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Problem 5.4

The bar shown is pinned at O and released from rest at θ = 0. Derive the governing differential equation of motion applying Newtonian principles and work-energy principles. Define the reaction components at O as a function of θ (only).

Kinematics: L OG = 2 2 ar =− r θ ar = θθ + 2
Kinematics:
L
OG =
2
2
ar =−
r
θ
ar =
θθ
+ 2
r
r
OG
OG
θ
OG
OG
r
is a constant
OG
r
= r
= 0
OG
OG
L
L
2
a
=−
θ
a
=
θ
r
θ
2
2

Applying Newtonian principles:

O θ m, l
O
θ
m, l
L Free body diagram of bar ∑ f = ma : W sin () 2
L
Free body diagram of bar
f
= ma
: W
sin
()
2
θ
− O =−
m
θ
()
1
rr
r
2
O θ
L
f
=
ma
: W
cos
() θ
−= O
m
θ
() 2
θθ
θ
O
2
r
L
Datum Line
MIW
=
θ
:
cos
()
θθ
=
I
()
3
O
OO
O
2
1
G
L/2
2
I
=
mL
θ
O
3
2
L
mL
3
g
From (3):
mg
cos
()
θ
=
θθ
⇒=
cos
()
θ
r
2
32 L
θ
W
θ
Applying conservation of energy:
TV
+=+
TV
11
0
0
1
2
TI
=
θ
and
T
=
0
1
O
0
2
L
L
V
=−
mg
sin
()
θ
and
V
=−
mg
sin(
θ
)
1
00
2
2
1
L
2
LL
2
()
2
I
θθ
mg
sin
=+→ =
T
V
θ
mg
sin
()
θθ
mg
cos
(
)
O
00
0
22
I
2
2
 
O
take derivitive w.r.t.
θ and apply energy integral relationship:
L
m g L
3
mg L
I
cos
()
θ
mg
θθ
=⇒ =
0
cos
()
θθ
⇒ =
cos
()
θ
O
2
2
I
2
mL
2
O
3 g
θ
=
cos
() θ
2 L

Solving for support reactions:

θ

2

=

2

 

LL

sin

()

 6

  mL

(

)

LL

sin

()

(

I

O

mg

θθ

mg

0

sin

−=

2

mg

θθ

mg

sin

0

22

22

θ

2

=

3 g

L

(

sin

θθ

sin

0

)

from (1):

OW

r

=+

sin

()

θ

m

L

3

g

2

L

(

5

⇒=

OW

sin

θ

3

W

sin

θ

 

r

2

()

2

0

 

from (2):

OW =

θ

cos

()

θ

m

L

2 2 L

3 g

 

W cos

() θ

 

O θ =

4

sin

θθ

sin

0

cos

()

θ

)

)

 

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.8

The plate shown was released from rest at θ = 0. Draw a free-body diagram and deriver the equation of motion using both Newtonian principles and work energy principles. Determine the reaction components at O as a function of θ (0nly).

Kinematic relationships: 2b b 5 OG == d = 2 2 a =− rr a
Kinematic relationships:
2b
b
5
OG == d
=
2
2
a
=− rr
a
=
r
θθ
+ 2
r
r θ
θ
r
= d
which is a constant
b
m
r = r = 0
α
2
ar =
Kinetic relationships applying polar reference system at O:
a
=−
r
θ
θ
r
θ
O θ
Free body diagram of plate
2
= ma
:
O
W
sin
(
αθ
− =−
)
m
θ
f r
rr
2
O θ
b
5
f
=
ma
:
W
cos
θ
−= O
m
θ
r
θθ
θ
2
G
d
M
=
I
θ
:
Wd
cos
(
αθ
−=
)
I
θ
OO
O
O
Datum Line
2
O r
α
1
2
b
55 
mb
2
2
2
I
=+ I
md
=
m
(
2 b
)
+
b
+
m
⇒= I
OG
O
θ
12
2
3
  
