. (The New York Times, Oct. 22,1995, Sec. 13CY, p. 4) attributive use. There are now more than 30 taiko groups in the United States and Canada, seven of which are in Southern California. Many of them don't use taiko as entertainment, but as part of their culture and religion. (Los Angeles Times, Feb. 3, 1989, Part VI, p. 26) When the judges beat the big taiko drum to signal the start of the [kakizome calligraphy] competition, she calmly dipped her big brush in a pool of black ink and stroked out her assigned phrase . . . without a pause. (The Washington Post, Jan. 6, 1991, p. A17)

tamari

185

American-style taiko drums are made out of wine barrels and cowhides. (Westridge Young Writers Workshop, Kids Explore America's Japanese American Heritage, 1994, p. 44) [< taiko < tai big + ko drum] tai-otoshi [taioutoufi] n. a throwing technique in judo, body drop. Tai-otoshi (Body drop) A form of hip throw but it is more of a drop than a throw. You don't grip your opponent around the back . . . but instead grab hold of the left lapel and right sleeve. (Justin Dando, Judo, 1990, p. 47) [< taiotoshi < tai body + otoshi dropping] Taisho [taiJou] n. the reign of Emperor Yoshihito (1879-1926), from 1912 to 1926. Also, Taisho. attributive use. Taisho period, the reign of the Taisho emperor, stands almost exactly midway through the first Tokyo century, 1868 to 1968. The whole of the Meiji reign and the portion of the Showa reign that falls within the century are of almost equal length. . . . Taisho may have been the era when change was fastest. (Edward Seidensticker, Tokyo Rising, 1990, p. 17) [< Taisho < tai great + sho right(ness)] Taka-diastase [taekodaiosteiz, teis] n. an amylolytic enzyme, Eurotium orzoe, produced by the action of fungi on rice hulls or wheat bran, used as a digestant. Trademark. [< Taka < (Jokichi) Takamine (1854-1922), a chemist] 1896 (OED) Takayasu's disease [taekojdisuiz] n. pulseless disease. Takayasu's disease is characterized by narrowing and loss of elasticity of the arteries. Common sites of narrowing are the aorta and its major branches. . . . Takayasu's disease most often affects Asian-bom women and is a fairly common cause of renovascular hypertension in these individuals. (American Family Physician, Apr. 1984, p. 270) [< (Michishige) Takayasu (1872-1938), an ophthalmologist] 1952 (OED) tamari [tomdiri] n. a type of soy sauce. Tamari is a thick, dark soy sauce made mainly from soybeans, without the wheat which is used in standard soy sauce. It is fermented like miso and used in dishes where the flavor of the soy sauce is important, such as dipping sauces and marinades. (Lesley Downer, Japanese Vegetarian Cooking, 1986, p. 41) If you have experienced Japan, you know that American tamari and Japanese tamari are like American futons compared to Japanese futons: the names are the same, but the two are fundamentally different. (Gaku Homma, The Folk Art of Japanese Country Cooking, 1991, p. 68)

186

tamo

When Western natural foods distributors first began importing soy sauce from Japan, by accident they labelled it "tamari," though what they were getting was actually high quality shoyu. Thus began one of the most confusing controversies of the modem natural foods movement. . . . When shopping for real tamari, read labels carefully. Look for long natural aging (one or two years), and only soybeans, water, and sea salt as ingredients. Most natural foods stores now stock excellent tamari. (John Belleme and Jan Belleme, Cooking with Japanese Foods, 1993, p. 22-23) attributive use. The house salad is small, but the greens are fresh and varied [at Cilantro's in Blue Point, LI]. The dressing, a tamari vinaigrette, will please only those who love soy sauce. (The New York Times, Jan. 15, 1995, Sec. 13LI, p. 19) [< tamari pooling] 1978 (OED) tamo [tdimou] n. 1. a tall deciduous tree, Fraxinus mandschurica, 2. the wood of this tree. Japanese ash, also called tamo, is from F. mandschurica. . . . Japanese ash is a closegrained wood, but browner in color [than European ash]. (George S. Brady and Henry R. Clauser, Materials Handbook, 12th ed., 1986, p. 70) [< tamo] tan [tdin] n. a unit of area equivalent to approximately 0.245 acre, used until the introduction of the metric system in the 1950s. There were cases where landlords had been benevolent, and tenants greedy. In one village the council, composed entirely of landlords, had voted an indemnity of over two hundred yen per tan (0.245 acre) in return for cultivators' rights lost in the expansion of the schoolhouse, rights ordinary worth eighty to ninety yen per tan. (Sharon H. Nolte, Liberalism in Modern Japan, 1987, p. 215) [<tan] \Sll (OED) Japanese ash.

Tanabata or Tanabata Matsuri n. an annual star festival held on the 7th of July or August, depending on the local practice of following the solar or lunar calendar. The most famous of the "star" or "weaver" festivals, Sendai's Tanabata is counted among the "big three" Tohoku summer festivals. (June Kinoshita and Nicholas G. Palevsky, Gateway to Japan, 1990, p. 172) July 7 The Tanabata Matsuri celebrated throughout Japan remembers two star-crossed lovers, a princess and a farm boy, who were forbidden to meet except for this one night a year. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 67) [< tanabata a loom] 1880 (OED.AS) tanka [tdirjko] n., pi. -ka or -s, a poem consisting of thirty-one syllables arranged in five lines of five-seven-five-seven-seven syllables. Also, uta and waka.

temmoku

187

One recent report indicates that doctors have taken to encouraging terminal cancer patients, with no prior training, to write tanka, a form of Japanese poetry. The patients resist at first, but then, to everyone's surprise, they deliver some touching and vivid poems of a highly personal nature, belying the uniform exterior aspect of the Japanese mind. (National Review, Mar. 1988, p. 30) The majority of the poems in the Manyoshu (some 90 percent) and almost all poems in later imperial collections, were brief single-stanza poems called Japanese tanka (literally, short poem) or waka (Japanese poems) or simply uta (songs). (Hugh Cortazzi, The Japanese Achievement, 1990, p. 37) [< tanka < tan short + ka poem] tansu [tdmsui] n., pi. -su, a chest of drawers. In Japanese dwellings most furniture was built-in, and only low tables and tansu (movable, stackable storage chests) existed. (Huon Mallalieu, gen. ed., The Illustrated History of Antiques, 1991, p. 142) [< tansu] 1886 (OED) tanto [taintou] n. a dagger that is less than 12 inches in length. The Japanese dagger, or tanto . . . would be the normally preferred weapon for seppuku. (Harry Cook, Samurai: The Story of a Warrior Tradition, 1993, p. 38, caption) [< tanto < tan short + to sword] 1885 (OED.AS) tatami [totdimi] n., pi. -mi or -s, a flooring material, a thick mat filled with hard-packed sewn straw and covered with a smooth facing made of woven rushes. The dimensions of the tatami were standardized with a ratio of 1:2 of width to length, the space needed for one person lying down or two people sitting. (Richard Bowring and Peter Kornicki, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, 1993, p. 205) adj. of or relating to this flooring material. Polished stones, bamboo staves and rice paper line the entry to Ichi Riki's dining areas, which on weekends resound with enthusiastic diners at every seat of the Western-style tables, in three tatami rooms (which should be reserved in advance) and at the sushi counter. (The New York Times, Nov. 20, 1994, Sec.l3WC, p. 25) The tatami industry is not taking all this [the decline of tatami use] sitting down. Tatami makers have developed mats that can be easily placed on top of a wooden floor, like a throw rug. (The New York Times, Aug. 25, 1995, p. A2) [< tatami folding] 1625: tatamee 1614 (OED) temmoku [temouku:] n. 1. a type of stoneware with black or dark-brown glaze. Also, tenmoku. Bowls were often tenmoku (black-glazed)from Tien Mu in China, the area associated with the original black-glazed tea wares. (Huon Mallalieu, gen. ed., Illustrated History of Antiques, 1991, p. 410)

188

temmoku glaze

2. a glaze found on this stoneware. Also, tenmoku or temmoku glaze. Tenmoku. A stoneware glaze which is deeply stained by iron oxide. Tenmokus are usually dark brown and black with some rust patches, but occasionally they are yellow, green or purple. (Frank Hamper and Janet Hamper, The Potter's Dictionary of Materials and Techniques,, 3rd ed., 1991, p. 318) By the 14th century Seto had also perfected use of the iron-brown temmoku glaze inspired by brown-glazed teabowls brought back from China. (Japan: Profile of a Nation. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd, 1994, p. 256) [< Temmoku a mountain in Zhejiang Province, China] 1880 (OED) temmoku glaze [temouikui] n. see temmoku 2. [translation of temmoku yii < temmoku + yii glaze] 1924 (OED) tempo or tempo tsuho [tempou] n. an oval base-metal coin with a square hole in the center, circulated between 1835 and 1891. Our specimen, a typical tempo tsuho, measures 49 millimeters by 32.5 and weighs 22.7 grams. . . . Like other coinage of feudal Japan, the tempo tsuho ceased production shortly after the Meiji Restoration (1868). (Richard G. Doty, The Macmillan Encyclopedic Dictionary of Numismatics, 1982, p. 322) [< Tempo < ten heaven + po < ho preserve + tsuho circulating treasure: the reign of Emperor Ninko (1800-1846), from 1830 to 1844] 1860 (OED.AS) tempura [tempuro] n. a dish of deep-fried seafood and vegetables. The allure of Tempura. It's the sort of dish you love to dine out on but never thought you could recreate at home. Here, in five easy steps, the way to wrap seafood and fresh vegetables in a feather-light batter crust. (McCalVs, Sept. 1991, p. 115, headline and subhead) Tempuradelicately deep-fried seafood and vegetables, served hot and crisp, lacy golden on the outside, juicy and succulent on the insideis now well-known abroad. (Donald Richie, A Taste of Japan, (1985) 1992, p. 26) attributive use. According to tempura specialists, batter must be ice-cold and slightly lumpy; oil (each chef mixes sesame and vegetable oils in secret proportions) must be kept at 340 and changed frequently. (Sunset, Dec. 1985, p. 62) [< tempura] 1920 (OED) tempura bar a counter in a restaurant where freshly fried tempura is served. Watching the chef is part of the fun at sushi bars. The idea is similarand the food more appealing to those who aren't raw-fish fansat a handful of West Coast restaurants that have tempura bars. You sit at a counter in front of seafood and vegetables artfully arranged on ice. Choose your combinations; the chef quickly cooks them in the classic light batter and sizzling oil, then presents them ceremoniously for you to eat, one hot morsel at a time. (Sunset, Dec. 1985, p. 62)

tenno

189

This elegant Japanese restaurant in the Waldorf-Astoria is richly appointed in goldpatterned wallpaper and deep red rugs. At the circular tempura bar, white-frocked chefs make all kinds of sizzling, crisp tempurashrimp, lobster, beef, vegetablesthat is served just seconds out of the deep fryer. (The New York Times, Feb. 14, 1994, Sec. 13CY, p. 18) [< tempura] 1969 (OED) tempura-ya [tempuirojd:] n. a restaurant whose specialty is tempura. Highly skilled chefs are employed at tempura-ya, restaurants that specialize in tempura. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 116) [< tempura + -ya shop] Tempyo [tempidu] adj. of or relating to the period of Japanese art history, 725-794, characterized by the adoption of T'ang Chinese culture. Whatever the long-range effects of its construction on the course of political events, the Todaiji became one of the greatest Buddhist establishments in Japan and the focal point for the brilliant age of Tempyo art. (H. Paul Varley, Japanese Culture, 3rd ed., 1984, p. 34) [< Tempyo < ten heaven + pyo < hyo peace: the reign of Emperor Shomu (701-756), from 729 to 749] Tendai or Tendai sect [tendai] n. a Buddhist sect, founded by the monk Saicho (767-1185). Two sects became prominent during the Heian period [794-1185]. One was the Tendai sect, whose founder, Saicho . . . emphasized the significance of the Lotus Sutra, taught that salvation was possible for all living creatures. (Mikiso Hane, Modern Japan, 2nd ed., 1992, p. 13) [< Tendai shii <Tendai a mountain in Zhejiang Province, China + shii sect] 1727 (OED) tenko [terjkou] n. a roll call in a Japanese POW camp, in which the POWs experienced a grueling count-off in Japanese. Japanese roll call was called tenko. Count-off was bango. . . . Bango among Americans was uproar, all those numbers being shouted out, hit or miss, in Japanese. . . . In a big camp, on a good day, getting the grand total absolutely straight could take an hour, on a bad day two. And the longer tenko took, the more likely it was to bring on beatings before breakfast. (Gavan Daws, Prisoners of the Japanese, 1994, pp. 101-2) [< tenko < ten check + -ko calling] 1947 (OED) tenno [tenou] n. a title of the emperors of Japan. Also, Tenno. At the time Hirohito became the "Tenno"the "heavenly sovereign"he was revered as a god in the pantheon of Shinto, Japan's religion of ancestor and nature worship. (The Christian Science Monitor, Jan. 9, 1989, p. 3)

