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ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME Pediatric Nursing

1. A pediatric nurse educator provides a teaching session to the nursing staff regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The nurse educator includes which information in the teaching session? a. Most newborn infants of HIV positive women test positive for the HIV virus. b. HIV primarily attacks the hematological system. c. In AIDS, the B cells are depleted and cannot signal the T4 cells to form protective antibodies. d. The virus attacks the immune system by destroying T lymphocytes. 2. A newborn infant of a mother who has human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) is performed, and the results are positive. A nurse interprets these results as a. Positive for HIV virus. b. Indicating the presence of maternal infection. c. Indicating the absence of maternal infection. d. Negative for HIV virus. 3. A physician prescribed laboratory studies for an infant of a woman who has human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to determine the presence of HIV antigen. The nurse anticipates that which laboratory study will be prescribed? a. Western blot b. Chest x-ray c. CD4+ count d. P24 antigen assay 4. A mother with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection brings her 10 month-old infant to the clinic for a routine checkup. The physician has documented that the infant is asymptomatic for HIV infection. After the checkup the mother tells the nurse that she is so pleased that the infant will not get HIV. The most appropriate nursing response to the mother is a. I am so pleased also that everything has turned out fine. b. Everything looks great, but be sure that you return with your infant next month for the scheduled visit. c. Most children infected with HIV develop symptoms within the first 9 months of life, and some become symptomatic sometime before age 3. d. Since symptoms have not developed, it is unlikely that your infant will develop HIV infection. 5. An infant of a mother infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is seen in the clinic each month and is being monitored for symptoms indicative of HIV. The nurse assesses the infant, knowing that the most common opportunistic infection of children infected with HIV is a. Gastroenteritis b. Meningitis c. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia d. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia 6. A clinic nurse is instructing the mother of a child with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection regarding immunizations. The nurse tells the mother that a. Household members need to avoid receiving the varicella vaccine. b. Pneumococcal and influenza vaccines are recommended. c. The hepatitis B vaccine will not be given to the child.

d. A Western blot needs to be performed and the results evaluated before immunizations. 7. A child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome carinii pneumonia. The child will be receiving nebulizer treatments at home when discharged. The nurse instructs the mother regarding the maintenance of the nebulizer equipment and tells the mother to a. Clean the nebulizer pieces after each treatment with one-fourth strength bleach and water. b. Clean the nebulizer pieces with warm water after each treatment and allow to air dry. c. Boil the nebulizer pieces for 15 minutes after each treatment. d. Clean the mouthpiece with alcohol after each use and soak in alcohol for 30 minutes at the end of each day. 8. A child with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is receiving zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir). The nurse monitors which laboratory study to determine whether the child is experiencing an adverse reaction from the medication? a. Sedimentation rate b. Complete blood count c. Calcium level d. Potassium level 9. A nurse is caring for a 4-year-old child with a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In planning care to address the psychosocial issues, the nurse would expect that this child a. Is unable to grasp the concept of illness and death. b. Begins to understand that something is wrong. c. Begins to conceptualize the death process as involving physical harm. d. Will express fear, withdrawal and denial. 10. A home care nurse provides instructions regarding basic infection control to the mother of a child with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Which statement if made by the mother indicates the need for further instructions? a. I will carefully wash all fresh fruits and vegetables. b. I will wash baby bottles, nipples and pacifiers in the dishwasher. c. I will clean up any spills from the diaper with full strength alcohol. d. I will rub the inside of the nipple with salt and rinse well if it becomes slimy. Critical Thinking: Fill in the Blank A young child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is schedules for a CD4+ blood test. The childs mother asks the nurse about the purpose of the test. The nurse tells the mother that the blood test assesses the status of which specific body system? Answer: