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THE GENERAL

$b ~ V A ~ O N

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@EMERN$

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venture published bi-monthly, pretty close to the first day of January, March, May, July, September and November.

TheAvalon MI Ph~losophyPart 9
C o n t e s t #24 asking w a r g a m e r s to p r e s e n t t h e i r solutions to the Vietnam war received considerable response. 85% f a v o r e d s o m e s o r t of e s c a l a t i o n (significantly higher than f o r the count r y a s a whole), 15% f a v o r e d d e - e s c a lation. In r e g a r d s to the a l t e r n a t i v e s off e r e d f o r e a c h c o u r s e of action, 45% f a v o r e d a step-up of a e r i a l b o m b a r d m e n t of m a j o r c i t i e s . 50% advocated a complete blockade of a l l e n e m y supply p o r t s . 5070 f a v o r e d d e s t r u c t i o n of a l l e n e m y supply p o r t s , with conventional a e r i a l b o m b a r d m e n t (350/0), guided m i s s i l e s (30%), a n d / o r n u c l e a r w e a pons (only 370). An a l l - o u t invasion of North V i e t n a m w a s f a v o r e d by 2270, with s o m e suggesting a l i m i t e d o r token invasion. 670 wanted a n u c l e a r a t t a c k o n s e l e c t e d m i l i t a r y t a r g e t s with warning. Only 770 of w a r g a m e r s f a v o r e d u s e of n u c l e a r weapons in any capacity. F o r d e - e s c a l a t i o n , only 170 f a v o r e d c u r r e n t policy. 5% f a v o r e d a continuation of g r a d u a l i s m coupled with a slow withdrawal of U. S. troops. 270 s a i d go to the conference table a t any cost. 370 favored a f o r c e d ultimatum f r o m the U. N. bywhose decision we would abide, and about 6% s a i d we should j u s t pull out altogether. Following a r e s o m e of the m o r e int e r e s t i n g and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e plans off e r e d along with r e a s o n s given i n t h e i r support. Dennis G r a v e n (Madison, Wisconsin) advocated a l l types of e s c a l a t i o n on the check l i s t with the exception of n u c l e a r weapons in any capacity. "Mobilize. Make i t perfectly c l e a r to the world that the U. S. , the m o s t powerful nation on e a r t h , will no longer t o l e r a t e C o m m u n i s t a g g r e s s i o n . No doubt t h i s w a r i s being prolonged because Ho C h i M i n h b e l i e v e s he c a n win. P e a c e n i k s and o u r g r a d u a l i s t policies a r e now doing m u c h to n o u r i s h this belief. We need to m a k e i t understood using m i l i t a r y and psychological m e a n s , that we a r e going to s t o p this a g g r e s s i o n b e f o r e i t eventually s t o p s us. I ' G a r y S e i s e r (Milwaukee, Wisconsin): " F o r s i x months stop bombing North Vietnam to t r y to initiate peace talks. If no r e p l y , then blockade e n e m y p o r t s and supply b a s e s . Use conventional weapons only. " I t i s opinion, howe v e r , that a l a s t c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t a t peace talks b e f o r e any s e r i o u s e s c a l a tion of the w a r s e e m s a s e n s i b l e move, but s i x m o n t h s i s too long. If Hanoi h a s no intentions of talking, they c a n do a l o t to fortify t h e i r positions in that time. C h a r l e s Hoch (SanDiego, California): "To d e - e s c a l a t e now would r e v e a l a blatant d i s r e g a r d of the proposed r e a sons supporting U. S. involvement i n the conflict, and could only s e r v e to e s c a l a t e North Vietnamese a g g r e s s i o n , w h e r e a s a well-executed invasion of the North would p l a c e the m i l i t a r y initiative in U. S. hands, and f o r c e the enemy into a p r e c a r i o u s defensive stance." John Bobek (Chicago, Illinois) r e jected a l l offered a l t e r n a t i v e s by d r a w ing big X ' s o v e r the c o n t e s t f o r m and stating: "Does n o t apply to Vietnam. 50 w o r d s a r e f a r to few to d e s c r i b e Vietnam, l e t alone defend and s t a t e a plan f o r victory. I ' Suggestions following in h i s l e t t e r included: "Hippies, d r a f t d o d g e r s , and conscientious obj e c t o r s should be d r a f t e d a s "peace a m b a s s a d o r s ' and p a r a c h u t e d into N. Vietnam. U.S. b o m b e r s should inc r e a s e the bombing of Haiphong notwith bombs, but with garbage. This demons t r a t e s U. S. s t r e n g t h while complying with the N. V i e t n a m e s e demand f o r a bombing halt. Hanoi should a l s o be bombed, but with the bodies of dead Cong and N. V i e t n a m e s e r e g u l a r s ; a g r u e s o m e r e m i n d e r of Communist agg r e s s i o n . Key c i t i e s i n the North should be bombed with psychedelic d r u g s , such a s LSD and S T P . You c a n ' t fight a war when y o u ' r e ' t u r n e d o n ' . " We edited out h i s c o m m e n t s that s e e m e d a bit f a r out. F r a n k B o r i e l l o (Springfield, P a . ) advocated f o r c i n g a n ultimatum f r o m the U. N. and abiding by i t s decision. "A w a r i n S . E . A s i a cannot be won by a single nation e v e n a s g r e a t a s the U. S. Whether we won i n Vietnam o r not, the R e d s would c e r t a i n l y t r y again in ano t h e r country. T h e r e f o r e we need to show o u r c o n c e r n f o r world o r d e r and law by taking i t to the U. N. A w a r in S. E. A s i a c a n only be fought by the Asians. If the f r e e world wants to help, it m u s t be a l l the f r e e nations, not just one." We feel, however, that i t i s doubtful that the U.N. i s capable of making a decision on Vietnam, and even if i t did, how could i t be e n f o r c e d ? J a m e s M. Gibson, J r . (Dover, New J e r s e y ) : "Hold o n f o r another six months to one y e a r , while setting up hidden supply d u m p s and training the b e s t of the South Vietnamese a r m y in g u e r i l l a w a r f a r e . We should then pull out and a f t e r the C o m m u n i s t s have s e t t l e d down, s t a r t a g u e r i l l a w a r a g a i n s t them. Meanwhile we should definitely put what e x p e r i e n c e we have to u s e in L a o s , Thailand, and Cambodia (while we can). I ' P e r h a p s the m o s t knowledgeable s t a t e m e n t s c a m e f r o m P r o f e s s o r J. E.

The General is edited and published by The Avalon Hill Company almost solely for the cultural edification of adult gaming. (It also helps to sell Avalon Hill products, tool) Articles, from subscribers are considered for publication on a gratis contributory basis. Such articles must be typewritten and not exceed 700 words. Examples and diagrams that accompany such articles must be drawn in black ink, ready for reproduction. N o notice can be given regarding acceptance of articles for publication. All back issues, except Vol. 1, Nos. 1 & 4, which are out of stock, are available at $1.00 per issue. Full-year subscriptions Q $4.98.
0 1968

The Avalon Hill Company, Baltimore, Maryland. printed in U.S.A.

COVER STORY:
THE GAME DESIGNER

A Vanishing Breed?
This month we s a l u t e the unsung h e r o e s of the gaming w o r l d - those imaginative f r e e l a n c e d e s i g n e r s whose c r e a t i o n s f a r o u t n u m b e r the i n d u s t r y ' s ability to m a r k e t t h e i r i d e a s profitably. By no m e a n s a r e g a m e d e s i g n e r s a vanishing b r e e d . To the c o n t r a r y , a s the game i n d u s t r y g r o w s s o do the numb e r s of f r e e l a n c e d e s i g n e r s i n c r e a s e . In f a c t , t h i s o v e r - s u p p l y i n the g a m e industry h a s actually h u r t the e n t e r p r i s i n g individual who does c o m e up with a n o r i g i n a l i d e a only to have the i n d u s t r y say, " s o r r y , w e ' r e a l l full up. " The full-time g a m e d e s i g n e r who i s employed by the m a n u f a c t u r e r is a thing of the past. Today, m o s t p r o f e s s i o n a l designers work for design corporations who b r o k e r t h e i r e m p l o y e e s c r e a t i o n s to many m a n u f a c t u r e r s . Thus the f r e e lance d e s i g n e r i s now v e r y m u c h a t a disadvantage, e v e n though he m a y have excellent d e s i g n capabilities. A c a s e i n point i s S/Sgt. Louis Zocchi, shown o n o u r c o v e r d e e p i n thought o v e r a C h a n c e l l o r s v i l l e game. And when you c o n s i d e r t h a t C h a n c e l l o r s ville h a s been obsolete f o r f o u r y e a r s , you know how long h e ' s been d e e p in thought. Not. too long, however, to have taken the t i m e to d e s i g n h i s own aerial warfare game. Zocchi's c r e a tion had been two y e a r s i n the making which p r o v e s t h a t g a m e i d e a s don't develop overnight. Undaunted by r e jections f r o m m a j o r g a m e p u b l i s h e r s , Zocchi b e c a m e one of the f o r t u n a t e few (Continued on Page 1 2 )

our

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Pournelle , (Studio City, California) who indicated that the "whole war and i t s s t r a t e g y i s v e r y complex; f a r m o r e s o than your e d i t o r i a l might indicate. And f a r too much s o to be a n s w e r e d in fifty words even f o r s i x d o l l a r s in p r i z e s . I ' Nevertheless, the p r o f e s s o r ' s v e r y valid c o m m e n t a r y did. e a r n h i m h i s 6 bucks, e x c e r p t s of which a r e : "What he do that will the enemy do ? What he i s n ' t doing now? China h a s no m i l i t a r y power, a t l e a s t none f o r the p r e s ent. F o r a l l t h e i r tough talk they a c t r a t h e r cautiously. In 24 h o u r s one c o m bat wing of B-52's could r e d u c e China to the stone age. I ' Of a l l opinions submitted, p e r h a p s the p r o f e s s o r s u m m e d i t up b e s t by stating; "My own plan i s designed to convince the enemy t h a t the U.S. i s t h e r e to stay. The absolute f i r s t r e q u i r e m e n t of internal w a r i s to convince both the enemy and your e r s t while a l l i e s that you will not abandon your f r i e n d s . . . o t h e r w i s e you will have few f r i e n d s committed to you. Exactly o u r philosophy, p r o f e s s o r .

THE GENERAL

can

Maps of the Coal A g e Man


By Dr. M a r k Booy T h i s r e p o r t will a t t e m p t to explain the m a n n e r in which the Coal Age E a r t h m a n (homo idiotus) produced geological surveys. The study of homo idiotus h a s been e x t r e m e l y difficult b e c a u s e The G r e a t War d e s s i m a t e d m o s t of the planet E a r t h . During m y study of the a r e a that w a s once the middle s e c t o r of North ~ m e r i c a ;I c a m e a c r o s s s o m e e x t r e m e l y c r u d e maps: Some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e l i s t e d below: 1. The paper i s e x t r e m e l y thick. about 2 m i l l i m e t e r s . 2. They a p p e a r t o be i n f o u r sections that m u s t b e placed together on a flat s u r f a c e s o that i t can be used. 3 . Generally t h e s e a r e found in the Pollok ( l o w e s t ) l e v e l of the living units. It would t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r that the ignorant homo idioti took l i t t l e i n t e r e s t in geography. 4. A g r e a t n u m b e r of t h e s e m a p s w e r e found in B a l t i m o r e , Maryland. Most of t h e m have the m a r k AH on them. Apparently AH w a s the company that produced them. 5. The m a p s in Maryland a r e usually boxed in l a r g e s t a c k s . This h a s enabled u s t o get s o m e a l m o s t p e r f e c t specimins 6. T h e r e a r e usually l i t t l e pieces of .paper with printing on t h e m in the box ( s e e reproduction). Also included a r e instructions f o r moving 4-44 t h e s e p i e c e s and having

Other suggestions and c o m m e n t s : "Do not u s e n u c l e a r weapons. T h i s is a g u e r i l l a w a r and conventional a r m i e s have t h e i r golden opportunity to defeat a g u e r i l l a f o r c e . I ' "The Vietnam w a r i s basically a civil insurrection. We have no r i g h t there. I ' "Bring p r e s s u r e to b e a r o n s o - c a l l e d a l l i e s to help, and f o r c o u n t r i e s like Britain to stop trading with the enemy. " "Unity between the a l l i e s m u s t be achieved to v e r i f y o u r staying power and conviction in o u r cause. ' I "Increase a r m e d f o r c e s to 750, 000 m e n and place country on w a r economy. " "No nuclear nonsense. " "Declare w a r ! ! ! ! ! I 1 "Reduce Hanoi to rubble. De s t r u c tion of c i t i e s such a s Hanoi would be a tremendous psychological victory. " "If South Vietnam f a i l s i t will be no great loss. I' "Hand the w a r o v e r to the G e n e r a l s f o r six months. The p r o b l e m i s pushing N. Vietnam a s f a r a s we can without bringing China into the w a r ( s u c h a s we did in Korea). I ' "Chinese m i l i t a r y intervention should not be o v e r l y f e a r e d . "Gradualism would show the r e a l U. S. intentions of non-aggression. " "Stop the supplies and you stop the war. " "Stop all t r a d e with r e d n a t i o n s . Win then w o r r y about peace. ' I war "Drop nuclear bombs throughout N. Vietnam. If China p r o t e s t s c r e a m t h e m in s a m e manner. Sign n o n - a g g r e s s i o n pact with U. S. S: R. L e t the world howl. Half a world i s b e t t e r than defeat. (Would you believe no w o r l d ? We sugg e s t t h i s w a r g a m e r pick up a copy of G a m e s c i e n c e ' s "Nuclear War. ")

The above concludes a capable s u r vey of w a r g a m e r s 1 solutions to the Vietnam war. I t r e m a i n s to be s e e n which of them will be followed and prove successful, but hopefully a n adequate a n s y e r will be found.. . and soon.

..

You m a y now wonder. "what does a l l this have to do with Avalon Hill P h i l o s ophy ?I1 To be honest, Philosophy #8 ( M a r Apr i s s u e ) w a s motivated by a c u r i o s i ty on o u r p a r t r e g a r d i n g r e a d e r opinions. The v e r y r o o t of Avalon Hill's existence is "involvement. Our Walter Mitty approach to h i s t o r i c a l gaming i s predicated upon p l a y e r involvement. Much g r e a t e r e n t h u s i a s m c a n be enjendered when people a r e given an opportunity to take a p e r s o n a l p a r t in events. We w e r e not s u r p r i s e d , then, to find that Contest #24 produced the highest percentage of s u b s c r i b e r participation. I t w a s significant to note the r a d i cally high percentage of hawks (8570). This w a s to be expected to s o m e d e g r e e since those who a r e not p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d in " a g g r e s s i v e n e s s " would find no i n t e r e s t in playing battle games. The disappointment w a s in the high n u m b e r of e n t r a n t s who made absolutely no c o m m e n t r e g a r d i n g what the enem y ' s r e a c t i o n would be to t h e i r plan, even though t h i s w a s a c o n t e s t r e q u i r e ment. I t l e a d s us to believe that many of you w a r g a m e r s a r e not thinkers in a s t r a t e g i c s e n s e and cannot s e e beyond the immediate situation. Our future philosophy, then, will be. d i r e c t e d toward publishing a g r e a t e r number of a r t i c l e s dealing with long range s t r a t e g y and tactics. To the many who did respond e a r n e s t l y to the contest, go d i r e c t l y to Cont e s t #25. Do not p a s s Go. Do not coll e c t $200. But you m a y r e a d a few of the following a r t i c l e s on your way.

b a t t l e s of which the outcome i s d e t e r mined by a s y s t e m of gambling. Apparently the homo idioti had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n a c c u r a t e maps. T h e r e f o r e g a m e s of chance w e r e invented t o e n t e r t a i n h i m in the hope that he might be a b l e to l e a r n a l i t t l e Geography. Another explanation i s that t h e s e w e r e used t o s a t i s f y the d e s i r e s of ext r e m e l y s a d i s t i c mental patients by a l lowing t h e m t o make gory b a t t l e s and the t h r i l l of killing whole a r m i e s . It i s believed that e x t r e m e c a s e s actually played a s o l i t a r e v e r s i o n , moving both a r m i e s a t once f o r twice the satisfaction. I have been informed by Dr. F i i l Xeron I11 (the noted anthropologist of PIES- - P o l a r Institute of E a r t h Studies), that gangs of juvenile delinquents w e r e b a s e d on t h e s e games: They had n a m e s such a s A g g r e s s o r Homeland, We Conq u e r All, F o r c e s of Evil. Sadisto, and S p a r t a n s . T h e s e s a d i s t i c clubs fought among each o t h e r f o r t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s while a l s o t e r r o r i z i n g the inhabitants with ghost a r m i e s . D r . M a r k Booy, PhD M a r t i a n Institute of Scientific R e s e a r c h Luna 23. 12-352 R . H.

THE GENERAL

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Wargamers' Clinic Exercise $2


M. R. Brundage, E d i t o r with M. Kohn M. J. F r a n k w i c z

The clinic w i s h e s to c l e a r up a few m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s & e r r o r s that a p peared in article $1 (Mar-April Issue) of this s e r i e s . The 2-6 I1 C a v ( a r t y ) N-46 & the 5 - 4 Jaquinot BB-29 a r e F r e n c h Units & should have a p p e a r e d under P i r e (Cav) i n s t e a d of i n the Allied R o s t e r . The d i a g r a m of c o - o r d i n a t e s i s the E d i t o r ' s concoction and i s not the s a m e a s the AH p b m c o - o r d i nates. In a n s w e r to whose t u r n i s next: The next move would be F r e n c h 1 a . m . June 17th. We would a l s o e x p r e s s o u r humble appreciation f o r r e c e i v i n g l e t t e r s f r o m such notables a s " C u r s e you Red B a r on!" - J i m "Snoopy1' Knapp who s e n t a reply to the Clinic o n the b a c k of a P e a n u t ' s P o s t c a r d ; & the New B e r n , N. C. Stonewall B r i g a d e who f e e l t h a t though Napoleon will probably win, he d o e s n ' t d e s e r v e to; and to P a t Knapp, Monty Ala. ; G a r y G e h r k e , U. of Wis. ; M a r k Goldberg, Berwyn, Ill. ; C h a r l e s Hoch, S a n Diego, Cal. & L. Stone, Vienna, Va. f o r t h e i r helpful o b s e r v a tions, suggestions, & c o n c i s e a n a l y s i s . Now, down to the b u s i n e s s a t hand. The following i s the joint opinion of the Clinic o n Situation $1. " P a t e de F o i e G r a s " Though i t a p p e a r s t h a t the F r e n c h have m a d e s o m e astounding gains, i t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t they have m a d e s o m e lasting mistakes. Statistics seldom lie & they t e l l u s t h a t F r e n c h y m u s t annihilate 2N C 10 Allied f a c t o r s (N r e p r e senting f u t u r e F r e n c h l o s s e s ) before they c a n win. T h e r e f o r e , even if Napoleon r e a c h e d B r u s s e l s i t i s doubtful he would be able to m e e t v i c t o r y conditions. L e t u s now then analyze the m i s t a k e s which w e r e m a d e o n both s i d e s & those p a r t i c u l a r l y of the F r e n c h f o r c e s which l e d u s to this situation. Ed. Note: We a r e analyzing then not so m u c h the fut u r e c o u r s e of e v e n t s , they s e e m c l e a r , but p a s t m i s t a k e s . To begin: the g a m e b o a r d i s a s h a m b l e s reflecting what m u s t have been s o m e wild & d e s p e r a t e a c t i o n s , e a r l i e r . F r o m this c a n be deduced that c e r t a i n

P r i n c i p l e s of War w e r e forgotten o r a t b e s t overlooked. The F r e n c h f o r c e s w e r e so infatuated (Ed. Note: Look t h a t word up!) with h i s f o r w a r d p r o g r e s s that he overlooked the P r i n c i p l e s of 1) Economy of F o r c e ; 2) M a s s & M o v e m e n t & 3) Security. L e t u s now a n a lyze e a c h in detail. l ) Both F r e n c h & P r u s s i a n s failed to u s e good Economy of F o r c e by the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of l o s s e s a t this point i n the g a m e which would s u g g e s t n u m e r o u s a t t a c k s a t 3-1 o r l e s s ( m o s t l y l e s s ) odds. The F r e n c h player a p p a r e n t l y failed to note the tremendous l o s s e s he w a s taking f o r h i s Blitz like v i c t o r i e s . 2) M a s s w a s not maintained a s he c a n be s e e n by the F r e n c h units left i n the r e a r and o t h e r s which a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m the Main Body by s e v e r a l s q u a r e s . Though speed and dispatch with a f a i r u s e of m o v e m e n t s e e m e d to be u s e d by the F r e n c h f o r c e s in c r u s h i n g the P r u s s i a n s o n the Tilly Road & the B r i t i s h a t Nivelles. The French player over-used it such that he forgot. 3) Security. Both F r e n c h & P r u s s i a n s w e r e m a j o r v i o l a t o r s of sound Security. P r u s s i a n s in the f i r s t instance & F r e n c h i n the l a s t . The P r u s s i a n s paid f o r t h e i r m i s t a k e a t the Tilly Road. The F r e n c h have and a r e about to o n Hill M-33. The P r i n c i p l e of War S u r p r i s e , a m a s t e r s t r o k e on the p a r t of the B r i t i s h player s e e m s to have been u s e d well. By allowing the F r e n c h p l a y e r a n unopposed r o u t e o n the Mt. St. J e a n r o a d he w a s able to completely s u r p r i s e , s u r r o u n d , & c u t off the bulk of the F r e n c h f o r c e s a t M-33 with h i s o n c o m ing units &withdrawing P r u s s i a n f o r c e s . The F r e n c h o n M-33 m u s t a t t a c k o u t now a t unfavorable odds with the A l l i e s s t i l l having a good c o u n t e r - a t t a c k situation which will kill any chance f o r the F r e n c h to win mathematically. A well placed defense l i n e a n c h o r e d a t Nivelles & B r a i n e L a Comte will p r o t e c t the r e i n f o r c e m e n t s f r o m Hal. A tight packed a r e a defense set-up by the Allies i n the defection zone would f o r c e the F r e n c h to f u r t h e r b e a t himself to death. If you w i s h to r e - r e a d , and we sugg e s t you do, the a r t i c l e s on the P. of W. mentioned i n this a r t i c l e we s u g g e s t

you s e e . J a n - F e b . 67. Vol. 3. No. 5 f o r Economy of F o r c e ; Sept. 66, Vol. 3, No. 3 f o r M a s s & Movement; Nov. Dec. 67, Vol. 4, No. 4 f o r Security; & July-Aug. 67, Vol. 4, No. 2 f o r S u r p r i s e . Ed. Note: P e r m i s s i o n h a s been obtained by S & T magazine f r o m the AH G e n e r a l to r e - p u b l i s h under a single c o v e r the P r i n c i p l e s of War S e r i e s . As soon a s s p e c i f i c s have been worked o u t and the volume published i t will become available to the r e a d e r . If you wish f u r t h e r info a s to c o s t kindly contact S t r a t e g y & T a c t i c s Magazine, c / o C h r i s Wagner, E d i t o r & P u b l i s h e r , Box 11187, Loudonville, New York 12211 USA.

Situation # 2 D-Day The following situation o c c u r r e d between Mr. F r a n k w i c z and h i s able opponent Mr. Steve M a r e . The board u s e s new D-Day co -rodinate s a s printed on board. German Roster

PAGE 5
0-1-4 21 1- 2- 2 211-2-2 5-5-4 6-6-4 4-4-3 4-4-3 0- 1 - 4 3-4-3 211-2-2 4-4-3 3-4-3 1-2-2 M-15 M-22 M-23 N-8 N- 9 N-18 N- 20 N-21 N-24 0-25 P-23 AA-41 TT-29 shown on r o s t e r . The a l l i e s have e x pended 2 s h o t s with i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . Two Allied 4-4-4's have been l o s t in a futile a s s a u l t upon 1-16, but a shaky beachhead h a s been established. The G e r m a n s l o s t two 1 - 2 - 2 ' s a t 5-17. The two Allied 4 - 4 - 4 ' s a t K-19 c a m e in unopposed. A key G e r m a n r e s e r v e unit (4-4-3) a t Antwerp w a s e l i m inated by a i r , and a l s o kvo i m p o r t a n t 1 - 2 - 2 ' s a t Ostend (L-20). F o r f e a r of Allied A i r P o w e r , the G e r m a n player h a s attempted to achieve m a x i m u m d i s p e r s i o n consistent with Security. The question i s now, howe v e r , whether o r not he h a s h i s t i m e / distance f a c t o r and h i s M a s s f M o v e m e n t h u r t i n g ? He a p p e a r s capable of h e m m i n g in the Allied units a t J-17, but with Allied A i r P o w e r , what i s going to happen a t O s t e n d ? The Allied p l a y e r chose this a r e a because of tlie situation of G e r m a n r e s e r v e s . I t i s possible that the s u c c e s s ful a i r s t r i k e a g a i n s t the two 1-2-2's in Ostend should have been, d i r e c t e d against the 4-4-3 a t Tournai. Nevertheless, i t a p p e a r s that the G e r m a n player s t i l l h a s t i m e and control probl e m s on h i s hands. The Allied c o m m a n d e r hopes to u s e a combination of a i r s t r i k e s , a i r b o r n e & ground power to wedge out and defeat the G e r m a n in detail. Do you think the Allied C o m m a n d e r c h o s e the right a r e a f o r invas i o n ? Did he, once committed, a c t w i s e l y ? How well do you think the G e r m a n p l a y e r set-up h i s d e f e n s e s against the invasion? Do you have an a l t e r n a t i v e ? What i s your a n a l y s i s of the situation? IvIyron R. Brundage 2437 ?f: ~ u n n ~ s i d e Chicago, I l l i n o i s 60625

THE GENERAL

'Wold the Reins Loose, Peipe~ ..


