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Prepositions - Prepozitii Prepozitia (Preposition) este o parte de vorbire neflexibila (fixa) care descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte

din aceeasi propozitie. Prepozitiile nu au un inteles de sine statator, ele capata diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte cuvinte. Cateva exemple de observare a prepozitiilor (cuvintele evidentiate): You can sit before the desk. - Puteti s stati n faa biroului. He can bump into the table. - El se poate lovi in masa. The bird flies toward the tree. - Pasarea zboara spre pom. I sit on the armchair. - Eu stau pe fotoliu. - Verbe precedate de prepozitii iau forma n "-ing". He's good at remembering peoples names. - El isi aminteste cu usurinta numele oamenilor. Exceptii: but si except sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt. They did nothing but laugh. - N-au facut nimic (altceva) dect sa rda. De retinut: In limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o prepozitie. 1. Prepozitii de loc: at, on, in At se foloseste cu adrese exacte. James lives at 78 English Street in London. - James locueste la nr. 78, Strada English in Londra. On desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc. Her house is on Camp Street. - Casa ei e pe strada Camp. In se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, judete, tari, state, continente). She lives in Braila. - Ea locuieste in Braila. Braila is in Romania - Braila e in romania. 2. Prepozitii de timp: at, on, in At se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta. The teacher is leaving at 5:15 p.m. - Profesorul pleaca la 5:15 p.m. On indica zilele si datele calendaristice. My brother is coming on Monday. - Fratele meu vine luni. We're having a training on the Fourth of October. - Avem un antrenament pe patru octombrie. In se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna, anotimpul, anul. She likes to jog in the morning. - Ei ii place sa alerge (sa faca jogging) dimineata. It's too cold in winter to run outside. - E prea frig iarna ca sa alergi afara. He started the english course in 2010. - El a inceput cursul de engleza in anul 2010. He's going to come in August. - El are de gand sa vina in august. 3. Prepozitii de timp: for si since For se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul (secunde, minute, ore, zile, luni, ani).

He held his breath for seven minutes. - El si-a inut respiraia timp de apte minute. She's lived there for seven years. - Ea a trait acolo sapte ani. Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta. He's worked here since 1976. - El a lucrat aici din anul 1976. She's been sitting in the waiting room since six-thirty. - Ea statea in camera de asteptare de la sase-treizeci. 4. Prepozitii de miscare: to si lipsa prepozitiei To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea catre un loc. They were walking to work together. - Ei mergeau la (spre) munca impreuna. She's going to the dentist's office this morning. - Ea se duce la dentist (cabinetul dentistului) in dimineata asta. Toward si towards exprima de asemenea miscarea spre ceva. Acestea doua prepozitii sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot folosi indiferent. We're moving toward the light. - Ne miscam spre lumina. This is a big step towards the project's completion. - Acesta este un mare pas spre finalizarea proiectului. Cu urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, nu se folosesc prepozitii. Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. - Bunica sa dus la etaj bunicul a plecat acasa. They both went outside. - Amandoi au iesit afara. 5. Prepozitii cu substantive, adjective si verbe Numeroase substantive, adjective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de prepozitiile care le intregesc sensul. Prepozitii si: Substantive approval of - aprobarea awareness of - gradul de contientizare a belief in - credinta in concern for - preocuparea pentru confusion about - confuzie cu privire la desire for - dorina de fondness for - toleran pentru grasp of - stapanire de hatred of - ura fata de hope for - speranta pentru interest in - interes in love of - dragostea de need for - necesitatea /nevoia de a Adjective afraid of - frica de angry at - furios la aware of - constient de capable of - capabil sa careless about - neatent la /cu familiar with - familiarizat cu happy about - fericit in legatura cu interested in - interesat jealous of - gelos made of - facut /fabricat in (din) married to - casatorit /a cu proud of - mandru de similar to - asemanator cu sorry for - imi pare rau Verbe apologize for - a cere scuze (iertare) pentru ask about - a intreba despre ask for - a cere [ceva] belong to - a apartine [cuiva] bring up - a aduce care for - a avea grija de find out - a afla give up - a renunta grow up - a creste look for - a cauta [ceva] look forward to - a astepta cu nerabdare sa look up - a privi in sus make up - a alcatui, a nascoci, a prepara pay for - a plati pentru prepare for - a se pregati

participation in - participarea la reason for - motiv pentru respect for - respectul pentru success in - succes in understanding of - intelegerea

pentru pentru ... study for - a invata pentru sure of - sigur de talk about - a vorbi despre tired of - obosit de (satul think about - a (se) gandi la de) trust in - a avea incredere in worried about - ingrijorat de work for - a lucra pentru / in legatura cu worry about - a fi ingrijorat de, a-si face griji pentru

- Combinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal. 6. Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii ntre folosirea prepozitiilor n limba engleza si limba romna exista numeroase diferente. Aceeasi prepozitie poate implica frazelor din care face parte un inteles diferit de cel obisnuit, formand expresii idiomatice. Unele dintre acestea sunt: in the street (Engl. americ. - on the stret) - pe strada in the playground - pe terenul de sport in the sky - pe cer in the sun - la soare in the open air - la aer curat on the way to - n drum spre on the 1st floor - la etajul 1 round the corner - dupa colt at present - n prezent at the some time - n acelasi timp at this moment - n acest moment at last - n sfrsit in a year`s time - peste un an in my opinion - dupa parerea mea beyond control - independent de vointa ... in all probability - dupa toate probabilitatile by my watch - dupa ceasul meu by heart - pe de rost, pe dinafara by mistake - din greseala to go on a trip / on holiday - a merge n calatorie / n vacanta to go (out) for a walk - a merge la plimare lo look out of the window - a privi pe fereastra to get in through the window - a intra pe fereastr he`s the tallest in the class - e cel mai nalt din clas outside the garden - n fata gradinii 7. Prepozitii inutile In vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul. Observati urmatoarele exemple: She met up with the new coach in the hallway. - Ea sa ntlnit cu noul antrenor pe hol. The book fell off of the desk. - Cartea a cazut de pe birou. He threw the book out of the window. - El a aruncat cartea pe fereastr. She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. (sau folositi "in") - Ea nu ar lasa pisica in casa. Where did they go to? - Unde s-au dus ei?

Put the lamp in back of the couch. (se va folosi "behind") - Pune lampa n spatele canapelei. Where is your college at? - Unde este colegiul dumneavoastra? 10. Prepozitia 10.1. Introducere Prepozitia descrie legatura dintre doua cuvinte din aceeasi propozitie. Prepozitiile nu au un inteles de sine statator, ele capata diferie sensuri puse in legatura cu alte cuvinte. Sa observam catedra profesorului si multitudinea de prepozitii pe care le putem folosi pentru a o descrie: You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can siton the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would falloff the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows uponthe desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk orconcerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live withoutthe desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, bythe desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leansagainst the desk. Cuvintele evidentiate sunt toate prepozitii.

In limba engleza nu se va termina niciodata o propozitie cu o prepozitie. 10.2. Prepozitii de timp: at, on, in At se foloseste pentru a desemna ora exacta Ex.: The train is due at 12:15 p.m. On indica zilele si datele calendaristice Ex.: My brother is coming on Monday. We're having a party on the Fourth of July.

In se foloseste pentru a desemna ore imprecise din timpul zilei, cat si luna, anotimpul, anul. Ex.: She likes to jog in the morning. It's too cold in winter to run outside. He started the job in 1971. He's going to quit in August. 10.2. Prepozitii de loc: at, on, in At se foloseste cu adrese exacte. Ex.: Grammar English lives at 55 Boretz Road in Durham. On desemneaza numele de strazi, sosele, bulevarde, alei, etc. Ex.: Her house is on Boretz Road. In se foloseste cu numele regiunilor (orase, judete, tari, state, continente). Ex.: She lives in Durham. Durham is in Windham County. Windham County is in Connecticut.

Prepozitii de loc: in, at, on si lipsa prepozitiei lipsa prepozitiei

IN

AT

ON

the bed* (the) bed* the bed room the car (the) class* the library* school* class* home the library* school* work the ceiling the floor the the plane the train * In diverse circumstante se pot folosi prepozitii diferite pentru aceste locuri. 10.3. Prepozitii de miscare: to si lipsa prepozitiei downstairs downtown inside outside upstairs uptown

the office horse

To se foloseste pentru a exprima deplasarea, miscarea catre un loc. Ex.: They were driving to work together. She's going to the dentist's office this morning. Toward si towards exprima de asemenea miscarea. Acestea doua sunt doar variantele ortografice ale aceluiasi cuvant si se pot folosi indiferent. Ex.: We're moving toward the light. This is a big step towards the project's completion. Cu urmatoarele cuvinte: home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs, nu se folosesc prepozitii. Ex.: Grandma went upstairs Grandpa went home. They both went outside. 10.4. Prepozitii de timp: for si since For se foloseste atunci cand se masoara timpul (secunde, minute, ore, zile, luni, ani). Ex.: He held his breath for seven minutes. She's lived there for seven years. The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries. Since se foloseste cu data sau ora exacta. Ex.: He's worked here since 1970. She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty. 10.5. Prepozitii cu substantive, adjective si verbe Numeroase substantive, adjective si mai ales verbe se folosesc corect numai insotite de prepozitiile care le intregesc sensul.

SUBSTANTIVELE si PREPOZITIILE approval of awareness of belief in concern for fondness for grasp of hatred of hope for need for participation in reason for respect for

confusion about desire for ADJECTIVELE si PREPOZITIILE afraid of angry at aware of capable of careless about familiar with VERBELE si PREPOZITIILE apologize for ask about ask for belong to bring up care for find out

interest in love of

success in understanding of

fond of happy about interested in jealous of made of married to

proud of similar to sorry for sure of tired of worried about

give up grow up look for look up make up pay for

prepare for study for talk about trust in work for worry about

look forward to think about

Combinatia dintre verbe si prepozitii se numeste verb frazal (vezi6.4.Verbe frazale). 10.6. Expresii idiomatice cu prepozitii

agree to a proposal, with a person, on a price, in principle argue about a matter, with a person, for or against a proposition compare to to show likenesses, with to show differences (sometimes similarities) correspond to a thing, with a person differ from an unlike thing, with a person live at an address, in a house or city, on a street, with other people

10.7. Prepozitii inutile In vorbirea de zi cu zi se folosesc incorect prepozitii acolo unde ele nu isi au rostul. Observa urmatoarele exemple: Ex.: She met up with the new coach in the hallway.

The book fell off of the desk. He threw the book out of the window. She wouldn't let the cat inside of the house. (sau folositi "in") Where did they go to? Put the lamp in back of the couch. (se va folosi "behind") Where is your college at?