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PANJAB UNIVERSITY CHANDIGARH- 160 014 (INDIA)


(Estted. under the Panjab Univerasity Act VII of 1947-enacted by the Govt. of India)

FACULTY OF SCIENCE

SYLLABI FOR M.Sc. (TWO YEAR COURSE ) IN ZOOLOGY YEAR( Semester System)

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EXAMINATIONS 2012-2013 --:O:--

1 OUTLINES OF TESTS, SYLLABI AND COURSES OF READING FOR M.SC. (TWO YEAR COURSE) IN ZOOLOGY ( SEMESTER SYSTEM) EXAMINATIONS OF 2012-2013.

FIRST SEMESTER Marks 80 20 80 20 80 20 80 20 80 20

Paper - I :

Structure and Functions of Invertebrates - I Practical based on Paper - I Lower Chordates. Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates -I Practical based on Paper-II Animal Physiology Practical based on Paper III Ecology and Animal Behaviour Practical based on Paper IV Biostatistics and Computer Application Practical based on Paper V

Paper - II :

Paper III :

Paper IV :

Paper V :

SECOND SEMESTER Paper VI : Structure and Functions of Invertebrates - II Practical based on Paper - VI Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates -II Practical based on Paper-VII 80 20 80 20 80 20 80 20 80 20

Paper VII :

Paper VIII : Biosystematics and Evolution Practical based on Paper-VIII Paper IX : Endocrinology and Neural Physiology Practical based on Paper IX Immunology Practical based on Paper X

Paper X :

THIRD SEMESTER Paper XI : Developmental Biology -I Practical based on paper XI Biochemistry, Practical based on Paper XII Cell and Molecular Biology Practical based on Paper-XIII Instrumentation and Methodology Practical based on Paper XIV Advances in Entomology Practical based on Paper XV 80 20 80 20 80 20 80 20 80 20

Paper XII :

Paper XIII :

Paper XIV :

Paper XV :

FOURTH SEMESTER Paper XVI : Developmental Biology -II Practical based on paper XVI Paper XVII : Advances in Parasitology Practical based on Paper XVII Paper XVIII : Advances in Fish and Fisheries Practical based on Paper XVIII Paper XIX : Environmental Biology & Wild life Practical based on Paper XIX Paper XX : Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics Practical based on Paper-XX 80 20 80 20 80 20 80 20 80 20

3 SEMESTER I PAPER-I : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF INVERTEBRATES -I Time : 3 Hours. Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To acquaint the students with the classification and general organization of invertebrates. To make the students know about the habitat, habits, morphology and economic importance of various types of invertebrates. UNIT-I 1. Phylum Protozoa : General organisation of Protozoa with special reference to feeding, locomotory organelles and locomotion, reproduction, parasitism and pathogenic protozoans. Phylum Porifera : General organisation of phylum Porifera with special reference to canal system, skeleton and development. Phylum Coelenterata : General organisation of phylum Coelenterata with special reference to polymorphism, corals and coral reefs, development and alternation of generation. UNIT-II 4. Phylum Platyhelminthes : General organisation of phylum Platyhelminthes with special reference to body wall, digestive system, excretory system and reproductive system. Development and life cycles of Fasciola, Schistosoma, Taenia and Echinococcus. Phylum Aschelminthes : General organisation of phylum Aschelminthes. Life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides, Wuchereria bancrofti, Dracunculus medinensis.

2. 3.

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Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals Based on Theory Paper - I Classification upto orders and study of the specimens mentioned against each phylum with ecological note. 1. Protozoa. a. Permanent stained preparation from the culture of Amoeba, Euglena Paramecium and Vorticella.

4 b. Prepared slides of Amoeba, Trypanosoma, Euglena ,Noctiluca, Eimeria, Monocystis, Paramecium (binary fission), Paramecium (conjugation), Opalina, Vorticella, Balantidium, Nyctotherus, Radiolarian oozes and Foraminiferan oozes.

2.

Porifera a. Specimens : Sycon, Grantia,Spongilla, Euplectella, Hyalonema, Euspongia. b. Prepared slides : Spicules, gemmules, Sycon (T.S and L.S). c. Preparation of permanent slides : gemmules and spicules. Coelenterata a. Specimens: Porpita, Velella, Physalia, Aurelia, Metridium, Alcyonium, Tubipora, Zoanthus, Madrepora, Favia, Fungia, Gorgonia and Pennatula. b. Prepared slides : Hydra (W.M.), T.S. through regions of testis and ovary, Obelia (colony, medusa and polyp), Sertularia, Plumularia, Tubularia Bougainvillea, Aurelia, Pennaria. c. Preparation of permanent slides : Hydra, Obelia, Sertularia and Plumularia.

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Platyhelminthes a. Specimens : Planaria, Dugesia, Fasciola, Taenia, and Echinococcus. b. Slides : Fasciola (miracidium, sporocyst, redia and cercaria), scolex and proglottids of Taenia (Mature and gravid L.S. & T.S.). c. Stained preparation of : Amphistome, proglottid of a cestode.

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Aschelminthes a. Specimens : Ascaris (Male and female) b. Slides : Ascaris (T.S. of male and female gravid).

Books Recommended 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Invertebrates Vols. I, II, III, IV & V by L.H. Hyman, Mcgraw Hill, New York (1940- 51) Text book of Zoology by Marshall and Williams (1962). Invertebrates Structure and function by E.J.W. Barrington. English Language Book Society & Nelson (1969). Protozoology by Kudo, R.R., Books and Periodicals Corp.(India) New Delhi (1986). Introduction to Animal Parasitology by J.D. Smyth. Hodder & Stoughton, London (1976).

5 PAPER - II : LOWER CHORDATES. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF VERTEBRATES - I Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To enable the students know about structure and functions of protochordates. To draw a comparative account of anatomy of vertebrates and hence to understand the evolution of different systems in vertebrates. UNIT - I Introduction to chordates. Organisation and affinities of Herdmania and Amphioxus. Comparative account of following systems of the vertebrates with evolutionary trends from Pisces to Mammals. Integumentary system : Integument and its derivatives. Skeletal system : Chondrocranium, Spianchnocranium, Dermatocranium, Jaw suspension. UNIT-II Alimentary canal and associated glands. ( Types of teeth,dental formulae and functions, Types of stomach, small and large intestines, Glands : Salivary, gastric, Pancreas and liver). : Evolution of heart & aortic arches.

Digestive system

Circulatory system

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper II 1. Classification upto orders, excepting pisces and Aves,where classification upto subclasses is required, Habits, Habitats, external characters and economic importance (if any) of the following animals: Chondrichthyes : Zygaena, Pristis, Narcine, Trygon, Rhinobatus, Chimaera. Actinopterygii : Polypterus, Acipenser, Lepidosteus, Muraena, Mystus, Catla. Hippocampus, Syngnathus, Exocoetus, Anabas, Diodon, Tetradon, Echeneis and Solea.