By Scotty Bowden

4-4-3 211-2-2

P-25 P - 26

Allies R o s t e r

Allied A i r P o w e r expends - 2 Shots Casualties Germans Allies 411-2-2 &


4-4-3

We a l l know that a f t e r the initial shock, the G e r m a n Ardennes counteroffensive turned into a d i s m a l failure. Many people think that t h i s a t t a c k could have n e v e r succeeded. Eisenhower, Bradley, and Hodges a l l believe that Hitler made one of h i s g r e a t e s t m i s t a k e s when h e o r d e r e d the Ardennes attack. However, I believe that with'out the defenses of St. Vith and Bastogne, the G e r m a n s might well have m e t t h e i r schedule. Another thing that greatly contributed t o the G e r m a n defeat was the m i s u s e of the Sixth P a n z e r Army. Throughout the conflict, the m o s t elite a r m y p o s s e s s e d by G e r m a n y b a t t e r e d i t s head a g a i n s t the fortified positions of the E l s e n b o r n Ridge advancing v i r t u a l l y nowhere. Using t h i s knowledge, one can p r e p a r e a n d e x e c u t e a s u c c e s s f u l offensive. Also, due t o the supply r e s t r i c t i o n s f r o m the second move onward, a succ e s s f u l f i r s t two days move i s vital t o the G e r m a n t i m e t a b l e . The N o r t h e r n F r o n t The Elsenborn-St. Vith r o a d must b e cut on the initial move to prevent the A m e r i c a n 99th and 2nd divisions f r o m i m m e d i a t e l y reinforcing the Cent r a l F r o n t . T h i s i s executed by capture of SS9 and attacking of RR9. The 14th Cavalry m u s t b e surrounded ( r e v i s e d r u l e s - 14th Cavalry on F o r t r e s s ) . However, execute a 1 - 2 a t t a c k against the 14th C a v a l r y without using a l l a d jacent units. The two r e g i m e n t s in the S ~ h i n e e Eifel m u s t be eliminated the 16 A.M. t u r n and no l a t e r than the 16 P . M. turn. T h i s i s executed by capture of SS 15 and two 3- 1 Attacks. Although a n engagement i s possible, two a r e v e r y unlikely. It i s i m p e r a t i v e that St. Vith f a l l on 16 P . M . and no l a t e r than 17 A. M. Usually the G e r m a n will capt u r e St. Vith on 16 P . M . since the capt u r e of the St. Vith-Clervaux r o a d will t h r e a t e n the A m e r i c a n r e a r a r e a s . Thus, a shift of U.S. f o r c e s f r o m North to Center i s n e c e s s a r y t o plug the Northc e n t r a l F r o n t . With the f a l l of St. Vith, the North and C e n t r a l F r o n t s can unite. Once t h i s t a k e s place the G e r m a n can choose which avenue of advance to pursue. The C e n t r a l F r o n t The C e n t r a l F r o n t h a s t o b e the most

214-4-4 Synopsis

I t i s the beginning of G e r m a n half of T u r n 1. Disposition of f o r c e s ape a s

Defend the Koufax Desert?


by Roger F o w l e r Should you defend the G r e a t Koufax D e s e r t ? Most g e n e r a l s would s a y no. Why? Because the only thing out t h e r e is sand. Sand and a p e r f e c t r o u t e f o r invasion. The one and only defense for the d e s e r t i s VV-25 which connects the c o a s t r o a d with BIG RED. If one w a s to send a r m o r (about 4 o r 5 div. ) down the c o a s t r o a d to CC- 15 one would be in position to move o n EE-25 o r a t t a c k VV-25. This should be done on about the second t u r n o r soon t h e r e a f t e r . Your f i r s t objective m u s t be VV-25, your offensive should not go into high g e a r until this i s o u t of the way. Also a s soon a s r e i n f o r c e m e n t s a r r i v e send a l l a r m o r and breakthrough a r t i l l e r y down the c o a s t to V V - Z ~and s p r e a d out. Take a l l c i t i e s that you c a n and g e n e r a l l y c a u s e a s much confusion behind your opponents l i n e s a s possible. Your only r e a l p r o b l e m will be to take VV-25, I s u g g e s t using A r t . and P a r a t r o o p s . One should not a t t a c k VV-25 too soon because if you do and (heaven help you) you don't take i t , your opponent will c r e a m you. On the o t h e r hand if you do,the r e v e r s e i s true. This plan m a y be used f o r two objectives--1. F o r offense by s i m p l y a t tacking your opponent 2. F o r stopping your opponent f r o m attacking him. Aft e r a l l R. E . L e e once s a i d ; "The b e s t defense i s a good offense. Comments to: Roger F o w l e r , 7 112 E a s t 6th S t r e e t , E m p o r i a , Kan. 66801.

THE GENERAL
important and top p r i o r a t i v e section on the board. It i s on t h i s f r o n t that r a p i d advance must be made. T h e r e f o r e , the f i r s t two days will prove decisive in the l a t e r advance of the front. If the German. can capture the rough t e r r a i n a s f a r a s I1 by the end of the second day, then with his basically defended Houfalize Bastogne flank, the A m e r i c a n can be rolled back e a s i l y thus s e v e r e l y exposing Bastogne and the Ourthe R i v e r . Bastogne m u s t fall by 20 A.M. (the a d vance of the f i r s t two days will roughly determine when G e r m a n u n i t s will r e a c h Bastogne. ) The second m o s t important objective f o r the G e r m a n i s the C r o s s i n g of the Ourthe. Once t h i s r i v e r i s b r e a c h e d e n m a s s e , the A m e r i c a n will be compelled to defend a n a r e a that i s perfect tank t e r r a i n . This en m a s s e c r o s s i n g of the Ourthe must take place no l a t e r than 21 A.M. ( H e r e again, if the f i r s t two d a y s ' moves prove successful, the breaching will m o s t probably come bef o r e 21 A . M . ) Regular and r a p i d a d vance will follow the c r o s s i n g of the Ourthe because in t h i s game A m e r i c a n quantity does not make up f o r German quality. In other words, the Meuse has been breached. The Southern F r o n t Flank cover i s vital to the German. The southern front f o r c e s , originally B r a n d e n b e r g e r ' s Seventh A r m y , must be a potential offensive t h r e a t a s well a s a mobile defensive a r m y . On the 16 A. M. t u r n , 9-CCR should be eliminated and breaching of the Our held by the 4th division would be highly beneficial in the delay of t h e s e units to the major a r e a s . A s your c e n t r a l and southe r n f r o n t s advance, i t will be n e c e s s a r y to guard your flanks a s the occasion will a r i s e . This was the original objective f o r the Seventh A r m y . Throughout the e n t i r e game, the thought of a t tacking German flanks m u s t be e l i m i nated f r o m the A m e r i c a n ' s mind, unl e s s a special situation a r i s e s . The German must hold units a t key positions along the southern, and n o r t h e r n , flanks to r e p e l o r bog down flank attacking units. ( B e s i d e s capturing to protect the flank, the f a l l of Martelange will expose Bastogne's flank. ) Never f o r g e t about the supply r o a d s ; they a r e your lifeline. Retrospect F o r one month i t l a s t e d - - t h e l a r g e s t , single pitched battle on the Western front, yet, a f t e r a c r u c i a l f i r s t t e n d a y s , the German a r m o r e d might was d e s t r o y ed and with i t a l l hope of capturing' B r u s s e l s . Antwerp, and m o s t important, negotiated peace on the W e s t e r n F r o n t . R e m e m b e r , t h e r e m u s t be no l o n g - l a s t ing isolated pockets of r e s i s t a n c e i n the middle of the German s e a . Don't m i s u s e your units on nonstrategic and tactical positions. Take c a r e of your P a n z e r s and Volksgrenediers, and they. in r e t u r n , will take c a r e of the A m e r i cans. Don't f o r g e t that r a p i d advance on the f i r s t two days i s vital. The

PAGE 6
Ardennes situation was b e s t summed up by Hitler who said, "Hold the r e i n s loose, P e i p e r , and l e t the a r m i e s race. Scotty Bowden 1106 G r e e n b r i a r Lane ~riin~ton Texas , 7601 0

Aftermath of Victory
By Michael P a l u s z e k Most a r t i c l e s in the Avalon Hill magazine deal with two things; offensive and defensive strategy. However, little, if anything, has been said about the problems of l o c a l victory. In general, p l a y e r s tend to w o r r y quite a bit over how to achieve a victory, but neglect the a f t e r m a t h of a successful battle, past the other m a n ' s turn, the two main points of this a r e position and supply. Position i s the m o r e important of the two f a c t o r s . This includes the density of your position and the enemie's. how your units a r e placed, where they can move and, according to t h e i r p r e sent position, s t r a t e g i c value of any m o r e movement. Whenever you s e i z e t e r r i t o r y you weaken s o m e p a r t of your line. In a n y c a s e where a n advance would significantly weaken your line, i t should be abandoned - - unless of c o u r s e , i t made your opponent's weaker. (You might note that the G e r m a n s did t h i s often in Russia. ) The actual positioning of your units immediately a f t e r battle i s e x t r e m e l y important. A poor placement may leave you open to counterattack and, o r isolation. Any action which would definitely r e s u l t in poor positions should be avoided. Generally speaking, some of the w o r s t positions i n a post-battle situation a r e ; having one unit between enemy units in t h e i r line, having only one o r two s q u a r e s behind a r i v e r line occupied and being caught in a valley. These and any other poor a f t e r - c o m b a t situations should always be avoided. However, the b e s t way to protect yourself against any situation, such a s the preceeding, i s to keep a line of units behind your attacking f o r c e . Whenever you commit yourself to the attack, you should look f o r w a r d into the following t u r n s . Mainly, what will y o u b e a b l e to do f r o m the newly a c q u i r ed position? Even the s e i z u r e of a key point in your opponent's line i s of no u s e to you, if you cannot move anywhere. Inability to move often o c c u r s when you push the e n e m y ' s line back onto mountains, behind r i v e r s o r into cities. The f?nal f a c t o r h e r e i s the s t r a t e g i c value of any moves f r o m the newly a c q u i r e d position. One t u r n s key position can become quite u s e l e s s a f t e r a small shift in your opponent's line. Ergo: you should look f o r the value of a position in the following t u r n s , not just right now. Supply, i s the other factor t o b e cons i d e r e d f o r the period a f t e r victory. The main points of t h i s a r e , supply l i n e s and supply capacity. Supply l i n e s i s the m o r e important of the two since i t l a r g e l y controls your supply capacity and invariably the movement of your units. The main points to be considered h e r e a r e , can a s a t i s f a c t o r y supply line be established i m mediately a f t e r battle, how long can i t be maintainedand a t what cost? Establishing supply l i n e s i s usually no probl e m , since they a r e m e r e l y a n unblocked route of s q u a r e s , unless of course your positioning a f t e r battle i s extremely poor, but maintaining i t may be quite a problem. The r e a s o n f o r this i s that a n interdiction a t t a c k route, which you quite often have following enemy count e r a t t a c k s . This can usually be solved by m e r e l y seizing and utilizing m o r e s q u a r e s for t h i s purpose. The cost of maintaining supply lines i s one of the m o s t important factors. Before executing a n offense, you should know the maximum number of units needed to protect that supply line. Any offensive action needing a l a r g e amount of units t o protect i t s supply line in the future m a y make itself more than useless. The final f a c t o r i s supply capacity, meaning the amount of supplies availa b l e to units moving into enemy t e r r i tory. You should always have m o r e than enough supplies to support your offensive and any other battle? that might occur because of it. But r e m e m b e r , your supply capacity i s worthless if i t cannot be used. These f a c t o r s may s e e m too complicated to contemplate on b e f o r e each offensive, but i n r e s u l t s they will be worth many t i m e s the trouble. Michael P a l u s z e k 80 North S t r e e t Rye, New York 10580

PAGE 7

THE GENERAL

On Strategic Defense
ETR3 L. Sidney Trevethan USN The following, and conclusion (Part Two) to appear next issue, are the comments of f the USS ETR 3 L. Sidney Trevethan o Waddell. Currently an electronics warfare specialist technician Trevethan has drawn up his report from current "intelligence," and info out o f The US Naval Institute o f Proceedings, US News & World Report, The Airforce World, Scientific American and several industrial technical reports.
Any study of the Soviet M i l i t a r y s y s t e m l e a d s one to the, conclusion that t h e r e e x i s t s a v e r y g r a v e t h r e a t to the s e c u r i t y of the f r e e world. Any f a m i l i a r i t y with A m e r i c a n defense policy l e a d s one to the conclusion that i t i s f a s t becoming bankrupt in the f a c e of existing and developmental t h r e a t s . F o r a l l i t s l i m i t a t i o n s o n the r i g h t s of individuals, life in the f r e e world cannot be c o m p a r e d to that of a police state. Rational m e n should be a w a r e of the t h r e a t s posed by those who would r u l e by f o r c e , and should develop and support a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n t e r - m e a s u r e s . The p u r p o s e of this r e p o r t i s to p r e s e n t b r i e f l y the c u r r e n t c o n c e p t s and s y s t e m s employed by the A m e r i c a n A r m e d F o r c e s , to outline what i s known about m a j o r Soviet S t r a t e g i c F o r c e s , and to d e s c r i b e p o s s i b l e c o u n t e r - m e a s u r e s f o r the p r e s e n t unbalance of power. Part I l o n g e r maintained o n a n a l e r t basis.. But n a v a l c a r r i e r s , a i r f o r c e t a c t i c a l a i r c r a f t deployed around the world, and naval m i s s i l e s c a n a l s o d e l i v e r n u c l e a r warheads against targets in enemy t e r r i t o r y . S t r a t e g i c b o m b e r s could be outfitted f o r s u c h a t a s k in a few h o u r s o r days. A m e r i c a n S t r a t e g i c Defense S y s t e m s a l s o include an a i r defense s y s t e m of i n t e r c e p t o r s , s u r f a c e to a i r m i s s i l e s and to a l i m i t e d d e g r e e , AA o r dual p u r p o s e guns, which provide a m o d e r a t e ability to stop e n e m y b o m b e r s . Also of s t r a t e g i c significance a r e A m e r i c a ' s ASW (Anti-submarine W a r f a r e ) f o r c e s . A well balanced f o r c e o r ASW C a r r i e r s , E s c o r t Ships, ASW P a t r o l C r a f t , Hunter Killer S u b m a r i n e s , and Shore B a s e d ASW A i r c r a f t provide defense f o r A m e r i c a ' s c o a s t s and shipping a g a i n s t s u b m a r i n e attack. F i n a l l y , existing d e f e n s e s include a s m a l l n u m b e r of highly mobile m a r i n e and a r m y f o r c e s to c o m b a t e n e m y f o r c e s anywhere d e s i r e d , with n a v a l o r a i r support. The m a j o r developmental weapons a r e advanced m i s s i l e s to r e p l a c e the existing ones. Specifically, Minutem a n I11 will r e p l a c e Minuteman I1 and Poisidon will . r e p l a c e P o l a r u s . The m a j o r i m p r o v e m e n t in the new types is MIRV multiply-targeted independent r e - e n t r y vehicles. E a c h ICBM o r IRBM will have the capacity to send n u c l e a r w a r h e a d s to s e v e r a l t a r g e t s . The developmentof long r a n g e bomb-

e r s and stand-off m i s s i l e s h a s been s u s pended, although the new s e c r e t a r y of d e f e n s e h a s indicated a n i n t e r e s t in a new b o m b e r . (Stand-off m i s s i l e s a r e b o m b e r launched and have s e v e r a l adv a n t a g e s o v e r the u s e of ICBMs o r b o m b e r s alone). Biological and c h e m i c a l weapons have been and a r e being developed o n a m o d e r a t e s c a l e , and stockpiled, f o r use in c a s e a n e n e m y w e r e to use them. They have not been integrated into m o s t units of the A r m e d F o r c e s , although defense a g a i n s t e n e m y u s e of such weapons h a s been emphasized. Today a g r e a t p a r t of the "Armed" F o r c e s i s back-up, and the r a t i o of s u p p o r t to l i n e t r o o p s i s the g r e a t e s t in history. A g r e a t number of A m e r i c a n troops a r e not p r o f e s s i o n a l m i l i t a r y men. A m e r i c a h a s a million m a n r e s e r v e f o r c e , m o s t of which would r e q u i r e 90 d a y s o r m o r e to mobilize with inostly old equipment. A g r e a t s h o r t a g e of equipment h a s been developing, and even the active f o r c e s do not have a s t a n d a r d i z e d equippage. 60% of the active US f l e e t i s m o r e than 25 y e a r s old, and m a n y of the new s h i p s a r e unique o r p a r t l y so. R e c e n t e m p h a s i s h a s been o n l i m i t e d n u m b e r s of highly complex equipments, which h a s a l l too often r e s u l t e d i n a s h o r t a g e of p a r t s and t r a i n e d personnel. Much of this new complex equipment h a s not proved reliable. C u r r e n t l y , the US is deploying o n a v e r y light s c a l e - a point-to-point antim i s s i l e s y s t e m . I t c a n handle only a s m a l l n u m b e r of ICBM type m i s s i l e s . and the c l o s e in s p r i n t b a t t e r y would in p r a c t i c e damage the a r e a under the int e r c e p t e d m i s s i l e . I t is quite possible that the s o v i e t s employ r a d a r deceptive d e v i c e s that would r e n d e r this s y s t e m a t l e a s t p a r t l y ineffective. However, i t should be noted that the s y s t e m being deployed i s not intended f o r defense a g a i n s t soviet s y s t e m s , and that i t m a y v e r y well do i t s jobof intercepting e a r l y chinese delivery systems.

