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# 01715 Functional Analysis

Autumn 2013, Work Plan 1 Jakob Lemvig, 303B/159, 45253065 61776051, jakle@dtu.dk

Topics: Topological spaces, metric spaces & the topology of metric spaces, convergence, completeness of metric spaces, normed vector spaces, Banach spaces, Hilbert spaces. Reading: [Kreyszig] Chapter 1, 2.2, and 3.1. A large part of this material is repetition from Mathematics 3 or 4. 1.6 is important and should be understood in all details. Class Work: a) Let X be a set. Verify that the axioms of a metric are satised for the discrete metric on X , which is dened as d(x, x) = 0 and d(x, y ) = 1 if x = y for x, y X . What is the diameter (X ) of X ? What is the topology on X induced by this metric? b) Let S = {a, b} be a set consisting of two (dierent) elements. List all topologies that can be dened on S . c) Let X be the set of all ordered triples of zeros and ones. Show that X consists of eight elements and that a metric d on X is dened by d(x, y ) = number of places where x and y have dierent entries. This space and similar spaces of n-tuples play an important role in switching and automata theory and coding, in compressed sensing, and in linear 0-1 optimization. The metric d(x, y ) is called the Hamming distance after R.W. Hamming (paper from 1950). d) Let X = C 1 [1, 1] be the space of all continuously dierentiable real-valued functions on [1, 1], and dene d(x, y ) = maxt[1,1] |x(t) y (t)|. Show that the metric space (X, d) is not complete. Hint: Consider the sequence (xn ), where xn (t) := e) f) g) h)
1 n2

+ t2 .

What is the completion of the discrete metric space? Find a countable set X with a metric d such that (X, d) is not complete. If X1 and X2 are isometric and X1 is complete, show that X2 is complete. What is the completion of (X, d), where X = Q and d(x, y ) = |x y |? Describe the ) using decimal expansions. d elements of (X, i) Let (X, d) be a metric space. Show that B (x0 , r) is open, and that B (x0 , r) and B (x0 , r) are closed for any x0 X and r > 0. Hint: Consider preimages of the continuous function f (x) = d(x, x0 ) and apply Theorem 1.3-4. j) Show that a Cauchy sequence in a metric space is bounded. k) (Uniqueness of limits) Prove that a sequence in a metric space has at most one limit. l) (Continuity of addition) Prove that if (xn ) and (yn ) are convergent sequences in a normed vector space, then limn (xn + yn ) = limn (xn ) + limn (yn ) holds. m) Let S = {a, b}. Show that the topology T = {{a, b}, } is not metrizable.

##  Homework: Deadline: Friday, 13.9.2013, 10:00.

August 29, 2013, Version: 1.0 Page 1 of 2 01715 Functional Analysis, Work Plan 1

 Exercise 1. A relation in a set S is a subset R S S (a set of ordered pairs of points x, y S ). We write x y if (x, y ) R and x y if (x, y ) R. A relation is called an equivalence relation if (i) x x (reexivity) (ii) x y y x (symmetry) (iii) (x y ) (y z ) x z (transitivity) Let (xn ) and (yn ) be Cauchy sequences in the metric space (X, d). Show that (xn ) (yn ) lim d(xn , yn ) = 0
n

denes an equivalence relation on the set C of all Cauchy sequences of elements of X . Each (xn ) C generates an equivalence class [(xn )] dened as: [(xn )] = {(yn ) C : (xn ) (yn )} . ([Kreyszig] denotes [(xn )] by x )

Show that the equivalence classes are disjoint, that is, show that (xn ) (yn ) [(xn )] [(yn )] = .  Exercise 2. Let (X, d) be a metric space (X, d). For every pair of points x, y X , we set (x, y ) := d(x, y )/(1 + d(x, y )). d is a metric on X with the property at 0 d (x, y ) < 1 for all x, y X . Hint: Show that d Show (and use) that f (t) = t/(1 + t) is increasing on [0, [. What is the diameter (X ) ) if we assume that (X, d) is unbounded? If (X, d) is complete, show that (X, d ) of (X, d is also complete. This exercise shows that every metric space can be re-metrized by a bounded metric.  Exercise 3. Let V = (V, V ) and W = (W, W ) be normed vector spaces. Dene the product V W of normed vector spaces by giving the set V W = {(x, y ) | x V, y W } the obvious entrywise dened vector space structure and the norm (x, y )
1

= x

+ y

for x V and y W.
W)

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