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1

Universitatea Spiru Haret


Facultatea de Drept

DREPT ROMAN
Conf.univ.dr. ùWHIDQ&RFRú

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2. Obiectul dreptului roman

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statul roman2 era vPSU LWvQFRQIRUPLWDWHFXFRQFHS LDURPDQvQGUHSWSXEOLFúLGUHSW
privat. Astfel, jurisconsultul Ulpian3DUDWFULWHULXOGHGLVWLQF LHvQWUHGUHSWXOSXEOLFúL
GUHSWXO SULYDW ÄGUHSWXO SXEOLF HVWH DFHOD FDUH SULYHúWH RUJDQL]DUHD VWDWXOXL URPDQ úL
dreptul privat, interesul particularilor”.

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fundamentul pe care s-DFOGLWVLVWHPXOMXULGLF&XWRDWHFGUHSWXOURPDQQXPDLHVWH
vQ YLJRDUH QR LXQLOH úL SUincipiile sale care s-DX SHUSHWXDW GH SHVWH GRX PLL GH DQL
SkQ DVW]L VXQW SHUIHFW DSOLFDELOH 'HFL HO QX D UPDV XQ VLPSOX GRFXPHQW
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D GHSúLW VXE DVSHFWXO IRUPHL VDOH OLPLWHOH VRFLHW LL FDUH O-D JHQHUDW úL D H[HUFLWDW R
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1
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD Drept roman  %XFXUHúWL S 
2
Supra, p. 1
3
D.1.1.1.2.
4
( 0ROFX  Drept privat roman, Universitatea CUHúWLQ '&DQWHPLU %XFXUHúWL 
2

4. Diviziunile dreptului roman

'XSFXPUH]XOWGLQWH[WXOOXL8OSLDQFLWDWDQWHULRU5, dreptul roman se divide


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'UHSWXO SXEOLF HVWH DFHO DQVDPEOX GH QRUPH MXULGLFH FDUH UHJOHPHQWHD]
RUJDQL]DUHDVWDWXOXLSHGHRSDUWHLDUSHGHDOWDUHJOHPHQWHD]UHOD LLOHGLQWUHVWDWúL
persoanele particulare.
Dreptul privat este acel ansamblu GH QRUPH MXULGLFH FDUH UHJOHPHQWHD]
UHOD LLOHGLQWUHSHUVRDQHOHSDUWLFXODUH/DUkQGXOVXGUHSWXOSULYDWVHVXEGLYLGHvQWUHL
SU Lius civile, ius gentiumúLius naturae sau ius naturale.

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vQ JLQ L DSRL DOW RUJDQ GH FRQGXFHUH HUD UHJHOH – rex, ales de comitia curiata cu
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UHJHOXLúLKRWUkULOHDGXQULLFXULDWH

2. Întemeierea statului roman

3H OD VIkUúLWXO VHFROXOXL 9, vHQ vQ XUPD UHIRUPHL FRPSOH[H D OXL 6HUYLXV
7XOOLXV D IRVW vQWHPHLDW VWDWXO URPDQ FD IRUP GH RUJDQL]DUH SROLWLF (O D vPSU LW
WHULWRULXO 5RPHL FX H[FHS LD &DSLWROXOXL úL $YHQWLQXOXL vQ SDWUX WULEXV VDX UHJLXQL
nuPLWH6XEXUDPD(VTXLOLDQD&ROOLQDúL3DODWLQD
Statul roman a cunoscut mai multe perioade de dezvoltare din punctul de
vedere al formelor sale de organizare. Mai întâi acesta a evoluat în perioada
UHJDOLW LLFXSULQVGHODPLMORFXOVHFROXOXL9,vHQSkQvQDQXOvHQRGDWFX
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3HULRDGDUHSXEOLFLLDGXUDWGHODvHQSkQvQDQXOvHQFkQGvPSUDWXO
Augustus a fondat monarhia.
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3ULQFLSDWXOvQWUHDQLLvHQúLHQSULPDúLGRPLQDWXODGRXDvQWUHDQLL
HQúLHQ
ÌQ FRQWLQXDUH YRP DERUGD SHULRGL]DUHD LVWRULF D VWDWXOXL URPDQ vQ RUGLQHD
SUH]HQWDW

5
Supram p.1.
6
Fr. Girard, Histoire de l’organisation juridicare des Romains, p.5.
3

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rex-UHJHOHVHQDWXOúLFRPLWLWDFHQWXULDWFUHDWSULQUHIRUPDOXL6HUYLXV7XOLXV

4. Perioada republicii

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romanii au creat-R VSHFLDO vQ DFHVW VFRS 'UHSW XUPDUH D U]ERDLHORU GH FXFHULUH OD
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&KLDU GDF SOHEHLL DX UHXúLW V RE LQ FkWHYD FXFHULUL vQ OXSWD ORU FD GH
exemplu, accesul la comitia centuriata, în celelalte domenii, respectiv cel
DGPLQLVWUDWLYUHOLJLRVúLMXULVGLF LRQDOFRQWLQXDXVILHH[FOXúL'HDVHPHQHDúLager
publicus era H[SORDWDW vQ H[FOXVLYLWDWH WRW GH FWUH SDWULFLHQL $FHVWH FDX]H DX
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DSURYL]LRQULOH PLOLWDUH (i aveau anumite semne distinctive, respectiv dreptul de a
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vQGHSOLQLULL XQHL PDJLVWUDWXUL FXUXOH $OWH FDWHJRULL VRFLDOH vQ DFHDVW SHULRDG HUDX
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FXQRúWHD10 LDU FRQIRUP WUDGL LHL regele Servius Tullius îi exclusese de la serviciul
SXEOLFúLPLOLWDU3UROHWDUHUDRPXOVUDFFDUHQXDYHDGHFkWFRSLL– proles/DVIkUúLWXO
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FHW HQL VUDFL FDUH QX DYHDX QLFL XQ PLMORF GH VXE]LVWHQ  GHFkW DMXWRUXO DFRUGDW GH
FWUHVWDW

7
Vl. Hanga, Drept privat roman %XFXUHúWL  S 
8
I. Gaudemet, Institutiones de l’antiquité, Paris, 1967, p. 229.
9
C.St. Tomulescu, Manual de drept privat roman %XFXUHúWL S 
10
Justinian 4, 10.
4

Sclavii constituiau categoria de oameni care nu se bucurau de libertate, nefiind


persoane. ScODYLD GLQ IRUPD VD SDWULDUKDO VSUH VIkUúLWXO UHSXEOLFLL GHYLQH FODVLF
FRQVWLWXLQGGHIDSWED]DHFRQRPLFDVLVWHPXOXLVFODYDJLVW
În perioada republicii, organele de exercitare a puterii politice au fost în parte
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VH FRQFUHWL]DX vQ SDWUX FDWHJRULL GH DGXQUL UHVSHFWLY comitia curiata, comitia
centuriata, concilium plebisúLcomitia tributa11.
Comitia curiata vúL SLHUGH GLQ SUHURJDWLYHOH DYXWH vQ SHULRDGHOH DQWHULRDUH úL
UROXO VX GHYLQH WRW PDL OLPLWDW vQ FRQGXFHUHD SROLWLF D VRFLHW LL URPDQH (D vúL
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WHVWDPHQWXOVDXDGURJD LXQHD12.
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GHWHUPLQDW GH FHQ]XUD OXL $SSLXV &ODXGLXV SH GH R SDUWH úL GH RUHIRUPGLQDQXO
220 î.e.n., pe de alta.
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PRELOLDUDGLFPHWDOFRQVWkQGvQDUDPDXUDUJLQWVSRDWIDFHSDUWHGLQWU-una din
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LPRELOLDU.
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Concilium plebis era vechea adunare a SOHEHL FDUH OD vQFHSXW DGRSWD KRWUkUL
REOLJDWRULL QXPDL SHQWUX SOHEHL ÌQ XUPD OHJLL +RUWHQVLD GLQ VHF ,,, vHQ KRWUkULOH
DFHVWRUDGXQULGHYLQREOLJDWRULLSHQWUXWR LFHW HQLLGHFLúLSHQWUXSDWULFLHQLúLDVWIHO
s-a transformat în comitia tributa13.
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DGXQDUH vQ FDUH KRWUkULOH DX GHYHQLW REOLJDWRULL úL SHQWUX SDWULFLHQLL UHSDUWL]D L GXS
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$FHDVWDHUDFRQVHFLQ DvPSU LULLFHW HQLLORUGHFLúLDSOHEHLOD5RPDvQSDWUXWULEXUL
VDX FDUWLHUH XUEDQH úL vQ  FDUWLHUH UXUDOH FXSULQ]kQG SH FHL FH ORFXLDX vQ
împrejurimile Romei14.
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D VRFLHW LL URPDQH úL FKLDU GDF QX DYHD GUHSWXO V HODERUH]H OHJL HO WUHEXLD V OH
FRQILUPH SH FHOH YRWDWH GH DGXQULOH SRSRUXOXL ÌQ DFHVW IHO HO VXSUDYHJKHD
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La început, consulii erau cei care îi numeau pe senatori dintre patricieni. Mai
WkU]LX VHQDWRULL DX vQFHWDW GH D IL vQ PRG H[FOXVLY SDWULFLHQL GREkQGLQG DFHDVW
GHPQLWDWHWR LDFHLDFDUHDXGH LQXWDQWHULRURPDJLVWUDWXUFXUXOSULQWUHFDUHSXWHDX
IL úL SOHEHL GH FkQG GREkQGLVHU GUHSWXO OD PDJLVWUDWXU ÌQ FHOH GLQ XUP FHQ]XULL
HUDXFHLFDUHDXSULPLWGUHSWXOVQXPHDVFVHQDWRUL15.
0DJLVWUD LLHUDXvQDO LIXQF LRQDULGHVWDWFDUHGH LQHDXDWULEX LLLPSRUWDQWHGLQ
SXQFW GH YHGHUH DGPLQLVWUDWLY úL MXULVGLF LRQDO16. ÎQ PkLQLOH ORU HUDX FRQFHQWUDW úL

11
( 0ROFX op.cit. p. 30.
12
Gaius, 2, 101; XII. T., 5, 3.
13
( 0ROFX  op.cit., p. 33.
14
C.St. Tomulescu, op. cit., p. 782.
15
C.St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p.779.
16
S.Solazzi, Archivio giuridico Filippo Serafini, Modena, 98, 1927.
5

SXWHUHD PLOLWDU (UDX DOHúL SH R SHULRDG OLPLWDW GH UHJXO XQ DQ 3XWHUHD ORU VH
H[HUFLWDSULQGRXLPSRUWDQWHDWULEXWHGHQXPLWHpotestasúLimperium17.
0DJLVWUD LL VXSHULRUL FRQVXOLL GH LQHDX SXWHUHD FLYLO VXSUHP GDU úL
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DGPLQLVWUDUHD MXVWL LHL FX SUHSRQGHUHQ  FHD FLYLO 'H IDSW DFHúWLD QX MXGHFDX FL
GRDURUJDQL]DXLQVWDQ DÌQDQXOvHQDSDUHSUHRWXOSHUHJULQFDUHDUHFDDWULEX LH
RUJDQL]DUHDSURFHVHORUGLQWUHFHW HQLúLSHUHJULQL18.
$OW FDWHJRULH GH PDJLVWUD L HUD cenzorul. El avea sarcina de a se ocupa de
cens –UHFHQVPkQWDGLFVHYDOXH]HSHULRGLFGLQFLQFLvQFLQFLDQLDYHUHDFHW HQLORU
úLVvQVFULHWRDWHSHrioadele pe listele censului.
Edilii curuli HUDX PDJLVWUD LL FDUH VXSUDYHJKHDX RUJDQL]DUHD úL IXQF LRQDUHD
SLH HORUVHRFXSDXGHDSURYL]LRQDUHDRUDúXOXLúLDYHDXDWULEX LLMXULVGLF LRQDOHvQFHHD
FHSULYHúWHYkQ]DUHDYLWHORUúLVFODYLORUFDUHVHIFHDXvQSLH HOHSXEOLFH
QuestoriiHUDXIXQF LRQDULLFDUHDGPLQLVWUDXWH]DXUXOSXEOLFDUKLYHOHVWDWXOXLúL
VHRFXSDXFXYkQ]DUHDSU]LLGHU]ERL
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FFL SHQWUX DSUDUHD LQWHUHVHORU SOebeilor, aveau dreptul de a se opune actelor
PDJLVWUD LORU SULQ YHWR 1X VH SXWHDX vQV vPSRWULYL DVWIHO DFWHORU FHQ]RULORU úL
GLFWDWRULORUFkWúLKRWUkULORUVHQDWXOXL
ÌQ FD]XUL GHRVHELWH GH H[FHS LH FXP HUDX U]ERDLHOH UVFRDOHOH HWF
conducerea staWXOXLHUDvQFUHGLQ DWXQXLGLFWDWRUFUXLDQLPHQLQXLVHSXWHDRSXQH
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luni19.
5. Perioada monarhiei

'XSFXPVHFXQRDúWHSHULRDGDPRQDUKLHLVDXDLPSHULXOXLVHvPSDUWHvQGRX
HWDSHVXFFHVLYHUHVSHFWLYSULQFLSDWXOúLGRPLQDWXOVDXPRQDUKLDDEVROXW

a. Principatul
$FHDVW SHULRDG D GHEXWDW FX WHQWDWLYD OXL &DHVDU GH D LQVWDXUD R PRQDUKLH
I LúWHQWDWLYFHQXDDYXWUHXúLW20.
ÌQDFHDVWSHULRDGVWUXFWXUDVRFLHW LLromane s-DPHQ LQXWvQPDUHSDUWHGDU
s-D SRODUL]DW SULQ FUHúWHUHD GLIHUHQ HORU GLQWUH ERJD L – honestiores úL VUDFL –
humiliores.
În perioada principatului, organele politice de conducere în statul roman sunt
vPSUDWXOVHQDWXOúLPDJLVWUDWXULOH

b. Dominatul

8OWLPD HWDS D PRQDUKLHL GRPLQDWXO VDX PRQDUKLD DEVROXW D UHSUH]HQWDW R


IRUPI LúGHDEVROXWLVPFHFDUDFWHUL]DVWDWXOURPDQvQDFHDVWSHULRDG
)RUPD GH VWDW LQVWDXUDW HUD R PRQDUKLH DEVROXW GH GUHSW GLYLQ vQ FDUH
vPSUDWXO QX PDL HUD FRQsiderat principes, SULPXO vQWUH FHW HQL FL PDL SUHVXV GH
oameni – dominus et deus, având puteri supranaturale21.

17
A.Bouche-Leclerq, Manuel des institutiones romaines, Paris, 1931, p. 36.
18
P.Bonfiante, Storia del diritto romano, 1, 2 Roma, 1934, p. 257
19
9O +DQJD 0 -DFRW op.cit., p. 25-26
20
J. Gaudement, Institutions de l’antiquité, Paris, 1967, p. 712.
21
P. de Francisi, Storia del dirito romano, III, Roma, 1944, p. 60-80.
6

6. Epocile dreptului roman

3HULRGL]DUHD LVWRULF D VWDWXOXL URPDQ WUHEXLH FRURERUDW FX R SHULRGL]DUH D


GUHSWXOXLURPDQGDWILLQGVWUkQVDOHJWXUGLQWUHRUJDQL]DUHDSROLWLFDVRFLHW LLVXE
IRUPD VWDWXOXL úL DQVDPEOXO QRUPHORU GH FRQGXLW FDUH VH DSOLFDX vQ UHOD LLOH GLQWUH
RDPHQLVXEIRUPDGUHSWXOXL1XPDLDVWIHOVHSRWvQ HOHJHFRQGL LLOHvQFDUHDXDSUXWúL
s-DX GH]YROWDW LQVWLWX LLOH Muridice, modul în care acestea au evoluat de-a lungul a
GHDQL'HDFHHDvQPRGFRQYHQ LRQDOGDU LQkQGVHDPDúLGHUHDOLWDWHDLVWRULF
FRQFUHW PDUHD PDMRULWDWH D URPDQLúWLORU DX SHULRGL]DW GUHSWXO URPDQ vQ WUHL HSRFL
VXFFHVLYH FDUH GXS FXP YRP YHGHD XUPHD] R VXFFHVLXQH ORJLF úL WRWRGDW
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$ GRXD SHULRDG D GUHSWXOXL URPDQ UHVSHFWLY HSRFD FODVLF GXUHD] GH-a
OXQJXOSHULRDGHLSULQFLSDWXOXLGHODvHQSkQODHQDQvQFDUHvQFHSHdomnia
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$ WUHLD SHULRDG D GUHSWXOXL URPDQ UHVSHFWLY HSRFD SRVWFODVLF D GXUDW GH-a
OXQJXOSHULRDGHLGRPLQDQWXOXLGHODDQXOHQSkQODHQ23.

Partea I

IZVOARELE DREPTULUI ROMAN

,&DUDFWHUL]DUHJHQHUDODL]YRDUHORU dreptului roman

3RUQLQG GH OD GHILQL LD úL DQDOL]D WHUPLQRORJLHL SULYLQG L]YRDUHOH GH GUHSW
URPDQLúWLLDXDMXQVODFRQFOX]LDXQDQLPFDFHVWHDSUH]LQWPDLPXOWHDFFHS LXQL24,
UHVSHFWLYFHDvQVHQVPDWHULDOFHDvQVHQVGRFXPHQWDUúLvQILQHFHDvQVHns formal,
care de fapt va constitui obiectul nostru de cercetare.

II. Obiceiul

2ELFHLXO VDX FXWXPD FRQVWLWXLH FHO PDL YHFKL L]YRU DO GUHSWXOXL URPDQ úL V-a
IRUPDW vQ SURFHVXO GHVWUPULL VRFLHW LL SUHVWDWDOH25. El a existat în societatea
JHQWLOLFGDUFRQ LQXWXOVXDYHDXQFDUDFWHUPRUDOLDUQXMXULGLF(UDED]DWSHYHFKL
úLSXWHUQLFHWUDGL LLúLDYHDUROXOGHDPHQ LQHRUGLQHDvQFRPXQLWDWH

22
A.E. Giffard, Precis de droit romain, vol. I. Paris, 1946; C.St. Tomulescu, op.cit.,p.25-26; A.
Esmein, Melanges d’histoire du droit et de critique, Paris, p. 1- ( 0ROFX  op. cit., p. 45-46;
Vl.Hanga, op. cit., p. 58.
23
E.Albertario, Da Diocleziano a Giustiniano &RQI ;,9 FHQW 3DQGHWWH  S  úL XUP
24
C.St. Tomulescu, op. cit., p. 36-38; Vl. Hanga, op. cit., p. 63; I.Ceterchi, M. Luburici, Teoria
JHQHUDO  D VWDWXOXL úL GUHSWXOXL %XFXUHúWL  S 
25
9+DQJD 0-DFRW   op. cit., p. 32; A.Piganiol, Essai sur les origines de Rome, Paris, 1917, p. 727-
 ( 0ROFX  op.cit., p.49.
7

III. Legea

/HJHD HVWH vQ JHQHUDO GHILQLW FD R KRWUkUH D SRSRUXOXL FDUH GHYHQHD QRUP
obligatorie26, darHDSRDWHILGHILQLWúLFDRFRQYHQ LHvQWUHGRXSHUVRDQHFXVHQVGH
contract.

,9(GLFWHOHPDJLVWUD LORUGUHSWXOSUHWRULDQ

0DJLVWUD LL DYHDX XQ GUHSW QXPLW ius edicendi vQ YLUWXWHD FUXLD SXWHDX FD OD
LQWUDUHD vQ IXQF LH V HPLW XQ HGLFW DGLF XQ DFW SULQ FDUH vúL IFHDX FXQRVFXW
SRSXOD LHL SURJUDPXO DFWLYLW LL ORU SHQWUX SHULRDGD FkW XUPD V H[HUFLWH DFHDVW
PDJLVWUDWXU /D vQFHSXW HGLFWHOH HUDX URVWLWH vQ ID D SRSRUXOXL DGXQDW FX DFHDVW
ocazie, dar mai târziu au fost scrise pe table de lemn aOEHQXPLWHDOEXPúLDILúDWHvQ
IRUXPSHQWUXDILDGXVHDVWIHOODFXQRúWLQ DWXWXURUFHW HQLORU
&X WUHFHUHD WLPSXOXL GUHSWXO FLYLO úL GUHSWXO SUHWRULDQ V-au apropiat unul de
DOWXOúLGDFODVIkUúLWXOGUHSWXOXLYHFKLúLvQFHSXWXOFODVLFHUDXQHWGLVWLQFWe, în vremea
OXL-XVWLQLDQLQVWLWX LLOHMXULGLFHQRLQXVXQWGHFkWUH]XOWDWXOIX]LXQLLGUHSWXOXLFLYLOFX
cel pretorian, proces care deci începuse cu mult timp înainte de Justinian.

9-XULVSUXGHQ D

-XULVSUXGHQ D HUD úWLLQ D GUHSWXOXL FUHDW GH FWUH MXULVFRQVXO L – iuris


prudentes, iuris consultiSULQLQWHUSUHWDUHDGLVSR]L LLORUQRUPDWLYHFXSULQVHvQOHJL27.

VI. Senatusconsultele

Senatul nu a fost de la început un organ legislativ, ci el a devenit astfel în mod


WUHSWDW SULQ PVXULOH OXDWH GH vPSUD L în perioada de trecere de la principat la
GRPLQDW $FHVWD D DWULEXLW VHQDWXOXL SXWHUL OHJLVODWLYH FDUH FX PXOW vQDLQWH IXVHVHU
H[HUFLWDWHGHDGXQULOHSRSRUXOXL

9,,&RQVWLWX LLOHLPSHULDOH

ÌQFHSkQG FX vPSUDWXO +DGULDQXV FRQVWLWX LLOH LPSHULDOH – constitutiones


principis au dobândit putere obligatorie28, devenind astfel izvoare de drept.
&RQVWLWX LLOH LPSHULDOH DX IRVW GH SDWUX FDWHJRULL edicta, mandata, decreta úL
rescripta.

VIII. Codificarea dreptului roman

ÌQFHUFULOHGHFRGLILFDUHvQDLQWHGH-ustinian

7HQGLQ D FWUH VLVWHPDWL]DUH D H[LVWDW SHUPDQHQW SkQ OD -XVWLQLDQ SULQ


vQFHUFUL UHSHWDWH vQWUHSULQVH SH GH R SDUWH GH FWUH SHUVRDQH SDUWLFXODUH LDU SH GH

26
Gaius, 1.3.; Justinian, 9.124.
27
( 0ROFX  op. cit., p. 55.
28
P. de Francisci, Bulletino dell’Instituto de diritto romano „Vitorio Scioloja”, Milano, 34, 1925, p. 32.
8

DOWD GH FWUH vQVXúL VWDWXO URPDQ29 $FHVWH FRQGLILFUL DX IRVW Codex Gregorianus,
Codex HermogenianusúLCodex Theodosianus.

/HJLVOD LDOXL-XVWLQLDQ

2SHUD OHJLVODWLY D OXL -XVWLQLDQ HVWH IRUPDW GLQ SDWUX OXFUUL IXQGDPHQWDOH
respectiv Codex, Digesta, InstitutionesúLNovelae.

Partea a II-a

352&('85$&,9,/Ì1'5(378/520$1

I.&DUDFWHUL]DUHJHQHUDODSURFHGXULLFLYLOHURPDQH

3URFHGXUD FLYLO URPDQ FXSULQGH WRWDOLWDWHD QRUPHORU FDUH UHJOHPHQWHD]


GHVIúXUDUHD SURFHVHORU FX SULYLUH OD OLEHUWDWH SURSULHWDWH PRúWHQLUH úL YDORULILFDUHD
GUHSWXULORUGHFUHDQ 30.
Procedura legisac LXQLORU úL SURFHGXUD IRUPXODU VH FDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQ
GHVIúXUDUHD SURFHVXOXL vQ GRX HWDSH UHVSHFWLY in iure – vQ ID D PDJLVWUDWXOXL úL in
iudicio –vQID DMXGHFWRUXOXL31.
3URFHGXUD H[WUDRUGLQDU VH GHRVHEHD SH SULPHOH GRX SULQ OLSVD FHORU GRX
etape,GHVIúXUDUHDSURFHVXOXLIFkQGX-VHvQID DXQHLVLQJXUHSHUVRDQH

,,3URFHGXUDOHJLVDF LXQLORU/(*,6$&7,21(6

1. Caractere generale

Gaius32 H[SOLF DVWIHO WHUPHQXO GH legis actiones RULFH DF LXQH FD PLMORF GH
valorificare a unui drept subiectiv, se vQWHPHLD]SHOHJH
'H IDSW HUDX FLQFL OHJLVDF LXQL vQ FHOH GLQ XUP vPSU LWH vQ GRX FDWHJRULL
XQD HUD D FHORU GH MXGHFDW IRUPDW GLQ sacramentum, iudicis arbitrive postulatio úL
condictio,LDUFHDODOWFDWHJRULHHUDIRUPDWGLQOHJLVDF LXQLOHGHH[HFutare, respectiv
pignoris capio úL manus iniectio. $FHDVWD GHRDUHFH VHQWLQ D RE LQXW SULQ
OHJLVDF LXQLOHGHMXGHFDWQXHUDvQYHVWLWFXIRU H[HFXWRULHDFHDVWDILLQGRE LQXWFX
DMXWRUXOXQRUOHJLVDF LXQLVSHFLILFHFUHDWHvQPRGH[SUHVvQDFHVWVFRS
/HJLVDF LXQLOH DX DYXW WUHL FDUDFWHUH FH DX LOXVWUDW SHUIHFW FRQGL LLOH vQ FDUH
DFHVWHDDXOXDWQDúWHUHUHVSHFWLYFDUDFWHUXOOHJDOIRUPDOLVWúLMXGLFLDU 33.

2. Procedura in iure

ÌQ DFHDVW HWDS SURFHVXO GHEXWHD] FX FLWDUHD SkUkWXOXL –reus vQ ID D
magistratului folosindu-VHGHFWUHUHFODPDQW–actor, petitor34GXSFD]in ius vocatio,
vadimonium extra judiciareúLcondictio35.
29
J.Gaudement, Iura, Napoli, 5, 1950, p.233. Codex Gregorianus, Codex Hermagenianus, Codex
Theodosianus.
30
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 59.
31
P.Fr. Girard, Manuel elementaire de droit romain, Paris, p. 1027.
32
Gaius, 4, 11.
33
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p.62; Cicero, Pro Murena, 12, 16; Gaius, 4, 11; P.Fr.Girard, Texte de

droit romain, Paris, 1937, p.29.


34
D. “, 11, 5; D. 2, 3, 1, 3.
9

ÌQID DPDJLVWUDWXOXLUHFODPDQWXOURVWLQGIRUPXOHVROHPQHvúLDUWDSUHWHQ LLOH


ID GHSkUkW$FHVWDSXWHDVUHDF LRQH]HSULQWUHLSR]L LL36:
–VUHFXQRDVFSUHWHQ LLOHUHFODPDQWXOXLSULQ– confesio in iure37úLDWXQFLHUD
asimilat cu cel condamnat, procesul oprindu-se aici, nemaitrecându-se în etapa a doua.
–VQHJHSUHWHQ LLOHUHFODPDQWXOXLGDUVQXVHDSHUH- indefensio38úLVQX-úL
GHD FRQFXUVXO OD UHDOL]DUHD OHJLVOD LXQLL ÌQ DFHVW FD] GH DVHPHQHD HUD DVLPLODW
FRQGDPQDWXOXLúLSURFHVXOVHRSUHDDLFLQHWUHFkQGX-se în etapa a doua.
– V QHJH SUHWHQ LLOH UHFODPDQWXOXL – infinitiatio úL V-úL GHD FRQFXUVXO OD
GHVIúXUDUHDSrocesului. În acest caz, procesul trecea în etapa a doua39úLVHILQDOL]DvQ
FHOHGLQXUPFXSURQXQ DUHDXQHLVHQWLQ H

3. Litis contestatio

ÌQSURFHGXUDOHJLVDF LXQLORUlitis contestatio însemna de fapt luarea de martori,


SULQFDUHVHH[SULPGRULQ DSU LORUGHDVHMXGHFDúLGHDRE LQHvQFHOHGLQXUPR
VHQWLQ 40ILHGHFRQGDPQDUHGHFWUHUHFODPDQWILHGHDEVROYLUHGHFWUHSkUkW

0LMORDFHGHVROX LRQDUHDOLWLJLLORUvQWHPHLDWHSHimperium41

&RPSHWHQ DPDJLVWUD LORUHUDGHVHPQDWSULQWHUPHQii jurisdictioúLimperium.


Imperium FRQVWLWXLD SXWHUHD GH FRPDQG D PDJLVWUDWXOXL42. În sens larg
imperiumFXSULQGHDúLjurisdictio43.

5. Procedura in iudicio

'XS FH SU LOH DX WUHFXW SULQ PRPHQWXO OXL litis contestatio – luarea de
martori, ele ajung înID DMXGHFWRUXOXLDGRXDHWDSDSURFHVXOXLFLYLOXQGHVHDSOLF
SULQFLSLXO RUDOLW LL úL FRQWUDGLFWRULDOLW LL )LHFDUH SDUWH vúL VXV LQH SXQFWXO GH YHGHUH
SHED]DPDWHULDOXOXLSUREDWRUFRQVWkQGvQPDUWRULúLvQVFULVXUL

2UJDQL]DUHDLQVWDQ HORUGHMXGHFDW

-XGHFWRUXOSXWHDIRUPDRLQVWDQ XQLFFkQGHUDVLQJXUFDMXGHFWRUXQLF–
judex unus, fie putea fi arbitru – arbiter 'HRVHELUHD GLQWUH MXGHFWRU úL DUELWUX HUD
DFHHD F MXGHFWRUXO MXGHFD SULFLQLOH PDL GLILFLOH LDU DUELWUXO SH FHOH FDUH Sriveau
QHvQ HOHJHULOH GLQWUH UXGH VDX YHFLQL FD GH H[HPSOX LHúLULOH GLQ LQGLYL]LXQH VDX
KRWUQLFLULOH44.
3URFHVHOH SXWHDX IL MXGHFDWH úL GH MXGHFWRUL PXOWLSOL FDUH IRUPDX DQXPLWH
tribunale. Acestea erau fie nepermanente, fie permanente.