Concepts and Systems of American Strategic Defense


F o r m o r e than a decade A m e r i c a n S t r a t e g i c Defense concepts have been based on psychology r a t h e r than any ability to stop a n e n e m y attack. It w a s decided that no p r a c t i c a l defense a g a i n s t s t r a t e g i c m i s s i l e s e x i s t s , but t h a t s u c h an a t t a c k could be p r e v e n t e d by being able to c o u n t e r a t t a c k with s i m i l a r s y s t e m s o n a giant s c a l e . The p r i m a r y s y s t e m s f o r such a c o u n t e r a t t a c k today c o n s i s t of Underground ICBM and U n d e r s e a IRBM ( P o l a r u s ) M i s s i l e s that d e l i v e r m o d e r ate yield t h e r m o n u c l e a r w a r h e a d s . E a c h m i s s i l e d e l i v e r s one s u c h w a r head to a p r e d e t e r m i n e d f a r g e t , s e v e r e l y damaging a n a r e a a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty m i l e s in r a d i u s . That s u c h weapons do not s i m p l y d e s t r o y the e n e m y m i l i t a r y m a c h i n e , but the populace a s well i s a c c e p t e d a s unavoidable. There a r e also several other syst e m s f o r d e l i v e r i n g t h i s counterattack. Land b a s e d IRBMS have been d i s c o n tinued, and s t r a t e g i c b o m b e r s a r e no

ETR 3 L. Sidney Trevethan USN OE Division USS Waddell DDG-24 FPO San Francisco, California96601

Kounter Kunst
by Tom Wham The time h a s come a t l a s t . All week you've been waiting f o r t h i s m o m e n t . . . The Big Game. But, a l a s , you don't have a big p l a s t i c b a i t box into which you've s o r t e d a l l those m y r i a d l i t t l e pink, g r e e n and blue c o u n t e r s . Instead, when you pull the lid off your Blitzkrieg o r your Waterloo box, your opponent s h u d d e r s and backs away.. unit counter s a l a d ! ! T h e r e follows, depending o n what game you play, a lengthy period of m e t i c u l o u s squinting, s o r t i n g , piling, and organizing, a t the end of which you a r e both suffering f r o m e y e s t r a i n . . and the g a m e i s y e t to begin.

THE GENERAL
A happy solution to this typical p r e w a r g a m e headache i s to s i m p l y m a r k the backs of a l l your p i e c e s . F o r instance, in m y Waterloo s e t , the F r e n c h units that s t a r t i n G r o s s i e l l e s have a big "G" o n t h e i r b a c k s , those that s t a r t in Marchenne O u Pont, a big I'M", and the r e s t I've l e f t unmarked. As f o r the PAA units, the Q u a t r e B r a s s t a r t e r s The Nivelles s t a r t a r e m a r k e d "QB". e r s c a r r y a big s t a r , and the s t a r t i n g P r u s s i a n A r m y , a black dot. All the units that t r i c k l e o n a s the g a m e p r o g r e s s e s have the hour and d a y of a r r i v a l w r i t t e n on them. Thus by turning a l l the c o u n t e r s o n t h e i r b a c k s I c a n o r g a n i z e m y f o r c e s , and do i t without s e e k i n g o u t J e r o m e a n d G i r a r d by name. F r o m e x p e r i e n c e I ' v e found t h a t a number o r a l e t t e r o n the b a c k of a counter w o r k s j u s t a s well a s the c o m binations of m u l t i - c o l o r e d dots, s t a r s , a n d X 1 s I ' v e t r i e d o n o t h e r games. It's often advisable to number e a c h g r o u p on a n O r d e r of Appearance C h a r t and likewise the b a c k s of the units f r o m that group. In m y Bulge g a m e , the A m e r i c a n units a l l have t h e i r s t a r t i n g locations p r i n t e d o n back, s o that a s I s o r t I c a n s e t them up on the c o r r e c t spaces. T h i s s y s t e m of drawing on the b a c k s of units opens a whole new r e a l m of c r e a t i v i t y to w a r g a m e r s . One could put Red S w a s t i c a s on the back of G e r m a n A r m o r and Black E a g l e s on the Luftwaffe ( p a r a t r o o p e r s ) , and maybe little elephants on the back of the I t a l i a n s ; detailed b o m b e r s o n S a c ' s and tiny f i g h t e r s on the back of F t r ' s . A Civil War Cannon would look nice o n the b a c k s of P e g r a m and McKintosh and a p o r t r a i t of e a c h G e n e r a l ( b e a r d s and a l l ) could be painstakingly drawn on the b a c k s of H e a d q u a r t e r s units. In f a c t , a whole new hobby could be b o r n just because s o m e w a r g a m e r s a r e too l a z y to u s e p l a s t i c boxes, envelopes, but I doubt it. o r cardboard trays.. If you a r e one of those who play your g a m e s with the p i e c e s turned upside down f o r s e c r e c y , such m a r k i n g s a s I have just suggested would be of g r e a t intelligence value to your opponent. Too much, i n fact. Be s u r e to bring your own game s e t s when you c o m e to battle with m e .

The Test that will 'Fevo/ution~ze" the Industry


By C h a r l e s Hoch

Many correspondents have recognized the need for bringing order out of wargaming chaos. Only Charles Hoch of St. Francis College in California has done anything practical about it. After reviewing the evaluation test sample itself, we find that Mr. Hoch has indeed understated the usefulness such a test will serve.

Tom Wham RMSN B 515067 U.S.S. Deney DLG14 F. P. 0. New York 09501

Guadalaanal PBM Hldden Movement


by Capt. R i c h a r d R. Nichols In a n y hidden movement, t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n b a s i c objectives which a r e i m portant t o both p l a y e r s . T h e s e a r e (1) To keep the code a s e c r e t , ( 2 ) To keep a l l units f r o m being exposed by placing one unit on the b o a r d , b r e a k i n g the code, and ( 3 ) To d e v i s e a code t h a t cannot be changed. To r e s o l v e the above p r o b l e m s , I have u s e d the following movement s t e p s . F o r the s a k e of discussion. I will r e f e r t o the US player a s Blue, and t h e Japan e s e player a s Red. F o r e a c h unit which i s to be hidden, a s e p a r a t e code i s devised. T h i s code i s then placed on a s m a l l s h e e t of p a p e r , the paper i s then folded into a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 inch s q u a r e , with the code well hidden on the inside. The R e d player then p l a c e s the unit n u m b e r and h i s i n i t i a l s on the outside of the folded p a p e r , and s e a l s the unit with tape ( c l e a r ) covering h i s initials. The s m a l l envelope i s m a i l e d along with the r e m a i n d e r of the move, i n cluding o t h e r hidden m o v e s , to the Blue player. The Blue p l a y e r then i n i t i a l s the s m a l l envelope, and c o v e r s h i s initials with tape. T h i s l e a v e s the code hidden and unchangeable. The Blue player then l i s t s h i s units moves s q u a r e by s q u a r e when a p o s s i ble contact i s available. He m a k e s the e n t i r e move and m a i l s it to the R e d player in the n o r m a l m a n n e r . If a cont a c t i s m a d e , the Blue unit m u s t stop to b a t t l e . The battle i s r e s o l v e d by the u s e of a n e x t r a s t o c k chosen by the Blue p l a y e r i n c a s e t h i s c o m e s up. Since i t i s the R e d player who will be stating the blocking position of h i s unit, the code envelope, i n i t i a l s and a l l , i s sent to the Blue player to v e r i f y the move. To b r e a k this down t o s t e p s , h e r e they a r e : 1. The R e d player s e n d s the codes i n h i s move. 2. The US player initials the codes. 3. The US player l i s t s the s t e p s taken by h i s units. 4. E x t r a s t o c k s a r e l i s t e d i n c a s e of hidden units. 5. The R e d player s e n d s the sheet back to the US player to v e r i f y the a c curacy. An optional move can be i n c o r p o r a t e d s o that when a u n i t ' s move i s blocked by a hidden unit, the US player h a s the option to move up o t h e r units which have not y e t moved that t u r n . T h i s t a k e s l o n g e r , s i n c e the move m u s t b e s e n t back f o r t h i s step. Capt. R i c h a r d R. Nichols, 121 Illin o i s D r i v e , Little Rock A i r F o r c e B a s e , Jacksonville, A r k a n s a s 72076.

A s i n t e r e s t e d c o n s u m e r s (your int e r e s t e d if you pay $5.00 a y e a r f o r a s u b s c r i p t i o n t o the G e n e r a l ) , we must l e a r n t o s h a r e i n a d e e p e r understanding and m o r e concerned evaluation of the difficulties facing organized w a r gaming, and then proceed to produce solutions t o t h e s e difficulties. All one need do i s look a t the Opponents Wanted Section of this i s s u e , and he will w i t n e s s a chaotic conglomeration of t h r e a t s , a p p e a l s and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s of u n s u r p a s s e d confusion. After a f e l low r e a d s the f i r s t column, he d o e s n ' t know who he wants to play, what club i s good to join o r who h a s experience and who's just bluffing. The new w a r g a m e r d e s p a i r s , thinking, "If I w r i t e and challenge t h i s c h a r a c t e r , h e ' l l probably clobber m e , o r be s o inexp e r i e n c e d that I ' l l beat h i m i n t h r e e m o v e s . " So, he t u r n s t o the v a s t a r r a y of clubs and hopes t o find within their r a n k s , a position which p r o m i s e s to p r e s e n t h i m with a seemingly unlimited number of wargaming opportunities. But, once a g a i n h i s hopes a r e f r u s t r a t e d a s he finds that club t o u r n a m e n t s get bogged down i n a m a s s of r e d tape, s o that just when h e ' s winning a game a s the G e r m a n s in Stalingrad, he r e c e i v e s a l e t t e r f r o m the C o m m a n d e r in Chief saying that the club h a s s u r r e n d e r e d and i s disbanding. Finally, he ends up participating in one of the v a r i o u s t o u r n a m e n t s which periodically appear a m o n g s t the f u r o r of club r i v a l r y . He pays the e n t r a n c e f e e , r e c e i v e s the a d d r e s s e s , and d i s c o v e r s that the two m e n h e ' s playing a r e v e t e r a n AH w a r g a r n e r s , n e i t h e r of whom have l o s t a game i n 23 consecutive tournaments. Thus, the new w a r g a m e r v a s c i l l a t e s , f u r t i v e l y jumping f r o m tournament to t o u r n a m e n t , praying that someday he will d i s c o v e r someone who will be a challenging, yet not overwhelming match.

