Sunteți pe pagina 1din 28
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-2

26-2 FUNCTIONS  movement of the body  maintenance of posture  respiration  production of
26-2 FUNCTIONS  movement of the body  maintenance of posture  respiration  production of
26-2 FUNCTIONS  movement of the body  maintenance of posture  respiration  production of
26-2 FUNCTIONS  movement of the body  maintenance of posture  respiration  production of

FUNCTIONS

movement of the body

maintenance of posture

respiration

production of body heat

communication

constriction of organs and vessels

contraction of the heart

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-3

26-3 Types of Muscle Tissue  Skeletal (responsible for locomotion, facial expression, posture, respiratory movements,
26-3 Types of Muscle Tissue  Skeletal (responsible for locomotion, facial expression, posture, respiratory movements,
26-3 Types of Muscle Tissue  Skeletal (responsible for locomotion, facial expression, posture, respiratory movements,
26-3 Types of Muscle Tissue  Skeletal (responsible for locomotion, facial expression, posture, respiratory movements,

Types of Muscle Tissue

Skeletal (responsible for locomotion, facial

expression, posture, respiratory movements, etc.)

Smooth (found in walls of hollow organs and

tubes)

Cardiac (found only in the heart)

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-4

26-4 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-4 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-4 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-4 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-5

26-5 Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle  ~40% of the body  striated muscles (transverse bands/striations) 
26-5 Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle  ~40% of the body  striated muscles (transverse bands/striations) 
26-5 Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle  ~40% of the body  striated muscles (transverse bands/striations) 
26-5 Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle  ~40% of the body  striated muscles (transverse bands/striations) 

Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle

~40% of the body

striated muscles (transverse bands/striations)

Contractility

Excitability

Extensibility

Elasticity

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-6

26-6 Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle  contractility: to shorten with force  excitability: respond to stimulus
26-6 Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle  contractility: to shorten with force  excitability: respond to stimulus
26-6 Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle  contractility: to shorten with force  excitability: respond to stimulus
26-6 Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle  contractility: to shorten with force  excitability: respond to stimulus

Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle

contractility: to shorten with force

excitability: respond to stimulus

extensibility: capability to stretch

recoil/elasticity: recoil to their original resting

length after they have been stretched

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-7

26-7 Skeletal Muscle Structure © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-7 Skeletal Muscle Structure © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-7 Skeletal Muscle Structure © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-7 Skeletal Muscle Structure © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Skeletal Muscle Structure

26-7 Skeletal Muscle Structure © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-8

26-8 Muscle Fiber Structure  sarcolemma  sarcoplasmic reticulum  transverse tubules  sarcoplasm 
26-8 Muscle Fiber Structure  sarcolemma  sarcoplasmic reticulum  transverse tubules  sarcoplasm 
26-8 Muscle Fiber Structure  sarcolemma  sarcoplasmic reticulum  transverse tubules  sarcoplasm 
26-8 Muscle Fiber Structure  sarcolemma  sarcoplasmic reticulum  transverse tubules  sarcoplasm 

Muscle Fiber Structure

sarcolemma

sarcoplasmic

reticulum

transverse tubules

sarcoplasm

myofibrils

actin myofilaments

myosin myofilaments

myofibrils  actin myofilaments  myosin myofilaments © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-9

26-9 Actin and Myosin Filaments  actin  troponin (contains binding site for calcium ions) 
26-9 Actin and Myosin Filaments  actin  troponin (contains binding site for calcium ions) 
26-9 Actin and Myosin Filaments  actin  troponin (contains binding site for calcium ions) 
26-9 Actin and Myosin Filaments  actin  troponin (contains binding site for calcium ions) 

Actin and Myosin Filaments

actin

troponin (contains

binding site for calcium

ions)

tropomyosin (covers the

attachment site for

myofilaments)

tropomyosin (covers the attachment site for myofilaments) © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-10

26-10 Actin and Myosin Filaments  myosin heads  bind to attachment in actin myofilaments 
26-10 Actin and Myosin Filaments  myosin heads  bind to attachment in actin myofilaments 
26-10 Actin and Myosin Filaments  myosin heads  bind to attachment in actin myofilaments 
26-10 Actin and Myosin Filaments  myosin heads  bind to attachment in actin myofilaments 

Actin and Myosin Filaments

myosin heads

bind to attachment in actin myofilaments

bend and straighten during contraction

they can break down ATP

to release energy

contraction  they can break down ATP to release energy © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
contraction  they can break down ATP to release energy © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-11

26-11 Outer Structure of Sarcomeres  Z disk (forming attachment site for actin filaments; gives the
26-11 Outer Structure of Sarcomeres  Z disk (forming attachment site for actin filaments; gives the
26-11 Outer Structure of Sarcomeres  Z disk (forming attachment site for actin filaments; gives the
26-11 Outer Structure of Sarcomeres  Z disk (forming attachment site for actin filaments; gives the

Outer Structure of Sarcomeres

Z disk (forming attachment

site for actin filaments;

gives the banded appearance)

I band (actin filaments; spans each Z disk and ends at myosin)

A band (extends length of

myosin filaments)

at myosin)  A band (extends length of myosin filaments) © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-12