35
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op. cit., p. 63.
36
Ibidem.
37
A.E. Giffard, La confessio „in iure”, 1900; D. 42. 2. 6pr.
38
D. 2, 3, 1, 1; 6, 1, 80.
39
D. 42. 2.1.
40
V. Arangio – Ruiz, op.cit., p. 112
41
D. 1. 162,pr.
42
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 64.
43
D. 1. 16. 2.pr.
44
G. Dumitriu, Curs de drept roman %XFXUHúWL  S 
10

Tribunalele nepermanente erau formate dintr-XQ QXPU LPSDU GH MXGHFWRUL


QXPL L– recuperatoresúLMXGHFDXSURFHVHOHGLQWUHFHW HQLúLSHUHJULQL45.

/HJLVDF LXQLOH

D/HJLVDF LXQLOHGHMXGHFDW

– Sacramentum – SURFHGXUD SULQ MXUPkQW HUD DF LXQHD OHJLL SULQ FDUH Ve


MXGHFDXSURFHVHOHFXSULYLUHODSURSULHW LúLODFUHDQ HDYkQGFDRELHFWDQXPLWHVXPH
de bani sau anumite lucruri46.
– Judicis arbitrive postulatio consta într-RFHUHUHDGUHVDWPDJLVWUDWXOXLSHQWUX
FDDFHVWDVGHVHPQH]HXQMXGHFWRUVDXDUELWUX
– Legisactio per condictionem sau condictio a constituit o simplificare a lui
sacramentum în personam úL VH DSOLFD vQ GRX VLWXD LL UHVSHFWLY vQ PDWHULH GHcerta
pecunia – R VXP GH EDQL GHWHUPLQDW úL vQ PDWHULH GH alia certa res – un alt lucru
determinat47.

b/HJLVDF LXQLOHGHH[HFXWDUH
– Manus injectio – SXQHUHD PkLQLL HUD R OHJLVDF LXQH FH QX VH SXWHD LQWHQWD
GHFkWvQED]DXQHLVHQWLQ HMXGHFWRUHúWLSULYLQGRVXPGHEDQL
– Pignoris capio – luarea de gaj48 HUD FRQVLGHUDW OHJLVDF LXQH FX WRDWH F vL
lipsea FDUDFWHUXO MXGLFLDU QHILLQG VXEVHFYHQW XQXL SURFHV QHSUHVXSXQkQG SUH]HQ D
PDJLVWUDWXOXL úL QLFL FKLDU D GHELWRUXOXL49 &UHGLWRUXO GXS URVWLUHD XQRU IRUPXOH
VROHPQHSXWHDvQSUH]HQ DPDUWRULORUVLDXQEXQGLQSDWULPRQLXOGHELWRUXOXL'DF
acesta GLQ XUP QX SOWHD HO QX SXWHD V-O vQVWULQH]H GDU vQ VFKLPE vO SXWHD
distruge50.
1. Origine

2ULJLQHD SURFHGXULL IRUPXODUH VH JVHúWH vQ JHQHUH vQ FDGUXO vQVXúL DO
OHJLVDF LXQLORU FDUH vQFHSXVHU VSUH VIkUúLWXO HSRFLL YHFKL V GHYLQ RGLRDVH51 'XS
U]ERDLHOH SXQLFH VSUH VIkUúLWXO UHSXEOLFLL VH SURGXF SURIXQGH WUDQVIRUPUL
HFRQRPLFHúLVRFLDOHvQYLD DVWDWXOXLURPDQ

2. Procedura in iure

&LWDUHD OD SURFHV VH UHDOL]D SULQ DFHOHDúL SURFHGHH FXQRVFXWH GLQ SURFHGXUD
OHJLVDF LXQLORUQXPDLFvQFDGUXOQoii proceduri aceasta s-DSHUIHF LRQDW
ÌQ ID D PDJLVWUDWXOXL – in iure SU LOH vúL H[SULPDX vQ OLPEDMXO FRWLGLDQ
SUHWHQ LLOH GXS FXP FUHGHDX GH FXYLLQ  IU D UHFXUJH OD IRUPXOH VDFUDPHQWDOH úL

45
Cicero, Pro Tullio, 3.7.
46
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op. cit., p.67.
47
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op. cit., pag. 69.
48
Ibidem.
49
Gaius, 4. 27.
50
Cicero, De not, 3.1.4.
51
Gaius, 4.30.
11

ritualiste. Reclamantul expunea astfel oral obiectul cererii sale, indicând formula pe
care o solicita52.
/DIHOFDúLODSURFHGXUDDQWHULRDUúLvQFD]XODFHVWHLDSkUkWXOSXWHDDYHDWUHL
SR]L LLID GHSUHWHQ LLOHUHFODPDQWXOXL

)RUPXODúLSU LOHIRUPXOHL

)RUPXOD FRQVWLWXLD XQ PLF SURJUDP GH MXGHFDW SULQ FDUH SUHWRUXO DUWD
MXGHFWRUXOXLFXPVVROX LRQH]HOLWLJLXO53.
3U LOH SULQFLSDOH DOH IRUPXOHL HUDX intentio, demonstratio, adiudicatio úL
condemnatio.

&ODVLILFDUHDDF LXQLORU

3ULQ DF LXQH – actio VH vQ HOHJHD XQ PLMORF SURFHGXUDO OD vQGHPkQD XQHL
pHUVRDQHFUHLDLV-DvQFOFDWXQGUHSWVXELHFWLYSHQWUXYDORULILFDUHDDFHVWXLD
$F LXQLOHúLIRUPXOHOHDFHVWRUDVHJVHDXvQVFULVHvQHGLFWXOSUHWRUXOXL$FHVWHD
erau:
–$F LXQLUHDOHúLDF LXQLSHUVRQDOH54$FHDVWvPSU LUHVHUHJVHúWHvQ/HJHD
celor XI,7DEOHúLHVWHFHDPDLLPSRUWDQW– sumumo divisio55.
–$F LXQLGHGUHSWVWULFWúLDF LXQLGHEXQFUHGLQ &ULWHULXOGLVWLQF LHLFHORU
GRXFDWHJRULLGHDF LXQLHUDSXWHUHDGHDSUHFLHUHDMXGHFWRUXOXLSULYLQGVROX LRQDUHD
acestora56.

–$F LXQLFLYLOHúLDF LXQLKRQRUDULLVDXSUHWRULHQH57.


–$F LXQLSULYDWHúLDF LXQLSRSXODUH
–$F LXQLGLUHFWHúLDF LXQLXWLOH
–$F LXQLSHQDOHúLDF LXQLSHUVHFXWRULL58.
–$F LXQLDUELWUDULL59.

5. Litis contestatio

În cadrul procedurii formulare, litis contestatio consta în remiterea unei copii


GHSHIRUPXORULGLFWDUHDHLGHFWUHUHFODPDQWSkUkWXOXL60.
Litis contestatio SURGXFHD vQ SURFHGXUD IRUPXODU WUHL HIHFWH FH SUH]HQWDX R
GHRVHELW LPSRUWDQ  SULQ FRQVHFLQ HOH MXULGLFH SH FDUH OH SURGXFHD $FHVWHD HUDX
efectul exWLQFWLYHIHFWXOFUHDWRUVDXQRYDWRUúLHIHFWXOIL[DWRU

6. Procedura in iudicio

'XS FH PDJLVWUDWXO UHPLWHD FRSLL GH SH IRUPXO UHFODPDQWXOXL úL DFHVWD OD
rându-LSkUkWXOXLFDXQXOWLPDFWDOSULPHLHWDSHSURFHVXOWUHFHDvQDGRXDHWDSvQ
52
D., 39, 2, 48; 3, 1, 1, 2.
53
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 72.
54
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 78.
55
Inst., 4. 6. 1.
56
B. Biondi, Iudicia bonae fidei, 1, 1920.
57
Gaius, 4. 34.
58
Gaius, 4.6.
59
Inst. 4. 6. 31; D. 6. 1. 68.
60
Gaius, 4. 90.
12

ID D MXGHFWRUXOXL $FWLYLWDWHD ORU HUD VLPLODU vQ JHQHUDO FX FHD GLQ SURFHGXUD
OHJLVDF LXQLORU5HFODPDQWXOvúLH[SXQHDRUDOSUHWHQ LLOHSkUkWXOvúLIRUPXODDSUULOH
DPELL SUH]HQWkQG SUREH vQ VXV LQHUHD DILUPD LLORU ORU SXWkQGILDVLVWD LúLGHDYRFD L
-XGHFWRUXO SHUVRDQ SULYDW FRQGXFHD GH]EDWHULOH úL vQ FHOH GLQ XUP SURQXQ D R
VHQWLQ FHSXWHDILGHFRQGDPQDUHODSODWDXQHLVXPHGHEDQLVDXGHDEVROYLUH

-XGHFDUHD SURFHVXOXL VH IFHD vQ SXEOLF vQWU-R ]L IDVW úL QXPDL vQ SUH]HQ D
SU LORU'DFXQDGLQSU LQXVHSUH]HQWDODSURFHVFHDODOWFkúWLJDSURFHVXO61.
-XFWRUXOHUDÄVFODYXO´IRUPXOHLvQVHQVXOFHOWUHEXLDVRUHVSHFWHvQWRFPDL
raportându-se permanent la momentul întocmirii ei, respectiv la litis contestatio. De
aceea, lui nu îi era permisV LQVHDPGHIDSWHOHFDUHDXLQWHUYHQLWXOWHULRUOXLOLWLV
contestatio.
(IHFWHOHVHQWLQ HL

ÌQ XUPD SURQXQ ULL VHQWLQ HL MXGHFWRUXO UHGHYLQH FHHD FH HUD vQDLQWH R
SHUVRDQSDUWLFXODU62VHQWLQ DGDWGHDFHDVWDDYkQGHIHFWHGLIHULWHGXSFXPDFeasta
HUDRVHQWLQ GHFRQGDPQDUHVDXRVHQWLQ GHDEVROYLUH
6HQWLQ DGHFRQGDPQDUHDYHDXQHIHFWGXEOXUHVSHFWLYSUH]HQWDRIRU MXULGLF
úLRIRU H[HFXWRULH
6HQWLQ DGHDEVROYLUHQXDYHDGHFkWXQHIHFWXQLFUHVSHFWLYIRU DMXULGLF

8. ReprezenWDUHDvQMXVWL LH

ÌQHSRFDFODVLFGDWRULWSURIXQGHORUVFKLPEULHFRQRPLFHúLVRFLDOHSUDFWLFD
D FHUXW DGPLWHUHD UHSUH]HQWULL FDUH V-D IFXW WUHSWDW GH OD UHSUH]HQWDUHD LPSHUIHFW
FWUHFHDSHUIHFW

,93URFHGXUDH[WUDRUGLQDU&2*1,7,2(;75$25'INARIA

&RPSDUD LHFXFHOHODOWHSURFHGXUL

ÌQ FDGUXO SURFHGXULL H[WUDRUGLQDUH GLVSDUH DFHDVW FDUDFWHULVWLF FH FRQVWD vQ
GLYL]DUHDSURFHVXOXLvQFHOHGRXHWDSH'HFLDLFLSURFHVXOVHGHVIúRDUvQID DXQHL
VLQJXUHLQVWDQ HGHODvQFHSXWúLSkQODGDUHDKRWUkULLLQVWDQ UHSUH]HQWDWGHXQDúL
DFHHDúL SHUVRDQ PDJLVWUDWXO VDX vQDOWXO IXQF LRQDU DGLF PDJLVWUDWXO MXGHFWRU
)RUPXODGLVSDUHGHRDUHFHDFHVWDQXSXWHDV-úLWULPLWIRUPXODOXLvQVXúL63.

2UJDQL]DUHDLQVWDQ HORU64

)XQF LRQDULLMXGHFWRUHúWLIDFSDUWHGLQLHUDUKLDIXQF LRQDULORUDGPLQLVWUDWLYL


ÌQ YkUIXO DFHVWHL LHUDUKLL DGPLQLVWUDWLYH VH DIOD vPSUDWXO FDUH HUD úL
MXGHFWRUXO VXSUHP 'XS HO SH R WUHDSW LQIHULRDU XUPDX SUHIHF LL SUHWRULXOXL –
praefecti praetorio din cele patru prefecturi ale Imperiului.

61
XII. T., 2, 2.
62
D., 42, 1, 55.
63
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p.114.
64
VI Hanga, M. Jacotã, op. cit., p. 99.
13

Partea a III-a

PERSOANE

,&DUDFWHUL]DUHJHQHUDODVXSUDSHUVRDQHLvQGUHSWXOURPDQ

ÌQFHSXWXOúLvQFHWDUHDFDSDFLW LL

5HJXOD FRQVW vQ FDSDFLWDWHD VDX SHUVRQDOLWDWHD vQFHSHD RGDW FX QDúWHUHD úL
vQFHWD RGDW FX PRDUWHD SHUVRDQHL H[FHS LH IFkQGX-VH QXPDL FX RFD]LD DSOLFULL D
GRXSULQFLSLLLPSXVHGHSUDFWLF
3ULPXO HUD ÄFRSLOXO FRQFHSXW HUD FRQVLGHUDW FD úL QVFXW RUL GH FkWH RUL HUD
vorba de interesele sale” – infans conceptus pro nato habetur quotiens de comodis
eius agitur65ÌQED]DDFHVWXLSULQFLSLXGHH[HPSOXFRSLOXOQVFXWGXSPRDUWHDWDWOXL
avea dreptul la succesiune.
$O GRLOHD SULQFLSLX HUD ÄVXFFHVLXQHD LDFHQW YDFDQW VXV LQH SHUVRDQD
defunctului” – hereditas iacens sustinet personam defuncti66.

2. ElHPHQWHOHFDSDFLW LLMXULGLFH

Am amintit deja despre status-XOSHFDUHRSHUVRDQWUHEXLDV-l posede pentru


DDYHDFDSDFLWDWHGHSOLQGHGUHSWVWDWXVDOFWXLWGLQWUHLHOHPHQWH67 care copnstituiau
FRQ LQXWXOSHUVRQDOLW LLVDXFDSDFLW LLMXULGLFHDVWIHl: status libertatis, status civitatis,
status familiae.