2
b
55
mb
3
g
O
mg
cos
(
αθ
)
=
θ
⇒=
θ
cos
(
αθ
)
r
2
3
2
5 b
θ
Applying work and energy relationships:
TV
+=+
TV
11
0
0
1
TI
=
θ
2 T
= 0
1
O
0
2
b
5
V
=−
mgd
sin
(
αθ
− =−
)
mg
sin
()
αθ
V
=
mgd
sin
(
αθ
)
1
0
0
3
1
b
5
25  bb
5
()
(
)
2
I
θ 2
− mg
sin
αθ
−=
mgd
sin
αθ
θ
=
mg
sin
θ
+
mg
sin
(
αθ
)
O
0
0
23
I
3
3
O
 
take derivitive w.r.t.
θ and apply energy integral relationship:
b
5
b
5
I θ−
mg
cos
θθ=⇒ 0 =
mg
O
3
3 I
O

Solving for the support reactions;

OW =

r

sin

(

αθ

)

−−

m

b 5
b
5

2

θ

2

b 5 OW = cos ( αθ −− ) m θ θ 2 3 g
b
5
OW
=
cos
(
αθ
−−
)
m
θ
θ
2
3
g
25  bb
5
θ
=
cos
(
2
αθ
)
and
θ
=
mg
sin
(
αθ
−+
)
mg
sin
25 b
I
3
3
O
b
5
 
2
g
OW
=
sin
(
αθ
−+
)
m
 
(
sin
(
αθ
)())
sin
αθ
sin
θ
=
r
0
2
5 b
  
OW = 2
sin
(
α θ
−−
)
W
si n
(
α θ
)
r
0

(

2

 2 g ) = ( sin ( 0 5 b    ()
2
g
)
=
( sin
(
0
5 b
  
()
αθ
−−
W
sin

αθ

W

sin

αθ

0

)())

sin

αθ

(

αθ

0

)

OW

θ

=

cos

(

αθ

)

−−

m

b 53 g 2 2 b 5
b
53
g
2
2
b
5

cos

()

αθ

−=

W

cos

()

αθ

−−

3

W

W cos

(

α θ

)

cos

(

αθ

−⇒ =

)

44

O

θ

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.11

The plate shown was released from rest at θ = 0. Draw a free-body diagram and deriver the equation of motion using both Newtonian principles and work energy principles. Determine the reaction components at O as a function of θ (0nly).

Kinematics: θ 2 2 b  bbb  OG == d + =  
Kinematics:
θ
2
2
b
 bbb 
OG == d
+
=
 
 2  2
2
2
ar =−
r
θ
ar =
θθ
+ 2
r
r
OG
OG
θ
OG
OG
= d
which is a constant
r OG
= r
= 0
r OG
OG
b
b
m
2 b
a
=−
a
=
θ
r
θ
θ
2
O
Applying Newtonian principles to free body diagram:
2
f
= ma
: W
cos
(
θα
+
)
+
O
=−
m
rr
b θ
()
1
r
Free body diagram of plate
b
f
=
ma
: W
sin
(
θα
+− =
)
O
m
θ
() 2
θθ
θ
2
θ
b
M
=
I
θ
:
Wd
sin
(
θα
+=
)
I
θ
()
3
OO
O
2
1
b
2 2
mb
r
2
22
I
=+ I
md
=
m
b
+
b
+ 
m
⇒= I
OG
 
O
O
12
 
2  
3
θ
G
α
2
b
2
mb
3
g
From (3):
mg sin
(
θα
+
)
=
θ
⇒=
θ
sin
(
θα
+
)
3
b 22
b
m
d
Datum Line
Applying conservation of energy:
O
TV
+=+
TV
O
11
0
0
r
1
2
θ
W
T 1 I
=
O
2
b
b
θ
V mgd
=
cos
(
θα
+=
)
mg
cos
(
θα
+
)
and
V
=
mg
cos
(
α
)
1
0
2
1
b
2
bb
2
2
I
θ
+ mg
cos
(
θα
+ =+→ =
)
T
V
θ
mg
cos
(
θα
++
)
mg
cos
(
α
)
0
0
2 O
2
I
 