PAGE 9
Sooner o r l a t e r , the novice P B M w a r g a m e r e x p e r i e n c e s a t l e a s t one of t h e s e difficulties, if not a l l . Though I ' v e e x a g g e r a t e d , t h e s e e x a m p l e s tend to i l l u s t r a t e the need f o r a n objective c r i t e r i o n by which we, a s w a r g a m e r s (old and new) can l e a r n the ability of o t h e r w a r g a m e r s without having to play them. "But, ' I you a s k , "what o t h e r way i s t h e r e ? " It i s t h i s . The t a c t i c a l ability of a w a r g a m e r c a n b e t e s t e d i n such a way a s to yield a somewhat a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e of h i s ability i n a s p e c i f i c game. But, i n o r d e r f o r t h i s t e s t to be both valid and r e l i a b l e , i t m u s t be objective and u n i v e r s a l . T h i s m e a n s that a s many w a r g a m e r s a s a r e i n t e r e s t e d could take ability t e s t s f o r a n y of the AH g a m e s they p r e f e r . And, s i n c e the t e s t i s objective, i. e . the t e s t i s s c o r e d on i t s conformity to a previously e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d , then h i s s c o r e t a k e s on a specific value f o r e a c h g a m e in which he t a k e s a t e s t . The t e s t b e c o m e s u n i v e r s a l when a substantial n u m b e r of g a m e r s take the s a m e ability t e s t f o r e a c h g a m e accepting the r e s u l t s a s valid. F o r example, a wargamer receives a n ability t e s t f o r D-Day a s t h e G e r m a n s . He r e s o l v e s the t a c t i c a l s i t u a tion and r e t u r n s i t to be s c o r e d . His t e s t i s then c o m p a r e d with the s t a n d a r d and he i s given s o many points f o r e a c h unit he moved c o r r e c t l y . (Of c o u r s e , the s c o r i n g s y s t e m i s somewhat m o r e complex then t h i s . ) The total of t h e s e points yields a s c o r e which c a n then be c o m p a r e d and r a n k e d with a l l the o t h e r s who took the t e s t t o r e v e a l h i s a b i l i t y in r e l a t i o n t o t h e m . If the s a m e t e s t i s given t o enough w a r g a m e r s , then i t could come t o b e a c c e p t e d by the m a j o r i t y a s a t r u e m e a s u r e of a w a r g a m e r ' s ability. Thus, i t would enable a w a r g a m e r to have a somewhat a c c u r a t e notion of a n o t h e r w a r g a m e r ' s a b i l i t y without having t o play him, a s long a s he knows that w a r g a m e r ' s s c o r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , it would enable clubs t o o r g a n i z e new and old m e m b e r s a c c o r d ing to t h e i r a b i l i t y , r a t h e r than playing f a v o r i t e s o r politics. Though the t e s t i s n a r r o w i n s c o p e , it i s a f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s national organization. A s w a r g a m e r s , we m u s t l e a r n to c o o p e r a t e i n o r d e r t o develop a n efficient w a r g a m i n g situation, t h a t will not only help c r e a t e a n a t m o s p h e r e of organized competition a m o n g e x p e r i enced w a r g a m e r s , but a l s o s t i m u l a t e the e a r l i e r participation of new w a r g a m e r s and thus i m p r o v e the f u t u r e quality of wargaming.

THE GENERAL

Waterloo AS /f Real& Was


By R o b e r t W. 0lsoi-1

Robert W . Olson has never been one to accept an AH game as designed. Normally our editorial staff would have cast this article to the Huns. However, we decided to read it first. Thus, it got an 11th hour reprieve. O f course, you may relegate it to file # I 3 but before doing SO may we remind YOU that such action could incense him enough to get his uncle to transfer the Atlanta Braves to your town.
the a r m y w a s to c r u s h the English - if they stood still-and then f a l l on the unprotected r e a r of the s t i l l engaged P r u s s i a n s , who w e r e expected t o a d vance, o r r e m a i n i n place, but n e v e r r e t r e a t , which a s can be s e e n on the A / H b o a r d i s the only movement offering a n y help t o Wellington. It w a s only when Napolean saw that Blucher had advanced s o f a r f o r w a r d a s to place himself in a n even w o r s e position than Napoleon had hoped, that he e x e r c i s e d h i s capacity f o r completely changing h i s plans, and i m m e d i a t e l y f o r m e d a n a l t e r n a t i v e plan f o r d e s t r o y i n g the P r u s s i a n a r m y b e f o r e attacking the English. Tho' the P r u s s i a n s w e r e in due c o u r s e p a r t i a l l y defeated a t Ligny, t h i s change of s t r a t e g i c d i r e c t i o n went a long way t o w a r d s e n s u r i n g Nap's long s t a y a t the St. Helena Funny F a r m , f o r we can s e e f r o m the defensive f a c t o r s available to the two Allied a r m i e s on the morning of the 15th that the English w e r e w e a k e r and m o r e d i s p e r s e d a t the b r e a k t h r u - point than w e r e the P r u s s i a n s , and thus had Napolean stuck to h i s guns, the v a r i o u s English f o r m a tions a r r i v i n g on the "board a r e a " would have been d e s t r o y e d piecemeal, tho' probably a t the c o s t of the d e s t r u c t i o n of the IIIand IV C o r p s by the P r u s s i a n s . Doubtless Napoleon knew a "soak-off" when he saw one and t h i s couldbe called a Strategic-Soak. No doubt you a r e asking, when if e v e r , i s Olson going to come to the point? A s t h e A / H game opens, the P r u s s i a n s a r e carefully s e t i n b e s t battle o r d e r , and in full f o r c e while the F r e n c h have c r o s s e d the r i v e r , and a l r e a d y c o m m i t t e d e v e r y unit i n such a way a s to place 213 of t h e i r a r m y on t h e r i g h t wing, including the r e s e r v e s , w h e r e a t t h i s t i m e they by no m e a n s w e r e , that i s on t h e r o a d to F l e u r u s a s r e q u i r e d by t h e r u l e s . Napoleon i s t h e r e b y f o r c e d t o m a k e the m i s t a k e of attacking the P r u s s i a n s , while he a c t ually m a d e i t quite voluntarily s e v e r a l h o u r s a f t e r the 16th-7A. M. t u r n which opens the g a m e , f o r a t that t i m e the VI C o r p s , and the Guard had not even c r o s s e d the r i v e r a t C h a r l e r o i , nor had a n u m b e r of s m a l l e r d e t a c h m e n t s . Nor f o r t h a t m a t t e r had the I1 and I11 C o r p s of the P r u s s i a n a r m y r e a c h e d the game b o a r d a t t h i s t i m e . They w e r e on the m a r c h t o a s s i s t the 1st C o r p s which had

Waterloo i s one of the m o s t popular Avalon-Hill g a m e s , and one of the b e s t conceived of the l o t , d e s p i t e i t s g r e y h a i r s c o m p a r e d to m o r e r e c e n t and involved g a m e s . I r e c e n t l y bought a book entitled THE CAMPAIGNS O F NAPOLEON by David Chandler, which c o v e r s Napoleon's m i l i t a r y c a r e e r , and includes m a p s and a table of organization f o r e v e r y i m p o r t a n t battle. It c o s t s $10 and i s w o r t h i t to a l l Napoleonic Nuts. Whoever designed Waterloo did a n excellent job of r e s e a r c h , but having f o r the f i r s t t i m e r e a d a r e a l l y a u t h o r i tive account of t h e battle of Waterloo, I found a n u m b e r of e r r o r s i n d e s i g n which made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o play t h e g a m e e i t h e r a s i t c a m e out, o r could have. The purpose of the Campaign, which ended s o d i s a s t e r i o u s l y f o r the F r e n c h a t Waterloo, w a s t o c r u s h one o r both of the Allied a r m i e s by a s e r i e s of r a p i d moves which would place t h e F r e n c h a r m y between i t s opponents a t the junction point of t h e i r a r m i e s and defeat t h e m s e p a r a t e l y . Napoleon had no idea whether he would fight the English o r the P r u s s i a n s f i r s t , but a l ways p r e f e r r e d the English, a s he cons i d e r e d Wellington t o be the b e t t e r g e n e r a l , but e s t i m a t e d he would r e t r e a t r a t h e r than give battle. The Grand A r m e e c r o s s e d the S a m g r e R i v e r a t Marchienne a u Pont. C h a r l e r o l , and Chatelet headed t o w a r d s B r u s s e l s with t h e intention of disrupting the c o m munications of both Allied a r m i e s , f o r c i n g e a c h to battle, hopefully without coordination. E a c h column consisted of a balanced f o r c e a b l e to fight s u p e r i o r f o r c e s f o r 24 h r s . I and I1 C o r p s de A r m e e f o r m e d the l e f t wing, I11 and IV C o r p s t h e right, while VI C o r p s . The I m p e r i a l G u a r d , and the R e s e r v e C a v a l r y m a r c h e d b e hind, a l l f o r m i n g a t r i a n g l e , the b a s e point r e a d y t o r e i n f o r c e e i t h e r wing encountering a n Allied a r m y . Napoleon u s e d this f o r m a t i o n i n v i r t u a l l y e v e r y Campaign in which he f a c e d s u p e r i o r f o r c e s and w a s on the offensive, which w a s m o s t of the t i m e . The a u t h o r s t a t e s ; in d i r e c t c o n t r a diction to the A / H r e f e r e n c e f o l d e r ; that Napolean's o r i g i n a l plan w a s f o r the r i g h t wing to contain the P r u s s i a n s if encountered while the r e m a i n d e r of

C h a r l e s Hoch St. F r a n c i s College Alcala P a r k San Diego, California 921 10

THE GENERAL
been mauled during t h e F r e n c h advance on the 15th, and w a s r e t r e a t i n g t o w a r d s Tilly, and r e i n f o r c e m e n t s . The s m a l l number of English units w e r e s p r e a d a l l o v e r the lot, roughly on the r o a d between Nivelles and O u a t r e - B r a s . I intend t o offer suggestions t o b r i n g t h e game into l i n e with.the s t r a t e g i c p i c t u r e a s i t a p p e a r e d t o the c o n t e s t a n t s F r o m a t a c t i c a l standpoint. I have the following objections to the p r e s e n t rules: 1. The 15 f a c t o r stacking r u l e r e s u l t s in unlikely f o r m a t i o n s and d i s p r o portionate combat a b i l i t i e s . 2. Movement i s too slow o v e r a l l , tho' about r i g h t f o r a two hour t u r n , b e c a u s e a l l c o m m a n d e r s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y Napoleon kept h i s m e n on t h e move f o r 50-60 h r s . with one hour r e s t s , while we have only 12 daylight h o u r s , and a s s u m e everyone s l e e p s i n place a t night. 3. The r u l e s allow f o r the mixing of units of the A n g l o - P r u s s i a n A r m i e s which l a r g e l y n e g a t e s the F r e n c h s t r a t egic advantage of c e n t r a l position b e tween e i t h e r of the two and which a t no t i m e o c c u r r e d i n the a c t u a l battle. 4. A s previously s t a t e d i n a n a r t i c l e , the d e s e r t i o n r u l e i s r i d i c u l o u s , a n d s o i s the c a p t u r e of B r u s s e l s a s a condition of v i c t o r y f o r t h e F r e n c h . A s i? r e a l life, the d e s t r u c t i o n of the e n e m y field a r m y , and incidently the c a p t u r e o r killing of i t s l e a d e r i s the only t r u e objective of Napoleonic w a r f a r e . All o p e r a t i o n s should have only t h e s e g o a l s in mind. If you want t o play a g a m e b a s e d on Waterloo a s i t r e a l l y w a s , o r could have been, then t r y out the game with the following r u l e s and you will b e a s tonished a t the new p o s s i b i l i t i e s open to both c o m m a n d e r s . All r u l e s a r e the s a m e u n l e s s specifically a l t e r e d . 1. Add 5 A . M . and 9 P . M . t u r n s to a new t i m e r e c o r d s h e e t . 2. G a m e begins 6 / 1 6 / 1 8 1 5 - 5 A.M. a . The English commander p l a c e s h i s units ( f o r m e r l y placed rigidly a t Q u a t r e - B r a s and Nivelles) a n y w h e r e on the r o a d between the towns, o r in either. b. The P r u s s i a n c o m m a n d e r places the units c o m p r i s i n g the 1st C o r p s a n y w h e r e t o the E a s t and t o t h e North of G o s s e l i e s , a n d to t h a o u t h of Tilly. c. All F r e n c h u n i t s a r e p r e sumed to have s t a r t e d t o t h e South of the R i v e r . The F r e n c h c o m m a n d e r m a y place s t a c k s (Subject t o t h e new t a c t i c a l stacking r u l e s ) up to t h r e e a t Marchienne a u Pont, t h r e e a t C h a r l e r o i , and one a t Chatelet, d i r e c t l y on the s q u a r e s containing the city outlines. The Napoleon H. Q. unit m u s t be included i n t h e s e forces. d. The Wellington H.Q. a n d Blucher H. Q. units m a y be placed anyw h e r e on the b o a r d by the Allied p l a y e r . e. Game formally begins, F r e n c h player m o v e s f i r s t , then Allied. P l a y e r , who a t t h i s t i m e b r i n g s the P r u s s i a n I1 & I11 C o r p s s t a r t i n g a t b o a r d edge on the r o a d f r o m L i e g e - N a m u r . 3. Use a B l i t z k r i e g battle r e s u l t s table, EXCEPT: a . 1-3 a r o l l of 1 m o v e s d e f e n d e r BACK- 2. b. 1- 1 a r o l l of 4 m o v e s a t t a c k e r BACK-2. c. 1-2, 1-1,2-1.3-1, a r o l l of 3 r e s u l t s i n CONTACT b e t w e e n a t t a c k e r and defender. Neither l o s e s , o r moves. OPTIONAL: add 4- 1 and 5- 1. 4. Neither side m a y s t a c k m o r e than 3 units of any kind on a s q u a r e , and the F r e n c h no m o r e than 16 f a c t o r s in a stack; the A l l i e s no m o r e than 15 in a stack. 5. Movement shall be doubled on a p r i m a r y r o a d , and cut in half w h e n t h e u n i t ( s ) move t h r u s q u a r e s containing woods, o r h i l l s . Units m a y move up and down r i v e r s without delay, but m u s t wait one t u r n to c r o s s . * 6. All H.Q. units a r e added t o t h e g a m e and have a f a c t o r of 1 on defense only. 7. English and P r u s s i a n u n i t s m a y not be adjacent t o one a n o t h e r a t t h e end of t h e i r t u r n , they m u s t be a t l e a s t one s q u a r e a p a r t , but can be moved a r o u n d o r t h r u one a n o t h e r on t h e m a r c h ,

PAGE 10
and m a y b e f o r c e d a d j a c e n t by battle results. 8. Units a r e doubled when on brown s q u a r e s , a s if hilltops. 9. How t o win: e l i m i n a t e the oppon e n t ' s a r m y . Elimination of the Napol e o n H. Q. Blucher H. Q. o r Wellington H. Q. r e s u l t s in the total elimination of h i s a r m y . The elimination of a n y o t h e r H. Q. unit h a s no effect. 10. OPTIONAL RULE: The t a c t i c a l formation formed against a n attacker often proved a l l i m p o r t a n t , l i n e a r and s q u a r e being the m o s t common. In h i s t u r n t h e defender m a y f o r m a s q u a r e by placing a b l a n k counter under a s t a c k which m u s t contain a t l e a s t one infantry unit. Such a s t a c k m a y not be soaked a g a i n s t , and i s t r e a t e d a s one defensive unit (the c a v a l r y and a r t i l l e r y a r e a s s u m e d t o be protected inside the s q u a r e ) and i s not doubled. However, the s q u a r e p r e s e n t s a n e a s y t a r g e t t o artillery, therefore, all attack factors of a r t i l l e r y adjacent to a s q u a r e defense a r e doubled, including h o r s e a r t i l l e r y . *11. OPTIONAL: Allow double movem e n t on s e c o n d a r y r o a d s a s well. 12. No a t t a c k s of a n y kind a r e allowed t o e i t h e r s i d e on the 5 A.M. and 9 P. M. t u r n s ; movement only. R o b e r t W. Olson. 136 P e a c h t r e e M e m o r i a l D r . , Apt. L - 4 Atlanta, Georgia 30309.