II. Status libertatis

1. Scavii

a. Originile slcaviei

2ULJLQLOH VFODYLHL FRQVWDX vQ QDúWHUH SH GH R SDUWH úL HYHQLPHQWH SRVWHULRDUH
QDúWHULLSHGHDOWD
1DúWHUHD68 constituia evenimentul originar al sclaviei conform principiului
ÄFRSLOXO QVFXW vQ DIDUD FVWRULHL GREkQGHD FRQGL LD PDPHL´ 'HRDUHFH VFODYD HUD
FRQVLGHUDW F QúWHD vQWRWGHDXQD vQ DIDUD FVWRULHL FRSLOXO DFHVWHLD GHYHQHD VFODY
FKLDUGDFWDWOIXVHVHRPOLEHU

65
Paul – D.1.5.7.
66
Ulpian, D.41. 1. 4.
67
Supra, p. 114.
68
Gius, I. 82; Inst., 1, 3.4.
14

b. Mijloacele juridice prin care sclavul putea participa


vQIDSWODYLD DMXULGLF

– Peculiu sclavului, constituia „patrimoniul sclavului”, dar era un patrimoniu


de fapt –SHFXOLXPFFLGHGUHSWGRPLQXVHUDSURSULHWDUXODFHVWXLD
Testamenti factio pasiva – consta în acHHD F VFODYXO SXWHD IL LQVWLWXLW FD
PRúWHQLWRU GDF WRWRGDW L VH DFRUGD úL OLEHUWDWHD69 SHQWUX F QXPDL DVWIHO GRPLQXV
SXWHD V DLE XQ PRúWHQLWRU QHFHVDU SH GH R SDUWH LDU GDF DFHVWD HUD LQVROYDELO
EXQXULOHPRúWHQLWHHUDXYkQGXWHSHQXPHOHVFODYXOXLFare devenea infam.
– Cognatio servilis70. Am amintit anterior despre contubernium –FVWRULDFH
FRQVWDvQXQLXQHDGHIDSWGLQWUHXQVFODYúLRVFODYIUQLFLXQHIHFWMXULGLF7RWXúL
HSRFDGUHSWXOXLFODVLFVXELQIOXHQ DFUHúWLQLVPXOXLDIRVWUHFXQRVFXWrudenia de sânge
GLQWUH VFODYL VXE QXPHOH GH FRJQDWLR VHUYLOLV vQ ED]D FUHLD VFODYLL QX VH SXWHDX
FVWRULvQWUHHLGDFHUDXUXGHGHVkQJHGHJUDGPDLDSURSLDW

2. Oameni liberi

a. Oameni liberi ingeniu71

Oamenii liberi ingenui constituiau categoria de persoane care s-DX QVFXW


OLEHUL/DUkQGXOORUDFHúWLDSXWHDXILGHPDLPXOWHIHOXULGXSFXPXUPHD]FHW HQLL
ODWLQLLSHUHJULQLLRDPHQLLOLEHULDIOD LvQVWDUHDGHVHPLVFODYLHúLFRORQLL

E2DPHQLOLEHULGH]UREL L
2DPHQLL OLEHUL GH]UREL L FRQVWLWXLDX DFHD FDWHJRULH GH SHUVRDQH IRúWL VFODYL
HOLEHUD LGHVWSkQLLORUSULQGH]URELUHQXPL LOLEHU L

III. Status civitatis

Status civitatisVDXFRQGL LDGHDILFHW HDQHUDDOGRLOHDHOHPHQWDOFDSDFLW LL


MXULGLFH URPDQH DVXSUD FUXLD YRP SXQH DFFHQWXO SHQWUX F FHW HQLL IRUPDX DFHD
FDWHJRULHGHSHUVRDQHFXRFRQGL LHMXULGLFVXSHULRDU
&HW HQLL URPDQL – civis romani erau singurii care puteau beneficia de toate
drepturile72FLYLOHúLSROLWLFH
Drepturile civile erau: ius comercii, ius conubiiúL ius militiae.
Drepturile politice erau: ius sufragiiúLius honorum.

IV. Status familiae

)DPLOLDURPDQ
În dreptul roman, cuvântul familia DYHD PDL PXOWH DFFHS LXQL UHVSHFWLY ILH
WRWDOLWDWHD VFODYLORU DIOD L vQ SURSULHWDWHD FXLYD ILH XQ JUXS GH SHUsoane aflate sub
DFHHDúL SXWHUH ILH WRWDOLWDWHD EXQXULORU úL SHUVRDQHORU DIODWH VXE SXWHUHD OXL SDWHU
familia.
a. Puterea lui pater familias asupra persoanelor:

69
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p. 207.
70
G. Dumitrescu, op. cit., p. 230
71
Cicero, Brutus, 75. 261.
72
Ulpian, Reg., 19.5.
15

Patria potestas$FHDVWSXWHUHVHH[HUFLWDDVXSUDGHVFHQGHQ LORUúLHUDXQDGLQ


cele mai importante puteri ale lui pater familias în cadrul familiei romane73.
3XWHUHDPDULWDOÌQGUHSWXOHYROXDWGDUWRWvQHSRFDYHFKHSXWHUHDPDULWDOD
preluat numele fostei puteri unice manus, schimbându-úL vQV FRQ LQXWXO VHPDQWLF vQ
VHQVXO F HD GHVHPQD DFXP R SXWHUH VSHFLILF GLIHULW GH FHD LQL LDO UHVSHFWLY
SXWHUHD VR XOXL DVXSUD VR LHL vQ FDGUXO FVWRULHL QXPLW FX PDQXV DGLF FX SXWHUHD
EUEDWXOXLDVXSUDIHPHLL
Mancipio $FHDVW SXWHUH VH H[HUFLWD DVXSUD SHUVRDQHORU FXPSUDWH SULQ
mancipatio ce consWLWXLD XQ PRG RULJLQDU GH UHDOL]DUH D RSHUD LXQLL MXULGLFH GH
vânzare74 SULQvQGHSOLQLUHDXQRUIRUPHVROHPQHFHFRQVWDXvQH[LVWHQ DXQRUFRQGL LL
IUGHFDUHQXHUDSRVLELOUHFXQRDúWHUHDDFWXOXL

b. Puterea lui pater familias asupra bunurilor

Dominica potestas $FHDVWD HUD SXWHUHD DVXSUD VFODYLORU vPEUFDW vQ KDLQD
GUHSWXOXLGHSURSULHWDWHvQYLUWXWHDIDSWXOXLFVFODYXOHUDDVLPLODWFXXQOXFUX– res.
DominiumHUDSXWHUHDH[HUFLWDWGHVWSkQ– dominus asupra tuturor celorlalte
bunuri existente în cadrul familiei romane.
– persoane sui iurisúLSHUVRDQHalieni iuris.7HUPHQXOGHSHUVRDQsui iuris era
vQWUHEXLQ DWSHQWUXDGHVHPQDSHDFHOFHW HDQFDUHDYHDFDOLWDWHDGHpater familias.
7HUPHQXO GH SHUVRDQ alieni iuris desemna pe acela care se afla sub puterea
lui pater familias.
2. 3XWHUHDSULQWHDVF.
$FHDVW SXWHUH SXUWD QXPHOH GH SDWULD SRWHVWDV úL HUD XQD GLQ FHOH PDL
importante puteri ale lui pater familias în cadrul familiei romane.
&UHDUHD SXWHULL SULQWHúWL Patria potestas SXWHD IL FUHDW ILH SH FDOH QDWXUDO
SULQ FVWRULH úL QDúWHUH ILH SH FDOH DUWLILFLDO SULQ GRX PRGXUL GLIHULWH UHVSHFWLY
DGRS LXQHDúLOHJLWLPDUHD
,HúLUHDGHVXESXWHUHDSULQWHDVF
a. Moartea lui pater familias
E3LHUGHUHDXQXLHOHPHQWDOFDSDFLW LL
c. Moartea fiului de familie
d. Postliminium
e. Emanciparea

3. &VWRULDURPDQ

&VWRULD HUD R XQLXQH vQWUH EUEDW úL IHPHLH R DVRFLHUH SHQWUXWRDWYLD DR
vPSUWúLUH D GUHSWXOXL FLYLOúLUHOLJLRV– nuptiae sunt comunicatio maris et feminae,
consortium omnis vitae, divini et humani iuris comunication75HUDXQLXQHDEUEDWXOXL
úLDIHPHLLFHLPSOLFDRYLD FRPXQ– nuptia sive matrimonium este vire et muliers
conjunctio, individuam consuetudinem vitae continens76.

73
C. St. Tomulescu, op. cit., 1973, p. 145.
74
E. 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op. cit., p. 67.
75
Modestim, D.23, 2, 1.
76
Inst. I. 1, 91.
16

D&RQGL LLGHIRUP77
$FHVWHDSULYHDXQXPDLFVWRULD cu manus:
– confarreatio78,FVWRULDVSHFLILFQXPDLSDWULFLHQLORU
– usus79FRQVWvQFRDELWDUHDIHPHLLFXEUEDWXOWLPSGHXQDQGH]LOH
– coemptio80, consta dintr-RPDQFLSD LXQHIFXWGHvQVúLIHPHLHFWUHYLLWRUXO
HLVR 
E&RQGL LLGHIRQG
Sunt acHOHDúL DWkW SHQWUX FVWRULD FX PDQXV FkW úL SHQWUX FVWRULD IU
manus. Astfel:
– conubium (ius conubii), era acel drept recunoscut unei persoane de a încheia
RFVWRULHYDODELOFRQIRUPFXLXVFLYLOH LXVWDHQXSWLDHLXVWXPPDWULPRQLXP 
– vârsta81 admLV SHQWUX FVWRULH HUD VWDELOLW SHQWUX IHWH OD  DQL FkQG VH
FRQVLGHUDFHOHDXGHYHQLWQXELOHDGLFHUDXvQVWDUHVSURFUHH]H5HIHULWRUODELH L
VH IRORVHD VLVWHPXO FHUFHWULL FRUSRUDOH SkQ OD vPSUDWXO -XVWLQLDQ FkQG V-a stabilit
vârsta de 14 ani.

D(IHFWHOHFVWRULHLDVXSUDSHUVRDQHORU
&VWRULD VWDELOHD vQWUH VR L R FRPXQLWDWH GH YLH XLUH VR LL GDWRUkQGX-úL XQXO
altuia fidelitate.
E(IHFWHOHFVWRULHLDVXSUDEXQXULORU
$VWIHO OD FVWRULD FX manus DF LRQHD] UHJLPXO FRPXQLW LL GH EXQuri. În
FVWRULDIUmanusVR LLWULDXvQUHJLPXOVHSDUD LHLGHEXQXUL

$GRS LXQHDDGURJD LXQHDúLOHJLWLPDUHD

$GRS LXQHD HUD XQ PRG DUWLILFLDO GH FUHDUH D SXWHULL SULQWHúWL FH FRQVWD vQ
trecerea unui fiu de familie (alieni iuris) de sub puterea unui pater familias sub
puterea unui alt pater familias82&kQGHUDYRUEDGHRSHUVRDQsui iuris care trecea de
sub puterea lui pater familias sub puterea unui alt pater familias acest act se numea
DGURJD LXQH
$GURJD LXQHD FRQVWLWXLD XQ FD] VSHFLDO GH DGRS LXQH SULQ FDUH XQ pater
familias intra sub puterea unui alt pater familiasvPSUHXQFXWRDWIDPLOLDDGLFFX
WRDWHSHUVRDQHOHúLEXQXULOHVDOH
/HJLWLPDUHDHUDXQPRGDUWLILFLDOGHFUHDUHDSXWHULLSULQWHúWLSULQFDUHFRSLL
QDWXUDOLHUDXDVLPLOD LFHORr legitimi83.

V. Capitis deminutio

3LHUGHUHDFDSDFLW LLMXULGLFH– capitis deminutio.

$P Y]XW FXP FDSDFLWDWHD MXULGLF SXWHD IL vQJUGLW SVWUkQGX-úL WRWXúL
HOHPHQWHOHFRPSRQHQWHGDFvQVXQXOGLQDFHVWHHOHPHQWHHUDSLHUGXWFRQVHFLQ DHUD
77
C.St. Tomulescu, op.cit., 1937, p.143; P.Noailles, Revue historique de droit francais et étranger,
1936, p. 415.
78
Gaius, I. I, 112.
79
Gaius I. I, 111.
80
Ibidem, 113.
81
Ibidem.
82
Gaius, I. I, 111.
83
S. Solazzi, Studia et documenta historuiae et iuris, 21, 1955, p.306.
17

mult mai JUDY FFL QX PDL H[LVWD GUHSW XUPDUH FDSDFLWDWH MXULGLF FRQIRUP
FRQFHS LHLURPDQHúLVHSURGXFHDDVWIHORPRDUWH84MXULGLFFLYLODSHUVRDQHLvQFDX]
QXPLWcapitis deminutio.

9,3HUVRDQDMXULGLF

$OWXUL GH SHUVRDQD IL]LF SXWHD IL VXELHFW DO UDSRUWXOXL MXULGLF úL SHUVRDQD
MXULGLFVDXPRUDO85.
1R LXQHD GH SHUVRDQ MXULGLF V-a format în dreptul roman în mod treptat.
5RPDQLL QX FXQRúWHDX DFHVW WHUPHQ GDU IRORVHDX XQ WHUPHQ HFKLYDOHQW UHVSHFWLY
corpora, universitates, pentru a desemna diversele DVRFLD LL vQ]HVWUDWH FX FDSDFLWDWHD
MXULGLF

VII. Tutela

(VWHXQSURFHGHXMXULGLFFHSURWHMHD]LQFDSDFLW LOHQDWXUDOH

VIII. Curatela

)D  GH WXWHO FDUH SURWHMD LQFDSDFLW LOH ILUHúWL QDWXUDOH FXUDWHOD DYHD GUHSW
VFRSSURWHMDUHDLQFDSDFLW LORUDFFLGHQWDOHFDUHHUDXPXOWPDLQXPHURDVHúLYDULDWHSH
care le aveau nebunii în forma IXULRVXVúLGHPHQWHVSURGLJLLúLPLQRULLGHGHDQL

Partea a IV-a

DREPTURI REALE

Titlul I. BUNURI: IUS RERUM

3ULQQR LXQHDGHEXQVHvQ HOHJHRULFHOXFUXFDUHSRDWHILvQVXúLWGHFLQHYDVXE


forma dreptului de proprietate.

I. Patrimoniul

1. 'HILQL LH

3ULQ SDWULPRQLX VH vQ HOHJH WRWDOLWDWHD GUHSWXULORU GDWRULLORU úL VDUFLQLORU XQHL
SHUVRDQHFDUHVXQWVXVFHSWLELOHGHRYDORDUHSHFXQLDU

84
Gaius, I. 3, 153.
85
6 &RFRú op.cit., p. 11-12.
18

2. Elementele patrimoniului

'LQ GHILQL LD GDW SDWULPRQLXOXL UH]XOW QHW HOHPHQWHOH DFHVWXLD UHVSHFWLY
GUHSWXULOHUHDOHúLGUHSWXULOHSHUVRQDOH

3. Principiile patrimoniului86
–3DWULPRQLXOFRQVWLWXLHHPDQD LDXQHLSHUVRDQH
–2ULFHSHUVRDQDUHvQPRGQHFHVDUXQSDWULmoniu87.
–)LHFDUHSHUVRDQQXDUHGHFkWXQVLQJXUSDWULPRQLX88.

II. Clasificarea bunurilor

-XULVFRQVXOWXO*DLXVGDUúL-XVWLQLDQvQPDQXDOHOHORUQXPLWHLQVWLWXWHIDFR
clasificare a bunurilor res vQ GRX FDWHJRULL UHVSHFWLY OXFUXUL QHSDWULPRQLDOH – rex
extra patrimoniumúLOXFUXULSDWULPRQLDOH– res in patrimonio89.

Titlul II. POSESIUNEA : POSSESSIO

,'HILQL LDSRVHVLXQLL

3RVHVLXQHDHVWHRVWDUHGHIDSWRFURWLWGHGUHSWFDUHFRQVWvQDFWXOPDWHULDO
GHDSVWUDúLDIRORVLXQOXFUX90. Posesiunea este o stare de fapt care produce efecte
juridice.
II. Originea posesiunii

3PkQWXULOH FXFHULWH GH URPDQL HUDX WUDQVIRUPDWH vQ ager publicus úL VWDWXO
URPDQOHUHSDUWL]DVSUHIRORVLQ DSDWULFLHQLORUILHvQPRGJUDWXLWILHFRQWUDXQRUVXPH
de bani. Aceste terenuri purtau numele de possessiones.

III. Elementele posesiunii91

3RVHVLXQHDSUH]LQWGRXHOHPHQWHFRQVWLWXWLYHUHVSHFWLYDQLPXV– elementul
LQWHQ LRQDOúLFRUSXV– elementul material.

