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Applications of UAS

Status Constraints Future


ILA 2012, UAS Work Shop 1: Applications of UAS Dr. Tilman Gassert, 14th of September 2012

Content

1. Key Aspects and todays Status


Accessible Airspace - Equivalence Air Systems Definitions (RPAS) UAV Integration into Airspace RPAS Mission Systems Autonomy Human Responsibility Impact of Certification

2 RPAS Examples of today their limitations 2. 3. Key Developments and Future Potential 4 Conclusions & Summary 4.
Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 2

Key Aspects and todays Status Accessible Airspace Equivalence principle


Segregated Air Space
limits deployment and Requires q TRA or ED-R

Temporary Restricted Airspace


or

Non-Segregated Air Space


Controlled Uncontrolled
General < 500 GND

ED-R

Integration teg at o into to Air Space mandatory


NfL I 161/12 ( (June 2012) ) MTOW < 25kg Alt < 100m Visual Line of Sight Not only sportive use No explicit Permit required

^ manned unmanned = aircraft

EQUIVALENCE
Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 3

ICAO: unmanned to act and respond as manned aircraft do (Circular 328)

Air Systems Definitions Manned Aircraft

Manned Aircraft

Detect & Avoid

Pilot

Command & Control

Communicate

Air Traffic Controller - ATC

Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 4

Air Systems Definitions Unmanned Air Systems / RPAS


Remotely Piloted Aircraft System RPAS

Detect & Avoid

Remotely Piloted Aircraft - RPA


Command Control Communicate Data Link (C3)

Communicate

ATC Remote Pilot Station - RPS


Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 5

UAV Integration into Airspace - Segregated Air Space


Authorisation to operate UAV Appropriate Certification

Flight Capabilities
Stay in Restricted Air Space Guarantee safe Removal from Air Space (in failure case)

Flight System Elements


Flight Control System that observes limits E.g. Termination System Safe & Secure Command & Control Data Link Responsible licensed Pilot/Operator

Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 6

UAV Integration into Airspace - Non-segregated Air Space


^ manned unmanned = aircraft

Flight Capabilities
Comply with ICAO Standards and obey Rules of the Air Operation in accordance with conditions specified by State of Registry, State of Operator and States overflown dto. Operation in Aerodromes in Air and on Ground Timely response to ATC Minimize Hazards (external &
internal) For/from other air vehicles From/for own air vehicle From weather

Flight System Elements


Safe Flight Control / Management System Sense/Detect and Avoid (air vehicles, markings on ground, lighting, weather) Safe & Secure Data Link for Command, Control and Communication Remote Displays and Controls Transponders Flight recorders To T fulfil f lfil safety f t requirement redundancies necessary Responsible licensed Pilot/Operator

EQUIVALENCE

Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 7

RPAS Mission Systems


Mission Capabilities

Radar Sensor

Mission System Elements


Mission Management System Mission Sensors
EO/IR, Radar, SAR CBRNE, Acoustic

EO/IR Sensor

Geo-Data Gathering Weather Data Gathering / Observation Disaster Relief Missions Communication Relay Missions ISR Missions (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) Dynamic Missions Sensor Data influences mission execution automatically Search & Rescue Chase missions

Antennas, structure integrated antennas Communication-Systems Effectors, Manipulators (e.g. Laser Designator) Safe & Secure Coupling of Mission System and Flight Management System (Secure) Data Link for Mission Data Mi i Responsible Mission R ibl

Signal Intelligence System on EuroHawk

C3 + Mission Data Data Link


Distribution of water content in oranges on an orange plantation

Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 8

Autonomy - Human Responsibility


^ manned unmanned = aircraft

EQUIVALENCE
Human Responsibility

HUMAN Responsibility

Full autonomy with Human level of performance or better


unman nned mann ned Huma an Independen nce

?
Environ nmental Comp plexity unman nned mann ned Mis ssion Complex xity Time Autonomy

Human

Machine

100% human remotely controlled in all aspects

Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved

Time Now
14/09/2012 Page

Impact of Certification
Civil, Manned Aircraft Certification Standards
Fixed / Rotary wings Large UAS HALE, UCAS Germany: LTF1550 Category y 2: segregated test and restri icted non test a areas Category y 1: only segreg gated test area - non segregated air spa ace, full integra ation Category y 3: CS-23 Twin Engine + CS-25 / CS-29

Unmanned Aircraft Certification Standards

Low End L E d MALE / heavy VTUAS

CS-23 / 27

^ =

mid d range a ge tactical UAV/ mid-range VTUAS

CS VLA / R

Small & mini UAV / VTUAS

150kg 25kg

Model A/C civil

NfL I 161/12
Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 10

military, military target

STA NAG 4703

EASA National

Civil Certification TBD

MALE / large VTUAS

UAS m military certifica ation according g to STANAG 46 671 / 4702 +C Crew Licensing STANAG 4670 0

