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Constitutive Equations

Mathematical function relating stress tensor to velocity field for a particular fluid

fluid

mechanics

Constitutive Modeling

Looking for appropriate tensorial expressions relating stress and strain that match observed material behavior.

Constraints:

•All terms of a constitutive equation must be of second order (i.e. have two unit vectors associated with them). •Must be coordinate system invariant. Must not include any variables that depend on coordinate system. The only scalar functions that may be in constitutive equations are functions of invariants of the vectors or tensors. •Must predict a symmetric stress tensor. (We can achieve this by using the velocity gradient tensor and its transpose in the definition of the strain rate tensor.) •Material objectivity is required. The response of the material to an applied deformation must be the same for all observers.

Constitutive modeling

• Many constitutive equations are available that meet the 4 criteria listed previously

• You must choose one that is best suited to your problem i.e describes the flow behaviour of the fluid of interest in the flow of interest to an acceptable level

• Dimensionless groups Deborah (De) number and the Weissenberg number (Wi)

Types of constitutive equations

• Generalized Newtonian

– accounts for varying viscosity but not for elasticity

• Linear and quasi-linear viscoelastic constitutive equations

– account only for linear viscoelasticity

• Non-linear constitutive equations

– describe nonlinear viscoelasticity

Choose a constitutive equation by considering the behavior of fluid of interest and the flow of interest. More sophisticated constitutive models can describe more complex phenomena but often introduce numerical difficulties. Normally choose the simplest constitutive equation that will give realistic or useful results.

Analysis of flow/fluid

• Deborah number: the ratio of the relaxation time of the fluid to the time scale of a flow

• Determines how important memory effects are in the flow

De =

λ

t flow

• Weissenberg number:

the ratio of the relation time of the fluid to a time scale of the flow which relates to non- linearity

• Determines how important non-linear effects are in the flow

Wi =

λ

t flow'

Example: Oscillatory shear
(0, t)
= γ
sin
ω
t
γ&
(0, t)
=γω ω
cos
t
γ 21
0
21
0

De =

λ

t

flow

= λω

Wi =

λ

t

flow'

= λγ & = λγ ω

0

0

• If De << 1 and Wi << 1 then the flow is Newtonian

• If De <<1 and Wi > 1 then the flow is viscometric (i.e. non-Newtonian viscosity but no elastic memory)

• If De > 1 and Wi << 1 then the flow is linear viscoelastic

• If De >1 and Wi > 1 then the flow is non linear viscoelastic

Example: oscillatory shear and the Pipkin diagram

Wi

De

Example: Conically converging flow

Q

De =

λ
Q
dR
R
3 dz
t flow

Wi

=

λ

Q

= λ

t

flow'

R

3

1

Generalized Newtonian Constitutive Eqn

Newtonian constitutive Eqn:

τ=−μγ&

That constitutive equation only allows for a constant viscosity, μ. Since one of the important aspects of non- Newtonian behavior is a shear rate dependant viscosity a simple modification of this constitutive equation is to include a shear rate dependant viscosity.

Generalized Newtonian constitutive Eqn:

()

τ=−ηγγ &&

where

γ &

=

scalar invariant

Functional forms of the viscosity curve

Power law model:
Carreau-Yasuda model:
n
1
n
1
ηγ−η &
()
ηγ& = γ&
()
m
[
∞ = +γλ &
1
( )]
a
a
η −η
0
Bingham model:
⎧ ∞
τ≤τ
y
ηγ & =
()
τ
y
μ +
τ>τ
0
y
γ &
where τ=
τ
and
τ =
yield stress
y

Limitations of GNF Models

• Do not necessarily model the viscosity curve well.

• In general does not represent well non- shearing flows

• Do not predict elastic effects such as normal stresses.

• Does not include a dependency on strain history, therefore cannot predict transient behavior

Example

Consider a hypothetical new material function based on the following kinematics;

v =

⎛ς t x

0

0

&

()

2

xyz

where

ς &

()

t

=

{

(t)

ς&

(t)

a) Sketch

b) The new material function is:

and γ 21 (0,t)

η

21

exp

Find η exp for a power-law GNF.

 0 t < 0 ( exp at ) t > 0; a > 0

=

−τ

yx

()

t

a

Example

How would you go about calculating the velocity field for a specific GNF model?

EOM, incompressible fluid in cylindrical coordinates

Generalized linear viscoelastic constitutive eqn

Boltsmann

superposition

principle:

()t

τ =−

t

−∞

G(t

t')(t γ & )dt

As with the GNF we can consider different forms of the material function G(t-t). The most common forms are the Maxwell model and the generalized Maxwell model.

Maxwell Model

Differential form:

τ+λ ∂τ =−ηγ &
t

Integral form:

t

τ=− G exp

−∞

⎛ − t −′ t

λ

(

)

γ & (t )dt

η

G

or λ= η /G

Generalized Maxwell Model

Differential form:

∂τ

i

τ+λ
=−ηγ &
i
i
i
t
N
τ= τ
i

i = 1

N Maxwell elements in parallel

Integral form:

τ=− G exp ⎜ ⎛ − t −′ t ⎞ ⎤

(

)

t

−∞

N

i

=

1

⎟ γ & (t )dt

i

λ

i

Limitations of the GLVE Model

• It predicts a constant viscosity = η 0 . Therefore it is only valid for flows with small shear rates.

• Strain is assumed to be additive, therefore it is limited to small strains.

• Predicts zero normal stresses in shear flow.

• It is not frame invariant, i.e. it cannot describe flows with a superimposed rigid rotation.

In chapter 9 we will see how to fix this model so that it is frame invariant.