6 Dipneusti (Dipnoi) : Protopterus (Lung fish) Amphibia : Uraeotyphlus, Necturus, Amphiuma, Ambystoma and its Axolotl larva. Triton, Salamandra, Hyla, Rhacophorus. Reptilia : Hemidactylus, Calotes, Draco, Varanus, Phrynosoma, Chamaeleon. Typhlops, Python, Eryx, Ptyas, Bungarus, Naja, Hydrus, Vipera, Crocodilus. Gavialis, Chelone and Testudo.

2. Examine and dissect the following animals : Labeo : Digestive and reproductive systems, Circulatory system : heart, afferent and efferent branchial arteries, Nervous system : cranial nerves and internal ear. 3. 4. Study of the skeleton of Labeo, Rana and Varanus. Study of histology of different organs of frog.

Books Recommended 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A Text Book of Zoology, Vol.II Vertebrates by A.J. Marshall, MacMillan & Co. Ltd., New York (1972). Anatomy of Chordates by C.K. Weichert, McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. London (1958). Biology of Vertebrates by H.E. Walter and L.P. Sayles, McMillan Co. New York (1949). Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates by G.C. Kent, Torpen Co.Ltd., Tokyo (1954). Anatomy of Comparative Vertebrates. Hyman, Libbie Heneietta Satish secial pub. House 2004.

PAPER III : ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY Theory hours per week : 4 hours Practical hours per week : 3 hours Time : 3 Hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment : 05 Final Practical : 15

Objectives of the Course : To enable the students to know about all the physiological processes going on in animal/human body. To make the students understand the functions of hormones and their mode of action at molecular level.

7 UNIT I Nutrition: Chemistry, metabolic role and sources of vitamins & deficiency diseases due to them. Biological significance and regulation of minerals and deficiency diseases due to them. Physiology of digestion. Circulation : Chemistry of blood components and their functional significance; origin, formation, molecular regulation and maturation of RBCs and WBCs; biochemistry of haemoglobin and myoglobin; biochemical interconversions during blood coagulation and homeostasis. Cardiac cycle and its regulatory mechanisms. Cardiac output and the factors that affect cardiac output, micro circulation, blood pressure, factors influencing blood pressure and its regulation. Respiration : Concept of respiration, mechanism of breathing; biochemistry of respiratory exchange; Transport of respiratory gases; Regulatory mechanisms (humoral and neural) of respiration. Respiratory acidosis, alkalosis and regulation of pH. UNIT II Excretion : Concept of excretion and nitrogenous wastes; functional anatomy of renal unit; biophysical and chemical mechanisms of ultrafiltration, reabsorption and secretion, transport mechanisms, urine formation & regulatory control of sugar, urea, Na+ K+, and H+; Role of kidneys in regulation of acid-base balance and osmoregulation, counter current mechanism. Physiology of Muscles : Types of muscles and their components; Molecular organization of myosin, role of heavy and light meromyosin, molecular organization of actin; interaction of actin and myosin, AT Pase activity of myosin, power-stroke, ATP binding and hydrolysis; Role of troponin and tropomyosin and Ca ++ in regulation of muscle contraction. Contraction of smooth muscles, role of phosphorylation, Ca ++ and kinases; Role of actin and myosin in eukaryotic cells (microtubles and microfilaments). Stress Physiology Physiological adaptations in response to high, low ambient temperature, physiological adaptation at high altitude and in deep sea environment. Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper III 1. To demonstrate that the optimum activity of salivary amylase is pH dependent. 2. Estimation of Haemoglobin. 3. Determination of TLC, DLC & RBC. 4. Determination of bleeding and clotting time. 5. Determination of blood groups. 6. Measurement of blood pressure. 7. Estimation of ESR. 8. To study the effect of exercise on cardiovascular and respiratory systems.

8 9. 10. To estimate the glucose level in blood of mammal, Prothrombin test, Haematocrit. To study the effect of insulin on blood glucose level of mammal. BOOKS RECOMMENDED 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Guyton, A.X., Text Book of Medical Physiology, 7th edition, Saunders Company (1986). Best, J.P., Best and Taylors Physiological basis of medical practice, 11th ed. William and Wilkins (1985). Hoar, W.S., General and Comparative Physiology, Adaptation and Environment, 3rd ed. Cambridge University, Press (1985). Vander, A.J., Sherman, J.H. and Luciana, D.S., Human Physiology, McGraw Hill Publ. Co. (1990). Gillian Pocock and Christopher D. Richards. Human Physiology. The Basis of Medicine Oxford University Press (2001).

PAPER IV : ECOLOGY AND ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR Theory hours per week : 4 hours Practical hours per week : 3 hours Time : 3 Hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15

Objectives of the Course : To acquaint the students with the habitat and interactions of diverse animal groups with their environment. To acquaint the students with characteristic behavioural aspects of animal life. UNIT I : ECOLOGY 1. Introduction : Definition, subdivision & scope of ecology. 2. Abiotic Factors : Temperature, light and soil as ecological factors. 3. Principles of limiting factors : Liebigs law of minimum, Shelfords law of tolerance and the combined concept of limiting factors. 4. Ecosystem : Definition, components,food chain & food web, energy flow through ecosystem, ecological pyramids, Major ecosystems of the world. 5. Biogeochemical Cycles : Definition, different types of gaseous and sedimentary biogeochemical cycles. 6. Population : Characteristics, ecological niche 7. Biotic community : Characteristics of biotic community, ecological niche. 8. Ecological succession : Definition, types of succession, xerarch & Hydrarch concept of climax community, theories of succession.

9 9. Ecological Adaptations : Desert, aerial, fussorial animals. and aquatic adaptations in

UNIT II : ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Feeding Learning, reasoning, instinctive and motivative behaviour. Social and sexual behavior of animals Circadian rhythms Mimicry and Protective colouration Definition, types of mimicry with examples. Migration of fishes and birds. Parental care Intra and interspecific relationships.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks.

Practicals based on theory paper IV 1. To study the phototactic behaviour of an insect. 2. To study the geotactic behaviour of an insect. 3. To study nesting behaviour in birds. 4. To study the soil fauna. 5. To determine the pH of the soil. 6. To determine the moisture content of soil 7. To determine the salinity of the soil. 8. To study desert adaptations in animals. 9. To study aquatic adaptations in animals. 10. To study aerial adaptations in animals. 11. To study inter specific relationships. 12. To study the biotic components of an ecosystem. Books recommended Fundamentals of Ecology by E.P. Odum, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, 1971. Natural Resources Conservation : An Ecological Approach by O.S. Qwen, Mac Millan Publ. Co. N.T., 1994. Ecology by Kreb J. Charles, Harper & Row Publ. New York, 1982. Principles of Animal Behaviour by Dugatkin, Lee A, W.W. Norton, New York, 2004. Animal Behaviour (Ethology) by V.K. Ahggarwal, 2010. Handbook of Ethological Methods by Lehner, Phillip N, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

10 PAPER V : BIOSTATISTICS & COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Time : 3Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course To acquaint the students of basic statistics applicable in biological studies. To make the students computer literate to be able to use the vast store of knowledge on the internet and to be able to use computers for studies. UNIT-I (Biostatistics) Principles and practice of statistical methods in biological research samples and populations. Basic statistics, average statistics of dispersion. Coefficient of variation, standard error, confidence limit. Probability distribution, binomial, Poisson and normal. Tests of statistical significance. Simple correlation of regression, analysis of variance. UNIT-II (Computer Applications) General awareness of Computer Hardware i.e., CPU and other peripheral devices. Introduction to MS Office software, covering word processing, spread sheet & presentation software. Introduction to internet and its applications. Introduction to programming in C & its functions. FORTRAN; Preparation of programme.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practical based on theory paper V 1. Calculation of dispersion 2. Calculation of measures of central tendency 3. Fitting of Binomial distribution 4. Fitting of Poisson distribution 5. Tests of statistical significance 6. Write programme to demonstrate conditional statements using C language. 7. To perform mail merge. 8. Use of Excel and Power point. 9. Use of E-mail and internet.