26-12 Nerve Supply  skeletal muscles do not contract unless stimulated by motor neurons (nerve cells
26-12 Nerve Supply  skeletal muscles do not contract unless stimulated by motor neurons (nerve cells
26-12 Nerve Supply  skeletal muscles do not contract unless stimulated by motor neurons (nerve cells
26-12 Nerve Supply  skeletal muscles do not contract unless stimulated by motor neurons (nerve cells

Nerve Supply

skeletal muscles do not

contract unless stimulated by

motor neurons (nerve cells that generate the action potentials)

neuromuscular junction/synapse (cell to cell

junction between nerve and a

muscle fiber)

(cell to cell junction between nerve and a muscle fiber) © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-13

26-13 Nerve Supply  neuromuscular junction  presynaptic terminal (contains synaptic vesicles)  synaptic cleft
26-13 Nerve Supply  neuromuscular junction  presynaptic terminal (contains synaptic vesicles)  synaptic cleft
26-13 Nerve Supply  neuromuscular junction  presynaptic terminal (contains synaptic vesicles)  synaptic cleft
26-13 Nerve Supply  neuromuscular junction  presynaptic terminal (contains synaptic vesicles)  synaptic cleft

Nerve Supply

neuromuscular junction

presynaptic terminal (contains synaptic vesicles)

synaptic cleft (space

between presynaptic

terminal and muscle fiber)

postsynaptic

membrane

terminal and muscle fiber)  postsynaptic membrane © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-14

26-14 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-14 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-14 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-14 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-15

26-15 Muscle Contraction  sliding filament model (sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments)  actin
26-15 Muscle Contraction  sliding filament model (sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments)  actin
26-15 Muscle Contraction  sliding filament model (sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments)  actin
26-15 Muscle Contraction  sliding filament model (sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments)  actin

Muscle Contraction

sliding filament model (sliding of actin

myofilaments past myosin myofilaments)

actin and myosin do not shorten during

contraction

I bands shorten

A bands do not change in length

relaxation sarcomeres lengthen by opposing force or gravity

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-16

26-16 Excitability of Muscle Fibers  Resting membrane potential  concentration of K+ inside the cell
26-16 Excitability of Muscle Fibers  Resting membrane potential  concentration of K+ inside the cell
26-16 Excitability of Muscle Fibers  Resting membrane potential  concentration of K+ inside the cell
26-16 Excitability of Muscle Fibers  Resting membrane potential  concentration of K+ inside the cell

Excitability of Muscle Fibers

Resting membrane potential

concentration of K+ inside the cell is higher than

outside

concentration of Na+ outside is higher than inside

the cell

cell membrane is more permeable to K+ than to Na+

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-17

26-17 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-17 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-17 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-17 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Ion Channels and Action Potential

26-17 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-18

26-18 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-18 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-18 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-18 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Ion Channels and Action Potential

26-18 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-19

26-19 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-19 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-19 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-19 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

Ion Channels and Action Potential

26-19 Ion Channels and Action Potential © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-20

26-20 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-20 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-20 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-20 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-21

26-21 CROSS-BRIDGE MOVEMENT © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-21 CROSS-BRIDGE MOVEMENT © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-21 CROSS-BRIDGE MOVEMENT © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-21 CROSS-BRIDGE MOVEMENT © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

CROSS-BRIDGE MOVEMENT

26-21 CROSS-BRIDGE MOVEMENT © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-22

26-22 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-22 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-22 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-22 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-22 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-23

26-23 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-23 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-23 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-23 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-23 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-24

26-24 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-24 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-24 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-24 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-24 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-25

26-25 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-25 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-25 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-25 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-25 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-26

26-26 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-26 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-26 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-26 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-26 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-27

26-27 Cross-Bridge Movement  Exposure of attachment sites . During contraction of a muscle, Ca+ binds
26-27 Cross-Bridge Movement  Exposure of attachment sites . During contraction of a muscle, Ca+ binds
26-27 Cross-Bridge Movement  Exposure of attachment sites . During contraction of a muscle, Ca+ binds
26-27 Cross-Bridge Movement  Exposure of attachment sites . During contraction of a muscle, Ca+ binds

Cross-Bridge Movement

Exposure of attachment sites. During contraction of a muscle, Ca+ binds to troponin molecules, causing tropomyosin molecules to move, which exposes myosin attachment sites on actin myofilaments.

Cross-bridge formation. The myosin heads bind to the exposed attachment sited on the actin myofilaments to form cross-bridges, and phosphates are released from the myosin heads.

Power stroke. Energy stored in the myosin heads is used to move myosin heads, causing actin myofilament to slide past the myosin myofilament, and the ADP molecules are released from the myosin heads.

ATP binds to myosin heads. ATP molecules bind to the myosin heads

Cross-bridge release. As ATP is broken down to ADP and phosphates, the myosin heads release from the actin attachment sites.

Recovery stroke. The heads of the myosin molecules return to their resting position, and energy is stored in the heads of the myosin molecules. If Ca+ are still attached to troponin,

cross-bridge formation and movement are repeated. This cycle occurs many times during a

muscle contraction. Not all cross-bridges form and release simultaneously.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

26-28

26-28 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-28 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-28 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
26-28 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved