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Biomass Power: High Efficiency Boiler Technology for Sugar Industry

Seminar on Renewable Energy Technology Implementation in Thailand


October 4, 2012

What is Biomass?
Biomass is organic matter which can be converted into energy. Common examples of biomass include crops for energy, crop residues, wood waste and animal manure.

Rice Husk

Bagasse

Wood Waste

Empty Fruit Brunch

Animal Manure

Corn Cob

Energy Crop

from rice mills

from sugar mills

From wood
converting From CPO Plant

From farm

From corn mill

Biomass = Clean Energy Source

Carbon Life Cycle for Biomass Power Plant

Electricity from Biomass = Neutral Carbon Emission

Technologies Converting Biomass to Energy


Gas Engine Gasification + Gas Engine Boiler + Turbine Boiler + Turbine

Heat & Power


Co-Firing with coal Gas Engine

Biomass

Biogas +

Gas Engine
Boiler + Turbine Gasification + Fisher Tropsch

Bio-Fuel
Hydrolysis + Fermentation
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Biomass Boiler Turbine Generator

Image source : http://www.unendlich-viel-energie.de/en/electricity/details/article/111/functioning-principles-of-a-biomass-combined-heat-and-power-chp-station.html

Mitr Phol Group and Renewable Energy


Sugar: Mitr Phol is the largest sugar producer in Thailand crushing about 18 million tons cane per year from 5 sugar mills.

Bio Power: Bagasse from sugar production is used in biomass power plants with total capacity of 307 MW in which 177 MW is fed to national grid around 1,000 GWH annually.

Bio Fuel: Molasses from sugar production is used to produce ethanol approximately 250 million liters annually.

Worlds Sugar Cane Production 2011

Thailand Biomass-Based Power Generation Potential

Potential Electricity Capacity


Source : Black and Veatch (2000). Final Report
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Advantages of High Pressure Boiler


90% of sugar mill boilers in Thailand are below this category
Parameters Unit 45 Kg/cm2(a) 4400C Feed Water temp to boiler Bagasse Quantity Steam /Fuel ratio Gross Power output Net Power Output Specific Steam consumption Power Generation per ton of Bagasse Heat Rate
0C

66 Kg/cm2 (a) 485 0C 5150C

87 Kg/cm2 (a) 5150C 5400C 105 Kg/cm2 (a) / 540 0C 220 (with 2 HP Heater) 38.6 2.59 29.4 25.9 3.40

515 0C

105 ( without HP Heater) 43.51 2.29 24.8 22 4.03 Base 3983 46.18 2.16 28.8 25.2 3.46 +9.5% 3640

150 ( with 1 HP Heater) 41.78 2.39 26.5 23.4 3.77 + 11.4% 3579 42.89 2.33 28.9 25.3 3.46 +18.3% 3370

170 ( with 1 HP Heater) 41.2 2.42 28.5 25.1 3.51 + 21.4% 3281 42.2 2.36 29.4 25.7 3.40 + 22.3% 3258

TPH MW MW Kg/KW-hr KW/Ton Kcals/KW-hr

+ 33%
2980

(Calculations shown above are based on a 100 TPH Travelling Grate boiler with 69% efficiency (on GCV 2270 Kcal/Kg Basis) and Turbine exhaust at 0.1 Kg/Cm2 ( a)

HIGHER THE CYCLE PARAMETERS- HIGHER THE OUTPUT

More power output with same input quantity of fuel

Power Cogeneration in Sugar Mills


Sugar Cane
Sugar Mill
Juice 73%

Sugar

Bagasse 27% Fuel

Power and Steam


Excess Power

Bagasse Storage

New Power House

National Grid
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Cogeneration by Sugar Mills in Thailand


Before Year 2006
Mostly low-pressure boilers (< 25 bar) and are very old (> 30 years) Mostly within the sugar mill.

After Year 2006


Use of medium-pressure boilers and high efficiency turbine

Excess electricity export to the grid.


Professional approach in project development.

Boilers have been designed deliberately with low efficiency.


Purchase of used equipment are common.

Use of special purpose company

Process Diagram for New Plant

Major Technical Development


Aspects
Equipment Pressure Level Boiler Efficiency Plant Thermal Efficiency Flexibility in load change

Previous
16-30 bar 380 C < 80% < 60% low

Current
70-100 bar 520 C > 90% > 70% High

Multi Fuel Firing Control System


Operators Skill

no Manual or Semi Auto


Fair

Yes Full Computerized


Trained & Skilled

Project Management

Unorganized

Professional
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Transformation from Sugar Power House to Biomass Power plant


Before
Boiler
#1 #2
#3 Steam16 bar

After
Mechanical force to shredder and milling

Steam Turbine

~
22 kV T/G # 1,2,3,4 (3, 2.5, 2.5, 5 MW) Steam 1 bar

Sale to Grid 6 MW
12 kWh/ton cane

#4
#5 #6 Steam 30 bar #7

Sugar mill
Sale to Grid 37 MW
70 kWh/ton cane 115 kV
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New Boiler #1

~
T/G # 5 (12 MW)

Steam 70 bar

#2

~
New T/G (41 MW)

Strictly Confidential, Internal Use Only

How does a High Pressure System Work?