22
 
O
take derivitive w.r.t.
θ and apply energy integral relationship:
b mg b 3 mg b − mg sin ( I θ θα += )
b
mg
b
3 mg
b
mg
sin
(
I
θ
θα
+=
)
0 ⇒=
θ
sin
(
θα
+ ⇒=
)
θ
sin
(
θα
+
)
O
2
2
I
2
2
mb
2
O
3 g
θ
=
sin
(
θα
+
)
2
2 b
Solving for the support reactions:
2
bb
 6
bb
2
θ
=
mg
cos
(
θα
++
)
mg
cos
(
α
)
mg
cos
(
θα
++
)
mg
cos
(
α
)
 =
2
I
 
22
 mb
22
O
b
bg − 6
6
g
2
From (1):
OW =−
cos
(
θα
+
)
m
θ
=
W
cos
(
θα
+
)
m
cos
(
θα
+
)
+
r
2
22  
b
b
2
O
=
2
mg
cos
(
θα
+−
)
3
mg
cos
()
α
r
b
bg 
3
From (2):
OW =
sin
(
θα
+−
)
m
θ
=
W
sin
(
θα
+−
)
m
sin
(
θ α
+
)
θ
2  
b 2
2
 
mg
=
sin
(
θ α
+
)
O θ
4

 

cos

(

α

)

 

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.16 The slender bar pivots about the frictionless pivot O. For small θ, draw a free-body diagram and derive the equation of motion by applying Newtonian and conservation of energy principles. Determine the natural frequency of the system. For what value of the spring coefficient k will the bar become unstable?

Kinematic Constraints:

X

S

=

l

sin

θ

X

for small deflections,

X

S

=

l

θ

and

l

sin

θ

Y

 

l

2

G

=

2

cos

=

θ θ

and

cos

θ

=

1

 

=

l

θ

G

G

=

sin

X

2

θ

Applying Newtonian principles:

∑ M = I θ O O l ∑ M =− l cos θ (
∑ M
= I
θ
O
O
l
M
=−
l
cos
θ
(
2
F
)
+
sin
θθ
(
WI
)
=
OS
O
2
1
2
where:
I
=
ml
O
3
=
kX
=
k
( l sin
θ )
F S
S
l
l cos
θ
2
kl
(
sin
θ
)
+=
sin
θθ
(
W
)
I
 
O
2
rearranging terms :
Wl
2
I
θ
+
2
kl
cos
θθ
sin
−=
sin
θ
0
O
2
Applying small angle identity and spring relations:
wl

6
k
3
g
2
1 ml 2
θ
+
20
kl
θθ
=⇒+
θ
=
0

3
 
2
 
 m 2 l

Applying conservation of energy principles:

TV

+=+

11

0

0

TV

T

1

I

θ

2

1

ml

2

2

ml

22

θθ

 

1

==

2

0

2

23

1

kx

2

=

=

6

mgl

θ

+

k

(

l

sin

θ

)

2

V 1 =+ mgy

G

2

 

2

S

 

cos

ml

θ

2

+

mg

l

cos

(

θθ

+

k

l

sin

)

2

=+ T

0

V

0

 

6

2

Taking the derivitive w.r.t. to

ml

2

θ

l

sin

θ

+

2

k

(

l

2

3

2

mg

sin

θ and applying energy integral theorem:

θ

)

cos

θ

=

0

Applying small angle identities: sin

θθ

and

ml

2

Wl

 
 

θ

2

kl

2

θ

0

3

 

+−

2

 

=

cos

θ

1

What stiffness is required to keep system stable:

K > 0

Wl 2 2 kl − 2 W k ≥ 4 l
Wl
2
2
kl
2
W
k ≥
4
l

> 0

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

k k θ l, m O
k
k
θ
l, m
O

x G

Y x S A F S F S θ G W O X Datum Line
Y
x S
A
F S
F S
θ
G
W
O
X
Datum Line

Problem 5.17 A bar of mass m and length l is supported vertically at its top by two springs with spring constants k.

tension T co . Two linear dampers are attached at the middle of the bar with damping coefficients c. Perform the following engineering tasks:

a) Draw a free-body diagrams and derive the equation of motion. What is the undamped natural frequency and damping factor?

b) Drop the damping and use conservation of energy to derive the equation of motion.

c) For what value of the spring coefficient k will the bar become unstable?