190

teppanyaki

As fountainhead of sovereignty (tenno) sacred and inviolable, the direct descendant of the gods, the emperor enjoyed special powers [under the Meiji constitution]. (Milton Walter Meyer, Japan: A Concise History, 1993, pp. 140-41) [< tenno < ten heaven + no ruler] teppanyaki [teponjdiki] n. a dish consisting of meat, seafood, and vegetables fried on a thick steel grill. Cooking steak and other foods on a grill in front of guests started in Korea, then became popular in America, and is only now catching on in Japan, where it's called teppanyaki. (Sunset, Aug. 1978, p. 65) Teppan Yaki. . . . Typically, the raw food is brought to your table, where you cook it yourself. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 116) attributive use. Even if you're not in the mood for dining fun after a trying day, the young samurai cooks who perform at the first floor's communal-seating teppanyaki grills may soon win you over with a culinary act that combines dazzling knife work, food juggling, and comedy. (Washingtonian, Jan. 1992, p. 82) When using the teppan yaki idea, a dipping sauce of soy sauce, a little butter, sake or vinegar would complement the grill assortment. (Los Angeles Times, May 23, 1985, Part VIII, p. 56) [< teppanyaki < teppan iron plate + yaki grilling] 1970 (OED) terakoya [terokoujo] n. a private institution providing an elementary education for commoners during the Edo period (1600-1868). Large schools organized by the domainal authorities gave a graded instruction in the Chinese classics to almost every samurai child, and local terakoya, the schools for commoners, taught reading and writing to villagers as well as townsmen. (Japan: Profile of a Nation. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1994, p. 167) [< terakoya < tera temple + ko child + ya house] 1909 (OED) teriyaki [terojaiki] n. a dish consisting of meat or seafood that is grilled or broiled after being marinated in soy sauce, sweet sake, and sake. Also, teriyaki. I had yet another decision: Did I want my fish shio-yaki (salt-broiled), or teri-yaki (glazegrilled)? Mebaru, a meaty fish, is delicious either way. (The New York Times, Apr. 23, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 6) adj. of or relating to this dish. Napkins are paper, and specials are on a blackboard, but a laminated menu offers options like teriyaki tuna steak and crab meat imperial along with great steamed lobsters [at a seafood restaurant on Long Beach Island]. (The New York Times, Aug. 1994, Sec. 13NJ, p. 11) [< teriyaki < teri glaze + yaki grilling] 1962 (OED)

togidashi three K's dangerous, dirty, and demanding jobs. Also, three Ks.

191

Jobs with an image of what the Japanese call "the three Ks"kitanai, kitsui, kiken [dirty, difficult, dangerous)are especially hard to fill. (Forbes, Oct. 15, 1990, p. 42) Young people have tended to favor jobs in the service industries and to avoid manufacturing jobs that are characterized by what are called the three K'skiken (dangerous), kitsui (difficult) and kitanai (dirty). (The New York Times, Jul. 1992, p. Al) [translation of san ke (3 K) three Ks] 1991 (AS) tobira [tobairo] n. an evergreen shrub, Pittsosporum tobira.

[< tobira < tobira no ki < tobira + no (particle) of + ki tree] todorokite [todouokait] n. a monoclinic mineral. (Mn,Ca,Mg)Mn3+ 4 07H20. Sny: delatorreite. [< Todorok(i) a mine in Hokkaido + -ite] tofu [toufu:] n. bean curd made by adding a coagulating agent to soy milk. Tofu is made by filtering pureed soybeans and curdling the by-product with a coagulant. . . . The resulting whey is then drained from the top. The more whey drained, the firmer the tofu can be packed. . . . Tofu is a great substitute for red meat or high-fat dairy products because tofu's fat is only 14% saturated. Not only is tofu easier on your heart, but it's a great source of calcium. (Muscle & Fitness, Oct. 1994, p. 261) Remember tofu, the soft, white bland substance once appreciated only by health food aficionados? It's increasingly turning up in mainstream markets and restaurants. . . . Tofu can be broiled, baked, steamed, stir-fried, scrambled and whipped into creamy sauces. And while tofu's detractors decry blandness, its delicate and faintly nutty flavor makes it a perfect foil for sauces, spice mixtures and herbs. (American Health, May 1995, p. 106) A recent study on the health benefits of soy protein may prompt people to start eating more tofu, the fresh white bean curd that has been an integral part of Asian cooking for centuries. (The New York Times, Aug. 23, 1995, p. Cl) [< tofu < to bean +fu decay] 1771 (WCD) Tofutti [tofuiti, toufoti] n. a frozen dessert whose main ingredient is curdled soy milk. Trademark. Tofu is masquerading as lasagna, blintzes and even pastrami. Its most spectacular guise, however, is a frozen dessertespecially a concoction called Tofutti that comes deliciously close to ice cream. (Newsweek, Oct. 15, 1984, p. 115) [<tqfu+-tti\ 1981 (OEDS)

togidashi [tougiddrji] n. highly polished lacquer decoration. In the case of togidashi ('cause to appear by rubbing'), the intention was to make the areas decorated with gold and silver powder level with the background. (Julia Hutt, Understanding Far Eastern Art, 1987, p. 168)

192 attributive use.

tokkin

The togidashi technique used here, in which the gold particles are evenly sprinkled on wet lacquer and then successive layers of lacquer are applied and polished until the gold decoration reappears, is a conservative method characteristic of Heian [794-1185] and Kamakura [1185-1333] lacquer. (James C. Y. Watt and Barbara Brennan Ford, East Asian Lacquer, 1991, p. 216) [< togidashi < togidahi maki-e < togi < togu to polish + dashi revealing + makie literally, sprinkled pictures] 1881 (OED) tokkin n. specified money in trust, a corporate investment fund managed by a trust bank under the specification of the investor. Ministry of Finance officials blamed the market drop on the move by corporations to liquidate tokkin, stock investment trusts. The tokkin have been unpopular because of their poor performance in recent years. (Los Angeles Times, Mar. 17, 1992, p. A8) [< tokkin < tok- < tokutei limited + kin- < kinsen-shintaku finance trust] 1985 (OED.AS) tokonoma [toukonoumo] n. a built-in raised alcove for displaying art objects and flowers. The tokonoma, the aesthetic focal point of a room where guests are received, is designed to accommodate one or more hanging scrolls, together with several objects d'art, such as a lacquer writing box, a small statue, or a vase with flowers. The articles arranged within the tokonoma are selected on the basis of their aesthetic relationship as well as their appropriateness to the season, location, and occasion. (Asian Art, Fall 1991, p. 47) [< tokonoma < toko (raised) floor + no (particle) of + ma room] 1727 (OED) Tokugawa [toukugdrwo] adj. 1. of or relating to the period under the rule of Tokugawa Shogunate (1600-1868). During the Tokugawa period, political unity and complete isolation marked by strong anti-foreign policies made for a rapid growth in nationalism. (Edwin O. Reischauer, Japan, 3rd ed., 1966, p. 104) The establishment of the hierarchic social structure fixed the character of Tokugawa society and, to a large extent, of modern Japan. Class status and group relationship governed all social relations, and individualism was thoroughly repressed. (Mikiso Hane, Premodern Japan, 1991, p. 142) 2. of or relating to a member of the Tokugawa family, which ruled Japan between 1600 and 1868. The Tokugawa family was divided into three main houses. These were the daimyo of Owari (Nagoya), of Kii (Wakayama prefecture) and of Mito (Ibaragi prefecture). (Hugh Cortazzi, The Japanese Achievement, 1991, p. 140) n . 1. the period under the rule of Tokugawa Shogunate. 2. the Tokugawa Shogunate.

tonarigumi

193

In 1694, the Tokugawa had to pass a law to make their samurai practise the martial arts, as it was discovered that many of the members of the Tokugawa elite unit, the O-ban (or Great Guard), could not swim or use a sword. (Harry Cook, Samurai: The Story of a Warrior Tradition, 1993, p. 109) [< Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616), the founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate] 1876 (OED.AS) Tokyoite [toukiouait] n. a native of Tokyo. The average Tokyoite who wants to buy a home with a small garden now has to wait until he is nearly 41 years old to afford such a placeand to look for it as far away as 76 minutes' commuting distance from his workplace. The likely cost: $140,000, or 5.2 years' wages. (Los Angeles Times, Feb. 26, 1985, Part I, p. 12) Kobayashi is in his white priest's robes, but his wife is immaculately made up and chic enough to shame a seasoned Tokyoite. (Condi Nat Traveler, May 1992, p. 198) Tokyoites are paying 11,300 yen ($115) for the Hato Bus "Dress Up Tokyo" tour, which includes stops at fancy hotels and an expensive gown to wear. Participantsall female, Hato stressesdon frothy wedding dresses or silky cocktail get-ups. (The Wall Street Journal, Aug. 23, 1994, p. Bl) [< Tokyo the capital of Japan + -ite] tomoe nage n. a throwing technique in judo, stomach throw. Also, tomoe-nage. Tomoe nage demonstrates how one gives way to his opponent's aggressive pushing. You have probably seen tomoe nage a hundred timesin movies, on television or even on the stage. It is a spectacular throw. Suddenly one player is thrown high over the other's head, seemingly without effort. (Paul Stewart, Sports Illustrated Judo, 1976, p.74) Tomoe-nage, generally referred to as the stomach throw but sometimes as the round throw, is a spectacular technique which most beginners often attempt at too early a stage in their judo career. . . . [I]n order to perform the technique, you must sacrifice your own standing posture and go down on the mat with your opponent. (Brian Caffary, Judo Handbook, 1989, p. 90) [< tomoe nage < tomoe whirl + nage throwing] tonarigumi [tdunoriguimi] n., pi. -mi, a neighborhood association organized in 1940 and dissolved in 1950. Also, tonari-gumi. Wartime Japan was in practice dominated by the bureaucracy. Every ten households were forced to form a neighbourhood association (tonarigumi). . . . Membership of tonarigumi was essential in order to obtain rations of food, which was in increasingly short supply. (Hugh Cortazzi, The Japanese Achievement, 1990, p. 238) Local government officials actually increase their powers, exercising the new ones (for rationing, war savings, civil defence) largely through neighbourhood associations (tonarigumi), set up in September 1940. (W. G. Beasley, The Rise of Modern Japan, 1990, p. 184) [< tonarigumi < tonari a next-door house + gumi < kumi association]

194 tonfa n., pi. -fa, a karate weapon.

