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Objective:

Learn to identify the root of a verb and conjugate it for a masculine subject in the present tense.

Lesson:
The present tense are simple statements about what is happening now, examples: I read. He writes. They shop. etc. The conjugation of the verb will change depending up three things: 1) The person of the subject. Is the subject first person. Are you talking about I or We. Or is the subject second person, i.e. you. Or is the subject third person, i.e. He or them 2) Is the subject plural or singular? 3) Is the subject masculine, feminine, or a combination of the two. Remember that in Hindi, every noun has a gender, and the appropriate form of the verb needs to be used to match that gender. But before we get to the different forms of the present tense verb for masculine subjects, let us talk about the root of a verb. If you were to look up a verb in the dictionary, it would be in its infinitive form. Here are the verbs we will be using for the these four sessions on the present tense verbs: (pardnaa) to read (likhanaa) to write (kahanaa) to say (khaanaa) to eat (jaanaa) to go (aanaa) to come (siikhana) to learn (sunanaa) to listen Notice how all the words end in (-naa)? Remove that part, and you have the root of the verb. It is the root that (pardnaa) is (pard). Identify the

endings are added to for each different case. The root of the verb to read root of each of the other verbs. I will give you the answers tomorrow. First Person

Singular The first person singular refers to I, the person that is speaking. I in Hindi is There is a helper verb for (huun). Now for the present tense, singular, first person, masculine subjects, you take the root of the verb and add and insert it between the I read. (main) goes with (huun). For example: (ta) (main) is (main). (main) goes with

(huun). You will want to remember this combination

(main pardta huun).

Take the other verbs above and create the sentences: I say. (Where I refers to a male speaker.) I eat. I go. I come I learn. I listen. We will give you the answers in the next three podcasts. Plural The plural first person is We (masculine) which is (ham) and (hain). (ham). This always goes with (hain). Remember this pair

Now for the plural form of the verb, we need to take the root and add (te). For example: We read. (ham pardte hain.)

Now try to create the masculine, first person, plural forms of each of the verbs given above. Second Person The second person can be a little confusing. There are three versions of you. (tuu), (tum), and (aap). All

three of which can be used when talking to a single person. The first one (tuu) is grammatically singular and is

the least formal. It would be used when talking to your child, for instance. The other two grammatically plural. The most polite version is (aap).

(tum), and

(aap) are

You will want to remember these combinations of the three you pronouns and the helper verbs. (tuu) and (tum) and (aap) and (hai) (ho) (hain) (ta) added. And the plural case is the root

Now in the present tense, the singular masculine is the verb root with with (te) added. The various forms of I read. are as follows: (tuu pardta hai) (tum pardte ho) (aap pardte hain)

Now try to use the verbs mentioned above to create these three different types of You (blank) sentences. We will review the answers in the upcoming podcasts. Third Person Singular The masculine third person singular includes the pronouns he, it, and this. All of these are (vah). The helper verb is (hai). So remember this combination (vah) and (vah pardta hai) (hai). Here is an example:

He reads.

Now you try creating similar sentences using the verbs above. Plural The third person plural includes these and they. Which is (ve). And the helper verb is (hain). They read. (ve pardte hain).