The Infiltrator's Report


Bruno F. Sinigaglio, 10 E. P i t m a n S t . , P e n n s Grove, New J e r s e y 08069, dropped down t o pick up a n a r m f u l of g a m e s d i r e c t l y f r o m the f a c t o r y . While d i s c u s s i n g wargaming, he p a s s e d on a s y s t e m of h i s worthy of mentioning h e r e he plays Jutland on a l a r g e 6 ' x 6' piece of p o s t e r m a t e r i a l . He h a s i t r u l e d off i n 6 d i r e c t i o n s with l i n e s 1 / 2 1 ! apart, each line representing 1,000 y a r d s g r e a t l y facilitating t h e initial placement and movement of f l e e t s . The G a m e s l e t t e r , published by Don M i l l e r , 12315 Judson Rd., Wheaton, Md., 20906, i s in i t s 4th volume, n u m b e r 12 i s s u e a l r e a d y . . . f r e e t o a l l "Games B u r e a u " m e m b e r s who've f o r k ed o v e r y e a r l y d u e s of $1.00. A g r e a t value f o r a buck, if only i n that i t l i s t s a r o s t e r of b u r e a u m e m b e r s . A r t i c l e s a r e w r i t t e n e n c o m p a s s i n g a l l a r e a s of gaming i n obviously collegiate- s t y l e p r o s e . Highlights f e a t u r e "The F a i r y C h e s s event of the Y e a r , " a r t i c l e s headlined, "Dipsomania, Hydrophobia, Zott. L a Guerre". . T h e r e ' s even a " C l a s s i c a l Music Division" column. Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to a m a t e u r game d e s i g n e r s i s the notice i n The Spartan, 330 C e n t e r S t . , L a k e Geneva. Wiscons i n 53157, t h a t " l a r g e hex" s h e e t s with h e x e s t h r e e t i m e s the s i z e of AH h e x e s available a t the above a d d r e s s . We might add that t h e 2nd annual IFW convehtion i s being planned a t L a k e Geneva f o r l a t e August. P e r t i n e n t d e t a i l s will be f o r t h c o m i n g i n The S p a r t a n a s well a s f u t u r e i s s u e s of The G e n e r a l . P r o b a b l y the f a s t e s t growing w a r g a m e magazine h a s been S t r a t e g y & T a c t i c s , s o r a p i d h a s been i t s growth that a n o t h e r b r a n c h h a s m a t e r i a l i z e d : Valhalla, devoted mainly t o P o s t a l Dipl o m a c y . All i n q u i r i e s should be d i r e c t ed to t h e new c o r p o r a t i o n handling S & T e n t e r p r i s e s , P r o j e c t Analysis C o r poration, Box 11- 187. Loudonville. N.Y. 12211. T h e r e i s a movement afoot to f o r m a "Common M a r k e t " f o r w a r g a m e r s . In i t s b a s i c f o r m m e m b e r s of t h i s c o m mon m a r k e t , p r i m a r i l y Wargame Clubs, would b e a b l e t o buy,, exchange, and s e l l e a c h o t h e r ' s products including g a m e s of t h e i r own design. Inquiries should be d i r e c t e d t o Joseph Angiolillo, 16 O l i v e r S t . , H a r t f o r d , Conn. 06106.

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THE GENERAL
IFW Conventions L a t e word just i n h a s i t t h a t t h e r e will be two conventions: F o r e a s t e r n e r s , The N a s s a u County Community College Student C e n t e r will h o s t the f i r s t convention on June 22nd. Advance r e g i stration i s required, details available f r o m Tony M o r a l e , 39-30 Glenwood S t r e e t , L i t t l e Neck, New York 11363. The second convention will b e held i n t h e H o r t i c u l t u r a l Hall i n L a k e Geneva Wisconsin August 24th. Write t o G a r y Gygax, 330 Cdnter S t r e e t , Lake Geneva, Wisconsin 53147. Scott Duncan. P r e sident of t h e IFW r e p o r t s t h a t enthusia s m i s t r i p p l e d t h a t of l a s t y e a r ' s convention which f e a t u r e d top g a m e player s and m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l that had g a t h e r ed a t t h e i r Malvern, Pennsylvania sight. T h i s organization h a s gone t o g r e a t lengths to m a k e t h e s e conventions t h e high s p o t s in the gaming y e a r - e v e r y w a r g a m e r should m a k e a n e f f o r t to a t tend a t l e a s t one of t h e s e conventions. News r e l e a s e s a n d promotion, g e a r e d t o the c o n s u m e r l e v e l , will g u a r a n t e e c o v e r a g e of t h e s e conventions i n t h e m o r e prominent n e w s m e d i a of the day. and plans b y the IFW have been m a d e well enough i n a d v a n c e t o g u a r a n t e e t h i s coverage. Not to be outdone i s the P a c i f i c Northwest War G a m e s A s s n . which h a s scheduled a w a r g a m e convention f o r w e s t c o a s t e n t h u s i a s t s . The Student Union Building of Washington U will h o s t the event scheduled f o r June 15- 16. F o u r s e p a r a t e t o u r n a m e n t s a r e scheduled to highlight the two-day a f f a i r . Of c o u r s e , p r i z e s t o o n u m e r o u s t o mention h e r e will b e a w a r d e d and i t i s suggested that g u e s t s r e s e r v e a h e a d of t i m e by sending $1.00 t o PNWWGA Convention, c / o Douglas B e y e r l e i n , 3934 S. W. Southern, S e a t t l e , Washington 981 16. In r e t u r n you w i l l b e filled i n with c o m plete d e t a i l s of t h i s event. The F r a n k Chadwick - Alan Monson t e a m l e a d the p a c k of " b e s t a u t h o r s " in the M a r - A p r i l i s s u e with t h e i r Blocked R e t r e a t R o u t e s a r t i c l e ; followed c l o s e l y by the Brundage - F r a n k w i c z Kohn t e a m f o r W a r g a r n e r s Clinic; J. E. P o u r n e l l e f o r Achieving S u r p r i s e ; Vict o r J. G e r v o l f o r Psychology in W a r g a m i n g ; B i l l H a g g a r t f o r Jutland f o r Landlubbers; and Ted H a r p h a m f o r Bring Ivan to H i s Knees. We a r e s o r r y t o report. t h a t many "Opponents Wanted" a d s ended up i n file #13 t h i s month. R e q u e s t s f o r i n s e r t i o n s now f a r e x c e e d the s p a c e a v a i l able. Thus, we can no l o n g e r publish boasts, threats, ultimatums, victory declarations, for sales, bravadosios f r o m w a r g a m e clubs and a l l such r o t . We will honor only t h o s e a d s f r o m individuals and clubs s e r i o u s l y seeking new opponents.

Question Box
For the last six months or so, we have been testing a new and improved system for handling your questions about the rules for the games. Rumors to the effect that these questions are answered by a little old lady we have chained in the cellar are absolutely untrue. You can help us serve you better by following a few simple rules when sending in your questions: ( 1 ) Always include a self-addressed, stamped envelope with your query. This eliminates several steps in processing and can add as much as a week to the speediness of our reply. ( 2 ) Ask your questions so that they can be answered with a simple yes or no whenever possible. Leave enough space between questions so that we can answer right on Your letter. (3) Keep your questions concerning rules on a separate sheet from orders, general comments, requests, praise, suggestions (of all types), and questions concerning research and design. ( 4 ) If you refer to a specific situation in a game, it helps if you include a detailed sketch (it doesn't have to be a work o f art). If all of you will do this for us, we will give you the most prompt and detailed service within our capabilities. And you'll be making an old lady's burden just a little easier to bear.
Bulge
Q. May the US p l a y e r u s e h i s s t r a t e gic a t t a c k to i n t e r d i c t ? May he a t t a c k

D-Day

Q. 17

May Allied units move beyond the s q u a r e supply line l i m i t f o r one turn. A. No. Q. Well then, c a n I d r o p m y p a r a t r o o p units beyond the 17 s q u a r e supply line limit? A. S u r e , but t h e s e units m u s t be supplied a t the end of the c o m b a t portion of your t u r n o r they a r e isolated. Q. But if a p a r a t r o o p unit i s isolated, I c a n always r e - d r o p i t in a supplied position by s i m p l y following the p a r a t r o o p d r o p r u l e s and moving i t to a supplied s q u a r e , r i g h t ?

A. -

Wrong. I r e a l l y hate to spoil your fun, but i s o l a t e d p a r a t r o o p units m a y not be dropped again until they a r e supplied. Q. May the Allies u s e s t r a t e g i c attacks a g a i n s t units i n the zone of control of ground units ? A. No. Afrika Korps

Q. -

When the Allies have "built" the l a r g e r substitute units and one of them i s involved in an exchange situation, m a y they b r e a k down the unit into i t s o r i g i n a l c o u n t e r s i n o r d e r to avoid e l i m i n a t i o n of the e n t i r e composite unit? A. Yes. Blitzkrieg When w e a t h e r l i m i t s movement off the r o a d s , what happens to units f o r c e d to r e t r e a t if no o n - t h e - r o a d r e t r e a t route e x i s t s ? A. They m a y r e t r e a t off the road. However, advancing units m a y not move off the road. Q. When units i n mountains m a y not move due to the w e a t h e r , m a y units on mountain s q u a r e s adjacent to open t e r r a i n m o v e o u t ? How about units moving into the m o u n t a i n s ? A. Units on mountain s q u a r e s adjacent to open t e r r a i n MAY move n o r m a l l y (out into the open), but no unit m a y move into the mountains when the weather r e s t r i c t s mountain movement. Q. Which c i t i e s a r e p o r t s ? A. The o n e s o n the s e a ; t h e r e a r e no "inland p o r t s " i n Blitzkrieg.
Q. -

a s q u a r e i n which t h e r e a r e no e n e m y units so a s to r e s t r i c t the r e t r e a t of G e r m a n units under ground a t t a c k ? A. Yes. G e r m a n units m a y not r e t r e a t through a s q u a r e under s t r a t e g i c a t t a c k , and the Allies m a y a t t a c k a n unoccupied s q u a r e . Q. May r e t r e a t i n g units move toward the e n e m y if r o u t e s away f r o m the enemy exist? A. No, not u n l e s s the r e t r e a t r o u t e i s the only one available. Units m u s t a l ways be r e t r e a t e d in the g e n e r a l d i r e c tion away f r o m the e n e m y if possible. Specifically, a t t a c k s a t soak-off odds with the intent of having the u n i t r e t r e a t into a g r e a t l y advantageous position toward the e n e m y l i n e s ( o r behind t h e m ) i s outlawed. T h i s will, o n o c c a s i o n , conflict with the " r e t r e a t to the n e a r e s t road" r u l e , but a r e t r e a t should be a r e t r e a t , not a n advance.

Midway
Q. -

Stalingrad May the n a r r o w s a t the Sea of Azov be u s e d a s a supply r o u t e ? A. No. -

May planes used in reducing Midway Island be s e n t in, in " w a v e s " ? A. No.

Q. -

THE GENERAL THE GAME DESIGNER


(Continued f r o m Page 2) who finally found a haven f o r h i s Battle of Britain g a m e ; available a s m o s t know through the Gamescience Corporation. QUALITIES O F A GAME DESIGNER

Oficial Avalon Hill Game Clubs...