tonfa

The tonfa consists of a long piece of white oak about seventeen inches in length, with a handle of about four and one-half inches located about one-fourth of the distance along its shaft. (George R. Parulski, Jr., The Art of Karate Weapons, 1984, p. 109) The tonfa, originally used for grinding grain, was the basis for most of the side-handle batons currently issued to law enforcement officers. Tonfa are effective blocking, clearing and striking devices, and the weapon's handle can be utilized to hook an opponent and unbalance him, making it an excellent device for controlling and restraining a violent suspect. (Black Belt, Dec. 1991, p. 36) On other stamps, Goofy shows he is well-versed at kendo and in the use of the classical tonfa (side-handle baton). (Black Belt, Mar. 1995, p. 48) [< tonfa an Okinawan farming tool for grinding] 1982 (Z?3) tori n. the active partner in judo or jujutsu training sessions. Also, Tori. pare uke. Com-

Tori is the taker; that is, he takes his partner into a throwing or grappling technique. (Tadao Otaki and Donn F. Draeger, Judo: Formal Techniques, (1983) 1990, p. 59) If you are the Tori and learning the drills, your pace should be about one-quarter the speed of an actual attack. Give your partner a chance to set up for the fall. (D'Arcy J. Rahming, Combat Ju-jutsu, 1991, p. 22) [< tori taking an action] 1950 (OED.AS)

torii or torii gate [toirii:] n . i n a Shinto precinct or path, a gate-like structure built with two upright columns connected by two horizontal rails at the top. In all, 3,000 of them [peonies] crowd the walkway, which leads from the flaming red torii gate to the entrance of the opulent 450-year old Toshogu. (The New York Times, Apr. 26, 1992, Sec. 5, p. 10) The first marker is usually torii or archway, and large shrines may have two or even three of these, the most distant one located quite a walk away. (Joy Hendry, Wrapping Culture, 1993, p. 109) [< torii < tori bird (presented to the gods) + i sitting] 1727 (OED) Tosa or Tosa school [touso] n. a school of Japanese painting characterized by not being influenced by Chinese art. Technically and stylistically, the painting represents the combined tradition of yamato-e [Japanese painting] of the Tosa school, in its coloring and miniature details, with elastic distortion of the rock forms and expressive brush lines.(Yoshikazu Shimizu, ed., Japan: The Shaping of the Daimyo Culture, 1988, p. 188, caption) References to the land, the seasons, and the literary associations of Japanese art and history appeared throughout the sixteenth century in the works of the Tosa and, less regularly, the Kano artists. (The Magazine Antiques, Sept. 1991, p. 382) [< Tosa ha < Tosa Tosa Mitsunobu (1434-1525), the founder of this school + ha school] 1879 (OED)

Tsukahara toyo [toujou] n. 1. a shellacked rice-paper straw, used for women's hats. 2. a hat made of this straw. [< toyo < toyo-shi < toyo Oriental + shi paper]

195

tsuba [tsuibo] n., pi. -ba, a metal sword guard. Old 'Tsuba" may be found in varying shapes and sizes, some of them barely covering the hand, while others are as large as a dinner plate, serving the dual purpose of hand guard and body shield. (Antiques and Collecting Hobbies, May 1981, p. 120) The tsuba was an important fitting because it protected the hand and, above all, it provided an accurate centre of gravity for the whole assemblage. (Julia Hutt, Understanding Far Eastern Art, 1987, p. 127) [< tsuba] 1889 (OED) tsubo [tsuibou] n., pi. -bo, a unit of area equivalent to approximately 35.6 square feet, used until 1966. Also, bu. In Tokyo, you couldn't make even a down payment on a tsubo (six square feet) for what our five-acre lot cost here. (Cathy N. Davidson, 36 Views of Mount Fuji, 1993, p. 277) 'Two or three years ago pencil buildings in Yaesu were renting for Y 100,000 per month per tsubo . . . ," says Masataka Kuwabara. (Forbes, Jun. 7,1993, p. 108) [< tsubo; this unit is still unofficially in use] 1927 (OED) tsuga [tsuigo] n. a general term for coniferous evergreen trees and shrubs, family Pinaceae. Tsuga, a name of Japanese origin, is composed of the Japanese words for "tree" and "mother"; this has only obscure significance today but may be tied to the easy movement of the slender branching in even gentle wind. (Joseph Hudak, Shrubs in the Landscape, 1984, p. 93) [< tsuga] tsugi ashi n. the follow-foot step action in judo. Also, tsugi-ashi. "Follow-foot" method, in which your trailing foot never catches up with or passes your lead foot, is called tsugi-ashi. (Tadao Otaki and Donn F. Draeger, Judo: Formal Techniques, (1983) 1990, p. 86) [< tsugi ashi < tsugi following + ashi foot] 1950 (OED.AS) Tsukahara or Tsukahara vault [ts:koha:ro] n. a vaulting technique in gymnastics. The Tsukahara vault was first done by an American gymnast and was first called an O'Shaw, but Mitsuo Tsukahara of Japan was the first to do it in World or Olympic competition and therefore his name is attached to it. . . . The Tsukahara begins from a run, hurdle, and take-off much like the handspring and the handspring front. The hurdle

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may have a little turn to facilitate the take-off which must be performed with a onequarter, three-eighths, or one-half turn. . . . Upon hand contact with the horse, the gymnast will have performed a one-quarter to a three-eighths turn. . . . The gymnast should begin to push off and assume the pike position before her body reaches the vertical position and should complete these actions at the vertical, at which point she should leave the horse and finish the somersault during the postflight. (Bill Sands and Mike Conklin, Everybody's Gymnastics Book, 1984, p. 91) Today, it is virtually impossible to attend a gymnastics meetor even a workoutwithout hearing a certain name over and over. Tsukahara, often shortened to "Tsuk," is as common a term in the gym as "kip" or "giant. (International Gymnast, May 1992, p. 24) [< (Mitsuo) Tsukahara ( 1 9 4 7 - ) , a gymnast] 1972 (OED.AS) tsukemono [tsurkimdunou] n. pi. pickled vegetables, generally in salt or rice bran. Almost any kind of vegetable is a candidate for tsukemono. Those most frequently used include daikon radish, white turnip, Chinese cabbage, small eggplants and the slender, slightly bulbous onions that are transformed into a pickle called rakkyo. (The New York Times, Oct. 14, 1990, Sec. 5, p. 6) It [dinner for friends at the Hayashis' home] can be a simple, one-pot dinner of sauteed and simmered vegetables and seafood served over pasta with the addictive Japanese pickles, tsukemono. (Yankee, Nov. 1990, p. 108) [< tsukemono < tsuke < tsukeru to pickle + mono thing] 1885 (OED) tsukuri [tsukuiri] n. the motion of breaking an opponent's balance in judo, the second stage of a throwing technique. Compare kuzushi. For throwing situations, these include breaking balance (kuzushi), fitting the thrower's body to his opponent's state of unbalance (tsukuri), and the execution of the throw (kake); grappling situations include a comparable set of components. (Tadao Otaki and Donn F. Draeger, Judo: Formal Techniques, (1983) 1990, p. 26) [< tsukuri preparation] 1940 (OED) tsunami [tsundimi] n. a series of oceanic waves associated with a movement of the sea floor triggered by the shock of an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or a submarine landslide. Scientists agree that tsunamis are caused by a sudden change in sea depth. Unlike ordinary waves, they might be only a few inches or a few feet high as they move across the open sea. But they are broad and carry a lot of energy. (The New York Times, Feb. 25, 1993, p. D23) figurative use. A Tsunami of Red Ink Sweeps Across Japan (Business Week, Feb. 25, 1991, p. 52, headline) Time-honored traditions of paternalism and benevolence have disappeared, eroded to near nothing by a tsunami of trimmings. (Esquire, Mar. 1992, p. 88)

Tsushima Current

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Though this investment tsunami provoked widespread anxiety, the song Americans may be singing in the 1990s is "Where Have All the Japanese Gone?" (Fortune, May 18, 1992, p. 62) attributive use. More than 20 years ago, seismologist Hiroo Kanamori coined the term "tsunami earthquake" to describe such deceptively mild quakes that seem to spawn disproportionately large waves. (Science News, Feb. 27, 1993, p. 135) Researchers based their predictions on a computer model they developed to forecast the extent of tsunami flooding in Eureka and Crescent City, Calif. (The Oregonian, Oct. 5, 1994, p. A8. CD NewsBank Comprehensive) [< tsunami < tsu harbor + nami wave] 1897 (OED) tsurikomi-ashi n. a throwing technique in judo. Also, tsuri-komi-ashi. Tsuri-komi-ashi (propping drawing ankle) There are two versions of this throw. In one, the opponent's ankle is blocked . . . and in the other, it is swept back. (Syd Hoare, Judo, 1993, p. 47) [< tsurikomi ashi < tsurikomi < tsuri < tsuru to lift + komi < komu to take something in + ashi foot] 1948 (OED.AS) tsurikomi-goshi n. a throwing technique in judo. Also, tsuri komi goshi and tsuri-komi-goshi. If you see that your opponent is too erect or off his feet by a fraction, that's the time to attack with tsuri komi goshi. With this throw, you are trying to push him further off his feet, unweighting him. Then you pull him onto your hips and throw him. (Paul Stewart, Sports Illustrated Judo, 1976, p. 64) As with most hip throws, the effectiveness of tsuri-komi-goshi depends very much upon your ability to make use of your opponent's forward momentum. (Brian Caffary, The Judo Handbook, 1989, p. 46) [< tsurikomi goshi < tsuri < tsuru to lift + komi < komu to take something in + goshi < koshi hip] 1906 (OED.AS) tsurugi [tsuruigi:] n. a straight, double-edged sword. Also, ken. The sacred sword which formed one of the three regalia of Japan, was a straight, twoedged weapon (tsurugi), but the distinctive Japanese sword, the well-known katana, is a single-edged blade. (Frank Brinkley, Samurai: The Invincible Warriors, (1975) 1984, p. 9) [< tsurugi] Tsushima Current [tsiiijimd:, tsujiimo] n. a warm ocean current that flows into the Sea of Japan by way of the Tsushima Strait after branching out of the Kuroshio Current. As the Kuroshio Current reaches the southern Japanese island of Kyushu, some of its waters flow along the west coast of Kyushu and through the Tsushima Strait into the Sea

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of Japan to form the Tsushima Current. The major part of the WATER flows northeastward along the southeastern coast of Japan before turning eastward at about the northern extremity of Honshu. (Donald G. Groves and Lee M. Hunt, Ocean World Encyclopedia, 1980,p. 194) [< Tsushima the islands of southwest Japan] tsutsugamushi or tsutsugamushi disease [tsuitsugomuiji] n. scrub typhus. Tsutsugamushi disease is a febrile disease caused by chigger-bome Rickettsia tsutsugamushi that consists of several antigenic variants. (Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1992, vol. 30, p. 2842) [< Tsutsugamushi (byo) < tsutsugamushi insect + byo disease] 1906 (OED) tsutsugamushi mite [tsutsugomuiji] n. any of various mites of the genus Trombicula, whose larva causes tsutsugamushi disease. Also, akamushi mite. [< tsutsugamushi] tsutsumu [tsutsuimui] n. the traditional art of packaging daily commodities using natural materials such as straw, vine leaves, bamboo, rope, and so on. [< tsutsumu to wrap; tsutsumu was the title of an exhibition of this art held in New York in the mid 1970s, organized by Hideyuki Oka, the author of Tsutsumu (1972)] 1975 (OED) tycoon [taikiim] n. 1. the title of the Tokugawa shoguns. Taikun is the title that the Tokugawa shoguns bore thenceforth (with a brief interruption early in the eighteenth century) in their capacity as sovereigns of a nation engaged in intercourse with other nations. The English word "tycoon" derived from it. (John Whitney Hall, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1991, Vol. 4, p. 299) 2. a person who is successful in business. One of China's best-known tycoons, Mr. Mu . . . founded the Land Economic in 1979 with $55 in borrowed money. Now it has offices in five countries and has interests in tourism, investment, finance, manufacturing and barter trade. (The New York Times, Aug. 30, 1992, Sec. 3, p. 4) When the customer returned for more of the highly absorbent clay, [Edward] Lowe was inspired to begin selling the product in 5-pound sacks, which he labeled "Kitty Litter." Lowe went on to become a cat-litter tycoon worth more than $200 million while the dog suddenly faced a seriousrivalfor the affection of the nation's pet lovers. (The Philadelphia Inquirer, Nov. 14, 1995. 1996 NewsBank NewsFile/CD NewsBank) Tammy Faye's second husband is Roe Messner, 60, the former construction tycoon who built Heritage USA for the Bakkers and divorced his wife to marry Tammy Faye in 1993. (Indianapolis Star, Dec. 23, 1995. 1996 NewsBank NewsFile/CD NewsBank) [Tom] Campbell helped raise a large portion of the $455,000 used to hire firms to gather the signatures needed to place the open primary measure on the ballot; he said he personally persuaded computer tycoon David Packard to donate $200,000. (The Sacramento

tycoonery Bee, Nov. 23, 1995. 1996 NewsBank NewsFile/CD NewsBank) 3. a person who is important and dominant in any realm.

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[< taikun < tai great + < kun lord; a title used to describe the shogun to foreigners between 1857 and 1868] 1858: Tykoon 1857 (OED) tycoonery [taikiiinori] n. a group of successful businesspersons. By the latest tally, Warren Buffett is running neck to neck with Bill Gates as the richest man in the country. In the annals of American tycoonery, we've seen shipping magnates, oil barons, media moguls and real estate developers reach the pinnacle of wealth, but Mr. Buffett is the first stock picker. (The New York Times, Aug. 27, 1995, Book Review, p. 9) [< tycoon < taikun great lord + -ery] 1956 (OED)

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u
uchimata n. a throwing technique in judo, inner-thigh throw. Also, uchi-mata or uchi mata. Uchi mata is a classic throw involving the utmost in speed, coordination and power, all released at the same moment. To sense the opportunity for such a throw and execute it well requires concentration and clarity of thought. (Paul Stewart, Sports Illustrated Judo, 1976, p. 67) [< uchi-mata < uchi inner + mata thigh] 1906 (OED.AS) uchiwa [liitfiwo] n. a flat, non-folding fan, made of bamboo splayed at the top and covered with Japanese handmade paper. Toss the [sushi] rice while fanning to cool it without condensation forming. The Japanese use a flat lacquered fan called an uchiwa,but a piece of cardboard is just as useful. (Elizabeth Andoh, American Taste of Japan, 1985, p. 130) Marugame [Kagawa Prefecture] . . . produces eighty percent of Japan's uchiwa, the flat, round fans used in summer. (June Kinoshita and Nicholas G. Palevsky, Gateway to Japan, 1990, p. 107) [< uchiwa] 1877 (OED) ude garami n. a grappling technique in judo, entangled arm- lock. Also, udegarami. Ude-garami is generally demonstrated from the position . . . in which you bend over your opponent's prostrate body to reach the far-side arm. With experience, though you will eventually find it possible to apply ude-garami from different postures and with some variations. (Brian Caffary, The Judo Handbook, 1989, p. 118) [< ude-garami < ude arm + garami entwinement] 1954 (OED.AS)

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ude gatame

ude gatame n. a grappling technique in judo, straight arm- lock. Also, udegatame. A straight armlock such as ude gatame can be applied in a variety of positions. It requires lightning speed. Simply grab your opponent's wrist, pull it out straight, twist it and apply the pressure against his elbow. (Paul Stewart, Sports Illustrated Judo, 1976, p. 92) [< ude-gatame < ude arm + gatame < katame locking] 1954 (OED.AS) udo [uidou] n. SL perennial plant, Aralia cordata.

UDO This tall, herbaceous plant, Aralia cordata, is much cultivated in Japan for its edible stalks and shoots. These may be eaten raw with a little salt and in their crispness are reminiscent of celery. They may also be boiled and eaten like asparagus. . . . Udo has been planted in California but has never gained favor with the general public. (L. Patrick Coyle, The World Encyclopedia of Food, 1982, p. 698) When I first saw the 2 ft (60 cm) long white stalks of this plant in a wholesale vegetable market in Tokyo I was completely mystified. They turned out to be blanched udo, sometimes called Japanese asparagus because of its distinct asparagus flavour. (Joy Larkom, Oriental Vegetables, 1991, p. 129) [< udo] udon [uidan] n. 1. a type of noodle, made from wheat flour. Udon: Japanese pasta made from wheat an/or buckwheat flour. Some varieties also include yam flour and green tea. Udon ranges in color from tan to grayish-brown and comes flat or rounded. Cook the udon al dente and use the noodles in soups and salads. Available in some supermarkets and in most Asian groceries and natural food stores. (Vegetarian Times, Apr. 22, 1992, p. 50) One of the specialities of this coolly luxurious restaurant [Shinwa in NJ] is Japanese noodle dishes. Soba, or buckwheat noodles, and udon, the wheat noodles, are made there by hand daily. (The New York Times, Mar. 6, 1994, Sec. 13NJ, p. 13) attributive use. Sanuki Chaya. Named for the Sanuki region of Shikoku island that is famous for its thick, white udon noodles. (The New York Times, Sept. 17, 1995, Sec. 5, p. 6) 2. a bowl of this type of noodle. The regular menu [at Hanaki in Elmsford] offers steaming udon, a melange of noodles, shrimp, vegetables and perhaps an egg bobbing in luscious broth. (The New York Times, Dec. 31, 1995, Sec. 13WC, p. 13) [< udon] 1920 (OED) uguisu [ogwiizui, -sui] n. a Japanese bush warbler, Cettia diphone.

Japanese Bush Warblers (known in Japan as Uguisu) were first released to control insect pests on the island of Oahu by the Territory of Hawaii Board of Agriculture and Forestry in 1929. Between 1930 and 1941, some 116 more were freed on Oahu. . . . The birds are common at the Makiki nursery in Honolulu and in Moanalua Valley. (Christopher Lever, Naturalized Birds of the World, 1987, p. 341-42)

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Not for five years has he seen these glassy waterways between rice-fields, smelled the blue wood-smoke and the clayey odors of the fields, heard the voices of wild doves and uguisu from wooded hills, drawn close to the brown fishermen in boats shaped like new moons. (Robert A. Rosenstone, Mirror in the Shrine, 1988, p. 245) [< uguisu] 1871 (OED) uji 1 [uid3i] n. in ancient Japan, elite families or clans organized on the basis of consanguinity. All the holders of the highest fourteen ranks were men born into a few powerful uji (clans) associated with the court, blocking all others from positions of effective political control. (Delmer M. Brown, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, Vol. 1, 1994, p. 426) [< uji lineage] 1876 (OED) uji 2 [uid3i] n. a silkworm disease caused by the parasitic larva of a dipterous insect, uji fly. [< uji maggot] uji fly [ud^i] n. an insect, Sturmis sericaria, whose larva causes uji, a silkworm disease. [< uji maggot] ujigami [uid3igdimi] n. in Shinto, the guardian god of a community. Also, ujigami. Originally the ujigami were the deities, or ancestors, worshiped by the extended family [of the clan]. Since the extended family often lived in the same area, this clan deity became the local tutelary deity. . . . Eventually the ujigami . . . became the object of worship as the common deity for an entire village. In this way Japanese farm village came to have shrines which enshrined ujigami as local guardian deities. In this way Japanese farm village came to have shrines which enshrined ujigami as local guardian deities. (Minoru Kiyota, ed., Japanese Buddhism, 1987, p. 14) [< ujigami < uji clan + garni < kami deity] 1897 (OED) uke [uikei] n. the passive partner in judo and jujutsu training sessions. Also, Uke. Compare tori. Uke is the receiver; that is, he receives the throwing or grappling techniques performed by his partner. (Tadao Otaki and Donn F. Draeger, Judo: Formal Techniques, (1983) 1990, p. 59) The Uke's role is to prepare the Tori, mentally and physically, to survive an actual streetattack. (D'Arcy J. Rahming, Combat Ju-jutsu, 1991, p. 23) [< uke receiving] 1956 (OED) ukemi [uikeimi] n. falling skills in judo and aikido. They realized that running into Ueshiba's hand was like running into a brick wall. There-

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fore, students learned to avoid his hand with ukemi (falling skills). (Black Belt, Oct. 1994, p. 60) [< ukemi < uke receiving + mi body] 1942 (OED) uki-goshi n. a throwing technique in judo, floating hip throw. Uki-goshi. . . This throw, the floating loin, is classified as a hip-loin technique. (Tadao Otaki and Donn F. Draeger, Judo: Formal Techniques, (1983) 1990, p. 165) [< uki-goshi < uki floating + goshi < koshi loin, hip] 1906 (OED.AS) uki-otoshi n. a throwing technique in judo, floating drop. [Kyuzo] Mifune created many judo techniques, and sought to perfect others. His most famous throw was uki-otoshi, or "floating drop," in which an opponent is drawn off balance, then thrown using a twisting drop of the hips. (Black Belt, Jan. 1996, p. 15) [< uki-otoshi < uki floating + otoshi dropping]

uki-waza n. a throwing technique in judo, floating technique. Uki-waza is done when the opponent 'floats'. This means the sort of movement produced when resistance is suddenly taken away. (Syd Hoare, Judo, 1993, p. 57) [< uki-waza < uki floating + waza technique] ukiyo-e [uikiijoujei] n. woodblock prints and paintings belonging to a genre that emerged in the early part of the Edo period (1600-1868). Also, ukiyoe. In the 18th and 19th centuries the Japanese also began publishing woodblock prints of everyday pleasures as a commercial art form. These were called ukiyo-e, literally "scenes from the floating world," and depicted courtesans, Kabuki actors and landscapes. (Forbes, Jan. 30, 1995, p. 119) attributive use. Ukiyo was originally a Buddhist term emphasizing the transitory nature of human life. When the suffix "e" was added the term meant "floating world picture." Ukiyo-e painters were bought by the growing Japanese merchant class, who wanted symbols of wealth immediately. They were ignorant of the subtleties of Chinese philosophy, literature and art. To interest the potential patrons of their work, artists produced scenes from the merchants' daily environment. (SchoolArts, Nov. 1989, p. 23) Ukiyo-e artists used mirrors and reflections (including reflections in water) to enhance a narrative, open up pictorial space and create compositional richness, but primarily to help capture the illusory, transitory aspects of life, especially of a life given over to pleasure. (The Christian Science Monitor, Oct. 16, 1990, p. 11) Toronto-based Four Seasons Hotels opened its first Tokyo hotel this year and displays U.S. interior designer Frank Nicholson's interpretation of the Orientit hangs ukiyoe watercolor paintings next to chandeliers and places bonsai miniature trees on Italian tables. (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 1,1992, p. Bl) (Instructor, Feb. 1992, p. 48) [< ukiyoe < uki floating + yo world + e picture] 1879 (WCD)

urushiye

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u m e [omei, ui-] n. a medium-sized deciduous tree, Prunus mume, Japanese apricot. Braving February snow and winds, the hearty blossoms known as ume (pronounced oohMAY), coax the nation out from under its foot warmers and into its parks and gardens. (The New York Times, Jan. 30, 1994, Sec. 5, p. 13) [< ume] ura-nage n. a throwing technique in judo, rear throw. URA-NAGE . . . This throw, the rear throw, is classified as a back sacrifice technique. (Tadao Otaki and Donn F. Draeger, Judo: Formal Techniques, (1983) 1990, p. 221) [< ura-nage < ura rear + nage throwing] 1906 (OED.AS) urushi [oruiji] n. 1. a deciduous tree, Rhus 2. lacquer obtained from this tree. Lacquer (urushi) is a varnishlike resin obtained from an Asiatic sumac bush (Rhus verniciflua). (Penelope E. Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 66) attributive use. The shop sells lacquerware furniture and accessories, made in the traditional Japanese way (by applying many layers of varnish from the urushi tree), but the designs are contemporary. (Los Angeles Times, Feb. 9, 1986, Part VIII, p. 6) [< urushi] 1727 (OED) urushiol [uiruijioil, -dl, -oul] n. a liquid in the resin of the plants of the genus Rhus which causes skin irritation by contact. Rhus toxicodendron and related to species contain urushiol, which is a mixture of catechols that may be potent sensitizers, since repeated contact appears to increase the severity of the reaction. Renal irritation occurs after severe exposure. (Robert H. Dreisbach and William O. Robertson, Handbook of Poisoning, 12th ed., 1987, p. 507) Traditionally, Japanese lacquerwhich contains from 40 to 90 percent more of the main hardening ingredient, urushiol, than other Asian lacquerswas favored. (The New York Times, Sept. 22, 1985, Sec. 10, p. 26) One of the most annoying irritants found outdoors in the Northwest, poison oak and its relatives annually affect 50 million people in the United States. Poison oak, ivy and sumac exude an oily resin called urushiol that makes 80 percent of the people exposed to it break out in a rash. (The Oregonian, Apr. 28, 1994, Sec. Sports Northwest Outdoor, p. 4. Business NewsBank PLUS) [< urushiol < urushi + -ol] 1908 (OED) urushiye [oruijiiei, -jei] n., pi. -e, a woodblock print whose black tone has a lacquer-like lustrous surface. From 1720 to about 1740 such prints were often further embellished, by mixing glues with black pigments to produce a lustrous gleaming 'lacquer' effect. These urushi-e verniciflua.