Kinematic Constraints:

Each spring has an initial

k l/2 c O
k
l/2
c
O

k

Constraints: Each spring has an initial k l/2 c O k l l Xl S =
Constraints: Each spring has an initial k l/2 c O k l l Xl S =

l

l

Xl

S

=

sin

θ

2 2 l θ cos θ 2 θθ = and cos θ = 1 l
2
2
l
θ
cos
θ
2
θθ
=
and
cos
θ
=
1
l
l
=
θθ
and
X
=

CG

X

C

=

sin

X

GC

2

2

X

== X

sin

Y

G

=

θθ

cos

for small deflections,

θ

∴= Xl

S

and

c
c

Applying Newtonian principles:

l, m

Y x S A F S F S θ G F C F C Y
Y
x S
A
F S
F S
θ
G
F C
F C
Y G
W
O
X
Datum Line

M

O

=

I

O

θ

 
 

l

l

M

O

=−

I

cos

2

1

θ

()

2

Fl

θ

()

2

F

CS

cos

+

ml

2

F

== kX

k

θθ

sin

2

l

sin

θ

WI

=

O

(

)

F

== cX

l

=

3

ll  

O

cos

θ

2

c

sin

θθ



l

SS

cos

θ

 

2

(

kl

(

sin

θ

)

)

CC

l

+=

sin

θ

(

W

)

I

θ

c

 

2

22  

 

 

2

O

 

where:

rearranging terms :

2 l Wl 2 2 I θ + c θθ cos + 2 kl cos
2
l
Wl
2
2
I
θ
+
c
θθ
cos
+
2
kl
cos
θθ
sin
sin
θ
=
0
O
2
2
Applying small angle identity and spring relations:
2
cl
wl
3
c

63
k
g
2
2
1 ml
θθ
+
+
20
kl
θ
=⇒+
θθ
+
θ
=
0
32
 
2
 
2
m
  ml 2
6
k
3
g
natural frequency:
ω
=
n
m
2 l
C
63 kg
3
c
3 c
E
damping factor: 2
ζω
=→
2
ζ
−=
⇒ζ=
n
I
ml
2
2 m
6
k
3
g
E
4 m
m
2 l

 

θθ

cos

x G

Problem 5.17 continued Applying conservation of energy principles:

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

TV

+=+

11

0

0

TV

1

1

ml

2

T

1

2

I

θ

2

22

θθ

0

2

23

1

kx

2

=

=

6

mgl

θ

 

G

 

2

S

 

cos

==

ml

2

V 1 =+ mgy

+ k

(

ml

2

θ

2

+

l

6

2

mg

cos

(

θθ

+

k

l

sin

)

2

=+ T

0

l sin

V

0

θ

)

2

Take derivitive w.r.t.

ml

θ and apply energy integral theorem:

θ

+

2

k

(

l

2

sin

)

θθ

cos

= 0

2

θ

l

3

2

mg

sin

Applying small angle identities: sin

θθ

ml

2

Wl

 
 

θ

2

kl

2

θ

0

3

 

+−

2

 

=

and

cos

θ

1

What stiffness is required to keep system stable:

K > 0

Wl 2 2 kl − 2 W k ≥ 4 l
Wl
2
2
kl
2
W
k ≥
4
l

> 0

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.18 The bar illustrated has a mass m, length l and is supported by a frictionless pivot at O. A linear spring with spring coefficient k is connected to the bar at a distance 2l/3 from the pivot point. A linear damper with damping coefficient c is connected to the bar at a distance l/3 from the pivot. For small-rotation angle of the bar, perform the following engineering analysis tasks:

a) Draw a free-body diagram and derive the governing equation of motion.

For k = 350 N/m, m = 20 kg,

and l = 1 m determine the undamped natural frequency. Select a damping value c such that the damping factor is ζ = 0.1.

b) Drop the damping and derive the equation of motion using conservation of energy.