The clubs l i s t e d below supplement the initial l i s t i n g made in the J a n - F e b 1968 i s s u e . Due t o space limitations, we have not r e p e a t e d any p r i o r l i s t i n g s although many have f o r w a r d e d us updated information. The purpose of t h i s l i s t i n g i s simply t o provide b a s i c information t o those r e a d e r s looking f o r new clubs.
CLUB PRESIDENT Dana F . L o m b a r d y MEMBERSHIP 33

9
4th SS V o l f s o g r e n a d i e r ~ 352 N. S t a t e Road B r i a r c l l f f . New York 10510 A r m y of S. Cayuga 1 2 1 Auburn s t r e e t Ithaca, New York 14850

PRESIDENT J a m e s Anderson

MEMBERSHIP II

Zocchi i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l a i r m a n which i s somewhat of a heads t a r t . H i s c u r r e n t occupational specialty i s that of i n s t r u c t o r , a v e r y n e c e s s a r y i n g r e dient because of the inherent difficult t a s k of telling the c u s t o m e r how to play the game. Add these f a c t o r s to h i s love of competitive g a m e s of kinds and you have a f a i r l y good idea of what i t takes to be a g a m e d e s i g n e r . A m o r e p r e c i s e i d e a i s found i n the background of Scott Duncan, the youthful l e a d e r of the IFW (International F e d e r a t i o n of Wargaming) a l s o shown on o u r cover. G a m e s c i e n c e w a s a l s o the angel f o r h i s c r e a t i o n originally titled World Affairs but now called Chief-of-State and included in the supp l e m e n t a r y kit to Confrontation. Duncan's f o r t e i s P o l i t i c a l Science, h i s game a s o r t of socio-psychological e x p e r i m e n t culled a f t e r a s u m m e r ' s r e s e a r c h into the u s e of game s i m u l a tions f o r educational p u r p o s e s a t T e m ple University. As with Sgt. Zocchi, Duncan i s a l s o a n i n s t r u c t o r , a teaching a s s i s t a n t in English a t Temple, with well-rounded i n t e r e s t s that r u n the g a m u t f r o m i n t e r collegiate fencing to m u s i c (both he and Zocchi play s e v e r a l i n s t r u m e n t s ) to s p o r t s to parapsychology. His elevation to presidency of the IFW i s indicative

D e r Totenkopf SS 954 Kifhwake L a n e Chula V i s t a , Calif. 92011 Schwerpunkf 5467 Pepperwood Road Sanfa R o s a . Calif. 95405 P a n z e r g r u p p e Gvderia" 2nd p a n z e r A r m y Rf. 1. Box 965 senora, C a l i f o r n i a Boyar Cossacks 477 Lacusf s t r e e t Denver. Colorado 80220 Flghtlng Knights 700 N. Wllle S t r e e t M t . P r o s p e c t , 111. 60056 ~ h Sprmgfield c wargarners 2 Linden L a n e Springfield. 111. 62707 O I F l y n n ' s Own 230 E. M y r t l e Virginia, Ill. 62691 The man 7310 Ideal Avenue

R L C ~~

arnes

6 Steve Cornman

John Gibson

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1OlSt A i r b o r n e 209 West E n d Avenue Massapequa. New York vent. vedi, v e c i 212 Legion Circle R o c h e s t e r . New Y o r k 14616
The Underground 22835 H a b e i D r i v e F a i r v ~ e w ,Ohlo 44126

F r a n k Marchese

Richard Simmons

20

Michael B"id"Ii8

16

Tony A d a m s

Randy Schmtdf

~ a u c gr a g o e

Eastern Front. S. S. Viking Div. 915 112 Collins Toledo, Ohio 43610
S. P . E . C. T.R. E. I1 (SAC)

L o r a n J. L e e

Michael M c c a u s l a n d

7 Michael Barnhart 12 321 P e n n S t r e e t Hanover. P e n n s y l v a m a 17331

Patrick Barry

6 Penny Y o r k e r Box 280, RD 2 S a y r e . P e n n s y l v a n i a 18840 Scoff Dvncan 30

I m p e r i a l Phailanx 617 Flffh Avenue Sheldon. Iowa 51201 The s t r a t e g , s t s 2110 Schgesvtlle Road L a u r e l . Maryland 20810 12th SS P a n z e r ( A g g r e s s o r ) Armee 1432 N. Hazel S t r e e t St. P a u l , Mmn. 55119

r i m Bothmer

5 Internaflonal T a s k F o r c e 4608 Holf 77401 Bellalre. T e x a ~ Eric REdl L O

John G. A r m s t r o n g

Texas Navy 7118 Harfland Houston, T e x a s 77055


Russell Shortreed 8 Wtsconoin Wargamlng Aasn. 5616 Churchway G r e e n d a l e , Wisconstn 53129

Jack Calhine

10

Tim Wiede

20

ClubRegisfrat100
All Avalon Hill clubs a r e u r g e d to r e g i s t e r officially with The General. Those who have r e g i s t e r e d previously need only to complete the f o r m in the event of a n a d d r e s s change.

II

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( I

Club Name Mailing A d d r e s s Name of Newsletter o r Mag. (if any) Total Member ship P r e s i d e n t ' s Signature (Check One):

I I I

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of how highly he i s thought of by h i s co-patriots. Equally talented i s Colonel Donald L. Dickson, shown o n o u r cover c l a r i fying a point in Guadalcanal. Guadalcanal w a s not designed by Colonel Dickson, who i s now r e t i r e d f r o m the M a r i n e C o r p s but c u r r e n t l y editor of L e a t h e r neck Magazine. Having designed many m i l i t a r y g a m e s too l i m i t e d in scope f o r c o m m e r c i a l publication, including a remarkably realistic guerilla warfare " e x e r c i s e , " h i s native design talents w e r e put to use by Avalon Hill in an h i s t o r i c a l l y a r t i s t i c sense. Several cover designs a r e h i s c r e a t i o n s a s i s the e d i t o r i a l and i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t t e r that c o m p r i s e s the h i s t o r i c a l background f o r Guadalcanal and Jutland. Too busy with L e a t h e r n e c k Magazine, game-designing to Colonel Dickson h a s been r e l e g a t e d to that of a hobby, "nothing m o r e 1 ' he confides. INVENTOR'S GUILD Hope i s in sight f o r the f r e e l a n c e r s not a s fortunate a s the above gentlemen. A new wargaming a s s o c i a t i o n h a s m a d e the s c e n e - The War G a m e s Inv e n t o r ' s Guild - m e m b e r s of which a r e all game d e s i g n e r s in their own r i g h t , banned together to provide.. "encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e in an o r g a n i z a -

I
I
I I

-This i s a f i r s t t i m e r e g i s t r a t i o n ( I -This i s an a d d r e s s change r e g i s t r a - I

tion through which widely s e p a r a t e d (geographically) inventors c a n communicate with e a c h o t h e r , ' I s o s t a t e s their promotional d i r e c t o r G a r y Gygax, himself a designer of some repute. The Guild, originated by Dane Lyons and G r a n t Noble a s co-founders, publish The A r t i s a n , a n e w s l e t t e r that a c t s a s a c l e a r i n g house where Guild Games c a n be made available to m e m b e r s and, hopefully, to c o m m e r c i a l publishers. The Guild o p e r a t e s a r a t h e r unique organization. You m u s t be a designer to join, being accepted a s an "Amateur. ' I Upon Guild approval of o n e ' s c r e a t i o n he b e c o m e s a "Journeyman" and approval of additional d e s i g n s e a r n s him the monicker of " M a s t e r . " Guild G a m e s a l r e a d y in existence n u m b e r ; Punic W a r s , Saratoga, Man a s s a s , P a n z e r 40, Iwo J i m a , War of E m p i r e s , among the popular titles plus Campaign, another Scott Duncan creation. The advent of a n organization such a s the Guild s e r v e s notice that game d e s i g n e r s a r e c e r t a i n l y not a vanishing breed. The problem, now, i s to c r e a t e an expanded c o n s u m e r m a r k e t f o r a c ceptance of the new i d e a s by these e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g f r e e lance game d e signers. We welcome your solution to this problem.

PAGE 13

THE GENERAL

Wlnners-Contest #24
P r o f e s s o r J. E. P o u r n e l l e of P e p perdine College h e a d s the l i s t of 10 b e s t c o m m e n t s on the Vietnam s i t u a tion. Actually, the l i s t w a s p a r e d t o 30 excellent e n t r i e s ofwhich t h e following w e r e picked a t r a n d o m out of o u r collective hat. Our r e g r e t s t o the 20 whose c o n t e s t p a p e r s w e r e not sticky enough. 1. J . E . P o u r n e l l e , Studio City, Cal. 2. G r a n t S i t l e r , F o r t Collins, Colorado 3. F r a n k B o r r i e l l o , Springfield, P e n n a . 4. G a r y S e i s e r , Milwaukee, Wisconsin 5. Dennis Graven, Madison, Wisconsin 6. C h a r l e s Hoch, San Diego, California 7. John P. Bobek, Chicago, Illinois 8. David N. Klein, D a n v e r s , M a s s . 9. Jeff H e r r i n g , B a l t i m o r e . Maryland 10. J a m e s M. Gibson, J r . , Dover. New J e r s e y F r e e gift c e r t i f i c a t e s have b e e n sent t o a l l of the above w i n n e r s .

OPPONENTS WANTED ADVERTISEMENT


Please print or type your advertisement on the spaces provided below, maximum (including your name and address) 35 words per ad.

2 9

30

3 1

32

33

34

35 WORDS

All ads are inserted as a free service to full-year subscribers. Only one ad per subscriber per issue is allowed. Ads will not be repeated from issue to issue, however, subscribers may re-submit the same ad, or new ads, for each succeeding issue. Ads received after the 15th of the month preceding publication will appear in the following issue. No ads will be accepted unless printed on this form.

Don't f o r g e t t o vote on what a r e t h e t h r e e b e s t a r t i c l e s of t h i s i s s u e . . r e c o r d your votes w h e r e provided on t h e Contest E n t r y blank.

B e c a u s e of the excellent r e s p o n s e we r e c e i v e d on l a s t i s s u e ' s contest, this one will kill two b i r d s with one shell. Contest #25 w i n n e r s will b e picked a t random f r o m only those who r e g i s t e r f o r P l a y t e s t P a n e l consideration; the offer of f r e e g a m e s being a n inducementwe hope g u a r a n t e e s a l a r g e r e s p o n s e f r o m s u b s c r i b e r s . Playtest Panel Registration F o r m

Contest No. 25

Subscriber Discount.. .
The Coupon shown below i s f o r t h e b e n e f i t of the f u l l - y e a r s u b s c r i b e r . A s soon a s you have a c c u m u l a t e d 4 such caupons, l e a c h f r o m t h i s and succeeding i s s u e s , you a r e entitled t o a $1.00 d i s count applied t o t h e p u r c h a s e of a n y Avalon Hill g a m e s , p a r t s , play-bym a i l equipment a n d the G e n e r a l . H e r e ' s how i t w o r k s E a c h coupon is w o r t h 25{. But one coupon alone d o e s not entitle you t o a 25{ c r e d i t . You m u s t a c c u m u l a t e 4 different coupons b e f o r e taking advanta g e of t h e $1.00 c r e d i t . When you h a v e a c c u m u l a t e d 4 coupons, then you c l i p t h e m a l l together a n d s e n d t h e m i n with your o r d e r f o r a n Avalon Hill g a m e . When o r d e r i n g in t h i s m a n n e r , you s i m p l y send u s a check o r m o n e y - o r d e r f o r $1.00 l e s s than the u s u a l r e t a i l value of the g a m e .

Make s u r e you m a t c h t h e p r o p e r questions with the a p p r o p r i a t e a n s w e r blocks. In s o m e c a s e s . Question 6 f o r example, you m u s t i n s e r t t h e CODE NUMBER, not the o r i g i n a l n u m b e r . Thus, f o r question 6 you would i n s e r t f i g u r e "4" if your a g e w a s between 18 and 21. In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s w h e r e a n s w e r s might be two-digit n u m b e r s ; questions 18 t h r u 21 f o r example, you would f i l l i n TWO a n s w e r blocks. T h u s if your a n s w e r i s AFRIKA KORPS, you would i n s e r t the n u m b e r "0" i n box 18 and "1" i n box 19.

(_

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----- -----------ANSWR BLOCKS


SEE REVERSE S I D E

DO NOT

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021222324252627282930 OWNERSHIP

GAME P R E F E R E N C E

ISAVE THIS COUPON 1


GOODTOWARDTHEPURCHASE O F A L L AVALON HILL

Thank you f o r taking t h e t i m e t o complete t h i s f o r m . Make s u r e you have printed n a m e and a d d r e s s a s i t i s to b e u s e d both a s a c o n t e s t e n t r y and your official ( r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r C o n s u m e r P l a y t e s t P a n e l M e m b e r s h i p , 10 of which will be drawn I a t r a n d o m a s w i n n e r s of f r e e AH m e r c h a n d i s e .

I your
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I Headlines of 3 B e s t A r t i c l e s :

l Name

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State

Address

MAY-JUNE 1968

1 city
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THE GENERAL

PAGE 14

to Defend
" I t ' s m o r e difficult to defend your championship than to win one, " i s the sage comment f r o m Avalon Hill sage, Ed Adams. Sage Adams i s r e f e r r i n g , of c o u r s e , to the situation in which the company baseball t e a m find itself a f t e r winning the Baltimore Unlimited League championship l a s t y e a r (1967). No s t r a n g e r to s p o r t s , Adams knows the p r e s s u r e s a championship c a n e x e r t on a t e a m . A f o r m e r infielder, l a c r o s s e player, and now m e m b e r of Oriole AdAssociates* he quickvocates and l y points to the demise Birds a s a case in point' ' I A t e a m that has finally t a s t e d victory can

Avalon Hill moguls display baseball trophy won by Avalon Hill capturing 1967 Baltimore Unlimited League title. L to R: Former TrafficAssistant Jack McCauley, 1st baseman; Marketing Director Tom Shaw, team manager; AH Vice-President A. Eric Dott; Advertising Artist Charles Harbaugh III, outfielder-coach.

P e r s o n a l Data Answer Block 6 Question and Answer Number


Ale 12 o r l e s s . I , L3&14 - 2, 15 thru 17 - 3, 18 thru 21 t h r u 40 - 6, 41 & over - 7.

28

4; 22 29

When I noticean irregularity or ambiguity in the r u l e s 1. resolve the problem on the spot in the m o s t reasonable manner a n d continue playing - I; write to AH for clarification - 2, go back over the r u l e s to find a n a n s w e r - 3, ignore the problem and play on 4. I p r e f e r m o r e e m p h a s i s on historical a c c u r a c y and r e a l i s m (ae in ~ u t l a n d 1 9 1 4 ) . yes, a t a l l C06t6. even a t the s a c r i f i c e of playability - 1; y e s , but not a t any s a c r i f i c e in playability 2; no, it r e a l l y doesn't m a t t e r =long as i t ' s a good playable game 3.

Occupation student - I , professional (doctor. lawyer. CPA, e t c . ) - 2, technical & scientlflc - 3, manager - 4, c l e r i c a l - 5, a r m e d f o r c e s - 6. Education g r a m m e r school or l e s s - 1, some high school - 2. hlgh school grad - 3; some college - 4, college grad - 5 , some graduate school - 6, finished graduate o r p r o f e s s i o n a l school - 7. ~ a m i Income l ~ l e s s than $5,000 per y e a r - I , $5,001 4. $10,000 - 2, $10,001 t h r u $20,000 - 3; over $20,000 30

2. complexity f o r m a t , I p r e f e r - AK - I ; or Blitzkrieg Regarding

31 9

Number of y e a r s I've played AH games are. ( s t a t e 1 t h r u 9). The percentage of games I play by mail i s 10% - 1, n e a r 20% 2; n e a r 30% - 3, n e a r 50% 4; over 50% 5; none of the t i m e - 6.

thru 32

10

Military Servzce. none - 1, volunteered - 2, d r a f t e d - 3 r e s e r v e s 4, r e g u l a r career 5.