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Books Recommended 1. Daniel, W.W. 1983. Biostatistics : A Foundation for analysis in the Health Sciences. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 2. Dunn, O.J. and V.A. Clark. 2001. Basic Statistics : A primer for Biomedical Science. John Wilety and Sons, New York. 3. Goon, A.M., M.K. Gupta and B. Dasgupta. 1983. Fundamentals of Statistics. Vol.I. 4. Hunt, R. and J. Shelly. Computer and Common Sense. Prentice Hall (1975). 5. Kanetker, Y. Let us C B.P.B. Publication (2011). 6. Rajaraman, V. Computer Programming in FORTRAN. IV. Prentice Hall (1974). 7. Rajaraman, V. and T. Radhakrishanan. An Introduction to Digital Computers. Prentice Hall (1978). 8. Sinha P.K. and Priti Sinha Computer Fundamentals. 3rd Ed. B.P.B. Publication (2005).

12 SEMESTER II PAPER-VI : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF INVERTEBRATES II Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To acquaint the students with the classification and general organization of invertebrates. To make the students know about the habitat, habits, morphology and economic importance of various types of invertebrates including minor phyla. UNIT-I Phylum Annelida : General organisation of phylum Annelida with special reference to segmentation, digestive, excretory and reproductive systems. Phylum Arthrpoda : General organisation of Arthrpoda. Larval forms of crustaceans. Modifications of mouth parts, wings and legs of insects. Social organisation of insects (Termites, honey bee and ants). UNIT-II Phylum Mollusca : General organisation of Mollusca with special reference to feeding, respiration and shell diversity, podium or foot in Mollusca, torsion and detorsion in Gastropoda. Phylum Echinodermata : General organisation of Echinodermata, Comparative account of water vascular system, haemal and perihaemal systems, Larval forms in Echinodermata. Minor Phyla : Concept and significance. Organisation and general characters of different minor phyla.

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Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals Based on Theory Paper - VI 1. a. b. Annelida Dissections : Earthworm (digestive, nervous and reproductive systems). Specimens : Nereis,Heteronereis, Polynoe, Tubifex, Eunice, Aphrodite, Chaetopterus, Arenicola, Pontobdella, Amphitrite and Hirudinaria.

13 c. Prepared slides : Earthworm (T.S. typhlosolar region, setae, pharyngeal nephridium, septal nephridium, integumentary nephridium). Nereis (Parapodium),Leech (T.S.through different regions). Permanent preparations : Setae and nephirdia of earthworm, parpodium of Nereis.

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Arthropoda a. Dissections : Palaemon (appendages,digestive, nervous and reproductive systems). b. Specimens : Peripatus, Lepisma, Cockroach, Grasshopper, Praying mantis, Earwig, Dragonfly, Termite (queen and other castes), Ant, Butterfly, Moth, Beetles, Wasp, Honeybee,Crab, Prawn, Lepas, Balanus, Apus, Limulus, Scorpion, Spider, Millepede and Centipede. c. Prepared slides : Body louse, Bed-bug, Rat flea, Cypris, Cyclops, Daphnia, trachea of insects, gill and statocyst of Prawn. d. Preparation of permanent mounts : Trachea of insect, mouthparts of Cockroach, Mosquito, Honeybee, Housefly and butterfly, statocyst of Prawn. Mollusca a. Dissections : Anodonta (digestive and nervous systems). b. Specimens :Anodonta, Mytilus, Pholas, Pecten, Haliotis, Aplysia, Doris, Limax, Pila, Sepia,Octopus, Nautilus, Chiton and Dentalium. c. Prepared Slides : Glochidium larva, radula of Pila, gill lamina of Anodonta. d. Preparation of Permanent mounts : Radula of Pila. Echinodermata a. Demonstration of anatomy of Asterias from a dissected specimen. b. Specimens : Asterias, Echinus, Cucumaria, Antedon, Ophiothrix. c. Prepared slides : T.S. arm of Starfish, tube feet, larval forms of echinodermata

4.

Note : Candidates will be required to submit duly signed note books of practical record.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Invertebrates Vols.I, II, III, IV & V by L.H. Hyman, Mcgraw Hill, New York (1940- 51) Text book of Zoology by Marshall and Williams (1962). Invertebrates Structure and function by E.J.W. Barrington. English Language Book Society & Nelson (1969). Imm's Text Book of Entomology by Richards and Davies. Methuen & Co. Ltd. New York:EP Dutton & Co. Inc.(1983). Principles of Insect Morphology by R.E. Snodgrass. Mcgraw Hill, New York (1935). The Insects : Structure and Function by R.F. Chapman.English Language Book Soc. & Hodder and Sloughton, G. Britain (1978).

14 PAPER-VII : COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF VERTEBRATES II Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To draw a comparative account of anatomy of vertebrates and hence to understand the evolution of different systems in vertebrates. UNIT-I Comparative account of the following systems of the vertebrates with evolutionary trends found pisces to mammals : Respiratory system : Respiratory organs. Types of respiratory mechanisms (gills, lungs, skin and accessory respiratory organs). Urinogenital system : Succession of kidney (archinephros, pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros), osmoregulation, evolution of gonads and urinogenital ducts. UNIT-II Comparative account and evolution of brain, spinal cord and cranial nerves. Chemoreceptors, photoreceptors and mechanoreceptors.

Nervous system Sense organs :

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper VII Aves : Casuarius, Ardea, Anas, Milvus, Pavo, Eudynamis, Tyto and Alcedo. Mammalia : Ornithorhynchus, Echidna, Didelphis, Macropus, Loris, Macaca, Manis, Hystrix, Funambulus, Panthera, Canis, Herpestes, Capra, Pteropus. To study the skeleton of Gallus, Oryctolagus. Examine and dissect the following animals : Chick : Digestive, arterial, venous and urinogenital systems. White rat : Digestive, arterial, venous and urinogenital systems.

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Study of the histology of different organs of frog and rat/rabbit through permanent stained preparation. Study of poison apparatus in snakes through charts. Books Recommended 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A Text Book of Zoology, Vol.II Vertebrates by A.J. Marshall, MacMillan & Co. Ltd., New York (1972). Anatomy of Chordates by C.K. Weichert, McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. London(1958). Biology of Vertebrates by H.E. Walter and L.P. Sayles, McMillan Co. New York (1949). Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates by G.C. Kent, Torpen Co.Ltd., Tokyo (1954). Anatomy of Comparative Vertebrates. Hyman, L. H. Satish Serial Pub. House,2004.

PAPER VIII : BIOSYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessmen : 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To enable the students to identify, classify and name the international code of Zoological nomenclature. organisms according to

To acquaint the students with different type of keys. To make the students understand the concept of speciation, origin of life and evolution. UNIT-I Definitions and perspectives of systematics, classification and taxonomy, goals and importance of taxonomy. Procedures of taxonomy -identification, classification, nomenclature, phena, taxa, category. Key and its significance. Higher taxa and Linnean hierarchy Qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis of variations History and theories of classification International code of Zoological nomenclature-principles, objectives and rules for nomenclature, type system and priority for different taxa. Population structure of species Polytypic species, race, variety, cline, subspecies, semispecies, super species.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

16 10. 11. 12. Speciation. Species concepts - Typological species concept, nominalistic species concept, biological species concept, evolutionary species concept. Difficulties in applying biological species concept. UNIT- II Mutation theory of evolution : mutations, variations and selection; modern concept and interpretation of evolution and future of evolutionary process. Interrelationship among different phyla of Invertebrates and their evolutionary significance. Origin of vertebrates; Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. Ancestory of man, horse, camel and elephant.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Practicals based on theory paper VIII Use of key to identify the fishes of the region, representing different families. Methods of describing common insects representing different orders, with particular reference to the recording of taxonomic characters. Study of ancestory of man, horse, camel and elephant through charts/models. Visit to a fossil park/Geology and Anthropology museums. Study of origin of invertebrate and vertebrate groups through charts. Books Recommended 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Genetics and the origin of species by T. Dobzhansky, Columbia University Press (1951). Principles of Systematic Zoology by E. Mayr, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi (1976). Taxonomy by R.E. Blackwelder, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1967). Organic Evolution by Lull, MacMillan Co., New York (1947). Time, life and man by R.A. Stirton, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1959). Evolution of the Vertebrates by E.H. Colbert, Willy Eastern Ltd., New Delhi (1969).

17 PAPER IX : ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NEURAL PHYSIOLOGY Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To make the students understand the functions of hormones and their mode of action at molecular level. UNIT- I Endocrinology : Chemical nature of hormones, steroid hormones, amino acid derived hormones, catecholamines and peptide hormones. Mechanism of hormone action, steroid hormone-receptor interactions and signal transduction. Autocrine, paracrine and telocrine regulation of hormones. Hormonal imbalance. Pineal-hypothalmo-hypophyseal-gonadal axis. Hormonal elaborations of pancreas, adrenals, thyroid, parathyroid and their role in regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, protein, calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Hormones of gastro-intestinal tract. Prostaglandins, their synthesis and biological functions. Endocrine control of spermatogenesis and Oogenesis in vertebrates. Endocrine control of folliculogenesis in mammals.

UNIT-II Nervous system and sense organs : Neuron as the basic unit of nerve physiology; Methyl-accepting chemotoxis proteins and chemotactic signals of the plasma membrane; Na + and K + permeability and action potentials, structure of Na + and K + channels. Neurotransmitters : Molecular mechanism of acetylcholine, catecholamine, serotinin -amino butyric and glycine neurotransmitters, acetylcholine receptor channels and their inhibitors; Retinal rod cell excitation and molecular biology of visual cycle, colour vision. Power of accommodation, myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, cataract, glaucoma. Mechanisms of auditory and olfactory responses. Gustatory receptors. Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks.

18 Practicals based on theory paper IX 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To identify the stage of oestrous cycle. To locate the endocrine glands in rat. To study the histology of endocrine glands. To study the corrective measures for myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, cataract. To study the structure of eye, ear and different types of neurons through charts/models.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED 1. Turner, C.D. and Bagnars, W.B., General Endocrinology, Saunders Company (1976). 2. Highnam, K.C. and Hill, L., Comparative Endocrinology of Invertebrates, Enwaral Arnold Ltd., London (1981). 3. Golds Worthy, G.J. Robinson, J. and Mordue, W., Endocrinology, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1981). 4. Tombes, A.S., An Introduction to Invertebrates Endocrinology, Academic Press, New York (1970). 5. Bentley, P.J., Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology, Cambridge Univ. Press (1998). 6. Mac E. Hadley. Endocrinology. 4th edition, Prentice Hall (1996).

PAPER X : IMMUNOLOGY Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To acquaint the students with the defense mechanisms of animals/human bodies, UNIT-I Organs and cells of the immune system and their functions : primary and secondary lymphoid organs, lymphocytes, mononuclear cells and granulocytic cells. Antigens : Factors affecting immunogenicity, B and T cell epitopes, haptens and adjuvants. Immunoglobulins :Basic and fine structure of Immunoglobulins, biological activities of different classes of Immunoglobulins. Cellular and Humoral immune response -Role of T and B lymphocytes, Primary and secondary immune response.

1.

2. 3. 4.

19 UNIT-II Major Histocompatibility Complex : MHC molecules and genes,regulation of MHC expression, its relation to immune responsiveness and disease susceptibility. Complement System : Complement activation, regulation and biological effects mediated by complement components. Antigen Antibody Interactions: Precipitation & agglutination reactions, radioimmunoassay, ELISA, Immuno fluorescence, Western blotting, Immunoprecipitation and flow cytometry.

5. 6. 7.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper X To study the agglutination reaction by typing of human blood into A,B, AB, O and Rh factor. 2. To study the different types of white cells in a stained blood film of a normal individual and compare with that of a diseased individual (allergy, parasitic infection etc.). 3. To study the sections of different lymphoid organs thymus, spleen, lymph node, intestine etc. from prepared slides. 4. To isolate and check the purity of leukocytes from blood of mice using Histopaque. Books recommended 1. Kuby Immunology ( VI edition) by T.J. Kindt, R.A. Golds by and B.A. Osbome, W.H. Freeman Publishers (2007). 2. Essential Immunology by Roitt, I.M, Mosby, Harcourt Publishers (2001). 3. Immunology : A short course by E. Benjamini, R. Coico and G. Sunshine, Wiley Liss Publishers (2000). 5. Fundamental Immunology by W.E. Paul, Lippincott Raven Publishers (1998). 6. Immunology An Introduction by I.R.T. Zard, Thomson Publishers (1998). 7. Jameway, Charles. A Immnunbiology 6th ed. Luttmann, Werner & others Immunology U.S.A., Academic Press ( 2006 ). 1.

20 THIRD SEMESTER PAPER X1 : DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY - I Time : Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : Theory : Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: Annual Theory Exam.: Practical : Internal Assessment : Final Practical : Objectives of the Course :

3 Hours 100 80 15 65 20 05 15

To make the students understand the pattern of development at molecular level. To draw a correlation between evolution of animals and changes in environment. To acquaint the students with the latest concept of Haemopoetic stem cells and gene therapy. UNIT - I 1. Gametogenesis in animals. 2. Molecular events during fertilization. 3. Cleavage pattern & fate maps. Cell differentiation & differential gene activity. 4. Induction, competance, cell-cell interaction, primary embryonic induction. UNIT II Molecular basis of differentiation, trans differentiation & dedifferentiation. Differentiation of erythrocytes, ovalbumin. Determination of fate of cells with example of tunicates,Drosophila, amphibians, C. elegans (nematode). Regeneration P-granules in nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper XI 1. To study the different stages of development in frog and chick. 2. To study the spermatogenesis of rat and grasshopper from smears of testis. 3. Types of eggs from the ovaries of different animals. Books recommended 1. An Introduction to Embryology by B.I. Balinsky, Saunders, Philadelphia (1981). 2. Major Problems in Developmental Biology by H. Urspaung, Academic Press, New York, (1972). 3. The Control of Gene Expression in Animal Development by J.B. Gurdon, Harvard University, Press, Oxford (1974). 4. Gene activity in Early Development by Davdson, E.H. Academic Press, London (1977). 5. Development Biology by Scott .F. Gilbert, Sinauer Associators Inc. Publishers 8th edition (2006). 6. Development Biology (Vol.II) by Browder, L.W, Saunders (1984).

21 PAPER XII : BIOCHEMISTRY Time : Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : Theory : Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: Annual Theory Exam.: Practical : Internal Assessment : Final Practical : Objectives of the Course :

3 Hours 100 80 15 65 20 05 15

To enable the students know about structure and functions of various metabolites in animal body. To acquaint the students with various instruments and methodological techniques enable them to persue scientific research in future. UNIT-I Carbohydrates : General structure, chemical properties & classification. Homo and heteropolysaccharides. Bacterial polysaccharides. Mucopolysaccharides. Biological functions of polysaccharides. Glycolysis, TCA cycle, phosphogluconate pathway & glycogenolysis. Bioenergetics of Carbohydrate matabolism. Lipids : General structure and chemical properties of simple lipids. Structure and function of phospholipids. Biological functions & structure of cholesterol and steroid hormones. Oxidation of fatty acids; biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. UNIT-II Proteins : Amino acids and their properties, Protein structure and shape. Nucleic acids and protein interaction. Conjugated proteins : Lipoproteins, glycoproteins, nucleo proteins. Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines. Enzymes : Enzyme kinetics, mode of action of enzyme and biochemical role of coenzymes and isoenzymes, effect of enzyme concentration, effect of substrate concentration and pH on enzyme activity, allosteric enzymes, feed back inhibition, covalent modifications, irreversible and reversible. Ribozyme and Abzyme. Electron transport chain : Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation (Mitochondrial), inhibitors of electron transport chain Intibitors and uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. Practicals based on theory paper XII Estimation of alkaline and acid phosphatases in the liver fraction of rat. Quantitative estimation of glycogen, cholesterol protein in rat tissue. Qualitative estimation of carbohydrates, lipids and protein in rat tissue. To separate a sample of amino acids with the help of paper chromatography, TLC and electrophoresis.

22 BOOKS RECOMMENDED: 1. Beckatt, A.H. and Stenlake, J.B., Practical Biochemistry, the Athlone Press, London (1988). 2. Freefelder, D, Practical Biochemistry : Application to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, W.H.Freeman, (1982). 3. Wilson, Keith and Walker, John, Practical Biochemistry : Principles and techniques, 5th Edition Edited, Cambridge University Press (2000). 4. Kuby, Janis, Immunology, W.H. Freeman and Company (2000). 5. Alberts, Bruce and others Molecular Biology of the Cell. ( 2002 ) 6. Lewin, Benjamin and others Cells Canada Jonas and Bartle ( 2007 ). 7. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry & Bartle. Nelson & Cox. 4th edition. W H Freeman and Company, New York. 8. Eric E. Conn, Paul K. Stumf and others. Outlines of Biochemistry 5/E. John Wiley and Sons. (1995). 9. Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko and lubert Stryer. Biochemistry. 5th edition W.H. Freeman and Company, New York (2006). 10. Donald Voet and J.G. Voet, Biochemistry, 3rd edition. John Wiley and Sons (2004).

Paper - XIII : CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment : 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To acquaint the students with various techniques to study histology and histochemistry of various animal tissues and to know about fixation and staining techniques. To enable the students understand the molecular basis of cell-cell signalling, cell division and transport of ions across cell membranes. To clarify the concept of population genetics to the students through Hardy-weinberg law. UNIT- I Fixation and staining techniques : Non -chemical and chemical fixatives, chemistry of staining of acidic and basic dyes. Structure and functions of cell and its organelles (Nucleus, plasma membrane, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulumn, ribosomes and lysosomes). Plasma membrane : Structure and organisation of membranes, Glycoconjugates and proteins in membrane system,ion transport, Na+/K+ATPase, model membranes, liposomes. Protein sorting, secretory and endocytotic path way. UNIT- II Cell-Cell signalling : Cell surface receptors, Second messenger system, MAP kinase pathways, Signalling from plasma membrane to nucleus.

1. 2. 3.

1.

23 2. 3. Cytoskeletal elements : Microtubules and microfilaments. Cell division : Cell Cycle, Molecular basis of cell division,mitotic apparatus, modification and abnormalities of cell division, chromosome movement (forces of cell division).

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper XIII 1. Preparation of permanent histological slides of testis and ovaries of insects/ mice/rat. 2. Basis of reaction and demonstration of the sites of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids & carbohydrates in ovaries of insects/rat/mice. 3. Study of stages of mitosis from permanent slides from animal and plant materials. Books recommended 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Cell Biology and Molecular Biology by D.Robertis, EDP & DE Robertis E.M.F, 8th ed., Saunders & Co. Philadelphia (1995). Cell Biology by C.B. Powar, 3rd ed., Himalaya Pub., Bombay (1984). Advances in Cell and Molecular Biology by Dupraw, E.J., eds. Academic Press, New York & London (1971). Cell Biology. Pollard, Thomas, D.S.Earnshan, William C. Saunders. USA. (2002). The Cell : A Molecular Approach by Cooper GM & H 5th edition (2009). Molecular Biology of the Cell, 5th edition by Alberts, John Raff. Roberts & Walter (2008). Cell and Molecular Biology : Concepts and Experiments 5th edition by Gerald Karp. John Wiley and Saunders.

PAPER XIV : INSTRUMENTATION AND METHODOLOGY Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment : 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To acquaint the students with various instruments and methodological techniques enable them to pursue scientific research in future.

24 UNIT-I Microscopy : Principle, structural parts and applications of compound microscope, phase contrast microscope, fluorescence microscope, interference microscope, polarization microscope, dark field microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. Cell fractionation method : Principle of centrifugation and ultracentrifugation, different types of ultracentrifugations (in brief) and their applications, structural parts of an analytical ultracentrifuge, ultracentrifugation and buoyant density. Spectrophotometry : Principle and structural spectrophotometer and their applications. parts of a colorimeter and a

Chromatography : Principles of chromatography, paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography, affinity chromatography. UNIT-II Electrophoresis : Principles of electrophoresis, (Brief introduction to paper electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, disc gel electrophoresis,) SDS-PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focussing, applications of electrophoresis, Phage DNA, detection of plasmids, separation of DNA molecules, Southern transfer, Northern transfer and Western transfer. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application. Tissue culture techniques : Monolayer suspension, leucocyte cultures, factors affecting cell growth in vitro. Radioisotopes : Principles and applications of tracer techniques in biology, radiation dosimetry, radioactive isotopes and half life of isotopes, liquid scintillation counter, principles and applications of autoradiography and cerenekov radiation. Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Practicals based on theory paper XIV To study the parts of the compound microscope and phase-contrast microscope and their maintenance. To study the living material under the phase contrast microscope. Finding out the diameter, area and circumference with the help of stage micrometer and oculometer. To sketch the diagram of any tissue with the help of camera lucida and to draw its magnification line. Separation of subcellular fractions from the liver of rat and estimation of any marker enzyme of mitochondria/golgi bodies/plasma membrane/endoplasmic reticulum. Demonstration of section cutting and mounting of sections on the grid for SEM and TEM. Demonstration of SEM & TEM in the CIL lab., P.U., Chandigarh.

6.

25 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Demonstration of working of gamma counter, ultracentrifuge, X-ray diffraction apparatus, Deptt. of Zoology, P.U., Chandigarh. Study of DNA amount in the developing stages of spermatogenesis with the help of microdensitometer, Deptt. of Zoology, P.U., Chandigarh. Demonstration of the working of PCR, Thermal Cyclar and apparatus of Southern blotting, Deptt. of Zoology, P.U., Chandigarh. To find out pH with a pH meter and to weigh on with electrical balance. A short term in vitro culture of a parasite. BOOKS RECOMMENDED: Bacq, Z.M. and Alexender, P, Fundamentals of Radiography, Pergamon Press, London (1989). Benett, A.H. and Usterbere, H, Phase Microscopy: Principle and applications, John Wiley and Sons, London (1951). Dawes, C.J.,Techniques for Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy, Ladd Rew. Ind.,Inc.,Publishers (1981). Freshrey, R.I. and Allen, R, Culture of Animal Cell : A manual of basic techniques, Lis Inc., New York. (1983). Watt, J.M., The Principles and Practice of Electron Microscopy, Watt (1985). Michael G, Flow Cytometry : A Practical Approach, 3rd Edition Edited Michael G. Ormerod Oxford University Press (2000). In-vitro Cultivation of Animal Cells. BIOTOL, Elsevier (2004).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

PAPER : XV ADVANCES IN ENTOMOLOGY Theory hours per week : 4 hours Practical hours per week : 3 hours Time : Total Marks : Theory : Internal Assessment: Annual Theory Exam.: Practical : Internal Assessment : Final Practical : 3Hours 100 80 15 65 20 05 15

Objectives of the Course : To make the students aware of various pests of food crops and food products and various insect control methods. To educate the students about economic importance and techniques of Apiculture and sericulture UNIT-I 1. Salient features with suitable examples of the insect orders - Thysanura, Odonata, Isoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera. 2. Strucure and function of the following systems in insects : a. Digestive System b. Respiratory System c. Nervous System d. Reproductive System

26 3. 4. 5. Post embryonic development and types of metamorphosis in insects. Structural modifications in the larvae & pupae. Parthenogenesis in insects. Effect of temperature and photopteriod on the lives of insects, details of onset, termination and significance of diapause. UNIT-II Systematic position, habits, nature of damage and outlines of the life cycles of following pests of crops, vegetables & fruits. Plant host-insect interaction. Insect-pest management of useful insects : Silkworm, honeybee, Lac insect.

1. 2.

A. CROPS Cotton : (i) Pectinophora gossypiella (Pink boll worm) (ii) Bemisia tabaci (Cotton white fly) (iii Dysdercus cingulatus (Red cotton bug) Sugarcane (i) Pyrilla perpusilla (Sugarcane leaf hopper) (ii) Scirpophaga nivella (Sugarcane top borer) Paddy (i) Hieroglyphus banian (Rice grass hopper) (ii) Leptocorisa varicornis (Gundhi bug) Wheat (i) Tanymecus indicus (Ghujhia weevil) (ii) Sesamia inferens (Wheat stem borer) B. VEGETABLES (i) Dacus cucurbitae (Pumpkin fruit fly) (ii) Raphidopalpa foveicollis (Red pumkin beetle) C. FRUITS (i) Drosicha mangifera (Mango mealy bug) (ii) Diaphorina citri (Citrus psylla) 3. Pests of stored food products with particular reference to their systematic position, habits, nature of damage caused by them along with the outlines of their life cycles : (i) Callosobruchus maculatus (Pulse beetle) (ii) Sitophilus oryzae (Rice weevil) (iii) Tribolium castaneum (Rust red floor beetle) (iv) Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth). 4. Insect control : (a) Chemical control : Categories of pesticides, important examples, their application and mode of action; Insect repellents and attractants.

27 (b) Biological Control : Principles, History, use of parasites, predators and pathogens. (c) Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 5. Principle and practices of Apiculture.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper XV 1. Collection and their identification upto family level of atleast three different species from the pterygote orders prescribed in theory. 2. Identification marks and taxonomic status of insect pests of crops vegetables, fruits and stored products. 3. Dissection of suitable insects for the study of following systems : a. Digestive System b. Nervous System c. Reproductive System 4. Systematic position upto family and ecology of the following medical and veterinary pests : a. Anopheles b. Culex c. Aedes D. Blow fly e. Bot fly f. Horse fly g. Flesh fly. 5. Introduction to apiculture practices and handling of Beehives. 6. Permanent stained preparation of male and female external genitalia. 7. Study of different types of larvae and pupae with the help of preserved material. Books recommended 1. General Entomology, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay by M.S. Mani,1990. 2. The Insects, Structure & Function, English Language Book Society Hodder and Sloughton, G. Britain by R.F. Chapman,1978. 3. Imms Text Book of Entomology Methuen & Co. Ltd. New York: EP. Dutton & Co. INC. by Richards & Davies, 10th edition ( 1997). 4. Honey bees and their management in India, ICAR Publications by R.C. Mishra,1995. 5. Agricultural Pests of India and South East Asia by A.S. Attwal, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, 1991. 6. Insects and Mites of Crops in India by MRGK. Nair, ICAR, N.Delhi, 1975. 7. Economic and Applied Entomology by Kumar and Nigam, Emkay Publications, Delhi, 2000. 8. Destructive and Useful Insects by Metcalf and Metcalf, McGraw Hill Publications, New York, 1951. 9. Integrated Pest Management by David Dent, Chapman & Hall, London, New York, Madras, 1995. 10. Insect Pheromones and their use in Pest Management by House Sevens and Jones, Chapman Hall,London, New York,Madras, 1998. 11. Beekeepy for Profile and Pleasure. Addison Webb. Agrobios, 2004. 12. Textbook of Applied Entomology. P. Srivastava. Vol.1. Kalyani Publishers, 2005.