Cos st for Cert tification

military, in absence military of standard

RPAS Examples of today their limitations Tracker

Temporary Restricted Airspace


or

ED-R

Length Wingspan MTOW Payload capacity Speed Altitude Endurance Data link range

1.40 m 3.6 m 8.5 kg 1 kg 90 km/h > 3000 m > 1.5 h 10 km

Hand launched, tactical RPAS for. Reconnaissance, Identification, g, control, , surveillance monitoring, In operation with military and civil forces in Europe, Afghanistan, Middle East Also used as technology demonstration platform. p

Autonomy: RPAS with forward looking camera Automatic Waypoint-flying (GPS) Automatic Target detection and chase

Certification in GE: MTOW < 25kg Alt < 100m (Splash Pattern) Safety Distance from population Visual Line of Sight, min Safety Remote Pilot min. Permit to Fly (Aufstiegsgenehmigung)
14/09/2012 Page 11

Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved

RPAS Examples of today their limitations Barracuda

Temporary Restricted Airspace


or

ED-R

Complex length Wing span Engine: MTOW Speed Payload Range C ili Ceiling

= 8.25 m = 7.22 m JT15D-5C JT15D 5C = 3250 kg = Mach 0.6 = 300 kg = 200km = 20,000ft 20 000ft

Autonomy: RPAS with i hf forward dl looking ki camera, Automatic Taxiing Automatic Take-off, Mission execution and Landing Sense & Avoid via TCAS Automatic A t ti T Target t Detection D t ti and d chase h function
Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved

Certification: LTF1550 CAT1 Termination System Licensed Pilot Target: CAT 2 Certification

Technology Demonstrator EU-MALE & FCAS scenario test bed Agile UAV in Network Centric Environment Autonomy functions

14/09/2012

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RPAS Examples of today their limitations Euro Hawk

ED R ED-R

Complex length Wing g span p Engine MTOW Speed Payload Range Ceiling

= 14.5 m = 39 39.89 89 m RR AE3007A = 14628 kg = 344 kts = 1360 kg = 22780 km = 65,000ft

Autonomy: RPAS with Transponder,TCAS, ATC Comms relay, Cockpit Camera take-off Way Point Automatic take-off, flying, landing

Certification - Target: LTF1550 CAT2 Licensed Pilot

HALE High Altitude Long Endurance UAV SIGINT (Signal Intelligence) Mission System Satellite Data Link

Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 13

Key Developments
Key Flight System Elements
Safe Flight Control / Management System Sense/Detect and avoid (air vehicles, markings on ground, lighting, weather) Safe & Secure Data Link for Command, Control and Communication Remote Displays and Controls Human Machine Interface To fulfil safety requirement redundancies necessary

Key Mission System Elements


Mission Management System Mission Sensors Safe & Secure Coupling of Mission System and Flight Management System (Secure) Data Link for Mission Data

To broaden the application of RPAS in the future innovation in the following key technology areas will be required

Integration into Airspace and Aerodromes - Sense, Detect & Avoid, cooperative/ non-cooperative p Increased Autonomy and Operator Support Systems Communication and Data Link - Safety, Security, Frequencies/Bandwidth Miniaturisation, Sensors (for Autonomy and Mission), higher Integration and new Configurations

Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 14

Future Potential
Difficult or dangerous Missions Search and Rescue in adverse conditions, environment, weather Automatic landing on moving platforms or in difficult terrain Operation in contaminated areas Missions o over er pop populated lated areas Ferry flights of RPAS over populated areas Urban air support, tasks in populated areas Repetitive, long endurance missions Environmental - , geo data gathering and monitoring Search S f for natural resources Further effects Spin-offs on manned aviation through assistance systems Increase of safety in aviation
Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 15

Conclusions & Summary


Unmanned aircraft will have to act and react equivalently to manned aircraft A human responsible pilot/operator will be required in the foreseeable future St Standards d d and dR Rules l f for C Certification tifi ti and d Operation O ti of f RPAS need dt to b be d developed, l d however this must be supported by appropriate technologies that show in turn, that equivalent safety, security and efficiency levels can be reached Insertion into airspace will be a key vector to broaden and simplify the application of RPAS and make use of their mission possibilities Sensor integration with mission management and flight control system will enable an increasing degree of automation and autonomy Pilot/operators need assistance systems (automation, autonomy) to operate RPAS safely y and efficiently. Miniaturisation and new configurations will allow to apply smaller platforms with lower certification effort and thus cost The Th diff differences b between t manned d and d unmanned d air i vehicles hi l will ill di diminish i i hi in f future t Unmanned Air Vehicles will increasingly become a regular part not only of military but also civil aviation.
Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 16

Thank you for your attention!

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Applications of UAS: Status Constraints - Future, Dr. Tilman Gassert 2012 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 14/09/2012 Page 17