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Introduction to Condensing & Regenerative System THERMAL POWER PLANT

Condensing & Regenerative System Course Objectives By the end of the course we will •

Condensing & Regenerative System

Course Objectives

By the end of the course we will Understand principles of Heat Transfer

Understand condensing & regenerative system

familiar with main equipment

know which is likely to be the best type for a given application

understand what are the key factors in design of equipment

have the background necessary to analyze the technical data furnished

be an informed purchaser of equipment

Q = U A ∆∆∆∆T

Simple Power cycle

Steam turbine Condenser Boiler Feedwater
Steam turbine
Condenser
Boiler
Feedwater

heater

Schematic of a Combined Cycle Multi-Shaft Power Plant

Heat recovery steam generator

Gas turbine plant Steam turbine plant 9 Life steam Electrical Air Fuel energy Electrical energy
Gas turbine plant
Steam turbine plant
9
Life steam
Electrical
Air
Fuel
energy
Electrical
energy
6
5
1
2
3
10
7
11
4
Exhaust gas
8
9
Cooling tower
Gas turbine plant:
Steam turbine plant:
Condensate
12
1 Air intake
7
Steam turbine
2 Compressor
8
Condenser
3 Gas turbine
9
Feeding pump
air
4 Heat recovery
10
Generator
steam generator
11
Transformer
5 Generator
12
Circulating pump
6 Transformer
Fresh water

Cooling

HBD (Typical)

HBD (Typical)

HBD (Typical)

HBD (Typical)

Main Equipment

Surface Condenser Venting Equipment Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP) Gland Steam Condenser Low Pressure Feed Water Heater (LPH) Deaerator Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) High Pressure Feed Water Heater (HPH) Associated Piping & Instrumentation

IntroductionIntroduction toto HeatHeat TransferTransfer

Heat Transfer can be defined as transmission of energy from one region to another as a result of temperature difference or gradient.

The modes of heat transfer are Conduction, Convection & Radiation. In all heat transfer modes, a temperature difference must exist to cause heat flow and heat always flows in the direction of lower temperature.

WhatWhat areare heatheat exchangersexchangers for?for?

To get fluid streams to the right temperature for the next process

To condense vapours

To evaporate liquids

To recover heat to use elsewhere

To reject low-grade heat

To drive a power cycle

ModesModes ofof HeatHeat TransferTransfer

ConductionConduction ConvectionConvection RadiationRadiation

ConductionConduction

Mechanism:

-Random movement of electrons through the metal

-Electrons in the hot part of the solid have higher Kinetic energy

-Gives some of the kinetic energy to the cold atoms

-Resulting in a transfer of Heat from the hot surface to cold

ConvectionConvection contd

contd

MECHANISM:

-Heat transfer is by fluid motion

-Cold fluid adjacent to a hot surface receives heat which it passes to the cold fluid by mixing with it.

-Free or natural convection occurs when the fluid motion is not implemented by mechanical agitation

-Heat is transferred by forced convection when the fluid is mechanically agitated.

-In most process applications it is induced by circulation of hot and cold fluids at rapid rates on the opposite sides of tubes.

Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers Radiation Radiation Contd Contd … … MECHANISM: - Heat transfer

Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

RadiationRadiation ContdContd

MECHANISM:

-Heat transfer from one body to another without any transmitting medium

-This mode of heat transfer is by electromagnetic waves

-Qi = Incident energy

-Qa=Absorbed energy

-Qr = Reflected energy

-Qt = Transmitted energy

-Qi = Qa + Qr + Qt

Qr Qi Qa Qt
Qr
Qi
Qa
Qt

HeatHeat DutyDuty

Q = m . Cp (T 1 -T 2 )

Where

Q

– Total Heat to be transferred (Heat Duty) – Kcal/hr

m

– Mass of the Fluid – Kg/hr

Cp – Specific Heat of the Fluid – Kcal/kg o C T 1 –Inlet Temperature of the Fluid – o C T 2 –Outlet Temperature of the Fluid – o C

HeatHeat TransferTransfer CoefficientCoefficient

Where

Q = U . A . DDDDt m

A = Q / U . DDDDt m

A

– Required Effective Outside Heat Transfer Surface Area – m 2

Q

– Total Heat to be transferred (Heat Duty) – Kcal/hr

U

– Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient referred to tube outside surface

- Kcal/Hr M 2 o C DDDDt m –Log Mean Temperature Difference o C

FoulingFouling

Introduction

During the lifetime of a heat exchanger its performance will be influenced by what happens on the surface where the heat is exchanged. On the surface deposits of materials can accumulate that reduce the heat transfer and increase the pressure drop. This is referred to as fouling.

The tendency for fouling depends on many variables that influence each other and can be difficult to address with a theoretical model. Allowing for fouling is therefore a matter of experience.

FoulingFouling

A number of questions arise when one designs a heat exchanger:

•how much additional surface is needed to cater for fouling?

•how much additional pressure drop can be expected due to fouling?

•are provisions needed for cleaning (chemical or mechanical)?

•is regular cleaning / inspection required

•is it possible to reduce the buildup?

•which materials of construction are preferred?

FoulingFouling

TypeType ofof FoulingFouling PrecipitationPrecipitation FoulingFouling ParticulateParticulate FoulingFouling CorrosionCorrosion FoulingFouling BiologicalBiological FoulingFouling

FoulingFouling

EffectEffect ofof FoulingFouling

•Reduces Heat Transfer Coefficient, thereby, increases the heat transfer surface area

•Increases the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop

•Degrades the performance of a heat exchanger

•Higher fouling specified to take care of safety factor to account for uncertainties in the heat transfer calculation

FoulingFouling

PhysicalPhysical ConsiderationsConsiderations •Properties of Fluids •Surface & Bulk Temperature •Local Velocities •Tube Material, configuration & Surface Finish •Exchanger Geometry and Orientation •Heat Transfer Process •Fluid Treatment •Cathodic Protection •Planned Cleaning Method and Desired Frequency •Place the more fouling fluid on the tube side

FoulingFouling

EconomicEconomic ConsiderationsConsiderations

Planned fouling prevention, maintenance and cleaning make possible lower allowance for fouling

•Operation and economic factors that change with time

•Different cleaning procedures and degree of payback

•Continuous monitoring the performance to establish fouling

•Control of flow velocities

 

Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

 
 
 
 

FoulingFouling

Design of Heat Exchangers     Fouling Fouling Cleaning Methods To remove fouling methods are popular:
Design of Heat Exchangers     Fouling Fouling Cleaning Methods To remove fouling methods are popular:
Cleaning Methods
Cleaning Methods

Cleaning Methods

To remove fouling methods are popular:
To remove fouling methods are popular:

To remove fouling methods are popular:

•Mechanical cleaning (brushing, scraping, )
•Mechanical cleaning (brushing, scraping, )

•Mechanical cleaning (brushing, scraping,

)

•Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)
•Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)

•Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)

) •Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)
) •Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)
) •Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)
) •Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)
) •Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)
) •Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)
) •Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)
) •Chemical cleaning (solvent or chemical reaction) •High velocity water jets •Onload Cleaning System (brush, ball)

FoulingFouling

Shell and tubes can handle fouling but it can be reduced by

• keeping velocities sufficiently high to avoid deposits

• avoiding stagnant regions where dirt will collect

• avoiding hot spots where coking or scaling might occur

• avoiding cold spots where liquids might freeze or where corrosive products may condense for gases

TubeTube SideSide FlowFlow VelocityVelocity

Advantages of increased flow velocity

• better heat transfer

• less fouling BUT

• high pressure drop

• tube erosion

CondensationCondensation

Condensation is the process by which vapor is changed to liquid by removing latent heat from the vapor.

Drop-wise Condensation

When a saturated pure vapor comes into contact with a cold surface such as a tube, it condenses and may form liquid droplets on the surface of the tube. These droplets fall from the tube, leaving a bare metal on which successive droplets of condensate may form.

Film-wise Condensation

When the vapor condenses, a distinct film may appear and coats the tube. Additional vapor is then required to condense into the liquid film rather than form directly on the bare surface. This is film or film-wise condensation.

CondensationCondensation ContdContd

Condensation Condensation Contd Contd … … a) b ) a) Condensate in Laminar Flow b) Condensate

a)

b)

a) Condensate in Laminar Flow

b) Condensate in Turbulent Flow

c)

Steam Surface Condenser

Steam Surface Condenser

Surface Condenser in Turbine House

Surface Condenser in Turbine House 1. Turbine 2. Gear Box 3. Generator 4. Condenser 5. Flash

1. Turbine

2. Gear Box

3. Generator

4. Condenser

5. Flash Vessel

6. Condensate Pump

7. Vacuum Pump

Section of Surface Condenser (Typical)

1 Exhaust steam pipe

with expansion joint

2 Steam inlet connection (from flash vessel)

3 Steam dome

4 Extraction pipe

(air extraction)

S Water level gauge connection

6 Condenser foot

7 Water level gauge connection

8 Condensate inlet connection (from flash vessel)

9 Condensate outlet branch

10 Hotwell

11 Tube bundles

12 Steam shell

13 Air cooler tube bundle

14 Baffle plate

15 Support plate

16 Emergency exhaust valve connection

bundles 12 Steam shell 13 Air cooler tube bundle 14 Baffle plate 15 Support plate 16

GA of Surface Condenser (Typical)

GA of Surface Condenser (Typical)

Box Type Condenser

Box Type Condenser

P

Steam Surface Condenser

ADVANTAGES

• The Efficiency of the plant increases due to increased expansion ratio

• Reuse of condensate as feed for Boiler reduces the cost of power generation

• Specific steam consumption of the Turbine decreeased as the work developed per kg of steam increases with the decrease in back pressure

P 1 P Atmospheric Pressure Line a Condenser Pressure Line P b v
P
1
P
Atmospheric Pressure Line
a
Condenser Pressure Line
P
b
v

Effect of Condenser Vacuum on work done by Steam Turbine

Steam Surface Condenser

Requirements

• Steam shall be evenly distributed over the whole cooling surface area with minimum pressure loss

• No under cooling condensate

• No air-leakage into the condenser as it destroys the vacuum

• Air extracted shall be cooled to the maximum extent possible to reduce the load on ejector system

Steam Surface Condenser

Design Standards

Thermal Design:

HEI –Standards for Steam Surface Condensers (Heat Exchange Institute, Inc)

Mechanical Design:

• ASME Sec VIII-Div1

• Ad merkblatter

• Good Engineering Practices

(Heat Exchange Institute, Inc) Mechanical Design: • ASME Sec VIII-Div1 • Ad merkblatter • Good Engineering
(Heat Exchange Institute, Inc) Mechanical Design: • ASME Sec VIII-Div1 • Ad merkblatter • Good Engineering

Tubes

• Tube pitch = distance between tube centers

• Typically, tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D

• Tubes held in Tubesheet

– welded

– rolled

– packed

tube centers • Typically, tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D • Tubes held in Tubesheet
tube centers • Typically, tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D • Tubes held in Tubesheet
tube centers • Typically, tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D • Tubes held in Tubesheet
tube centers • Typically, tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D • Tubes held in Tubesheet
tube centers • Typically, tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D • Tubes held in Tubesheet
tube centers • Typically, tube pitch = 1.25 x tube O.D • Tubes held in Tubesheet

Steam Surface Condenser

Thermal Design

General Heat Transfer Equation

Q = U x As x LMTD

Where

Q

= Heat Duty

Kcal/Hr

U

= Heat Transfer Coefficient

Kcal/Hr m 2 o C

As = Surface Area LMTD = Log Mean Temp Diff

m 2 o C

T

Steam Surface Condenser

Thermal Design (contd)

Q

= (H steam – H condensate ) x Ws + Aux Heat Load

U

= U1 x Fw x Fm x Fc

WsWs == SteamSteam Kg/hrKg/hr

Where

U1 = Uncorrected Heat Transfer Coefficient (Table-1 or Figure-1) (based on tube OD & velocity of water inside tubes) Fw = Inlet water temperature correction factor(Table-2 or Figure-2) Fm = Tube Material & gauge correction factor (Table-3)

Fc = Cleanliness Factor (generally customer specifies)

LMTD

As

T

2

T

1

Ln   Ts

Ts

 

T

1

T 2

 

Q

 

=

U

×

LMTD

T 1

AA ss inin mm 22

Ts L
Ts
L

T 2

Basic Basic Logical Logical Structure Structure of of Power Power Plant Plant Heat Heat Exchanger

BasicBasic LogicalLogical StructureStructure ofof PowerPower PlantPlant HeatHeat ExchangerExchanger DesignDesign ProcedureProcedure

Problem

Problem

Identification

Identification

Problem Identification
Problem Identification
Design Procedure Procedure Problem Identification The Element within the outline May be done by Hand or

The Element within the outline May be done by Hand or by Computer

Selection of a Basic Heat Exchanger Type Selection of a Tentative Set of Exchanger Design
Selection of a
Basic Heat Exchanger Type
Selection of a
Tentative Set of Exchanger
Design Parameters
Modification of
Design Parameters
Rating of the Design:
Thermal Performance
Pressure Drops
Evaluation of the Design:
Q, DP Acceptable
Mechanical Design, Costing Etc:

Mechanical Design, Costing Etc:

Steam Surface Condenser

Materials of Construction IS 2062, A 516 Gr60,

Shell, Shell Flange:

A 516 Gr70

Tube Plate:

Tubes:

Water Boxes:

IS 2062, SA 516 Gr60,

A 516 Gr70, A 240 TP304

Cu-Ni (Solid / Cladded) Titanium (Cladded)

A 179, TP304 (welded/seamless) Admiralty / Aluminum Brass Cu-Ni, Titanium IS 2062, A 516 Gr60,

A 516 Gr70

(Cladded with Cu-Ni/ Titanium) Rubber Lined / Epoxy Coated

Venting Equipment

Types

Steam Jet Air Ejector

Water jet Air Ejector

Vacuum Pump

Purpose

• To remove non-condensable gases and associated water vapor from the condenser.

• To produce and maintain the minimum steam condensing pressure

• Deaeration of condensate

Venting Equipment

Sources of Non-condensables

• Air leakage into system components which are operating at sub-atmospheric pressure

• Gases released from feed water drains and vents admitted to condenser

• Gases released from make-up water admitted to condenser

Deaerator

PURPOSE

• To remove corrosive gases

– Oxygen

– Carbon Dioxide

– Ammonia (traces)

Entrained in boiler feed water to a level (7ppb or 0.005cc/l)

• The above gases become very corrosive at elevated temperatures hence it is necessary to remove this gases to protect piping, boiler tubes and associated equipment

• CO2 dissolved in Feed Water produces low pH levels and causes severe acid attack throughout the boiler system

• To provide sufficient Net Positive Suction Head (NPHS) on the suction side of BFP

Deaerator

Deaerator

Spray-Tray Deaerator

Spray-Tray Deaerator

Deaerator

Deaerator

Deaerator

Deaerator

Deaerator

Deaerator Spray Spray Valve Valve Trays Trays

SpraySpray ValveValve

Deaerator Spray Spray Valve Valve Trays Trays

TraysTrays

Deaerator

Special Design Requirements as per HEI

In addition to ASME Code, the following requirements are additional

• Corrosion Allowance – 1/8”

• Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT)

• Internal weld steams shall be ground smooth

• Wet Fluoresecent Magnetic Particle Testing (WFMPT) for nozzles

• Shell & Head seams. Longitudinal and Circumferential weld seams – 100% X-Ray

Deaerator

Materials Of Construction

Storage Tank Header Water Box Header Valve Plate Tray Enclosure Trays Spray Valves Internal Bolting

A 516 Gr70 A 516 Gr70 TP 304 TP 304 A 516 Gr70 / TP304 TP 304 TP316 / TP304 SS

Feed Water Heaters

PURPOSE

• Feed Water Heaters are used in a regenerative system cycle

• To improve the thermodynamic gain, by extracting steam at various points from the Turbine and condensing it by using Boiler Feed Water

• To avoid thermal shock to the Boiler and reduces fuel consumption to convert Feed Water to Steam

Feed Water Heaters

Construction

Generally FWH consists of the following zones

– De-Superheating

– Condensing

– Drain Cooling

Desuperheating Zone:

The steam first enters this zone and loses it superheat to the feed water. This zone can be designed with steam entry at one end or in the middle of zone depending on steam side pressure drop limit Condensing Zone:

The slightly superheated steam, coming out of desuperheating zone, condenses in the condensing zone, giving its heat to the feed water. Drain Cooling Zone:

Condensed steam i.e. drain from condensing zone passes over the tubes in drain cooling zone and is cascaded out to next lower stage heater

Feed Water Heaters

Feed Water Heaters

Feed Water Heaters

Feed Water Heaters

Feed Water Heaters

WorkingWorking PrinciplePrinciple

Feed Water Heaters Working Working Principle Principle

Feed Water Heaters

HighHigh PressurePressure FeedFeed WaterWater HeaterHeater GAGA DrawingDrawing

Feed Water Heaters High High Pressure Pressure Feed Feed Water Water Heater Heater GA GA Drawing

Feed Water Heaters

LowLow PressurePressure FeedFeed WaterWater HeaterHeater GAGA DrawingDrawing

Feed Water Heaters Low Low Pressure Pressure Feed Feed Water Water Heater Heater GA GA Drawing

Feed Water Heater

Materials Of Construction

Shell Skirt Tube Sheet Channel Channel Flange Channel Cover U-Tubes

Bolting

A 516 Gr70 Low Alloy Steel A 350 LF2 / A 516 Gr70 A 350 LF2 / A 516 Gr70 A 350 LF2 / A 516 Gr70 A 350 LF2 / A 516 Gr70

A 688 TP 304 (ss welded)

A 213 TP 304 (ss seamless)

A 556 Gr A2

A 193 B7 / A 194 2H

(cs seamless)