28 FOURTH SEMESTER PAPER XVI : DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY - II Time : Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : Theory : Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: Annual Theory Exam : Practical : Internal Assessment : Final Practical : Objectives of the Course :

3 Hours 100 80 15 65 20 05 15

To draw a correlation between evolution of animals and changes in environment. To acquaint the students with the latest concept of Haemopoetic stem cells and gene therapy. UNIT I 1. Role of endoderm in mesodermal specificity, mesodermal inducers. Instructive and permissive interactions, epitheliomesenchymal interactions, neural induction, secondary induction, chemical nature of evocators. Teratogenesis critical period dose, classes of cytotoxic teratogens, human teratogenesis. UNIT II Totipotency & nuclear transfer experiment. Gene regulation in development. Maternal & zygotic control during initiation of development. Cell surface adhesion, inter cellular adhesion, adhesive molecules - cadherins. Environmental evolution and animal development: Environmental cues and effects, Malformations and disruptions, Changing evolution through development modularity, Developmental constraints, Creating new cell types basic evolutionary mystery. Hemopoetic stem cells : Stem cell disorders,Blood cells formation, Bone marrow transplants, Gene therapy.

2.

1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper XVI To prepare the permanent stained slides of developing stages from fertilized egg of hen. To study different larvae in invertebrates from permanent slides. To prepare the permanent slides of larvae of invertebrates (Redia, Cercaria, Arthropod larvae, Glochidium larva).

1. 2. 3.

29 Books Recommended 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. An Introduction to Embryology by B.I. Balinsky, Saunders, Philadelphia (1981). Major Problems in Developmental Biology by H. Urspaung, Academic Press, New York, (1972). The Control of Gene Expression in Animal Development by J.B. Gurdon, Harvard University, Press, Oxford (1974).. Gene activity in Early Development by Davdson, E.H. Academic Press, London (1977). Development Biology by Scott .F. Gilbert, Sinauer Associators Inc. Publishers 8th edition (2006). Development Biology (Vol.II) by Browder, L.W, Saunders (1984).

PAPER XVII : ADVANCES IN PARASITOLOGY Theory hours per week : 4 hours Practical hours per week : 3 hours Time : 3 Hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Internal Assessment 15 Annual Theory Exam: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment : 05 Final Practical 15

Objectives of the Course : To introduce the students to various pathogens causing diseases and the reactions of the body against them. UNIT-I 1. 2. 3. Introduction to Parasitology Parasite Host Specificity : Kinds of parasite host specificity, specificity factors related to infection and growth. Molecular, Celluclar and Physiological basis of Host Parasite Relationship : in Protozoans, trematode, cestode and nematode parasites. UNIT-II 1. 2. 3. Immunity to Parasites : Brief account of immunity to malaria, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis and ascariasis. Vectors - Brief account of various insect vectors of human parasitic infections. Parasite Transmission : Introduction, mechanism, circardian rhythm.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks.

30 Practicals based on theory paper XVII 1. To study the protozoans and helminth parasites infecting common frog, toad and common household insects. 2. To study the helminth parasites infecting gut of the sheep and goat. 3. To study the parasites from blood smears - Leishmania, Plasmodium and Trypanosoma. 4. To study the vectors of different parasitic infections (Mosquito, ticks, sandfly etc.). Books Recommended Parasitology : The Biology of Animal Parasites V edition by E.R. Noble and G.A. Noble, Lea & Febiger Philadelphia, 1982. Physiology of Parasites by L.H. Chapell, Blackie, Glosgow, London, (1979). Immunology of Infection by Kaufmann, Academic Press (1999). An Introduction to Animal Parasitology by Smyth, J.D., Hodder & Stoughton, London (1976).

1. 2. 3. 4.

PAPER : XVIII : ADVANCES IN FISH AND FISHERIES Time : Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : Theory : Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: Annual Theory Exam.: Practical : Internal Assessment : Final Practical : Objectives of the Course :

3 Hours 100 80 15 65 20 05 15

To acquaint the students with aquatic animal life and its economic importance. UNIT-I Introduction : History and scope of Fishery Science in India. Water as an environment : Physico-chemical characteristics - Temperature, Dissolved oxygen, carbondioxide, pH, Nitrogen, Phosphorous. Aquatic ecosystem : Components, food chain & food web, flow of energy through a aquatic ecosystem. Ecological classification of aquatic organisms other than fishes. Characteristics of lotic environment : Abiotic & biotic factors in a stream/river. Productivity : Concept of productivity, estimation of primary productivity by different methods, classification of water bodies on the basis of productivity. Role of limnology in the management of a fish pond. Various types of body forms in fishes. UNIT-II Fish Farming : Composite fish culture of Indian and exotic fishes in India. Induced breeding : History, technique and advantages of induced breeding in fishes. Use of synthetic chemicals for induced breeding. Study of Local fishing gears. Fish diseases : Fungal, bacterial, protozoan, worm and crustacean diseases of fishes.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1. 2. 3. 4.

31 5. 6. 7. Preservation, transportation and marketing of fishes. Electric organs. Bioluminiscence

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper XVIII 1. To estimate the dissolved oxygen in water. 2. To estimate the pH of water. 3. To estimate the phosphate of water. 4. To determine the BOD of water. 5. To study the benthic organisms. 6. To study the different types of fishing gears. 7. To study the Indian culturable fishes. 8. To study the Exotic culturable fishes. Books Recommended Fish and Fisheries of India by V.G. Jhingran, Hindustan Publ. House, N.Delhi,1991. Aquaculture Production FAO Fisheries Circular No.815 by Rev.FAO Rome,1991. Aquaculture in Asia by M.M. Joseph, Asian Fisheries Soc., Mangalore, 1990. Inland Fisheries of India Vol.I & II by P.K. Talwar and A.G. Jhingran, Oxford & IBH, N.Delhi, 1991. Freshwater Fishery Biology by K.F. Lagler, WmC. Brown Co. Publ. Dubuque,IOWA, 1969. Methods for Assessment of Fish Production in Freshwaters, IBH Handbook No.3, Blackwell Scientificv Publ., Oxford, 1970. Fundamentals of Ecology by E.P. Odum, W.B.Saunders Co.Philadelphia, 1971. Limnology by P.S. Welch McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1952. Limnology by R.G. Watzel, R.G., W.B. Saunders Co Philadelphia, 1983. The Biology of Polluted Waters by H.B.N. Hynes,Liverpul Univ. press, Liverpul, 1978. Fundamentals of Limnology by F. Ruttner, Univ.Press Toronto, 1975. Fishes : An Introduction to Ichthyology by P.B. Moyle and J.C. Cedh. Prentice Hall Inc. Jersey USA, 1986. Fishery Development by S.C.Agarwal and M.S. Johal. Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, 2004. History of Fishes by J.Norman revised by P.H. Greenwood. Ernst Brown, London 1999. Biology of fishes by Kyle H.M. Biotech. Books, Delhi, 2007. Freshwater Ecology : Concepts and environmental applications. Dodds, Walter K. Academic Press. USA., 2002. Introduction to General and applied entomology. 2nd revised edition. Awasthi V.B. Scientific Publications, Jodhpur, 2007. The Biology of fishes. New Introduction by Dr. Vijay Dev Singh. M. Hary. Kyle. Biotech. Bpooks, 2007. Fish Management and Aquatic Environment. Arvind Kumar and Pushplata Dukey. Daya Publishing House, 2006.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

32 PAPER XIX : ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY AND WILD LIFE Time : Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : Theory : Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: Annual Theory Exam.: Practical : Internal Assessment : Final Practical : Objectives of the Course :

3 Hours 100 80 15 65 20 05 15

To educate the students about the basic environmental phenomena like pollution, ecosystem, biogeochemical cycles, etc. To educate the students about the importance of wild life conservation. UNIT-I Environmental Pollution : Causes impact and control measures of air, water and noise pollution, management of wastes, Environment Protection Act 1986. Natural resources : Natural resources and their conservation. Energy resources : Study of renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Non conventional energy resources. Environmental education : Goals, objectives, and methods of teaching of environmental education. Ecosystem Dynamics and Management :Stability and complexity of ecosystems. Speciation and extinctions, environmental impact assessment, sustainable development. UNIT-II Zoogeography : Zoogeographical regions and their fauna. Wildlife of India : Different types with references to animals, causes of depletion, significance and conservation of wildlife. Sanctuaries and National Parks : Location and Important fauna of the sanctuaries and national parks of India. Wildlife Projects : Tiger Project, Crocodile Breeding Project, Hangul project, Gir lion Sanctuary project.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper XIX 1. To study the distribution of animals through zoogeographical maps. 2. A visit to a zoological park to study different wild animals and make a report. 3. To estimate the alkalinity of water. 4. To estimate the chlorides of water. 5. To estimate the nitrates of water. 6. To study the different types of phytoplankton. 7. To study the different types of zooplankton.

33

1. 2. 3. 4.

Books recommended Environment Pollution by H.M. Dix, John Wiley Pub. N.Y.,1984. Environmental Studies by D.B. Botkin and E.A. Keller, Merill Publ. Co.Toronto, London, 1987. Wildlife in India by Saharia, V.B. Natraj Publ. Deharadun (U.P.). Wildlife Biology by Raymond F Dasmann, Wiley Eastern Ltd.,New Delhi, 1982.

Paper XX : CYTOGENETICS AND MOLECULAR GENETICS Time : 3 Hours Theory hours per week : 4 hours Total Marks : 100 Theory : 80 Practical hours per week : 3 hours Internal Assessment: 15 Annual Theory Exam.: 65 Practical : 20 Internal Assessment : 05 Final Practical : 15 Objectives of the Course : To acquaint the students with various techniques to study histology and histochemistry of various animal tissues and to know about fixation and staining techniques. To enable the students understand the molecular basis of cell-cell signalling, cell division and transport of ions across cell membranes. To clarify the concept of population of genetics to the students through Hardy-weinberg law. UNIT-I 1. Chromosome structure and function : Law of DNA constancy and C. value paradox. Specialized chromosomes (Salivary gland and Lampbrush chromosomes). 2. Molecular mutation : Molecular basis of mutation, physical and chemical mutagens, radiation mutagenesis, site directed mutagenesis, target theory. 3. Regulation of gene function : Operon hypothesis;Pro and eukaryotic operons;Induction and repression;Complex gene clusters. 4. Hardy Weinberg Law and Calculation of gene frequencies. UNIT-II Linkage and Genetic maps. Dosage compensation. Properties of Genetic code, mutations in genetic code, Wobbles hypothesis. Fine structure of gene, Eukaryotic genome organization (structure of chromatin, coding and non-coding sequences, and satellite DNA); DNA damage and repair, DNA replication, amplification and rearrangements. 5. Organization of transcriptional units; Mechanism of transcription of prokaryotes and eukaryotes; RNA processing (capping, polyadenylation, splicing, introns and exons); Ribonucleoproteins, structure of mRNA. 6. Protein Synthesis. 7. Principles and methods of genetic engineering and Gene targeting; Applications in agriculture, health and industry. 1. 2. 3. 4.

34 Note : Nine questions to be set. First question of 15 marks, covering the whole syllabus will be compulsory and will consist of 10 short answer questions of 1 marks each. For the remaining 8 questions, 4 to be set from each Unit I and II and 2 to be attempted from each Unit. Each question from Units I and II will carry 12 marks. Practicals based on theory paper XX 1. Preparation of chromosomes from onion root tip and grasshoper for mitosis and meiosis by squash method. 2. Temporary squash preperation of salivary gland chromosomes for the study of polytene chromosomes of larvae of Chironomus/Drosophila. 3. Study and preparation of metaphase karyotypes from photographs and permanent slides of Drosophila, grasshopper and man/rat. 4. Study of sex-chromatin Bar body from human buccal mucosa. 5. Demonstration of monohybrid and dihybrid cross with the help of beads. 6. Study of genetic disorders with the help of photographs. Books recommended Genetics U. Goodenough, IIIrd ed., Saunders College Pub., Philadelphia, (1984). Cytogenetics - The Chromosome in Division, Inheritance and Evolution by C.P. Swanson, T. Merz and W.J. Young , IInd ed., Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi (1982). Principles of Genetics by E.J. Gardner and D.P. Shustad, 7th ed., John Wiley, New York (1984). Genetics - A survey of the Principles of Heredity by A.M. Winchestor, 3rd ed., Oxford and IBH Pub., Calcutta (1972). Genetics: A text book for University students by P.K. Gupta, 3rd ed., Rastogi Pub., Meerut (1996). Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology by P.K. Gupta, Rastogi Pub., Meerut (1991). Genetics by Strickberger, Monroe W., 3rd ed., Macmillan Pub., New York,(1985). Eukaryotic Chromosomes by Bostock, C.J. & Sumner, A.T., Amsterdam North Holland (1978). Principles of Genetics by Sinnott, E.W. & Dunn, L.C., 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1939). Science of Genetics by Hexter, William and Yost, Henry T., Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi (1977). Handbook of Molecular Cytology by Lima-De-Faria, A.ed. North Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, London( 1969). Principles of Genetics 2nd edition. Snustad and Simmons. Joh Wiley & Sons. (2002 ) Genetics. A Molecular Approach. T.A. Brown 3rd edition BIOS Scientific Publishers (2004). Genetics. A Molecular Approach. Peter A. Russell. 2nd ed., Pearson. Benjamin Cummiy (2006). **********

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