33

The number of games I s t a r t per month averages. 9.) On an a v e r a g e , each game l a s t in hours.

(mark 1 thru

Location Data

12

E a s t Coast (north of D. C . ) - I , west coast 2, south - 3, e a s t of Mississippi ( l e s s e a s t coast & south) - 4; west of Mississippi 6, Canada - 7. ( l e s s west c o a s t ) - 5, foreign

34 Ownership Data 36

( m a r k 1 t h r u 9. )

13

Town s i z e 1s l e s s than 2. 000 I , 2,000 t h r u 10. 000 - 2; 10.001 3; 25.001 t h r u 100,000 - 4, 100.001 thru 500.000 t h r u 25.000 5, Over 500,000 - 6.

37

I normally purchase AH games thru: Department S t o r e 1. Hobby 3, Book S t o r e - 4, Direct f r o m A H -5, Shop 2; Discount Store other - 6.

14 15

Does head of house commute to work.

y e s - I , no - 2. (If living wlth 38-39

I was influenced to purchase m y f i r s t AH game thru. Store ad 1, just seeing i t in a s t o r e - 2, magazine a d 3; f r i e n d ' s r e c o m mendation - 4, b r o c h u r e mailed directly f r o m AH - 5.

Do you. own your house - I , rent your house - 2. parents o r r e l a t i v e s , state them situation. )

The f i r s t AH game I e v e r purchased w a s 18-21).

( u s e codes of question

Game Playing Data 40-41 17 A good AH game should l a s t 112 hour - 1, 1 hour - 2: 2 hours 3, 3 hours - 4 , 4 h o u r s - 5 . 5 hours or m o r e - 6. The number of AH g a m e s I now own. (If l e s s than 10, m a r k "0" in box 40. )

18-21 (use two boxes f o r each


answer)

My two f a v o r i t e AH g a m e s AK-- 01, Bulee - 02, B i s m a r c k - 03. Blitzkrieg - 04, D-Day - 05, Gettys - 06, Guadal - 07, Jutland - 08, 1914 l o , Staling- I1s T a c t i c s 11 - 12, U-Boat - 13. Waterloo - 14, Chancellorsville - 15.

Game P r e f e r e n c e Data Boxes 43 t h r u 79 r e f e r to g a m e s which a r e inprototype stage as f u t u r e s . F o r each of the proposed new games, m a r k your p r e f e r e n c e f o r each in the following manners: I would definitely buy this game - 1; I mlght buy i t if I h e a r d good r e p o r t s f r o m o t h e r s - 2, I would probably not buy t h i s game - 3. I wouldn't even play this game - 4. 43-Anzio 44-Caeser 45-Tannebere 46-Cearee of the Lieht Brieade

(use

22-25 two boxes f o r each g a m e )

The two AH g a m e s I play the m o s t

( u s e above c o d e s . )

I play AH games mainly to p a s s the time - 1, to l e a r n m o r e of a n interesting historical situation 2, to "belong" - 3, t o y m u l a t e my mlnd - 4, to participatevicariously in a h ~ s t o r i c a lsituation - 5, a combination of I & 2 - 6, a combination of 3 & 4 - 7, a c o m b i n a t ~ o nof 3 & 5 - 8 , a combination of l & 3 - 9, some other reason - 0.

47-Leipzig 48-1940 (Battle f o r F r a n c e ) 49-Battle for B e r l i n 50-Galllpoli 51-Iwo J i m a 52-Leyte Gulf 53-American Revolution 54-Salerno 55-Battle f o r the Atlantic 56-Lufftwaffe 57-Third Reich 58-Korea 59-Victory a t Sea (WWII in Pacific) 60-Russian Revolution 61-Plane-to-Plane Combat 62-Crete 63-Arnhem 64-Kursk 65-Sinai Campaigns 66-Poland '39 67-American Civil War Battles 68-1918 ( l a s t G e r m a n Offensive)
he following g a m e s a r e r e d e s ~ g n e d titles of existing AH games:

"

27

The t i m e I spend working with the game myself m o r e than I spend actually playing someone - I , not as much a s spent playing someone - 2, only occasionally when I feel it would improve my game - 3 . n e v e r - 4 .

70-AfrikaKorps 71-D-Day 72-Bulge 75-Bismarck 76-Midway 77-Waterloo

73-Stalingrad 68-Blitzkrieg

74-Guadalcanal 79-Jutland

THE GENERAL
often b e c o m e complacent. And when you c o n s i d e r t h a t the o t h e r t e a m s a r e m o r e d e t e r m i n e d t o get your s c a l p , it i s doubly tough t o r e p e a t a championship. S o m e t i m e s the t e a m with the b e s t personnel d o e s n ' t a l w a y s win. I ' "Man. I don't even have the b e s t personnel, " chokes m a n a g e r T. Shaw who i s f a c e d with a s i m i l a r c i r c u m stance. Acting i n a m o s t loyal m a n n e r , Shaw c l a i m s t h a t he owes h i s s u c c e s s to following the m a n a g e r i a l p r i n c i p l e s of t h e i r B a s e b a l l S t r a t e g y g a m e . " I t ' s s u r p r i s i n g how o t h e r m a n a g e r s d o n ' t p r a c t i c e the b a s i c s of b a s e b a l l "There managing. " A d a m s r e l a t e s . a r e , of c o u r s e , obvious s t r a t e g i e s one m u s t follow, but t h e r e a r e the n o t - s o obvious s t r a t e g i e s that r e a l l y s e p a r a t e the m e n f r o m the boys i n a league w h e r e m o s t t e a m s a r e f a i r l y equal i n ability. And it i s t h e s e "not-so-obvious" p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a r e outlined, we think p r e t ty obviously, i n the d e s i g n of B a s e b a l l Strategy. " F a i r l y convinced by now t h a t t h i s r e p o r t e r had b e c o m e v i c t i m i z e d i n a n Adams-Shaw promotional plot, we called a spade a spade: " L e t ' s be hone s t , A d a m s , you went out and h i r e d the b e s t b a l l p l a y e r s i n town t o g u a r a n t e e a league championship - r i g h t ? ? ? "
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"Wrong," chimed i n T e a m P r e x y E r i c Dott, company V i c e - P r e s i d e n t . "To do so would b e defeating t h e p u r pose of the whole e x p e r i m e n t . I t ' s t r u e that we had promotion i n mind a s a n end r e s u l t . M o r e i m p o r t a n t , we

wanted to find out f o r o u r s e l v e s if what w e ' v e s a i d about B a s e b a l l S t r a t e g y i n t h e o r y was a c t u a l l y t r u e i n p r a c t i c e . I ' If proved o t h e r w i s e by the c o n s u m e r , " countered Adams, "we'd b e c o m e the laughing stock of the gaming world. Instead, we molded a t e a m a r o u n d s o m e company personnel, filling i n with l o c a l b a l l p l a y e r s of no s p e c i a l ' r e p u t e . In t h r e e campaigns, we finished 2nd. 3 r d , and 1st in that o r d e r . We think that t h i s r e c o r d s p e a k s well f o r t h e m a n a g e r i a l p r i n c i p l e s outlined i n B a s e b a l l Strategy. " "We'll call your bluff r i g h t off. " we countered. "Your 1 s t b a s e m a n w a s a n All- Maryland. I ' "Yes, he w a s . . i n 1946. He c a n h a r d l y move today. Shaw plants "X" m a r k s i n the ground w h e r e he i s to stand depending upon who t h e opposing hitters a r e . 'I "Okay, you got u s t h e r e . So give u s a r e a l f o r - i n s t a n c e . .what d o e s B a s e b a l l S t r a t e g y s a y t o do i n given situations ? " " F i r s t off. ' I e x c l a i m e d Shaw, "most m a n a g e r s do not place enough e m p h a s i s on running speed. By t h i s I m e a n that you a r e b e t t e r off batting a f a s t running . 2 5 0 h i t t e r i n t h e 2nd and 3 r d s l o t s than slow-running .350 h i t t e r s . A f t e r a l l , w h a t ' s the difference b e tween a . 2 5 0 h i t t e r and a .350 h i t t e r just one b a s e h i t p e r 10 a t b a t s . Actuall y , i t ' s not the b a s e h i t s that a r e a s i m portant a s the benefits d e r i v e d f r o m the 7 t o 8 o u t s a player will hit into

e v e r y 10 t i m e s up. I t ' s f a r b e t t e r t o go with a 250 h i t t e r who h i t s long flys o r runner-advancing ground outs than a . 350 h i t t e r who s t r i k e s out and pops up m u c h of the t i m e . And I ' d r a t h e r have a c l u s t e r of right-hand h i t t e r s who hit t o right-field f a i r l y often. T h i s u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n b a s e r u n n e r s being a b l e t o t a k e a n e x t r a b a s e thus getting into s c o r i n g position m o r e often. ' I

D e a r Sir: I a m a n Avalon H i l l e n t h u s i a s t who would like to f u r t h e r the a r t of w a r gaming. T h e r e f o r e , I a m willing to offer m y s e r v i c e s toward the solving of d i s p u t e s between g a m e participants. Due to the growing s t a t e of w a r - g a m ing, d i s p u t e s between p a r t i c i p a n t s b e c o m e m o r e plentiful and m o r e heated. J u s t send m e a l e t t e r stating the a r g u m e n t and I will s e n d b a c k m y a n s w e r . Dwane A. Aldrich, Route 2, Box 272, Stanwood, Washington 98292.

Gentlemen: In reviewing s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s printed i n the G e n e r a l I find m o r e t i m e s than not t h a t a f a l s e s p i r i t of wargaming e x i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y in the "Want Ads" section of the p a p e r . Many o r g a n i z a tions and clubs a r e doing the v e r y s a m e thing that s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s have t r i e d to do (and a r e doing) throughout h i s t o r y .

Such clubs a s 4th SS, A g g r e s s o r , and many o t h e r s (probably too n u m e r o u s t o mention) a r e throwing t h e i r legions into campaigns and conflicts hoping to d o m inate the w o r l d - - o r a good p a r t of it, anyway. T h e s e organizations want the s a m e thing-- power, glory, and u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s - - s u c h a s R o m e under C a e s a r , F r a n c e under Napolean, and G e r m a n y under H i t l e r . T h i s i s not what wargaming i s for! Wargaming i s to b r i n g into view a new type of competition b a s e d a s high a s c h e s s , c h e c k e r s , and many well-known c a r d g a m e s ; to b r i n g in a new concept of r e c r e a t i o n , not b a r b a r i c h o r d e s conq u e r i n g everything i n sight. It i s t h e s e people who give w a r g a m ing a bad n a m e which can c a u s e s e r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Instead of organizing clubs on peaceful s t a n d a r d s they s e t up p a n z e r a r m i e s , Roman legions, and the like. What can b e done to change t h i s ? T h e r e a r e s o m e organizations who (Continued on Back Cover)

"How i s t h i s e x p r e s s e d i n the g a m e ? " we q u e r i e d . "The Hit & Run column i s slanted in t h i s f a v o r . Of c o u r s e , the type of def e n s e put up by the o t h e r t e a m i s a fact o r but you will notice i n c o m p a r i n g the hitting columns that one should not o v e r look the u s a g e of the Hit & Run even though t h e r e ' s much l e s s chance of getting off the Long Belt. And while on t h e subject of defense, we have s o m e what o v e r - d e signed the Pitch-out colu m n i n o r d e r t o convey the n e c e s s i t y of keeping b a s e r u n n e r s honest. In r e a l life a common failing among p i t c h e r s i s they f a i l t o keep b a s e r u n n e r s close s o m e p i t c h e r s n e v e r throw to the bag.. o v e r t o f i r s t b a s e . If you do make i t known t h a t you a r e a w a r e of a b a s e r u n n e r s ' l e a d by throwing f a i r l y often d u r i n g a g a m e , they will be l e s s prone and a r e t o take that e x t r a s t e p l e a d often thrown out attempting t o s t e a l by that v e r y s a m e step. T h i s f a c t o r i s built into the P it c h - o u t column. I could r e a l l y go on a n d on, touching on the u s e of f a s t - b a l l and junk p i t c h e r s in c e r t a i n situations; but I ' m s u r e you've gotten the point by now. " "So what you and A d a m s a r e saying i s that t h e r e i s m o r e to b a s e b a l l than m e r e l y physical ability. However, one l a s t a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t your e n t i r e p r e m i s e i s a s t a t e m e n t once made by Leo D u r o c h e r who commented, 'The m a n a g e r only a c c o u n t s f o r a difference of. maybe. 10 g a m e s a y e a r ' . I ' "Yes, s o what w a s the difference between 1st and 4th place l a s t y e a r ? ? " "Touche, " we submitted. "So what about t h e coming y e a r ? ' I . we asked. "It looks l i k e the s a m e personnel a s l a s t y e a r , u n l e s s a h e a r t a t t a c k o r two d e p l e t e s the r o s t e r , " commented Adams. "If the o t h e r t e a m s ' m a n a g e r s e v e r get ahold of B a s e b a l l Strategy, w e ' r e in trouble. " d e c l a r e s m a n a g e r Shaw a s he p r e p a r e s h i s l i s t of e x c u s e s to be handed in a t the end of the season.

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S h a w ' s a l r e a d y i n trouble defensivewise. S e v e r a l of l a s t y e a r ' s P i t c h e r s have moved out of s t a t e leaving quite a void not a s y e t filled. However, a r riving upon the s c e n e of a p r e - s e a s o n exhibition g a m e t o find Avalon Hill t r a i l i n g 14-0, we g a t h e r e d that Shaw w a s not o v e r l y concerned when he r e t o r t e d , "Wait until w e get to bat. " J u s t a s i n wargaming, the b e s t d e f e n s e i s a good offense.