,9'REkQGLUHDúLSLHUGHUHDSRVHVLXQLL
1. Dobândirea posesiunii

3RVHVLXQHDVHGREkQGHúWHSULQvQWUXQLUHDFHORUGRXHOHPHQWHDVXSUDDFHOHLDúL
SHUVRDQH $FHDVWD VH UHDOL]HD] SULQ GRX PRGXUL UHVSHFWLY SULQ VLQH vQVXúL úL SULQ
altul.
D'REkQGLUHDSRVHVLXQLLSULQVLQHvQVXúL

86
Ibidem, p. 261.
87
Ibidem.
88
Ibidem; I.M. Anghel, op.cit., p. 77.
89
Gaius, 2, 1.; Inst., 2, 1, pr.
90
D. 41. 2.1.3.
91
C. St. Tomulescu, op. cit.,  S ( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p.111.
19

3ULQ VLQH vQVXúL VH GREkQGHúWH SRVHVLXQHD DVWIHO FkQG VH vQWUXQHVF FHOH GRX
HOHPHQWH DOH SRVHVLXQLL vQDFHODúLWLPSDVXSUDDFHOHLDúLSHUVRDQHSHUVRDQDvQFDX]
WUHEXLHVDLEFDSDFLWDWHMXULGLFvQILQHOXFUXOSRVHGDWWUHEXLHVILHFRUSRUDO92.

b. Dobândirea posesiunii prin altul

Prin altXOSRVHVLXQHDVHGREkQGHúWHILHanimo alieno – cu animus al altuia, fie


corpore alieno – cu corpus al altuia.

2. Pierderea posesiunii

Pentru aceasta era de ajuns pierderea uneia sau ambelor elemente ale
posesiunii. Aceasta se producea similar dobândiriLDVWIHOSULQVLQHvQVXúLúLSULQDOWXO

D3LHUGHUHDSRVHVLXQLLSULQVLQHvQVXúL

$FHDVWD VH SURGXFHD vQ FRQIRUPLWDWH FX WUHL VLWXD LL FDUH SXWHDX V DSDU
respectiv prin pierderea lui corpus, prin pierderea lui animus, úL SULQ SLHUGHUHD
ambelor elemente.
Pierderea lui corpusVHGDWRUHD]IDSWXOXLFSRVHVRUXOQXIDFHVDXQXSRDWHV
IDFDFWHOHPDWHULDOHFHvLUHYLQvQFDOLWDWHDVD'HH[HPSOXGDFXQHLSHUVRDQHvLFDGH
LQHOXOvQIOXYLXDFHVWHLDGLVSUkQGX-i astfel corpusvLYDGLVSDUHúLSRVHVLD
Pierderea lui animus FRQVW vQ PDQLIHVWDUHD YRLQ HL GH D QX PDL SRVHGD vQ
WLPSFHVHVYkUúHVFDFWHPDWHULDOHFRQIRUPSRVHVLXQLL([HPSOXOFRQFOXGHQWvQDFHVW
sens era constitutum possessorium$GLFXQSURSULHWDUDYkQGXWFDVDvQFDUHORFXLDúL
FRQWLQXV-RORFXLDVFvQED]DXQXLFRQWUDFWGHORFD LXQH– închiriere încheiat cu noul
SURSULHWDU(OGHYLQHGHWHQWRUSLHU]kQGSRVHVLXQHDRGDWFXanimus, dar a conservat
corpus.
Pierderea lui corpusúLDOXLanimusVHSURGXFHvQDFHODúLWLPSILHSULQPRDUWHD
posHVRUXOXLILHSULQSUVLUHDOXFUXOXLGHFWUHDFHVWD

b. Pierderea posesiunii prin altul

&HOSULQFDUHVHSURGXFHDSLHUGHUHDSRVHVLXQLLHUDvQWRWGHDXQDGHWHQWRUXOúLvQ
DFHVW VHQV H[LVWDX GRX VLWXD LL UHVSHFWLY ILH PRDUWHD VDX QHEXQLD GHWHQWRUXOXL ILe
YRLQ DFRQWUDUDDFHVWXLD
V. Clasificarea posesiunii93

3RVHVLXQHD VH FODVLILF GXS FULWHULL GLIHULWH UHVSHFWLY GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH DO
SURWHF LHL MXULGLFH SH FDUH R DVLJXU DO HIHFWHORU SURGXVH DO JHQHUDOL]ULL VDX DO
RSR]L LHL FX DGHYUDWD SRVHVLXQH ÌQ DFHVW VHQV DX H[LVWDW XUPWRDUHOH FDWHJRULL GH
posesiune:
2. Possessio ad usucapionem

&RQVWLWXLD SRVHVLXQHD FDUH SUH]HQWD GUHSW HIHFW GREkQGLUHD SURSULHW LL


quiritare prin uzucapiune, deci printr-RIRORVLQ vQGHOXQJDW

92
C. St. Tomulescu, op. cit., 1958, p. 278.
93
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., 1958, p.273;
20

3. Possessio iniusta

ConsWLWXLD SRVHVLXQHD FRQWUDU GUHSWXOXL VDX YLFLRDV – vitiosa ID  GH R


DQXPLW SHUVRDQ DYkQG FD HIHFW ULGLFDUHD SURWHF LHL MXULGLFH ID  GH SHUVRDQD
UHVSHFWLY
4. Possessio iuris

Constituia posesiunea unui drept sau quasi possessio.

5. Possessio naturalis

&RQVWLWXLD GHWHQ LXQHD DGLF SRVHVLXQHD QDWXUDO – naturalis, corporalis –


FRUSRUDO FDUH HUD vQWU-R SR]L LH FX WRWXO FRQWUDU DGHYUDWHL SRVHVLXQL – possessio
civilis,SRVHVLXQHDFLYLO

VI. Efectele posesiunii

a. Interdictele

Posesorul are lD GLVSR]L LH XQ PLMORF GH SURWHF LH vPSRWULYD FHORU FDUH vL
WXOEXUSRVHVLXQHD$FHVWHPLMORDFHVHQXPHVFLQWHUGLFWHOHSRVHVRULL

Interdictele posesorii94

,QWHUGLFWHOH SRVHVRULL FRQVWLWXLDX RUGLQH GDWH GH FWUH SUHWRU vQ VFRSXO
DVLJXUULLXQHLSURWHF LLMuridice a posesiunii.

b. Calitatea de pârât

ÌQ FD]XO XQXL SURFHV vQ UHYHQGLFDUH SRVHVRUXO DUH FDOLWDWHD DYDQWDMRDV GH
pârât95IRORVLQGH[SUHVLDSRVHGSHQWUXFSRVHG96.

F'REkQGLUHDSURSULHW LL

3RVHVLXQHDH[HUFLWDWvQWU-RDQXPLWSHULRDGGHWLPSpoate duce la dobîndirea


SURSULHW LLDVXSUDXQXLOXFUXSULQX]XFDSLXQHGDUQXPDLvQVLWXD LDvQFDUHúLFHOHODOWH
elemente ale acesteia erau îndeplinite97.

Titlul III. PROPRIETATEA: PROPRIETAS

,1R LXQHúLDWULEXWH

Romanii au definit proprietatea astfel: proprietas est ius utendi, fruendi,


abutendi re sua quatenus iuris ratio partitur98 DGLF ÄSURSULHWDWHD HVWH GUHSWXO GH D

94
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., 1958, p. 281- (0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 112.
95
Inst., 4.15.4.
96
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 111.
97

/HJHD FHORU ;,, 7DEHOH SUHYHGHD X]XV FD R FRQGL LH D X]XFDSLXQLL 2UL X]XV vQVHPQD D S VWUD OXFUXO úL

a te folosi de el.
21

IRORVL XQ EXQ GH DL FXOHJH IUXFWHOH úL GH D GLVSXQH GH DWkW FkW SHUPLWH PVXUD
dreptului”.
,,2ULJLQHDúLHYROX LDSURSULHW ii

1. Forme prestatale de proprietate

ÌQ HWDSD GH WUDQ]L LH GH OD FRPXQD SULPLWLY OD VRFLHWDWHD VWDWDO DSDU vQ
FRQGL LLOH SUHILJXUULL QRLL IRUPD LXQL VRFLDOH VFODYDJLVPXO XUPWRDUHOH IRUPH
SULPLWLYH GH SURSULHWDWH SURSULHWDWHD FROHFWLY D JLQ LL SURSULHWDWHD IDPLOLDO DVXSUD
SPkQWXOXL99úLSURSULHWDWHDLQGLYLGXDODVXSUDVFODYLORU100.

D3URSULHWDWHDSXEOLFDVWDWXOXL

$FHDVW IRUP GH SURSULHWDWH VH vPSDUWH vQ GRX FDWHJRULL UHVSHFWLY
SURSULHWDWHDVWDWXOXLDVXSUDSPkQWXOXL– ager publicusúLSUoprietatea statului asupra
sclavilor – servi publicus, ambele aflându-úL RULJLQHD vQ FXFHULULOH GH U]ERL URPDQH
GDWRULWSROLWLFLLGHH[SDQVLXQHSURPRYDWHGHFWUHVWDWXOURPDQ

b. Proprietatea TXLULWDU

Proprietatea TXLULWDU – dominium ex iure quiritium101 constituia privilegiul


H[FOXVLY DFRUGDW FHW HQLORU URPDQL (D VH FUHD vQ PRG VROHPQ VH WUDQVPLWHD SULQ
IRUPH VROHPQH úL GH DVHPHQHD WRW vQ IRUPH VROHPQH HUD VDQF LRQDW vQ ID D
LQVWDQ HL102.

3URSULHWDWHDvQHSRFDFODVLF

ÌQHSRFDFODVLFV-DPHQ Lnut proprietatea TXLULWDUDOWXULGHFDUHDXDSUXW


GDWRULWWUDQVIRUPULORUYLH LLHFRQRPLFHVRFLDOHúLSROLWLFHQRLIRUPHGHSURSULHWDWH
UHVSHFWLYSURSULHWDWHDSUHWRULDQVDXERQLWDUSURSULHWDWHDSURYLQFLDOúLSURSULHWDWHD
SHUHJULQ

4. ProprieWDWHDvQHSRFDSRVWFODVLF

-XVWLQLDQDXQLILFDWSURSULHWDWHDGHVILLQ kQGGLIHUHQ HOHGLQWUHWRDWHIRUPHOHGH


SURSULHWDWHDQWHULRDUHUH]XOWkQGRSURSULHWDWHXQLFQXPLWdominium103.

,,,0RGXULOHGHGREkQGLUHúLGHWUDQVPLWHUHDSURSULHW LL
Mancipatio

La origine, mancipatio FRQVWLWXLD XQ PRG GH FUHDUH D SURSULHW LL104 care era
FRQVLGHUDWGXSFXPDPY]XWRSXWHUHDVXSUDOXFUXOXLmancipi. Mai târziu, ea apare
ca un mod de transmitere a dreptului de proprietate.
98
D. 1,5,4.
99
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p. 11.
100
Ibidem.
101
U. Brasiello, Corso di diritto romano. La proprieta nella sua essenza e nella sua estensione,
Milano, 1952, p. 166.
102
Gaius, 1. 53.
103
C. 7, 31, 1.
104
Ibidem.
22

In iure cesio

In iure cesio –UHFXQRDúWHUHDvQID DPDJLVWUDWXOXLHUDXQPRGGHWUDQVPLWHUHD


SURSULHW LL quiritare FXDMXWRUXOXQXLSURFHVILFWLYSHFDUHGREkQGLWRUXOvOLQWHQWHD]
vPSRWULYDFHOXLFDUHvQVWULQHD]XQOXFUX

Usucapio

Usucapio – FRQVWLWXLD XQ PRG GH GREkQGLUH D SURSULHW LL quiritare prin
exercitarea posesiunii asupra unui lucru un timp îndelungat. Dreptul fostului
SURSULHWDUVHVWLQJHFDRFRQVHFLQ FHGHFXUJHGLQIDSWXOFOXFUXODIRVWX]XFDSDWGH
FWUHRDOWSHUVRDQ
Prescriptio longi temporis

3UHVFULS LDGHWLPSvQGHlungat –FRQVWLWXLDXQPRGGHGREkQGLUHDSURSULHW LL


SULQIRORVLQ DvQGHOXQJDWFHDYHDGUHSWPRGHOX]XFDSLXQHD

Prescriptio longissimi temporis

3UHVFULS LD GH WLPS IRDUWH vQGHOXQJDW – constituia un mod de respingere a


DF LXQLLvQUHYHQGLFDUHDSURSULHtarului, care se realiza prin posesiunea unui lucru într-
XQWLPSIRDUWHvQGHOXQJDWUHVSHFWLYGHDQLLQL LDOúLDSRLGHDQL

Adiudicatio

Adiudicatio – FRQVWLWXLH PRGXO GH GREkQGLUH D SURSULHW LL UHDOL]DW SULQ


DWULEXLUHDGHFWUHMXGHFWRUDFRWHORUSU LGLQEXQXOFRPXQILHFUHLSHUVRDQHFHDYHD
XQ GUHSW vQ DFHVW VHQV $FHDVWD VH SURGXFH vQ FD]XO SURFHVHORU GH vPSU LUH D XQXL
WHUHQFDUHSULQPRúWHQLUHVDXSULQFXPSUDUHDDSDU LQXWPDLPXOWRUSHUVRDQH

Lex

Lex – legea constituie un mod de dobâQGLUH D SURSULHW LL UHDOL]DW GLUHFW VDX
LQGLUHFWSULQDFHVWDFWQRUPDWLY'HH[HPSOX/HJHDFHORU;,,7DEOHUHFXQRúWHDH[SUHV
YDOLGLWDWHD XQHL GLVSR]L LL SULQ FDUH WHVWDWRUXO DWULEXLD FXLYD XQ VFODY LDU FHO FDUH
EHQHILFLDGHGLVSR]L LDWHVWDPHQWDUGHYHQea proprietar de plin drept105.

Ocupatio

Ocupatio –RFXSD LXQHDFRQVWLWXLDXQPRGGHGREkQGLUHDSURSULHW LLUHDOL]DW


SULQOXDUHDvQSRVHVLHDXQXLOXFUXIUVWSkQ– res nullius.

Traditio

Traditio – WUDGL LXQHD HUD XQ PRG YROXQWDU GH GREkQGLUH D SURSULHW LL FDUH
consta în remiterea posesiunii unui lucru. Era un mod de dobândire de iure gentium.

105
I.M. Anghel, op.cit., p. 122
23

Specificatio

Specificatio –FRQVWLWXLHVLWXD LDvQFDUHRSHUVRDQvQFDOLWDWHDGHVSHFLILFDWRU


FRQIHF LRQHD]XQOXFUXQRXGLQWU-XQPDWHULDODSDU LQkQGDOWHi persoane în calitate de
proprietar106.

Accesio

Accesio –DFFHVLXQHDFRQVWLWXLHXQPRGGHGREkQGLUHDSURSULHW LLSULQDFHHD


FXQOXFUXDFFHVRULXVHXQHúWHFXXQOXFUXSULQFLSDO

,96DQF LXQHDGUHSWXOXLGHSURSULHWDWH

1. 6DQF LXQHDSURSULHW LLTXLUitare

Proprietatea TXLULWDU HUD SURWHMDW SULQ DF LXQHD LQ UHYHQGLFDUH – rei


vindicatio. În cazul în care proprietarul a pierdut posesiunea lucrului el putea cu
DMXWRUXO DFHVWHL DF LXQL V FHDU UHVWLWXLUHD OXFUXOXL GRYHGLQGX-úL  GUHSWXO VX GH
proprietate.
2. 6DQF LXQHDSURSULHW LLSUHWRULHQH

6DQF LXQHD SURSULHW LL SUHWRULHQH VH UHDOL]D SULQ DF LXQHD SXEOLFLDQ GXS
numele unui pretor Publicus.

Titlul IV. DREPTURI REALE ASUPRA BUNULUI


ALTUIA: IURE IN RE ALIENA

,6HUYLWX LOH6(59,787(6

1. 1R LXQe, clasificare, caracter

6HUYLWX LOHVXQWVDUFLQLLPSXVHvQIRORVXOXQHLDQXPLWHSHUVRDQHvQFDOLWDWHDGH
proprietar al unui imobil, sau în folosul unei anumite persoane107.

II. Drepturile reale pretoriene

1. Superficio108

Superficio – superficia constituia dreptul acordat unei persoane de a se folosi


GH R FRQVWUXF LH ULGLFDW SH WHUHQXO DOWHL SHUVRDQH SH YHFL VDX SH WHUPHQ OXQJ vQ
VFKLPEXOXQHLVXPHGHEDQLQXPLWsolariumSOWLWDFHVWHLDGLQXUPvQFDOLWDWHDHL
de proprietar109.

106
Inst. 2, 1, 25.
107
C. .St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p.375.
108
Gaius, 43, 18, 2.
109
VI. Hanga, op.cit., p. 307.
24

2. Conductio agri vectigalis

Ius in agro vectigali constituia dreptul asupra lui ager vectigalis110 -SPkQWXO
FRQFHGDW$FHVWGUHSWvúLWUDJHVRUJLQWHDGLQDUHQGDUHDSPkQWXOXLSHWHUPHQOXQJVDX
perpetuu111FHW HQLORUURPDQLVDXXQRUSHUVRDQHMXULGLFHvQVFKLPEXOXQHLUHYHGHQ H
QXPLWvectigal.

3. Emfiteoza

(PILWHR]D FRQVW vQ DUHQGDUHD SH WHUPHQ OXQJ VDX SH YHFL D XQRU SPkQWXUL
LPSHULDOH QHOXFUDWH FX REOLJD LD HPILWHRWXOXL GH D OH FXOWLYD úL GH D SOWL R VXP GH
bani – canon. Deci, emfiteoza ca drept real s-D QVFXW GLQ FRQWUDFWXO GH HPILWHR]
FRQWUDFW VSHFLDO VDQF LRQDW vQ SHULRDGD GRPLQDWXOXL GH FWUH vPSUDWXO=HQRQ$IRVW
XWLOL]DWQXQXPDLGHFWUHvPSUD LGDUúLGHPDULLODWLIXQGLDULSHQWUXGRPHQLLOHORU
UPDVHvQSDUDJLQGDWRULWOLSVHLIRU HLGHPXQF

Partea a V-a

SUCCESIUNILE

,&DUDFWHUL]DUHJHQHUDODVXFFHVLXQLORU

1. 1R LXQH

Succesiunile – hereditas UHSUH]LQW R WUDQVPLVLXQH D SDWULPRQLXOXL FH D


DSDU LQXWXQHLSHUVRDQHFDUHDPXULWVXFFHVRULORUVL
6XFFHVLXQHD vQVHDPQ FRQWLQXDUHD XQHL VLWXD LL MXUidice a unei persoane de
FWUHDOWSHUVRDQ2DVWIHOGHvQORFXLUHDXQHLSHUVRDQHSRDWHDYHDORFvQvQWUHJXOVX
patrimoniu, constituind o succesiune cu titlu universal sau numai într-un raport juridic
constituind o succesiune cu titlu particular112.

II. 6XFFHVLXQHDOHJDO$%,17(67$7

16XFFHVLXQHDOHJDOUHJOHPHQWDWGHGUHSWFLYLO

Succesiunea ab intestat,GXSFXPVHDUWDFKLDUvQ/HJHDFHORU;,,7DEOHVH
deschidea numai în cazul în care decujus –GHIXQFWXOQXDOVDWWHVWDPHQW–úLintestate
moritur RUL WHVWDPHQWXO OVDW D IRVW DWLQV GH R FDX] GH QXOLWDWH ILH KHUHGHOH UHIX]D
VDX GHYHQHD LQFDSDELO V SULPHDVF PRúWHQLUHD $FHDVW OHJH SUHYHGHD XUPWRDUHOH
FDWHJRULLGHPRúWHQLWRULFLYLOLheredes sui113, adgnatus proximus114úLgentiles115.

110
Gaius, 3, 145.
111
Ager vectigalis.
112
N. Corodeanu, 2EOLJD LLOH úL VXFFHVLXQHD &XUV GH GUHSW URPDQ vol. II, 1937-1938, p.343.
113
Gaius, 3.1.
114
Inst., 3,2,1.; 3.2.5.
115
Gaius, 3. 17.
25

2. SuccesiXQHDOHJDOUHJOHPHQWDWGHGUHSWXOSUHWRULDQ

Dreptul pretorian este definit, într-un text celebru cuprins în Digeste, astfel:
dreptul pretorian este acela care a fost stabilit de pretor pentru a veni în ajutorul civil,
pentru a-OFRPSOHWDúLvPEXQW LFonform binelui public.
&WUH VIkUúLWXO UHSXEOLFLL HUDX FXQRVFXWH SDWUX FDWHJRULL GH PRúWHQLWRUL
pretorieni, respectiv: bonorum possessio unde liberi, bonorum possessio unde
legitimi, bonorum possessio unde cognati, bonorum possessio unde vir et uxor.

3. 6XFFHVLXQHDOHJDOUHJOHPHQWDWGHGUHSWXOLPSHULDO

ÌPSUD LL URPDQL ILH GLUHFW SULQ FRQVWLWX LL ILH LQGLUHFW SULQ VHQDWXVFRQVXOWH
DX PHUV PDL GHSDUWH SH GUXPXO WUDVDW GH SUHWRU OUJLQG FHUFXO UXGHORU GH VkQJH116.
Astfel s-D DGRSWDW GLQ LQL LDWLYD DFHVWRUD GRX VHQDWXVFRQVXOWH LPSRUWDQWH SHQWUX
GUHSWXO VXFFHVRUDO URPDQ GH OD DFHD YUHPH UHVSHFWLY VHQDWXVFRQVXOWXO 7HUWXOLDQ úL
senatusconsultul Orfitian.

,,,6XFFHVLXQHDWHVWDPHQWDU

1. Testamentul
D'HILQL LH

Testamentul este un act formal prinFDUHRSHUVRDQQXPLWWHVWDWRULQVWLWXLHvQ


PRGQHFHVDUXQXOVDXPDLPXO LVXFFHVRULFXVFRSXOFDDFHúWLDVDVLJXUHH[HFXWDUHD
YRLQ HLVDOHGXSPRDUWH117.
E(YROX LHúLIRUPHGHWHVWDPHQW

La origine, testatorul instituia ca succesori numai pe herezii VLGDUPDLWkU]LX


DSXWXWLQVWLWXLúLDJQD LPDLvQGHSUWD LúLFKLDUSHUVRDQHVWULQHGHIDPLOLDVD118.
&X WLPSXO WHVWDPHQWXO D VXIHULW R LQWHUHVDQW HYROX LH QX QXPDL vQ FHHD FH
SULYHúWHVROHPQLW LOHVDOHH[WHUQHGDUúLVWUXFWXUDFRQ LQXWXOXL119.
Forme de testament. În vechiul drept roman au existat trei forme de testament,
úL DQXPH testamentum calatis comitiis, testamentum in procinctu, testamentum per
aes et libram.
Dreptul clasic $OWXUL GH WHVWDPHQWXO per aes et libram, FDUH FRQWLQXD V ILH
utilizat, apar noi forme de testament, astfel:
– Testamentul nuncupativ HUD DFWXO FH VH IFHD VXE IRUPD XQHL GHFODUD LL –
nuncupatioSURQXQ DWHFXYRFHWDUHvQSUH]HQ DDúDSWHPDUWRUL120SULQFDUHIDFHVVH
FXQRDVF QXPHOH KHUHGHOXL úL XOWLPHOH DFWH DOH VDOH GH YRLQ  $FHDVW IRUP GH
WHVWDPHQW VH IRORVHD GH FWUH FHL FDUH QX DYHDX WLPS V-úL VFULH WHVWDPHQWXO ILLQG
VXUSULQúLGHDSURSLHUHDPRU LLúLWRWRGDWúLGHFWUHDFHLDFDUHQXúWLDXFDUWH

116
Nov. 117, 5; C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p. 427
117
9O +DQJD 09 -DFRW Drept privat roman %XFXUHúWL  S  ( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD Drept

roman %XFXUHúWL  S 


118
Vl. Hanga, Drept privat roman %XFXUHúWL  S
119
N.Corodeanu, op.cit., p.359.
120
Inst., 2.10.14; S.Solazzi, Studio et documenta historice et iuris, Roma, 13-14, 1948-1949, p.132.
26

– Testamentul pretorian consta într-un înscris care purta sigilLXO D úDSWH


PDUWRULvQFDUHJVLPUHPLQLVFHQ HDOHWHVWDPHQWXOXLper aes et libram121.
– Testamentul militar QX SUHVXSXQH YUHR FRQGL LH GH IRUP (O SXWHDILIFXW
RULFXPFXFRQGL LDGLQSDUWHDWHVWDWRUXOXLVILHFODUH[SULPDW122.
– Dreptul imperial. Mai târziu apar noi forme de testament specifice acestei
SHULRDGHGXSFXPXUPHD]
– Testamentul civil VXE IRUP RUDO PDQLIHVW YRLQ D WHVWDWRUXOXL FODU
H[SULPDWYHUEDOID GHPDUWRULFLQFLODvQFHSXWDSRLúDSWH(UDIRUPDGHWHVWDPHQW
per aes et libram UHGXVODH[SUHVLDFHDPDLVLPSO
– 7HVWDPHQWXO VXE IRUPD VFULV QX VH PDL IFHD SULQ PLMORFXO WDEOHORU GH
FHDU FL VH vQWRFPHD SH SDSLUXV úL SHUJDPHQW 7HVWDPHQWXO VH SXWHD SUH]HQWD
PDUWRULORUvQIúXUDWVXEIRUPDXQXLVXODWkWFkWHVWHVFULVFDSHFH LOHúLQXPHOHORUvQ
subscriptio V ILH SXVH vQ reliqua parte, IU FD HL V YDG FRQ LQXWXO $VWIHO HVWH
cunoscut testamentul tripartit.
– Testamentul olograf UHFXQRVFXW GH 9DOHQWLQLDQ ,,, WUHEXLD V ILH VFULV vQ
WRWDOLWDWHGHWHVWDWRU$FHVWDvQVQXDWUHFXWvQOHJLVOD LDOXL-XVWLQLDQGHFkWFDSDUWDM
de ascendent123.
– Testamentul public – apud acta conditiumDIRVWUHFXQRVFXWGHRFRQVWLWX LH
DOXL7KHRGRVLXúL+RQRULXODHQ

2. &DSDFLWDWHDWHVWDPHQWDU

Testamenti factio GHVHPQHD] FDSDFLWDWHD unei persoane de a-úL IDFH


WHVWDPHQWXOVDXGHDILPDUWRUODvQWRFPLUHDXQXLWHVWDPHQWSUHFXPúLFDSDFLWDWHDGH
a veni la succesiune în calitate de succesor sau legatar124.
ÌQDFHVWFD]GLVWLQJHPWHVWDPHQWLIDFWLRDFWLYDúLWHVWDPHQWLIDFWLRSDVVLYD

3. ,QVWLWXLUHDúLVXEVWLWXLUHDGHPRúWHQLWRUL

&RQGL LLOHGHIRUPDOHLQVWLWXLULL*DLXVVSXQHDFKHUHGLVLQVWLWXWLRHVWFDSXW
HW IXQGDPHQWXP WRLXV WHVWDPHQWL GH XQGH UH]XOW F vQ OLSVD DFHVWHL GLVSR]L LL
testamentul nu este valabil125. Instituirea trebuiHVILHcaput VFULVGHODvQFHSXW vQ
fruntea testamentului.
,QVWLWXLUHDPRúWHQLWRUXOXLWUHEXLDIFXWvQWHUPHQLLPSHUDWLYLúLVROHPQL126 (cu
verbis latinis imperativis et directis DúDFXPRUGRQDúLSRSRUXOvQtestamenti calatis
comitiis.

121
D., 28.1.22.4.
122
Inst., 2.11; Arangio-Ruiz, Bulletino dell’instituto di diritto romano, „Vittorio Scioloja”, Milian, 18,
1906,p.157.
123
Ibidem, p.366.
124
A.E.Giffard, op.cit., p.446; Vl.Hanga, op.cit.,p.321.
125
Gaius, 2.229; Ulpian, Reg. 24.15 (Ante heredis institutionem legarinom potest, quoriam vinn et
potestas testament ab heredis institutione incipit); G. Archi, Rivista internationale di diritto romanae
antico, Napoli, 5, 1954, p.171.
126
Ulpian, Reg. 21.1; Gaius, 2.117.
27

IV. SuFFHVLXQHDGHIHULWFRQWUDWHVWDPHQWXOXL

1. 'H]PRúWHQLUHDQHUHJXODW

'DF pater familias GRUHD V GH]PRúWHQHDVF XQ ILX WUHEXLD V-R IDF vQ PRG
nominal conform formulei Titus filius meus exheres esto127.
)LLFHOHúLQHSR LLWUHEXLDXVILHGH]PRúWHQL LvQEloc, potrivit formulei – ceteri
omnes exheredes sunto128.

2. 'H]PRúWHQLUHDUHJXODW

/DED]DDFHVWHLLQVWLWX LLVWLGHHDGHSURWHF LHDUXGHORUDJQDWLFHúLFRJQDWLFH


LGHHFHDOXDWQDúWHUHGLQFRQGL LLOHPDWHULDOHGHH[LVWHQ GHODVIkUúLWXOUHSXEOLFLL

Partea a VI-a

2%/,*$,,

,&DUDFWHUL]DUHJHQHUDODREOLJD LLORU

1. 2ULJLQHúLHYROX LH

1R LXQHD GH REOLJD LH V-D FULVWDOL]DW vQ XUPD XQHL vQGHOXQJDWH HYROX LL vQ
SURFHVXOGHWUDQ]L LHGHODVRFLHWDWHDJHQHWLFODFHDSROLWLF
Cercetarea originii evoOX LHL REOLJD LHL SUH]LQW XQ PDUH LQWHUHV GDWRULW
urmelor pe care etapele succesive de dezvoltare ale acesteia le-D OVDW DVXSUD XQRU
LQVWLWX LLGHPDLWkU]LXSUHFXPúLDVXSUDWHUPLQRORJLHLMXULGLFHURPDQH129.
&RQFHSWXO GH REOLJD LH D DMXQV vQWU-un stadiu GH HODERUDUH SHUIHFW FDUH
presupune un raport juridic caracterizat printr-un înalt grad de abstractizare. La
RULJLQH vQV REOLJD LD D IRVW R VLPSO OHJWXU PDWHULDO IL]LF OHJWXU FDUH V-a
spiritualizat, s-a juridicizat, într-XQvQGHOXQJDWúLFRPSOH[SURFHVGHHYROX LHDFUHL
UHFRQVWLWXLUHDGDWQDúWHUHODFRQWURYHUVH130.
(YROX LH$SUkQGRGDWFXSULPXOWLSGHFRQWUDFWsponsio religiosa,IFXWVXE
IRUPGHMXUPkQWFHDYHDORFFXRFD]LDXQXLGHOLFWúLWHUPLQkQGSULQFRQWUDFWXOFX
DMXWRUXOFUXLDJDUDQWXOVHREOLJVSOWHDVFSJXEDúXOXLLGHHDGHOHJWXUDSDUHvQ
FDGUXO REOLJD LHL úL WUHFH GH OD OHJWXUD UHOLJLRDV OD XQD MXULGLF FH D IRVW PDL vQWkL
SURFHGDWGHXQDPDWHULDO
(WDSHOH HYROX LHL REOLJD LHL131 DúD FXP DX IRVW HOH DQDOL]DWH GH FHUFHWUL vQ
GUHSWXOURPDQVXQWXUPWRDUHOH
ÌQVRFLHWDWHDJHQWLOLFGDFRSHUVRDQHUDYLFWLPDXQXLGHOLFWWR LPHPEULL
FROHFWLYLW LLvLOXDXDSUDUHDU]EXQkQGX-se la rândul lor.
0DLWkU]LXGUHSWXOGHU]EXQDUHDYLFWLPHLDIRVWvQORFXLWcu un alt sistem
PDL HYROXDW SRWULYLW FUXLD GHOLQFYHQWXO úL SJXEDúXO DMXQJ OD vQ HOHJHUH
'HVSJXELUHDLDORFXOU]EXQULL

127
(0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p.142.
128
Ibidem; Gaius, 2.1.28.
129
(0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit.,p.155.
130
Ibidem.
131
(0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit.,p.157.
28

 &X WUHFHUHD WLPSXOXL DSDUH HOLEHUDUHD GLQ ODQ XUL D GHOLQFYHQWXOXL vQ
schimbul unui gaj viu.
4. Într-R HWDS QRX vQWUH JDUDQW úL SJXEDú LQWHUYLQH R vQ HOHJHUH vQ FDUH
WUHEXLHVYHGHPFHDGLQWkLREOLJD LHFRQWUDFWXDO
ÌQDOWHWDSV-DDGPLVFDGHOLQFYHQWXOVGHYLQJDUDQWSHQWUXSURPLVLXQHD
sa.
6. Într-RXOWLPHWDSV-DFRQVLGHUDWDILGHSULVRVFDGHOLQFYHQWXOVDSDUFD
SURSULXOVXJDUDQW
'HOLQFYHQWXO VH REOLJ GLUHFW DVWIHO F FHOH GRX HOHPHQWH DOH REOLJD LHL VH
FRQWRSHVF'LQPRPHQWXOvQFDUHGHOLQFYHQWXOVHREOLJGLUHFWSURFHVXOGHIRUPDUHD
REOLJD LHLV-a încheiat.
2. 'HILQL LH

Într-un text conservat în Digeste132MXULVFRQVXOWXO3DXOGXUPWRDUHDGHILQL LH


REOLJD LHL 1DWXUD REOLJD LHL QX FRQVW vQ IDSWXO F XQ OXFUX GHYLQH DO QRVWUX VDX QH
HVWH FRQVWUXLW R VHUYLWXWH FL vQ IDSWXO F FLQHYD HVWH FRQVWUkQV D QH WUVDQVPLWH
proprietatea unui lucru, a face FHYDVDXDvQGHSOLQLRSUHVWD LXQH
/DSULPDFLWLUH3DXOQXGRGHILQL LHSURSULX-]LVDREOLJD LHLFLPDLGHJUDE
RSXQH FRQFHSWXO GH REOLJD LH GUHSWXOXL UHDO VDX DFWHORU FH VXQW XWLOL]DWH vQ VFRSXO
GREkQGLULL XQRU GUHSWXUL UHDOH 7RWRGDW QH vQI LúHD] úL XQHOH HOHPHQWH DOH
REOLJD LHLDUWkQGFQDWXUDHLVHGHILQHúWHSULQWHUPHQLLGDUHIDFHSUHVWDUH133.
$ GRXD GHILQL LH GDWRUDW Institutelor lui Justinian, se apropie mai mult de
DFFHS LXQHD PRGHUQ Obligatio est iuris vinculum quo necesitate ad-stringimur
alicuius solvendae rei secundm noastre civitatis jura134 - DGLF REOLJD LD HVWH R
OHJWXUGHGUHSWSULQFDUHVXQWHPVLOL LDSOWLFHYDFRQIRUPGUHSWXOXLFHW LLQRDVWUH

3. (OHPHQWHOHREOLJD LHL135

/D WR L DXWRULL FDUH DX FHUFHWDW RULJLQHD úL HYROX LD REOLJD LHL FODVLILFDUHD
HOHPHQWHORUREOLJD LHLVHIDFHvQIXQF LHGHPRGXOGHDQDOL]DGHILQL LLORUREOLJD LHLúL
D L]YRDUHORU DFHVWRUD DSUkQG DQXPLWH FODVLILFUL FDUH vQ ILQDO FXSULQG DFHOHDúL
HOHPHQWHFUHGLWRUGHELWRURELHFWXDOúLFRQVWUângerea.

4. 7LSXULGHREOLJD LL

&ODVLILFDUHD GXS L]YRDUH 3ULQ QR LXQHD GH L]YRU DO REOLJD LHL VH vQ HOHJH XQ
DFW MXULGLF VDX XQ IDSW FDUH G QDúWHUH XQHL REOLJD LL $VWIHO DSDUH FODVLILFDUHD
ELSDUWLW136 IRUPDW GLQ FRQWUDFWH úL GHOLFWH FRQVLGHUDW FKiar de Justinian, cea mai
LPSRUWDQW &X WRDWH DFHVWHD V-D GRYHGLW QHFRUHVSXQ]WRDUH DVWIHO vQFkW D DSUXW R
QRXFODVLILFDUH
&ODVLILFDUHD WULSDUWLW137 HUD FHD vQ FDUH DSDU FRQWUDFWHOH GHOLFWHOH úL GLIHULWH
WLSXULGHL]YRDUHDOHREOLJD LHL– variae causarum figurae,FDUXGHQLDYHFLQWDWHDVDX
GHWHQ LXQHD

132
Digeste, 44.7.3.pr.
133
Digeste, 46.3.54.
134
Inst., 3.13.pr.
135
(0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit.,p.160
136
Gaius, 3.38.
137
D. 44. 7. 4.
29

&ODVLILFDUHD TXDGULSDUWLW138  DSDUH vQ OHJLVOD LD OXL -XVWLQLDQ SUH]HQWkQG XQ
FDUDFWHU VLVWHPDWLF PDL SURQXQ DW vQ VHQVXO F RIHU HOHPHQWH PDL VLJXUHGHúLQXvQ
toate cazurile, pentru încadrarea actelor sau faptelor juridice în anumite categorii de
L]YRDUH3HGHDOWSDUWHDFHDVWFODVLILFDUHQXFRQ LQHXQHOHL]YRDUH
ÌQ DFHDVW FODVLILFDUH DSDU REOLJD LLOH contractuale, delictuale,
quasicontractualeúLquasidelictuale139.
&ODVLILFDUHD REOLJD LLORU GXS VDQF LXQH Din acest punct de vedere ele se
FODVLILFvQREOLJD LLFLYLOHúLREOLJD LLQDWXUDOH
&ODVLILFDUHD GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH DO QXPUXOXLGHSHUVRDQHFDUHSDUWLFLSOD
raportul juridic.'LQDFHVWSXQFWGHYHGHUHREOLJD LLOHVHvPSDUWvQREOLJD LLVLPSOHúL
REOLJD LLFRPSOH[H
6. Elementele contractului

&RQWUDFWXO FRQVWLWXLH DFWXO MXULGLF FH DUH OD ED] DFRUGXO GH YRLQ  DO SU LORU
FXSULYLUHODQDúWHUHDPRGLILFDUHDVDXVWLQJHUHDXQXLUDSRUWMXULGLFREOLJD LRQDO2ULFH
FRQWUDFWFXSULQGHGRXFDWHJRULLGHHOHPHQWHGXSFXPXUPHD]HOHPHQWHHVHQ LDOHúL
elemente accidentale140.

,,(IHFWHOHREOLJD LLORU

2EOLJD LLOHvQVHQVXOGHGUHSWXULSHUVRQDOHVDXGHFUHDQ SURGXFGRXHIHFWH


respectiv un efect normal, pe de o parte, sau un efect accidentalSHGHDOWDGDFPDL
întâi nu se produce efectul normal141.

1. (IHFWXOQRUPDODOREOLJD LLORU142

(IHFWXOQRUPDOFRQVWvQDFWXOGHELWRUXOXLGHDH[HFXWDREOLJD LDDVXPDWSULQ
FRQWUDFWSHQWUXFDFUHGLWRUXOV-úLSRDWYDORULILFDGUHSWXULOHVDOHGHFUHDQ .

D3ULQFLSLXOUHODWLYLW LLHIHFWHORUFRQWUDFWHORU143

6HDSOLFvQVLWXD LDFkQGXQpater familias a luat parte la un contract.


3ULQFLSLXO UHODWLYLW LL HIHFWHORU FRQWUDFWXOXL HVWH H[SULPDW SULQ XUPWRUXO
adagiu: res inter alios acta aliis neque nocere, neque prodesse potest144 - contractul
vQFKHLDWvQWUHXQLLQXYDWPúLQLFLQXSURILWDOWRUD

E3ULQFLSLXOQXOLW LLVWLSXOD LXQLLSHQWUXDOWXO145

3ULQFLSLXO QXOLW LL VWLSXOD LXQLL SHQWUX DOWXO DUH OD ED] DGDJLXO nemo alteris
stipulari potest146 - nimeni nu poate stipula pentru altul.

138
C.St. Tomulescu, op.cit.,p.230; Inst., 3.13.2.
139
Ibidem.
140
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit S úL 
141
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p. 240.
142
Ibidem.
143
Inst., 3.19.19.; C.4.50.6.
144
D. 22.14.17.6.
145
Ibidem.
146
D. 45.1.38.17.
30

F3ULQFLSLXOQXOLW LLSURPLVLXQLLSHQWUXDOWXO147

3ULQFLSLXOQXOLW LLSURPLVLXQLLSHQWUXDOWXODUHODED]DGDJLXOnemo alienum


factum promitere potest148 - nimeni nu poate promite fapta altuia.

d. Principiul nereprezentULLvQFRQWUDFWH

Pater familias,vQFDOLWDWHGHSHUVRDQsui iuris, ia parte la contract printr-un alt


pater familias.9HFKLLURPDQLQXDGPLWHDXFXQpater familias poate deveni creditor
VDX GHELWRU vQ ED]D XQXL FRQWUDFW vQFKHLDW GH R SHUVRDQ VWULQ de un alt pater
familias.

2. (IHFWXODFFLGHQWDODOREOLJD LLORU149

(IHFWXO DFFLGHQWDO DO REOLJD LXQLORU FRQVW vQ GUHSWXO FUHGLWRUXOXL GH D RE LQH
daune-interese150 DWXQFL FkQG REOLJD LD QX HVWH H[HFXWDW VDX HVWH H[HFXWDW FX
întârziere. Acestea sunt de dou IHOXUL GXS FXP XUPHD] MXGHFWRUHúWL úL
FRQYHQ LRQDOH
([LVWúDVHFD]XULFDUHGHWHUPLQQHH[HFXWDUHDREOLJD LLORUGXSFXPXUPHD]
PRUDFXOSDGROXOFD]XOIRUWXLWIRU DPDMRUFXVWRGLD

3. 6DQF LXQHDQHH[HFXWULLREOLJD LLORU151

3DUWHDFDUHQXvúLH[HFXWDREOLJD LDFHvLUHYHQHDúLQXVHJVHDvQQLFLXQDGLQ
VLWXD LLOHFDUHRVFXWHDXGHUVSXQGHUHWUHEXLDVSOWHDVFGHVSJXELULQXPLWHGDXQH
interese152.
'DXQHOH LQWHUHVH VXQW GH GRX IHOXUL GXS FXP XUPHD] GDXQH LQWHUHVH
MXGHFWRUHúWLúLGDXQHLQWHUHVHFRQYHQ LRQDOH153.

,96WLQJHUHDREOLJD LLORU154

2EOLJD LLOH vQ GUHSWXO URPDQ VH VWLQJ SULQ GRX PRGXUL GXS FXP XUPHD]
PRGXULYROXQWDUHúLPRGXULQHYROXQWDUH

1. 0RGXULOHYROXQWDUHGHVWLQJHUHDREOLJD LLORU

Modurile voluntare de stingere a obOLJD LXQLORUVXQWXUPWRDUHOHSODWDGDUHD


vQSODWQRYD LXQHDFRPSHQVD LXQHDUHPLWHUHDGHGDWRULH155.

147
Ibidem.
148
Inst., 3.9.21.; D.45.1.38. pr.
149
C.St. Tomulescu, op.cit.,p.246.
150
Ibidem, p.249
151
Ibidem.
152
Ibidem.
153
Ibidem.
154
C. St. Tomulescu, op. cit.,p. 250.
155
Ibidem.
31

a. Plata - solutio156

3ODWDFRQVWLWXLHPRGXORELúQXLWGHVWLQJHUHDREOLJD LLORUFDUHVHUHDOL]HD]SULQ
vQGHSOLQLUHD SUHVWD LXQLL DGLF WUDQVPLWHUHD SURSULHW LL XQXL OXFUX vQGHSOLQLUHD
OXFUULLODFDUHQH-DPREOLJDWHWFFHIDFRELHFWXOOHJWXULLMXULGLFHREOLJD LRQDOH

E'DUHDvQSODW– datio in solutum157

'DUHDvQSODWFRQVWLWXLHXQPRGGHVWLQJHUHDREOLJD LHLFHFRQVWvQIDSWXOF
debitorXO FX FRQVLP PkQWXO FUHGLWRUXOXL VH OLEHUHD] GkQGX-i un alt lucru decât cel
datorat.
F1DUD LXQHD
1DUD LXQHD HVWH PRGXO GH VWLQJHUH D REOLJD LHL FDUH FRQVW vQ vQORFXLUHD XQHL
YHFKL REOLJD LL FX DOWD QRX vQORFXLUH FH DUH ORF SULQWU-un contract – stipulatio sau
contractuliterii.

G&RPSHQVD LXQHD158

&RPSHQVD LXQHD FRQVWLWXLH PRGXO GH VWLQJHUH D REOLJD LLORU FDUH FRQVW vQ
FXPSQLUHD D GRX GDWRULL UHFLSURFH DVWIHO FD H[HFXWDUHD V SRDUWH QXPDL DVXSUD
GLIHUHQ HL159.
e. Remiterea de datorie160

Remiterea de GDWRULH FRQVWLWXLH PRGXO GH VWLQJHUH D REOLJD LLORU FH FRQVW vQ
UHQXQ DUHDGHFWUHFUHGLWRUODFUHDQ DVD(DVHPDLQXPHúWHLHUWDUHGHGDWRULH161.

2. 0RGXULOHQHYROXQWDUHGHVWLQJHUHDOHREOLJD LLORU

a. Imposibilitatea de executare162

2EOLJD LXQHD VH VWLQJH FkQG H[HFXWDUHD HL D GHYHQLW LPSRVLELO FHHD FH VH
SRDWH vQWkPSOD QXPDL FkQG RELHFWXO REOLJD LXQLL HVWH XQ OXFUX FHUW DGLF XQ OXFUX
LQGLYLGXDO GHWHUPLQDW GH SLOG VFODYXO 6WLFKXV 'DF OXFUXO LQGLYLGXDO GHWHUPLQDW D
SLHULW REOLJD LXQHD VH VWLQJH 3LHLUHD OXFUXOXL SRDWH V ILH IL]LF DWXQFL FkQG VFODYXO
FDUHDIRVWGDWRUDWDPXULWVDXSRDWHILMXULGLFDWXQFLFkQGGHSLOGVFODYXOGDWRUDWD
fost dezrobit.
b. Confuziunea163

Confuziunea – confusioFRQVWLWXLHPRGXOQHYROXQWDUGHVWLQJHUHDREOLJD Lilor


FHFRQVWvQvQWUXQLUHDDVXSUDDFHOHLDúLSHUVRDQHDFDOLW LLGHFUHGLWRUúLGHELWRU

156
Ibidem.
157
Ibidem; Gaius, 3. 168.
158
D. 16.21.; C.8.42.
159
Ibidem.
160
(0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit.,p.200.
161
Ibidem.
162
(0ROFX  '2DQFHD op.cit.,p.202.
163
(0ROFX  '2DQFHD op.cit.,p.202.
32

c. Moartea164

0RDUWHDFRQVWLWXLHXQPRGQHYROXQWDUGHVWLQJHUHDREOLJD LLORUODED]DFUXLD
VWSULQFLSLXOQHWUDQVPLVLELOLW LLREOLJD LXQLORU

9*DUDQ LLOHvQ dreptul roman

*DUDQ LLOH FRQVWLWXLH DFHOH PLMORDFH MXULGLFH FDUH DX GUHSW VFRS V SXQ OD
DGSRVW SH FUHGLWRU GH FRQVHFLQ HOH LQVROYDELOLW LL GHELWRUXOXL $FHVWHD VXQW GH GRX
IHOXULGXSFXPXUPHD]JDUDQ LLSHUVRQDOHúLJDUDQ LLUHDOH

1. *DUDQ LLSersonale165

D*DUDQ LLSHUVRQDOHIRUPDOH
*DUDQ LLOH SHUVRQDOH FRQVWLWXLH DFHOH SURFHGHH MXULGLFH SULQ FDUH GHELWRUXOXL
SULQFLSDOLVHDOWXUXQXOVDXPDLPXO LGHELWRULDFFHVRULQXPL LJDUDQ L
5RPDQLL OD vQFHSXW SHQWUX D UHDOL]D JDUDQ LD SHUVRQDO V-au folosit de
FRQWUDFWXOYHUEDO&UHGLWRULLvQVFRSXOGHDILRFURWL LGHRLQVROYDELOLWDWHHYHQWXDOD
GHELWRULORU DX vQWUHEXLQ DW WUHL IRUPH YHUEDOH166 GLVWLQFWH GXS FXP XUPHD]
sponsio167, fidepromissio, fideiussio.

E*DUDQ LLSHUVRQDOHQHIRUPDOH168

GarDQ LLOH SHUVRQDOH QHIRUPDOH FRQVWLWXLH DFHOH PLMORDFH GH JDUDQWDUH D XQRU
REOLJD LL FDUH QX QHFHVLWDX PRGXUL IRUPDOH vQ DFHVW VHQV (OH VXQW XUPWRDUHOH GXS
FXP XUPHD] pactul de constitut, receptum argentariorum, mandatum pecuniae
credendae169
2. *DUDQ LL reale170

*DUDQ LLOH UHDOH FRQVWDX vQ DIHFWDUHD DWULEXLUHD XQXL OXFUX GLQ SDWULPRQLXO
GHELWRUXOXLFUHGLWRUXOXLvQVFRSXOJDUDQWULLXQHLFUHDQ H171.

a. Fiducia172

Fiducia cum creditore HVWH XQ FRQWUDFW vQFKHLDW vQWUH FUHGLWRU úL GHELWRU SULQ
care creditoruOVHREOLJVUHWUDQVPLWGHELWRUXOXLSURSULHWDWHDOXFUXOXLWUDQVPLVOXL
FXWLWOXGHJDUDQ LHSULQmancipatio sau prin iure cessio.

164
C.St.Tomulescu, op.cit.,p.258.
165
(0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit.,p.210.
166
Ibidem.
167
Gaius, 3.117.
168
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit.,p.217.
169
Ibidem.
170
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p.218.
171
Ibidem.
172
Ibidem.
33

b. Gajul173

*DMXOHVWHJDUDQ LDUHDOFDUHFRQVWvQUHPLWHUHDSRVHVLXQLLXQXLOXFUXGHFWUH
GHELWRUFUHGLWRUXOXLVXîn momentul încheierii contractului de gaj.

c. Ipoteca174

,SRWHFDFRQVWLWXLHJDUDQ LDUHDOSULQFDUHVHODVOXFUXOvQSRVHVLDGHELWRUXOXL
úLQXPDLGDFDFHVWDQXSOWHúWHODVFDGHQ FUHGLWRUXOLSRWHFDUDUHGUHSWXOGHDLQWUD
vQSRVHVLDOXFUXOXLúLGHa-l vinde, valorificându-úLDVWIHOFUHDQ D

Partea a VII-a

,=92$5(/(2%/,*$,,/25

,&DUDFWHUL]DUHJHQHUDODL]YRDUHORUREOLJD LLORU

&RQFHSWXO GH REOLJD LH V-D IRUPDW vQF GLQ HSRFD IRDUWH YHFKH D GUHSWXOXL
URPDQ LDU RULJLQHD REOLJD LHL VH FRQIXQG Fu originea contractului ca fiind cel mai
YHFKLL]YRUGHREOLJD LL175.
3ULPXO FRQWUDFW URPDQ D FRQVWDW vQ vQ HOHJHUHD GLQWUH JDUDQW úL SJXEDú
vPEUFkQG IRUPD MXUPkQWXOXL UHOLJLRV FH D DSUXW vQ FRQWH[WXO FRPLWHULL XQXL
delict176.
II. Contractele în dreptul roman

1. Contractele formale

&RQWUDFWHOH FRQVWLWXLH FHO PDL YHFKL L]YRU GH REOLJD LL &HOH PDL YHFKL VXQW
FRQWUDFWHOH IRUPDOH VDX VROHPQH DGLF FRQWUDFWHOH FDUH SHQWUX D OXD QDúWHUH DX
QHYRLHFDDFRUGXOGHYRLQ DOSU LORUVILHvPEUFDWvQWU-o anuPLWIRUPÌQGUHSWXO
URPDQ VH FXQRVF SDWUX IRUPH FH DYHDX VFRSXO GH D vPEUFD DFRUGXO GH YRLQ  vQWU-o
KDLQ REOLJDWRULH IRUPD UHOLJLRDV177 IRUPD YHUEDO178 IRUPD DXWHQWLF úL IRUPD
VFULV179.

D&RQWUDFWHOHvQIRUPUHOLJLRDV

&RQWUDFWHOH vQ IRUP UHOLJLRDV DX IRVW GRX GXS FXP XUPHD] sponsio
UHOLJLRVDúLMXVLXUPDQXPOLEHUWL.

E&RQWUDFWHOHvQIRUPYHUEDO

&RQWUDFWHOH YHUEDOH VXQW DFHOH FRQWUDFWH FDUH OXDX QDúWHUH SULQ URVWLUHD XQRU
cuvinte solemne. Sponsio sau stipulatio de fapt este cel mai important contract al
173
Ibidem, p.220.
174
Ibidem, p. 221.
175
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD RSFLW S  $( *LIIDUG 5 9LOOHUV Droit romain et ancien droit
francais, II, 1976, p.10.
176
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 233.
177
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFH a, op.cit., p. 238.
178
Ibidem, p.239.
179
Ibidem, p. 249.
34

URPDQLORU IDSW FH H[SOLF GH FH MXULVFRQVXO LL VH RFXS GH UHJXOLOH JHQHUDOH DOH
REOLJD LXQLORUFRQWUDFWXDOHDWXQFLFkQGVHWUDWHD]VWLSXOD LXQHD'HFLUHJXOLOHGHIRQG
HODERUDWH GH MXULVFRQVXO L SHQWUX VWLSXOD LXQH VH DSOLF RULFURU contracte nu numai
acesteia.
F&RQWUDFWHOHvQIRUPDXWHQWLF180

)RUPDDXWHQWLFUH]LGvQSUH]HQ DPDJLVWUDWXOXLODIDFHUHDDFWXOXL8QVLQJXU
DFRUGGHYRLQ RVLQJXUFRQYHQ LHDGHYHQLWFRQWUDFWSULQIRUPDDXWHQWLFnexum181
sau contractul de aservire.

G&RQWUDFWHOHvQIRUPVFULV182

Contractus litteris183 &RQWUDFWXO OLWWHULV QX SRDWH OXD ILLQ  GHFkW VXE IRUPD
unui înscris, mai precis printr-RvQVFULHUHRFRQVHPQDUHDFUHGLWRUXOXLvQUHJLVWUXOVX
vQVFULHUHFRQILUPDWGHGHELWRUvQDFHODúLUHJLVWUX

2. Contractele neformale

a. Contractele reale184

&RQWUDFWHOHUHDOHVXQWFRQWUDFWHOHQHIRUPDOHFDUHSHQWUXQDúWHUHDORUSHOkQJ
FRQVLP PkQWXOSU LORUFHUúLXQHOHPHQWPDWHULDOQXPLWUHV–FHFRQVWvQUHPLWHUHD
unui lucru corporal.
Contractele reDOH vQ VLVWHPXO GUHSWXOXL URPDQ DX IRVW XUPWRDUHOH GXS FXP
XUPHD]mutuum, fiducia, gajul, comodatul, depozitul.

b. Contractele consensuale185

8Q SDV vQDLQWH SH FDOHD HOLEHUULL GH IRUPH VH IDFH DWXQFL FkQG VXQW FUHDWH
contractele consensuale186, contracWH FDUH LDX ILLQ  QXPDL SULQ DFRUGXO GH YRLQ  DO
SU LORU
&RQWUDFWHOHFRQVHQVXDOHVXQWvQQXPUGHFLQFLGXSFXPXUPHD]YkQ]DUHD
– venditio-emptio ORFD LXQHD – locatio-conductio, societatea – societas, mandatul -
mandatum187, emfiteoza - emphyteusis188.

IV. Quasicontractele189

Quasicontractele FRQVWLWXLH IDSWH OLFLWH FDUH GDX QDúWHUH XQRU HIHFWH MXULGLFH
DVHPQWRDUHFXFHOHFHLDXQDúWHUHGLQFRQWUDFW190.

180
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p. 275.
181
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 247.
182
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 249; C. St. Tomulescu, op. cit., p. 276.
183
Ibidem.
184
Ibidem.
185
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p.283.
186
Inst., 3. 22; Gaius, 3. 163.
187
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p. 283.
188
6&RFRú Drept roman, Ed. Aripress, 1996, p.274.
189
0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p.309.
35

-XVWLQLDQ HQXPHU XUPWRDUHOH TXDVL-contracte: plata lucrului nedatorat,


negotium gestio, gestiunea tutorelui pentru pupil, indiviziunea, acceptarea
succesiunii191.

V. Delictele192

'HOLFWHOH FD L]YRU GH REOLJD LL. (YROX LD ORU LVWRULF. Delictele sunt fapte
GXQWRDUH LQWHUHVHORU VRFLHW LL URPDQH úL SHGHSVLWH SULQ GLVSR]L LXQLOH MXULGLFH DOH
statului.
RomDQLúWLLSOHFkQGGHODGLVWLQF LDOXL8OSLDQDVXSUDGUHSWXOXLSXEOLFúLSULYDW
vPSDUWGHOLFWHOHvQGRXFDWHJRULLGHOLFWHSXEOLFHúLGHOLFWHSULYDWH
Delicte private193. Acestea se subdivid în delicte private vechi194SUHY]XWHGH
/HJHD FHORU ;,, 7DEOH úL delicte private principale noi195 VDQF LRQDWH SULQ DF LXQL
SUHWRULHQH 6XQW GHOLFWH SULYDWH YHFKL GXS FXP XUPHD] furtum, injuria, damnum
injuria datum196.
Delicte private principale noi197. Delictele private principale noi sau
pretoriene sunt acele fapte iliFLWH GXQWRDUH UHOD LLORU VFODYDJLVWH URPDQH FDUH DX
IRVW VDQF LRQDWH GH SUHWRU ÌQ DFHDVW FDWHJRULH VXQW FXSULQVH GXS FXP XUPHD]
rapina, metus, dolus, malus, fraus creditorum198.

V. Quasidelictele199

2EOLJD LLOH quasidelictuale sunt acelea ce se nasc din fapte nepermise, fapte
FDUHWRWXúLQXVXQWGHOLFWH
4XDVLGHOLFWHOH VXQW XUPWRDUHOH GXS FXP XUPHD] judex quil litem suam
faciW YUVDUHD VDX DUXQFDUHD XQXL OXFUX DWkUQDUHD RELHFWHORU SDJXED SURGXV GH
SHUVRDQHOHDIODWHvQVOXMEDFRUELHULORUKDQJLLORUúLJUMGDULORU200.

190
Inst  ( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit.,p.309.
191
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit.,p.309.
192
Ibidem.
193
C. St. Tomulescu, op. cit., p. 325.
194
Ibidem.
195
Ibidem.
196
Ibidem.
197
C. St. Tomulescu, op.cit., p. 336.
198
Ibidem.
199
( 0ROFX  ' 2DQFHD op.cit., p. 334.
200
Ibidem.
36

BIBLIOGRAFIE

1. Gh. Beleiu, Drept civil român%XFXUHúWL


,&HWHUFKLúL0/XEXULFL 7HRULD JHQHUDO D VWDWXOXL úL GUHSWXOXL,
%XFXUHúWL
,&HWHUFKLúL,&UDLRYDQ ,WURGXFHUH vQ WHRULD JHQHUDO D dreptului,
%XFXUHúWL
<(PLQHVFXúLFRODERUDWRULL Subiectele colective de drept.
6*KLPSXúL&*URVX &DSDFLWDWHD úL UHSUH]HQWDUHD SHUVRDQHORU
fizice în dreptul R.P.R.,%XFXUHúWL
7,RQDúFX Tratat de drept civil%XFXUHúWL967.
7. E. Lupan, Drept civil – Persoanele, Cluj, 1981.
+/úL0D]HDXG Lecons de droit civil, Paris, 1959.
9. N.Popa, 7HRULDJHQHUDODGUHSWXOXL%XFXUHúWL
10. T. Popescu, Drept civil român,%XFXUHúWL
$3RSúL*K%HOHLX Drept civil%XFXUHúWL
12. C-WLQ6WWHVFX Drept civil,%XFXUHúWL
13. C-WLQ6WWHVFXúL&%vUVDQ 'UHSW FLYLO 7HRULD JHQHUDO D GUHSWXULORU
reale%XFXUHúWL

BIBLIOGRAFIE DE SPECIALITATE

TRATATE, MANUALE, CURSURI, STUDII

1. V. Arangio...., Inutituzioni di Diritto Romano, Napoli, 1957.


2. B. Bionoi, Corso di Diritto Romano, Milano, 1942.
3. P. Bonfante, Inutituzioni di Diritto Romano, Milano, 1932.
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,&WXQHDQX CurV(OHPHQWDUGH'UHSW5RPDQ%XFXUHúWL
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37

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