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First praise is to Allah, the Almighty, on whom ultimately we depend for, whom with His willing giving me the opportunity to complete this assignment. I would like to express my gratitude to Mam Anam Zahra for the useful comments, remarks and engagement through the learning process. Her willingness to motivate us contributed alot. I would also like to thank her for showing us some examples that were related to the topic. Finally, an honorable mention goes to my family and friends for their understandings and supports. Without helps of the particular that mentioned above, I would face many difficulties while doing this.


Imaginary numbers are used in combination with a real number to form something called a complex number, a+bi where a is the real part (real number), and bi is the imaginary part (real number times the imaginary unit i). This complex number is useful for representing two dimensional variables where both dimensions are physically significant, and AC Quantities ( two dimentional quantities ) are best studied using complex numbers, either in cartesian or polar form. AC Voltage, Current and Imedance, all have a specific magnitude at a specific phase. To get the exact value of ac quantities, we represent them in form of Complex Numbers.

Complex Number
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i is the imaginary unit, where i2 = 1. In this expression, a is the real part and b is the imaginary part of the complex number. Complex numbers extend the idea of the one-dimensional number line to the twodimensional complex plane by using the horizontal axis for the real part and the vertical axis for the imaginary part. The complex number a + bi can be identified with the point (a,b) in the complex plane.

Applications of Complex Number

Complex numbers are used in many scientific and engineering fields, including physics, chemistry, biology, economics, electrical engineering,mathematics, and statistics.

Applications in Electrical Engineering

Information that expresses a single dimension, such as linear distance, is called a scalar quantity in mathematics. Scalar numbers are the kind of numbers students use most often. In relation to science, the voltage produced by a battery, the

resistance of a piece of wire (ohms), and current through a wire (amps) are scalar quantities. The voltage produced by a battery is characterized by one real number (called potential), such as+12 volts or -12 volts. But the "AC" voltage in a home requires two parameters. One is a potential, such as 220 volts, and the other is an angle (called phase). The voltage is said to have two dimensions. A 2-dimensional quantity can be represented mathematically as either a vector or as a complex number (known in the engineering context as phasor). When electrical engineers analyzed alternating current circuits, they found that quantities of voltage, current and resistance (called impedance in AC) were not the familiar one-dimensional scalar quantities that are used when measuring DC circuits. These quantities which now alternate in direction and amplitude possess other dimensions (frequency and phase shift) that must be taken into account. In order to analyze AC circuits, it became necessary to represent multi-dimensional quantities. In order to accomplish this task, scalar numbers were abandoned and complex numbers were used to express the two dimensions of frequency and phase shift at one time. In mathematics, i is used to represent imaginary numbers. In the study of electricity and electronics, j is used to represent imaginary numbers so that there is no confusion with i, which in electronics represents current. It is also customary for scientists to write the complex number in the form a + jb. Introduce the formula V = I Z where V is voltage, I is current, and Z is impedance.


Electrical Impedance

Impedance is represented


a complex quantity

and the term complex

impedance may be used interchangeably; the polar form conveniently captures both magnitude and phase characteristics,

where the magnitude represents the ratio of the voltage difference amplitude to the current amplitude, while the argument gives the phase difference between

voltage and current. is theimaginary unit, and is used instead of in this context to avoid confusion with the symbol for electric current. In Cartesian form,

where the real part of impedance is the resistance the reactance .

and the imaginary part is

OHMs Law




Example 1
Find the current of an AC circuit, that has voltage supply of 110V 70 and load of 0.5k20 . Solution:

V = 110V 70 Z = 0.5k 20 = 500 20 I = V / Z = 110V 70 / 500 20 = (110V / 500)

(70-20) = 0.22A


Example 2

KVL allows addition of complex voltages.

Graphic addition of vector voltages.

Resultant is equivalent to the vector sum of the three original voltages.