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(lacquer pictures) were often also further decorated by sprinkling powdered bronze or brass dust onto glue. (Amy Newland and Chris Uhlenbeck, Consulting eds., Ukiyo-e to Shin hanga, 1990, p. 57) [< urushie < urushi lacquer obtained from a tree, Rhus verniciflua + e picture] uta [liito, jiii-] n. a Japanese poem consisting of thirty-one syllables. Also, tanka and waka. Two general terms for them [tanka or short poem and choka or long poem] which are also used of the tanka alone, are waka ("Japanese poetry," as contrasted with poetry written in Chinese) and uta ("song"). (Helen Craig McCullough, Appendix, Classical Japanese Prose, 1990, p. 598) [<wtapoem] 1855 (OED) utchari n. a throwing technique in sumo wrestling. Utchari, one of the most spectacular moves in sumo, is carried out as a last resort by a rikishi who has been driven to the edge of the ring. He leans far back, twists his opponent around, and tosses him out of the ring. (Lora Sharnoff, Grand Sumo, rev. ed. 1994, p. 128) [< utchari throwing]

w
wa [wdi] n. social harmony accomplished by giving priority to the goal of the group to which one belongs. Without regard for players' harmony, or wa, [President] Bush entered the circle (strike 1), hit the ball with his head (strike 2), and kicked it out of the circle completely (strike 3). (Time, Jm. 20, 1992, p. 16) If the West has swallowed simplistic explanations of Japan's success, the Japanese have clung to yet a simpler one: their unique Japanese spirit, abstractly expressed as wa. It would be hard to overstate the importance of wa in the Japanese view of their own success. (Clayton Naff, About Face, 1994, p. 12) [< wa harmony] wabi [wdibi] n. an aesthetic concept. Compare sabi. Developing out of the intellectual climate associated with Zen is wabi, an aesthetic concept that greatly values pleasure taken in austerity and aloneness, beauty perceived in simplicity, and an appreciation of objects weathered by time. (Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art, 1993, p. 174) [< wabi loneliness] 1934 (OED) Wagyu [wdigjui] n. pi. 1. any of a breed of Japanese cattle. The term Wagyu refers to native Japanese cattle as opposed to imported breeds. . . . Many European breeds originally contributed to the improvements of the Wagyu in the development of the Japanese Black, with different ones and different regions. . . . The thick, soft, fine coat is solid dull black, preferably with a brownish tinge at the tips of the hair. . . . The small short horns curve upwards and are bluish-white with black tips. Bulls average 142cm at the withers and weigh 940kg, cows 128cm and 560kg. (Valerie Porter, Cattle, 1991, pp. 264 and 267)

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All of the American Wagyu are descendants of Mazda, Mt. Fuji, Reushaw and Judo, four Wagyu bulls that were imported into the country in 1976 by a Texas cattleman who was ahead of his time. (The Washington Post, Jul. 10, 1991, p. E5) attributive use. Until 1976, Wagyu genetics did not exist outside of Japan. In 1976, four Wagyu bulls were brought to the United States but were largely ignored by US producers until the Japanese beef market was liberalized. Japanese producers have successfully prevented any additional genetics from leaving Japan until this year. (Agribusiness, 1995, vol. 11, p. 45) 2 . n. tender meat from Japanese cattle. Also, wagyu and Wagyu beef. At a time when U.S. cattlemen are busy breeding slimmer, trimmer animals, some see a promising niche market in Wagyu beef, which can contain two to three times the amount of intramuscular fat of prime, the USDA beef grade with the most fat. (The Washington PostJu\. 10, 1991, p. El) The surface of my Wagyu was intricately laced with delicate veins of off-white fat. . . . This is the fat that made Wagyu famous, rich and tender and juicy and sweet, the foie gras of beef. (Vogue, Aug. 1991, p. 302) Wagyu beef, the highly preferred traditional Japanese beef, is now being produced in the United States and exported to Japan. (Agribusiness, 1995, vol. 11, p. 35) If you decide on steak [at Otabe in Manhattan], you can have filet mignon for $22, prime sirloin for $32 or imported wagyu at $79. Inclined to indulgence? The Japanese meat is so marbled that each hot bit explodes in your mouth; it is a very sensual experience. (The New York Times, May 12, 1995, p. C24) [< wagyu < wa Japanese + gyu cattle] waka [wdiko] n.,pl. -ka or -s, 1. a Japanese style of poetry, written in five and seven syllables alternated, as opposed to Chinese poetry. Also, tanka and uta. Tanka are numerically by far the dominant form and remained as the staple of waka poetry after the disappearance of the choka and sedoka. (Delmer M. Brown, ed., The Cambridge History of Japan, 1993, Vol. 1, p. 476) 2. a short poem consisting of thirty-one syllables, a tanka. During the Heian period (794-1185) the waka, a thirty-one-syllable short poem, played an astonishing role in the daily business of the court. Aristocrats carried "bosom-papers" or "sleeve-papers" within the folds of their kimonos, ready to capture fleeting thoughts or emotions or to inscribe verses dedicated to the rituals of love, worship or the conduct of state of affairs. Even as death approached, the Heian lady or gentleman might respond by tracing a parting couplet. (Architectural Digest, Apr. 1, 1988, p. 140) The Emperor's [Hirohito's] favorite poetic form was the waka, also called tanka, which in Japanese must be composed in 31 syllables. (The New York Times, Jan. 7,1989, p. 7) In formal, one-on-one classes with top university professors and aged imperial servants, the princess-to-be [Kiko Kawashima] has learned to write waka, the sparse, ancient poetry that imperial family members are expected to pen and submit to the emperor every month. (The Washington Post, Jun. 9, 1991, p. Bl)

waribashi attributive use.

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She [Masako Owada] is now studying imperial etiquette, and learning to perform Shinto religious ceremonies and to write the 31-syllable waka poems the imperial family composes for the public once a year. (Lear's, Jun. 1993, p. 77) [< waka < wa Japanese + ka poetry] 1938 (OED) wakame [waikdime] n. an edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida.

The Japanese are the most sophisticated cultivators of seaweed. They originally gathered species like nori (Porphyra sp), wakame (Undaria), and konbu (Laminaria) from wild stocks, and only gradually began to cultivate them to enhance natural beds. (Daniel P. Cheney, Shellfish and Seaweed Harvests ofPuget Sound, 1986, p. 118) You can make a nutritious condiment by toasting dried wakame over a flame in a dry skillet or in the oven, then crumbling or grinding into powder. (John Belleme and Jan Belleme, Cooking with Japanese Foods, 1993, p. 150) I chose an ivory-colored miso-thickened broth with wakame, or sea-tangle, and chopped scallions, a pair of onigiri . . . and oshinko. (The New York Times, Sept. 18, 1994, Sec. 5, p. 6) Wakame, sold either dried (when it looks like a mass of large crinkly black tea leaves) or in salted form in plastic bags, is reconstituted by soaking in water. It has a pleasant chewy texture and subtle flavor that goes well in soups and appetizers. (Wendy Hutton, The Food of Japan, 1995, p. 28) [< wakame] 1950 (OED.AS) wakizashi [waikiizaifn] n., pi. -shi, one of the two swords worn by samurai. Musashi turned up for the duel armed with wakizashi, the shorter of the two swords worn by samurai when out of armour, and a bo, the long wooden stick. (Stephen Turnbull, The Lone Samurai and the Martial Arts, 1990, p. 66) [< wakizashi < waki side + zashi < sashi < sasu to wear (a sword)] wacadash 1613 (OED) warabi [woiroibi, wordibi] n. bracken, Pteridium aquilinum, with edible shoots. The restaurant Koraku Gohei is recommended by guide-books for Nagano specialities such as sansaiwild mountain vegetables like warabi and zenmai, two varieties of fern shoots. (The New York Times, Dec. 29,1991, Sec. 5, p. 12) [< warabi] waribashi n. disposable, wooden chopsticks that are split into two just before using. Japanese restaurants should supply plastic or lacquer chopsticks, the way restaurants in China do, rather than one-use-only wooden ones, known as waribashi. (The Atlantic Monthly, Nov. 1989, p. 26) [< waribashi < wari splitting + < bashi < hashi chopsticks]

210 wasabi [wdisobi, wosdibi] n. 1. a perennial plant, Wasabia attributive use. japonica.

wasabi

The wasabi plant grows in marshes at the edges of cold, clear mountain streams. (Dorothy Perkins, Encyclopedia of Japan, 1991, p. 375) 2. a sharp condiment prepared from the root of this plant. In general, the chefs tend to apply the wasabi (green horseradish) with a heavy hand. Sushi chefs have remarked that Americans prefer more of the wasabi than the Japanese, and this may explain it. (The New York Times, Aug. 11, 1985, Sec. 21LI, p. 17) Japanese horseradish, (an entirely different species), produces a pungent green powder, wasabi, which is popular as a garnish and as an ingredient in dipping sauces. (Jennifer Mulherin, Macmillan Treasury of Spices and Natural Flavorings, 1988, p. 54) Wasabi can be made using the fresh root, or using processed wasabi powder sold in cans that can be mixed with water to make a firm paste. (Dorothy Perkins, Encyclopedia of Japan, 1991, p. 375) attributive use. Pan-seared Maine crab cakestwo loose-packed, well-browned cakes of fresh-tasting crab meatwere augmented by a wasabi-tartar sauce with bite, broiled tomatoes and carrots. (The New York Times, Sept. 10, 1995, Sec. 13CN, p. 21) We also recall a crackling calamari salad with a hint of hot chili oil and light lime-miso vinaigrette, gossamer yet crispy spinach and rare tuna with a crunchy edge in a tomato wasabi vinaigrette. (The New York Times, Dec. 31, 1995, Sec. 13CN, p. 12) [< wasabi] 1903 (OED) washi n. handmade Japanese paper. Handmade paper, called washi, is used in a vast variety of ways, ranging from functional sliding doors and screens to festive kites and lanterns. (Los Angeles Times, Apr. 27, 1986, Part III, p. 9) The simple shapes [of glow lamps] . . . are formed with three kinds of handmade Japanese washi, commonly known as rice paper. Washi, sold at many art supply stores, costs $5 to $50 a sheet and comes in a wide range of color, translucency, and texture. (Sunset, Feb. 1989, p. 74) The most highly prized wrapping paper in Japan is plain white washi, literally 'Japanese paper'. To a Western eye this looks a coarse, unrefined creation, but this is part of its quality. (Joy Hendry, Wrapping Culture, 1993, p. 40) [< washi < wa Japanese + shi paper; "rice paper," which is prepared from the pith of Tetrapanax papyrifera, is a misnomer applied to washi, whose primary fibers are kozo (Broussonetia papyrifera), mitsumata (Edgeworthia papyrifera), and gampi (Wikstroemia canescens). ] 1936 (OED.AS) water trade a business or an occupation relating to entertainment. Bars in Japan belong to a bohemian world colloquially known as the water trade. There is a suggestion of dilution in this name that may not appeal to those who like their bourbon