280 kg. Bagasse Sugar Mill 1 ton Cane Low Pressure Boiler and TG 36 kWH
0.45 ton steam @1.2 bar

0.65 ton steam @ 30 bar


30 bar 380o C

23 kWH

1 ton Cane
280 kg. Bagasse

High Pressure Boiler and TG


35 kWH

0.45 ton steam @1.2 bar

Sugar Mill
0.65 ton steam @ 100 bar
Strictly Confidential, Internal Use Only

100 kWH
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100 bar 510o C

Energy Balance Comparison


High Pressure Boiler and TG Low Pressure Boiler and TG
Process Steam Process Used Power Exported Power Loss

28.9%
48.3%

41.7%

48.3%

16.9%
5.9%
Strictly Confidential, Internal Use Only

6.1%
3.9%
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Current Status of Power Co-Generation of Thailands Sugar Mills


Number of mills Installed Capacity, MW Exported Power, MW Exported Sugar Cane, Unit, GWH million ton Exported Power, kWH/TC

Total
With High Pressure With Medium/low Pressure

47
2 45

1008
105 903

397
76 321

1626*
577 1049*

95.35
7.99 87.36

17
72 12

* Estimated from these assumptions: - SPP firm : 330 day running with 95% Plant Factor - SPP non-firm &VSPP : 150 running day with 80% Plant Factor - Countercheck with database from EPPO

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Development of Bagasse Power Plants in Thailand

2004 2001

2012 First 105 bar 520 C cogeneration in biomass power plant

1994

1992 First SPP regulation was announced


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First Biomass Power Plant supply to grid 8 MW nonfirm by a sugar mill

Start feasibility study of high pressure cogeneration

First high pressure (70 bar 510 C cogeneration in biomass power plant First PPA achieving firm contract with 29 MW

What led to the change?


Oil Price
Electricity price

Renewable Energy Policy

Fossil Fuel Crisis

Adder or feed in premium

OLD PARADIGM Biomass is free and have little commercial value


Affordable high eff. equipment CERs Price

NEW PARADIGM Biomass has high commercial value

New Technology

CDM Potential

Climate Change

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Favorable Environmental Impacts


Stack emission: Cleaner air
Particulate NOx SOx 20 - 50 ppm 120 - 160 ppm 0 - 8 ppm
(COAL)

(120) (350) (320)

Solid waste: Recycle back to farm


ashes from boiler can be used as soil improvement substance.

Global Warming: Reduce green house gas


- Grid emission factor : 500 kg CO2/ 1 MWH

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Socio-Economic Benefits
Increased business activities in the local community More jobs have been created

Created value added to many agricultural waste

New technology transfer to the industry

Reduction of the nations import of fossil fuel for power generation

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Challenges
Technical Challenges Operational Challenges

Management Challenges

Financial Challenges
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Technical Challenges: Seasoning Operation


Crushing
Steam Consumption, ton/hr Power Consumption, MW 550 18

Remelting
160 6

Bagasse Production, ton/day


Operation Period, months

8700
4 (Dec-Mar)

0
8 (Apr-Nov)

What capacity should the biomass power plant be ?

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Technical Challenges: Technology Consideration

Basic Design Firm vs Non-firm Bagasse fuel with or without supplementary fuel

Type of Boiler Heat recovery system Emission control system: wet scrubber, ESP, bag filter Supplemental fuel : rice husk, cane leaves, wood chips

Type of Turbine Back pressure + condensing VS extraction condensing Single shaft or dual casing turbine

Water System Deminerization: Conventional Resin bed VS Reverse Osmosis Condensate return : Direct mix or separate water circuit

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Operational Challenges: Priority - Internal vs. External


Components Sugar Mills National Grid

Process type
Main parameter Flexibility Maintenance period Defaults Event

Batch + Continuous type


Steam pressure and flow High Short Negotiable

Continuous
Electrical Power Stable load Low Long Penalty

Load characteristics High load variation

Who should have the priority?

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Operational Challenges: Fuel Handling System


Fire protection Storage area

Moisture control

FIFO system

Dust control

Transportat ion

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Operational Challenges: Supplementary Fuels


Rice husk
High silica content High demand :competition with other rice husk users

Cane leaves
High chloride content Difficult to handle : shredding, fire

Wood chips
High lignin content Limit supply :competition with pulp mills

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Management Challenges
Current
Main Concern Internal production

New Scheme
External customer

Efficiency
Engineering

Less priority
In-house

Major concern
Out-source

Investment
People Recruitment Compensations

Low Sugar industry Informal

High Power plant Formal

Communication

Need a new management concept !


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