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Targeted Cos phi: Billing method: What is the What is the mean of invoicing When reactive power power factor concerning the reactive power (kvar) is invoiced ? (6 targeted to avoid (kvar) ?(for example do users months a year? Which any possible have to pay for penalties when months ?, all the year penalty or to they consume much too reactive long ?,.) reduce his power ?) energy invoices ?

What is the price of reactive power (kvar) (in local currency or compare with the price of active power (kW) ?)

Comments

Germany Austria Canada

Penalty Penalty Panalty with double cos phi and maximun KVA

Cos fi 0.9 0.95 Cos phi 0.95 Cos phi 0.9 & 1

All year All year All year

depending on the 100 electrical utilities 1kvar = between 0,018 & 0,025

Cos Phi and harmonics measurements for 1 week are mandotory before installation of capacitors Different billing price depending on months Penalties depend on states

Spain France Portugal Estonia / Latvia / Lithuania

Penalty Penalty Penalty

0.95 0.92 0.92

0.0001 for 0.95 / 0.9 0.012 for 0.9 / 0.85 0.0253 for 0.85 / 0.8 0.038 from 0.8 All year from 1st of November to 1st0,2 of April All year from 0.016 to 0.18

Price for 1 Kvar Different billing price depending on months

Penalty

Cos fi 0.95 0.6 from tg phi 0.3 to tg phi 1 1 from tg phi 1 to tg phi 2 2 from tg phi 2 to tg phi 3

Roumania Russia UK

Penalit No penalty Peak demand on KVA

0.95

All year

USA

Thailand

Pnalit double cos phi et Cos phi 0.9 & dpassement de KVA 0.95 All year yes: Utility charge by: The maximum of kVAR which is over 61.97% of max. real power demand about 0.85 of that month. Every month lagging or better kVAR excess 61.97% of kW Maximum Demand must pay fine 15 Baht/kVAR ( VAT 7 % included ) Many different tariff policies depending on the City / Region but usually there are penalties for lower than 0,90 and sometimes bonus for > 0,90

Penalties values vary according to each state. Some states have no penalties Penalty ex:1000KW with FP0.75 = 1330KVA Prix du KW entre 3 et 7 Customer will pay 1200-1000= 200Kvar USD at 3$USD that is to say 600$USD about 8.3-8.5 depending on level of incoming voltage. Reactive power price = 15 Baht/kVAr

CHINA

Generally 0,90

All year

Similar

See attached samples for different regions / city. We are collecting more and will send you later soon.

Australia

Only large energy users in the state All commerical of New South Wales have to pay a consumers are to KVA tariff. Some companies which maintain a have negotiated individual energy minimum PF of contracts will have a KVA tariff 0.78 or better but included. The states of South this is never Australia and Queensland have inforced. been talking about KVA

Companies that have a KVA tariff typically pay monthly

As Australia has a competitive energy market, tariffs vary greatly. As an indication, assume a KVA charge of $10/KVA. Energy is around 4 - 5 cents / KWh