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straight, but rest assured, the water trade is an honest purveyor of honest liquor. . . . In the no man's land of the water trade, in its confidential anonymity, you will see and hear a great deal more than on the broad tourist highways that take in the monuments and miss details. (The New York Times, May 12, 1985, Sec. 10. p. 45) The student hears the term mizu-shobai for the first time and later learns what it means: the water trade, the fly-by-night world of bars, baths and brothels. (Time, Aug. 19, 1985, p. 66) She works in Japan's entertainment industry, the mizu shobai, or "water trade," so called because the flow of customers at bars, nightclubs and restaurants is like water from tap, sometimes dry, sometimes running full blast. (Transpacific, Nov./Dec. 1992, p. 31) The Japanese generally do not invite others to their homes for cocktail parties because their homes are very small. Consequently, social drinking is done in bars, clubs, and cabarets. These are all part of the mizu shobai (water trade), so called because this environment relaxes and cleanses the spirit like water, leaving no trace of tension. (Diana Rowland, Japanese Business Etiquette, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 129) [translation of mizu shobai < mizu water + shobai trade] waza-ari n. the score of seven points in judo. The referee scores waza-ari (seven points) in favour of the contestant who throws well but not so perfectly as to warrant a full point. Waza-ari is also awarded for being able to hold an opponent down for only twenty-five seconds, not the full thirty seconds. (Brian Caffary, The Judo Handbook, 1989, p. 139) A winning score (ippon) is counted as 10 points, and scores of 7 (Waza-ari), 5 (Yuko) and 3 (Koka) are given depending on how near to the full score they are. (Syd Hoare, Judo, 1993, p. 9) [< waza ari < waza a form of action + ari < am to occur] 1954 (OED.AS)

white belt 1. a beginner's level of proficiency in most Japanese and Korean martial arts. 2. a person who has this level of proficiency. 3. the white sash awarded to a person who has this level of proficiency. The kyu (grade) ranks begin with white belt, and progress, after examination, through yellow, orange, green, blue, and brown belts. (John Cocorcoran and Emil Farkas, Martial Arts: Traditions, History, People, 1988, p. 31) Steven [Schiff] . . . said he must show his taekwondo instructor a note from his teacher verifying his grades in order to receive stars on his white belt. (The New York Times, Feb. 16,1992, Sec. 3, p. 10) [translation of shiro obi < shiro white + obi belt]

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Y
Yagi or Yagi antenna [jdigi] n. a directional antenna used for receiving or transmitting waves in VHF and UHF ranges. A Yagi antenna has at least two elements. One element is a driven element. The other elements are directors and/or reflectors. These elements are usually parallel to each other and made of straight metal tubing. They line up with each other along the antenna boom. (Larry D. Wolfgang, Jim Kearman, and Joel P. Kleinman, eds., "Choosing an Antenna," chap. 7 in Now You're Talking!, 1993, p. 30) For the purpose of obtaining gain and directivity it is convenient to use the Yagi-Uda or cubical quad types of HF band beam antennas. The former is commonly called a Yagi. (Robert Schetgen, ed., "Antennas & Projects," chap. 23 in 1996 The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs, 73rd ed., 1995, p. 31) [< Yagi antena < Yagi < (Hidetsugu) Yagi (1886-1976), the inventor of this antenna + antena antenna] 1950 (OED) yakitori [jaekitori] n. a dish of bite-sized pieces of chicken that have been marinated, skewered, and grilled. Yakitori is chicken meticulously divided Japanese-style and grilled over coals. It offers an astonishing variety of visual and taste dimensions to sample at this relaxed outdoor party. (Sunset, May 1985, p. 132) There are sushi bars, noodle shops and restaurants serving nothing but yakitori, skewers of chicken that are grilled over an open fire. (Los Angeles Times, Aug. 26, 1990, p. L7) To travelers whipping along Route 22 through Watchung, Ajian [Japanese Restaurant] still resembles the hot-dog stand it once was. But a closer look reveals a trim and modem little Japanese restaurant and sushi bar marked with red lanterns. . . . Instead of frankfurters, diners who drop in these days will find the Japanese fast-food equivalent, yakitori, the grilled kebabs. (The New York Times, Jan. 22,1995, Sec. 13NJ, p. 15)

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attributive use. My feet usually found their way to the Gion entertainment district, where the sushi and yakitori (grilled fowl) restaurants sport bobbing red lanterns. (Vogue, Jan. 1990, p. 138) Beyond the breathless shopping marathon on the Ginza, and the yakitori bars that always seem to close too early, lies another Tokyo: ear-splitting, miniskirted, rocking to everything from reggae to jazz. (The New York Times, Oct. 18, 1992, Sec. 5, p. 14) [< yakitori < yaki grilling, broiling + tori fowl] 1962 (OED) yakuza [jokiiizo, jdikuzdi] n., pi. -za, 1. a Japanese criminal organization. Members of the yakuza, or boryokudan crime families are starting to spread out from their traditional U. S. base in Hawaii and are making appearances across America. (Los Angeles Times, Jan. 4, 1992, p. A18) attributive use. In Las Vegas, yakuza connections have been alleged in several casino and liquor license applications by Japanese nationals, but these charges have not been sufficiently substantiated to block licensing. (Los Angeles Times, Jan. 4, 1992, p. A18) 2. a member of this organization. An estimated 100,000 yakuza in Japan rake in some $10 billion a year from narcotics, extortion and loan-sharking. As the gangs channel that cash into legitimate investments in the U.S. and Europe, the FBI will be hard pressed to decipher the money trail. (Time, Apr. 20, 1992, p. 2) [Juzo] Itami's newly released "Minbo No Onna" satirizes the yakuza, Japan's notorious organized-crime gangs. (Newsweek, Jun. 8, 1992, p. 39) attributive use. In seven months of progressive nastiness and occasionally accurate shooting, Kobe's considerable yakuza population was reduced by 15. (The New York Times, Sept. 18, 1985, p. A2) [< yakuza < ya eight + ku nine + za< sa three, a combination that is a worthless hand in an old card game, three cards] 1964 (OED) Yamaguchi-gumi [jdimoguitji guimi] n. the largest Japanese criminal organization. Also, Yamaguchi Gumi. Yamaguchi-gumi was founded by a tough organizer of Kobe dock labor, Noboru Yamaguchi, before World War II. He died of natural causes in 1946, an unusually placid departure for a Japanese godfather. (Edwin Reingold, Chrysanthemums and Thorns, 1992, p. 135) Published recently by Japan's largest yakuza syndicate, the Yamaguchi Gumi, and distributed among its 26,000 members, it [a manual entitled How to Evade the New Law] advises gangs to stop looking and behaving like nasty, violent outfits and to pose instead as legitimate businesses. (World Press Review, May 1992, p. 48) [<Yamaguchi-gumi < (Noboru) Yamaguchi + gumi < kumi association] 1964 (OED.AS)

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yamamai [jaemomai] n. 1. a silkworm, Antheraea yamamai. Also, yama mai or yama-mai. Before the war Japan produced most of the silk of the world from a cultivated moth of the tussah variety, Antheria yama mai. (George S. Brady and Henry R. Clauser, Materials Handbook, 12th ed., 1986, p. 734) 2. silk produced by Antheraea yamamai. Yama-Mai A wild silk obtained from Antheraea yarmamai [sic]. . . . Resembles cultivated silk more than any other variety of wild silk, though it is coarser. (Isabel B. Wingate, Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles, 6th ed., 1979, p. 682) [< yamamayu < yama mountain + mayu cocoon] Yamato or Yamato race [jaimditou, jo-] n. the Japanese race. A Japanese playwright once likened his country to a glass dome, transparent but impenetrable to outsiders. The glass wall is the mystique that envelops the Japanese Volk, or as the Minzokuha [the proponent of national soul] prefers to call it, the Yamato minzoku [race], after the ancient clan that unified Japan as a kingdom around the fifth century, a period associated with pristine Japanese value. (The New York Times Magazine, Apr. 12, 1987, p. 29) They [Japanese soldiers of World War II] were driven by unswerving obedience to a culture that had implanted in them the conviction they were the so-called Yamato race, a superior breed whose duty it was to uphold the honor of their society, whatever that required. (The New York Times, Nov. 22, 1992, Book Review, p. 13) [< Yamato the ancient name of Nara Prefecture]] Yamato-damashii [jaimditou daemojii] n. the Japanese spirit. Also, y a m a t o damashii. To older Japanese Mr. Matsumoto's staunch resistance is an example of Yamato damashii, or Japanese spirit, which succeeds when all else fails. (National Geographic, Nov. 1986, p. 621) He [Yoshida Shoin] inspired his pupils with yamato damashii, the national spirit of Japan, which for him was focused on the Emperor. (Meirion Harries and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun, 1991, p. 9) Like many karate practitioners who matured right after World War II, [Keigo] Abe's karate is infused with a deep sense of yamato damashii, the "Japanese spirit," which can be distinguished by a profound patriotism, as well as an intensity in martial arts training and competition that borders on the sadistic. (Black Belt, Mar. 1995, p. 18) [< Yamato damashii < Yamato (used prefixally) pure Japanese + damashii tamashii soul] 1942 (OED) <

Yamato-e [jaimditowei] n. Japanese style of painting, as opposed to Chinese style of painting. Also, yamato-e. The golden age of Japanese painting came in the Heian period [794-1185], from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, with what is called the yamato-e. This art, which employs a

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very strong line to draw contours, deals with secular themes, such as the four seasons, famous sites, and seasonal labors, although these themes are developed under the influence of esoteric Buddhism. Yamato-e paintings also narrated court chronicles, as in the "Genji Scroll." (Jean-Claude Courdy, The Japanese: Everyday Life in the Empire of the Rising Sun, trans. Raymond Rosenthal, 1984, p. 100) Amid shifts of political power in the early 16th century, which saw the rise of warriors and wealthy merchants to the positions of power once held by hereditary aristocracy, a Japanese style of painting, called yamato-e, regained the prominence it had enjoyed as far back as the 9th century. Color is one of its hallmarks. In place of the indeterminate gray Chinese pictorial space, there is flat gold, a chromatically complex, light-diffusing field that serves as a receptive ground for other, stronger colors. (Art in America, May 1992, p. 91) [< Yamato e < Yamato (used prefixally) pure Japanese + e painting] yashiki [jaejiki] n., pi. -ki, an estate that belonged to a powerful noble in the feudal period. The huge garden dates to the 17th century and was originally part of a great feudal lord's compound, or yashiki. The area around the New Otani was once dotted with yashiki. (The New York Times, Oct. 18, 1992, Sec. 5, p. 14) [< yashiki estate] 1871: yassiki 1727 (OED) Yayoi [jaijoi] adj. of or relating to the period c300 B.C.-A.D. c300. There are also several examples of bright red slip ware from the Yayoi period (300 B.C.A.D. 300), some of which resemble classical Greek vases stripped of their figures, while others, casually patterned, evoke American Indian pottery. (The New York Times, Jan. 25, 1991, p. C26) Yayoi pieces in "Ancient Japan" include a new style of red-colored ceramics with bowls poised elegantly atop attenuated details; here for the first time dishes for serving food and for eating it are differentiated. (The New York Times, Aug. 30, 1992, Sec. 2, p. H27) While Yayoi ceramics differ in shape and color from those of the Jomon, their technology does not represent a complete break with the past. The firing temperature, 1100 to 1470 degrees Fahrenheit (600-800 degrees Centigrade), was about the same as that for Jomon vessels, and it is thought that many Yayoi vessels were fired in open stacks. (Richard Pearson, Ancient Japan, 1992, p. 137) [< Yayoi Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, the site where this type of pottery was excavated in 1884] 1906 (OED) Yeddo crepe [jeldou] n. a medium-thick, soft cotton fabric with a printed Chinese pattern, used for women's clothing in England in the late nineteenth century[< Yeddo < Edo formerly used name of Tokyo] 1960 (OED) Yeddo hawthorn [jedou] n. an evergreen bush, Rhaphiolepis [ < Yeddo < Edo] umblellata.

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Yeddo spruce [jedou] n. a pine tree, Picaejezoensis. Yeddo spruce is a most suitable conifer for bonsai: it is very lovely and pleasing, particularly in the light green color of the new growth! (Kan Yashiroda et al., eds., Plants & Gardens, (1953) 1991, p. 67) [< Yeddo < Edo] 1930 (OED) yen [jen] n. 1. Japan's monetary unit, introduced in 1871. Japan's universal currency is the yen. ((J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 1983, p. 129) As the U.S. enters yet another round of talks aimed at forcing Japan to open its markets to foreign competition, a question looms: Will the strong yen weaken Tokyo's bargaining position? (The Wall Street Journal, Apr. 13, 1995, p. A10) 2. a sum of money. When you finish your meal at such an establishment [an exclusive restaurant in Japan], the headwaiter politely asks for your business card, and you leave without paying a yen. (The Washington Post, Oct. 21, 1991, p. A14) [< a r o u n d ] 1875 (OED) Yokohama bean [jokohaimo] 1. an annual leguminous plant, Stzolobium hasjoo. 2. the edible bean of this plant. [< Yokohama a city in Kanagawa Prefecture] Yokohama crape [jokohaimo] n. a fine, closely woven opaque silk crepe. [< Yokohama] Yokohama fowl [jokohaimo] n. Japanese long-tailed fowl, Gallus gallus v. domesticus. Two other conspicuous tail features are the extraordinarily long tails which have been developed in breeds such as Yokohama, and the lack of a tail in the Rumpless varieties. The long tails develop partly as a result of having the correct genotype but also require a special rather artificial environment in which to mature. (Lewis Stevens, Genetics and Evolution of the Domestic Fowl, 1991, p. 89) [< Yokohama] 1885 (OED) yoko-shiho-gatame n. a grappling technique in judo, side-holding of the four quarters. In both yoko-shiho-gatame and its variant kuzure-yoko-shiho-gatame (broken four quarter hold) your body is initially placed at right angles to that of your opponent in order to apply the technique. (Brian Caffary, The Judo Handbook, 1989, p. 116) [< yoko-shiho-gatame < yoko side + shiho four sides + gatame < katame locking] 1941 (OED.AS)

218 yokozuna [joukozumo] n. 1. the highest rank in sumo wrestling.

yokozuna

The really big American lord of this ring is sumo wrestler Akebono, real name Chad Rowan, who has just been elevated to yokozunaa. rank he describes as "something like a god." And with good reason. In the last 350 years only 64 wrestlers have attained this top rankingand Akebono is the first non-Japanese. (People Weekly, Feb. 22, 1993, p. 87) 2. pi. -na, a title holder of this rank. Everyone agrees that a yokozuna . . . may be more than just a skilled wrestler; the title is coveted in part because those who hold it are thought to embody a noble Japanese spirit. (The New York Times, Apr. 22, 1992, p. A3) Being a yokozuna has brought a modest salary increase to $ 14,960 a month and a cornucopia of prizes from sponsors, including a year's supply of gasoline from the United Arab Emirates. He [Akebono] also received a year's supply of beer from a Czech brewery and 10,000 eggs, and 3,780 pounds of rice from a farmers' union. (People Weekly, 1993, p. 87) Yokozuna[.] Sumo's highest rank, achieved by an average of about one in five hundred new rikishi. Yokozuna cannot be demoted. They are simply expected to retire if their performance falls below expectations. (Clyde Newton, Dynamic Sumo, 1994, p. 21) Katsumi Yamanaka, alias Akinoshima, set a new kinboshi (gold star) record of 13 upsets over yokozuna by a maegashira. (The Guinness Book of Records 1996, NY: Facts on File, Inc., 1995, p. 298) [< yokozuna < yoko horizontal + zuna < tsuna rope: a Shinto hawser worn by the grand champion when he performs his ring-entrance ceremony] 1966 (OED) yondan n. 1. the fourth degree of proficiency of the black belt rank in judo. When a karate practitioner attains the rank of yondan (fourth-degree black belt), his body and mind become one and move as one unit, connected through his breathing. (Black Belt, Mar. 1993, p. 50) 2. a person who has achieved this level of proficiency. Yondans are able to execute dynamic throws and counterattacks. (Black Belt, Mar. 1993, p. 50) [< yondan < yon four, fourth + dan grade] 1913 (OED.AS) Yoshino paper [jojmou] n. high-quality handmade paper produced in Yoshino, Nara Prefecture. Yoshino washi, handmade paper, is another popular souvenir made in the area. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 2nd ed., 1993, p. 496) [ < Yoshino a. town in Nara Prefecture] Yoshiwara [jajiwdiro] n. a government-regulated red-light district during the Edo period (1600-1868).

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In 1617 an officially-regulated red-light area (Yoshiwara) was established near Nihonbashi; it was later relocated near Asakusa where some 3,000 licensed ladies of pleasure were divided between about 200 establishments. (Richard Tames, A Traveller's History of Japan, 1993, p. 85) Yoshiwara became the social setting for Edo's new elite merchant culture, giving rise to new genres of art (woodblock prints) and literature (fictional tales of thefloatingworld) world that exalted the courtesans and explored the nuances of this self-contained world of glorified eroticism. (James L. McClain, John M. Merriman, and Ugawa Kaoru, eds., Edo and Paris, 1994, p. 33) adj. of or relating to Yoshiwara. In Edo of the 1780s and 1790s, the main pleasure post of the "floating world" was the popular Yoshiwara district of tea houses and brothels and the three downtown Kabuki theaters, a district created by the forced crossing of two polar opposites in Japanese culture: the member of the aristocratic samurai class and the socially inferior merchant classes. (Akron [OH] Beacon Journal, Feb. 13, 1994. NewsBank Reference PLUS) [< Yoshiwara a name signified "reed-plain, from the nature of the original location of this district] 1870 (OED) yugawaralite [juigowairolait] n. a colorless-to-white, monoclinic mineral of the zeolite group: CaAi2Si60i64H20. Yugawaralite (CaAl2Si6016*4H20) occurs most commonly in active geothermal areas and is associated with other zeolites including laumontite and wairakite. (American Mineralogist, Sept.-Oct. 1982, p. 937) [< Yugawara a town in Shizuoka Prefecture + -lite] 1952 (OED) yugen [jiiigon, -gein] n. an aesthetic concept cultivated by poets and dramatists between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries. A further quality that the Japanese demand in beauty is one that lies below the surface in a very delicate harmony that is visible only to the person whose aesthetic abilities are highly trained. This quality is often referred to as yugen (yuu-gain), which means "mystery" or "subtlety." (Boye De Mente, Discovering Cultural Japan, 1988, p. 26) [< yugen < yu faint, vague, indistinct + gen profound truth] 1921 (OED) yukata [jukditai, -to] n. a type of kimono made of light cotton. We all dressed up in yukatas, which are glorified cotton bathrobes, and tried some folk dancing with the local people at the community hall. . . . The yukatas covered one up, but left an opening across the chest for the adventurous. (The New York Times, Sept. 3, 1989, Sec. 5, p. 12) Light summer kimonos called yukatas are worn outside on hot summer evenings, and many men will change into these when they return home from work in the evenings. They are provided, too, in hotels and inns, suggesting that many Japanese prefer the loose, comfortable traditional garments in which to relax, as well as for more formal, stiff attire. (Joy Hendry, Wrapping Culture, 1993, p. 88)

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As is customary, [Walter] Mondale and his wife, Joan, were each given a yukata, or light kimono, to wear while they stay in the inn [in Kyoto]. . . . Learning the proper way to wear yukata has been part of the education of the Mondales since he became Ambassador to Japan two years ago. (The New York Times Magazine, Nov. 5, 1995, p. 35) [< yukata < yukatabira <yu bath + katabira unlined kimono] 1881: ukata 1822 (OED) Yukawa force [juikdiwai] n. see the quotation for the meaning. The strong, short-range force between nucleons, as calculated on the assumption that this force is due to the exchange of a particle of finite mass (Yukawa meson), just as electrostatic forces are interpreted in quantum electrodynamics as being due to the exchange of photons. (Sybil P. Parker, ed.-in-chief, McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 3rd ed., 1984, p. 1773. Reproduced with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.) [< (Hideki)Yukawa (1907-1981), a physicist] 1968 (OED)

Yukawa meson [juikdiwai] n. see the quotation for the meaning. A particle, having a finite rest mass, whose exchange between nucleons is postulated to account for the strong, short-range forces between them; such a contributor is the pi meson. (Sybil P. Parker, ed.-in-chief, McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 3rd ed., 1984, p. 1773. Reproduced with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.) [< (Hideki) Yukawa] 1964 (OED) Yukawa potential [juikaiwai] n. see the quotation for the meaning. The potential function that is associated with the Yukawa force, with the form V(r) = -V0 (b/r) exp (-r/b), where r is the distance between the nucleons and VQ and b are constants, giving measures of the strength and range of the force respectively. (Sybil P. Parker, ed.-in-chief, McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 3rd ed., 1984, p. 1773. Reproduced with permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies.) [< (Hideki) Yukawa] 1948 (OED) y u s h o [juijou] n. poisoning caused polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). by rice oil contaminated with

PCB contamination is found to be almost universal, including human milk, human adipose tissue, and brain and liver of small children. Little is known about the toxic effects of PCB in humans, but an endemic poisoning ("yosho") by rice oil contaminated with PCB has been reported in Japan. (Jay M. Arena, ed., 3rd ed., Poisoning, 1986, p. 157) Yusho (PCB poisoning) is a mass food poisoning characterized clinically by peculiar dermatologic erosions and a variety of constitutional symptoms, including dentoorofacial problems. (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 1992, vol. 101, p. 393) [< yusho < yu oil + sho disease] 1969 (OED]

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yuzen [juizen] n. a method of silk dyeing with rice-paste coating. Also, yuzen and Yuzen. A new technique of silk dyeing called yiizen allowed freeform drawing of fine white lines in resist that when dyed created crisp outlines between sharply defined small areas of color. Yuzen was a more painterly technique than earlier methods of dyeing, and it provided the technical means to create wonderfully detailed pictorial themes. (Lisa Michael Dalby, Kimono: Fashioning Culture, 1993, p. 40) attributive use. There are different method of dyeing using either paste or wax but the traditional method, called Yuzen dyeing, in use for the last several centuries, depends upon the use of handcut stencils called katagami, literally meaning "pattern paper." (Clarence Hornung, Introduction, in Traditional Japanese Stencil Designs, ed. Clarence Hornung, 1985, p. vi) Under Hayashi's [Matsuyo] instruction, [John] Marshall learned the resist techniques of yuzen dyeing, which generally refers to the paste-resist dyeing technique used in Kyoto. (Ornament, Winter 1989, p. 56) Bom in Tokyo in 1917, [Itchiku] Kubota began studying yuzen (rice-paste resist) dyeing at age 14. (Smithsonian, Dec. 1995, p. 65) [< yuzen < yuzen zome < Miyazaki Yuzen (deceaced in 1758), who is thought to be a creator of this method + zome < some dyeing] 1902 (OED)

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z
zabuton [zobuiton] n., pi. -ton, a floor cushion with tufts, designed for sitting or kneeling. The traditional blue-and-white printed heavyweight cotton of Japan is known as kasuri. It is eminently suitable for making up as upholstery fabric for settees or chairs, as it is usually used for the covers for zabuton, the native firm, square floor cushions, which make an attractive and practical seating alternative in minimalist Western interiors. (Michael Freeman, San Evans, and Mimi Lipton, In the Oriental Style, 1990, p. 158) Japan even has arime-timerakugo TV show where performers in traditional garb are rewarded for special displays of verbal dexterity by receiving extra zabuton (floor cushions) to kneel upon. (Cathy N. Davidson, 36 Views of Mount Fuji, 1993, p. 96) Yamazaki Naka had us sit down in a three-tatami mat room with a low table in the center. She pulled from a great pile of cushions a green silk zabuton for both of us to sit on. (Laurence Caillet, The House of Yamazaki, trans. Megan Backus, 1994, p. 132) [< zabuton < za seat + buton < futon mattress] 1889 (OED) zaibatsu [zaibditsui] n., pi. -tsu, a business empire before World War II. Manhattan from the Indians was a good deal at $24, but Marunouchi, the business and financial center of Tokyo, wasn't a bad buy for $1 million. That is how much the august Mitsubishi zaibatsu paid the Meiji government in 1890 for a meadow occupied by military barracks and parade ground. (Forbes, Jun. 1986, p. 32) The second type of keiretsu is the so-called "horizontal" or financial group, embodied by Mitsubishi, Mitsui and Sumitomo. They came to life as pre-war zaibatsu, or huge, family-owned conglomerates that were broken up and sold to the public during the U.S. occupation. (Newsweek, Jun. 10, 1991, p. 39) As an initial step, the government sold off various inefficiently run state-operated enterprises . . . and provided business charters and capital to a small number of well-con-

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zaikai

nected families with names like Sumitomo, Mitsui, and Mitsubishi. The families were known as the zaibatsu (financial clique) and were Japan's first great capitalist-industrialists. (Dennis Laurie, Yankee Samurai, 1992, p. I l l ) [< zaibatsu < zai wealth + batsu clique] 1937 (OED) zaikai [zaikai] n. the business community. Leaders of the zaikaithe cream of Japan's financial, industrial and trade organizationsplayed a major part in the process that led to the birth of the LPD in November 1955. (Karel van Wolferen, The Enigma of Japanese Power, Vintage ed., 1990, p. 132) [< zaikai < zai wealth + kai community] 1968 (OED) zaitech n. a speculative, sophisticated scheme of money management. Also, Zsatech. Another goal is to capture new business that is developing as a result of Japan's Zai-tech, or ongoing "asset revolution." Renowned for its double-digit saving rates, Japan is slowly changing its habits: many individuals are trading in their traditional savings accounts for stocks and other assets with potentially higher returns. (Newsweek, Jan. 13, 1986, p. 48) Other losers will be companies that played financial games, which the Japanese call zaitech. (Business Week, Oct. 15, 1990, p. 50) "Zaitech," a neologism that rhymes with "high-tech," is a widely used term here, formed from the Japanese word for "assets" and the English "technology." It means manipulating stocks, real estate, rare art works and other financial assets in highly technical ways to enhance profit. (The Washington Post, Aug. 3, 1991, p. A18) [Shigeru] Kita is one of the biggest remaining players of zaitech, the financial games practiced by cash-rich companies during the high-speed '80s in Japan. (Business Week, Apr. 8, 1991, p. 48) [< zaiteku < zai < zai(mu) financial (affairs) + teku < tech < technology] zazen [zdizen] n. a deep meditation in Zen Buddhism. Seated meditation (zazen) is the heart of Zen training, the practice that gives the tradition its name. (Kenneth Kraft, Introduction, in Zen: Tradition and Transition, Kenneth Kraft, 1988, p. 8) Zazen . . . is intended to free the mind from bondage to any thought-form, vision, thing, or representation, however sublime or holy it might be. (Ingrid Fischer-Schreiber, Franz-Karl Erhard and Michael S. Diener, The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, 1991, p. 260) There is no orthodox zazen routine, and even within the various Zen sects different priests follow slightly different paths. They all include some form of sitting, usually on pillows set on mats, for periods of an hour or more. (The New York Times, Dec. 29, 1991, Sec. 5, p. 13) Next morning, there was chanting and zazen (meditation) at the Zendo as usual, beginning at 5:30 A. M. (New York, Mar. 4, 1991, pp. 42-^3) [< zazen < za seating + zen < zenna collected mind] 1897: Sasen 1727 (OED)

Zen Buddhist

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Zen or Zen Buddhism [zen] n. a sect of Mahayana Buddhism that believes in self-discipline by systematic spiritual training and in deep meditation as the way to attain enlightenment. For Zen adepts, zazen in its purest form is just sitting, giving up all thoughts without becoming trapped in a conscious process of no thinking. (Bill Logan, ed., All Japan, 1984, p. 148) In the contemporary West, Zen has been suggested as an approach to many activitiespsychoanalysis, organizational management, social work, running, cross country skiing, and driving a car. Why not studying? (John J. Gibbs, Dancing with Your Books, 1990, pp. 5-6) Deliberately irrational statements are sometimes used in Zen to jar persons into realizing the limits of the common uses of the intellect. One well-known example is, "What is the sound of one hand clapping?" (Eric Donald Hirsch, Jr. Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil, The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, 1988, p. 110) Zen Buddhism differed from the Pure Land and Nichiren sects in that it emphasized selfreliance, while they emphasized reliance upon external powers. (Mikiso Hane, Premodern Japan, 1991, p. 78) Zen's emphasis on meditation and personal enlightenment, as opposed to religious dogma or prayerful worship, has helped many business people reconcile its practice with their other spiritual beliefs. In fact, while Buddhism is one of the world's major religions, Zen proponents in this country [U.S.] often see it as a mental health practice more than a religion. One of the mental benefits of meditation is a sense of space, [Grover C.] Gauntt says. (Entrepreneur, Apr. 1995, p. 59) attributive use. [Bernard] Glassman is the first American Zen master to have been recognized as a dharma holderone who is truly enlightenedin formal ceremonies at the great Japanese temples of Eihei-ji and Soji-ji. And he is the first American to be made abbot of a Zen community. (U.S. News & World Report, Aug. 26, 1991, p. 90) Despite a recent plug on thirtysomething, the highbrow Signals catalogue has sold only a few hundred of the desktop Zen rock gardens it offers for $45 each. (Fortune, 17, 1991, p. 124) In Zen centers [in the Northeast], where the day revolves around prescribed meditation periods, there is little free time. (The New York Times, Oct. 4, 1992, Sec. 5, p. 8) Large contingents of Chinese Zen monks fled to the safe haven offered by the recently established military regime in Kamakura [, Japan in the thirteenth century]. (Elinor L. Pearlstein and James T. Ulak, Asian Art in the Art Institute of Chicago, 1993, p. 103) [< zen < zenna collected mind] 1834: Sen 1727 (OED) Zen Buddhist [zen] n. a person who believes in the philosophy of Zen Buddhism. Also, zenist or Zennist. The ultimate goal of the Zen Buddhists was not entrance into the Buddhist paradise but the attainment of "enlightenment" (satori). (Mikiso Hane, Premodern Japan, 1991, p. 78) [< zen < zenna collected mind] 1923 (OED)

226 zendo [zendou] n. a Zen center for meditation and study. Also, Zendo.

zendo

At Dai Bosatsu [in Livingston Manor, NY], guests can choose between quarters in the Japanese-style Zendo or the property's original, shingled guest house beside the Catskill's highest lake. (New York, Mar. 4, 1991, p. 42) Abbeys, convents, zendos and monasteries report that their guest rooms are so tightly booked that reservations are essential [in the Northeast]. (The New York Times, Oct. 4, 1992, Sec. 5, p. 8) [< zendo < zen < zenna collected mind + do hall] 1959 (OED) Zengakuren [zengokuiron] n. an extreme left-wing student movement group. Yukio [Mishima] told me that the Tatenokai was meant to serve as a "militia" that would join police on the streets of Tokyo in fighting the Zengakuren, the infinitely more violent Japanese equivalent of American student groups of the 1960s like SDS. (Harper's Magazine, Oct. 1985, p. 59) Left-wing parties, unions, and the student organization Zengakuren formed a People's Council for Preventing the Revision of the Security Treaty in spring 1959. (Richard Bowring and Peter Kornicki, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, 1993, p. 271) These student organizations formerly were known by the name of their national federation, the Zengakuren, but today they are usually referred to by their more abstruse factional names, such as the Chukakuha ("the nucleus faction"). (Edwin O. Reischauer and Marius B. Jansen, The Japanese Today, enl. ed., 1995, p. 199) [< Zengakuren < Zen-Nihon Gakusei Jichikai So-Rengo literally, All Japan Federation of Student Self-Government Associations] 1952 (OED) Zenic [zenik] adj. of or relating to Zen Buddhism. [< zen + -id] zenist [zenist] n. a person who believes in the philosophy of Zen Buddhism. Also, Zennist. Very few professional Zennists ever found their way to the door of this old man [Shoju Rojin], now one of the greatest masters in Japan. (Thomas Cleary, The Japanese Art of War, 1991, p. 35) [< zen + -ist] Zennist [zenist] n. see zenist. zensho n. all wins in sumo wrestling. All wins and no losses is referred to as zensho. If on the fifth day of the tournament a sumotori has five wins and no losses, he is referred to as having five wins, or go sho, but if at the end of the tournament he is undefeated, he is then zensho. (Dorothea N. Buckingham, The Essential Guide to Sumo, 1994, p. 221) [< zensho < zen complete + sho winning]

zori zogan [zougain] n. a general term for inlay.

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Specialty gift shops [in Kyoto] feature . . . zogan, inlaid damascene that is fashioned into everything from jewelry boxes to serving trays, and shippo. (J. D. Bisignani, Japan Handbook, 1993, p. 440) [< zogan < zo pattern + gan set] zori [zoiri, zouri] n, pi. -ri, a flat, thonged sandal. Also, zori. Zori can be made of any material on hand; straw, rush, etc. . . . Today the kind of traditional zori worn with KIMONO are almost exclusively for women; they consist of a wedge covered with leather, cloth, vinyl, or finely woven straw and thongs made of cloth or leather. (Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1983, Vol. 8, p. 379) Japan has given the world the zori, worn in the West as a flapping rubber-thonged beach shoe. (Bill Logan, ed., All-Japan, 1984, p. 41) Geta are worn with yukata or summer kimono, and zori are worn with the formal attire. Many zori owned by wealthy women are coordinated with the many styles and colors of their expensive kimonos. (Theodore F. Welch and Hiroki Kato, Japan Today!, 1990, p. 41) [< zori <zo <so grass + ri footwear] 1823 (OED)

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About the Author TOSHIE M. EVANS is a reporter for Gekkan Nihon-go, a journal published in Japan for teachers of Japanese as a second language. She is the author of Ei-go ni natta Nihon-go (Japanese words adopted into English; 1990). She taught Japanese at Rio Salado Community College in Phoenix, Arizona. Her numerous articles on language and language education have appeared in a language textbook and Japanese journals such as Ei-go Kyoiku, Gekkan Nihon-go, Gendai Ei-go Kyoiku, Gengo Seikatsu, and NHK Television: Yasashii Ei-Kaiwa.