Kinematic constraints:

Applying small angle conditions:

X C

X C

=

=

l

θ

2 ll

θθ

3

l θ

X

==

X

SG

36

3

Applying Newtonian principles for rotation about fixed point O:

∑ M = I θ O O ll 2 l − W θ −− F
∑ M
= I
θ
O
O
ll
2
l
W
θ
−−
F
FI =
θ
C
SO
63
3
where:
F
=
cX
and,
F
=
kX
CC
SS
2
2
22
ml
 l 
ml
l
2
Solving for
I
:
I
=+ I
md
=
+
m
=
+
m
O
OG
12
  6 
12
36
2
ml
or,
I
=
O
9
substituting, following E.O.M. is obtained:
l
2
ll 
IF
θ
++
F
+ W = 0
θ
OC
S
3
 
3
 
6
2
ml
l
cl
 2 l 
2
lk
l
θ
+
θ
+
θθ
+= 0
W

9
33  
 
  3 
3
 
6
22
2
ml
cl
4
l
k
Wl
c
43 k
g
θ
+
θ
+
+
θ
=
0
or,
θθ
+++
θ
=
0
9
9
96
m
ml 2
 
 
l/3 m O l/3 c l/3 k
l/3
m
O
l/3
c
l/3
k
Kinematic Diagram Datum Line y G l/6 x g x C θ
Kinematic Diagram
Datum Line
y G
l/6
x g
x
C
θ

x S

Free Body Diagram Y O y O x X l/3 W 2l/3 F C θ
Free Body Diagram
Y
O
y
O x
X
l/3
W
2l/3
F C
θ
F S

Substituting in the given values:

20

m kg

From E.O.M:

=

k

N ζ m 4 k 3 g + m 2 l
N
ζ
m
4
k
3
g
+
m
2 l

== 350

ω

n

=

natural frequency :

0.10 l = 1 m 4 350 ( ) 3 9.81 ( ) = +
0.10
l
=
1
m
4 350
(
)
3 9.81
(
)
=
+
20
2 1
()

⇒=

ω

n

9.20

C ω 2 k ζ n damping coeffecient: ζ = → = C 2 k
C
ω
2 k
ζ
n
damping coeffecient:
ζ
=
→ =
C
2
k ω
n
2
cl
9 C
9 7.61
(
)
Cc
=
→=
=
⇒= c 68.49
Ns
2
m
9
l 2
1

=

(

2 350

)(

0.1

)

== 7.61

Ns

9.20

m

rad

s

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.18 continued:

Dropping the damping and applying conservation of energy principles:

TV +=+ TV 11 0 0 1 2 T = I θ 1 O 2
TV
+=+
TV
11
0
0
1
2
T
= I
θ
1
O
2
2
1
 l
12 
l
2
V
=−
mgy
+
k
(
X
)
=−
mg
cos
θ
+
k
sin
θ

1
g
s
2
 6
23  
 
2
1
 l 
4
l
2
I
θ
mg
cos
θθ
+
k
(
sin
)
2 =+ T
V
O
0
0
 6 
Take derivative w.r.t.
2
18
θ and apply energy integral realtionships:
2
mgl
4
l
k
I
θθ
+
sin
+
sin
θ
c os
θ
= 0
O
6
9
Apply small angle relationships:
sin
θθ
and
cos
θ
1
2
2
ml
mgl
4
l
k
θ
++
θ
= 0
9
69

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.19 The bar illustrated has a mass m and is supported by a frictionless pivot at O. A linear spring with a spring coefficient k is connected

to the bar at a distance a from the pivot point. A linear damper with damping coefficient c is connected to the bar at a distance b from the pivot. For a small-rotation angle of the bar, perform the following engineering analysis tasks:

a) Draw a free-body diagram and derive the governing equation of motion. For k = 350 N/m, m = 20 kg, a = 0.5 m , and b = 1 m determine the undamped natural frequency. Select a damping value for c such that the damping factor is ζ = 0.1.

b) Drop the damping and derive the equation of motion using conservation of energy.

Kinematic constraints:

Kinematic Diagram:

Y Datum Line O X y G G X C θ A X S
Y
Datum Line
O
X
y G
G
X C
θ
A
X S

Free Body Diagram:

A

Y O Y O X O X G F C W θ F S
Y
O
Y
O
X
O
X
G
F
C
W
θ
F
S

Applying small angle conditions:

l

l

C

X

C

=

l θ

2

X

=

l

X

SG

=

2

2

Xa

==

θθ

θ

θ

Applying Newtonian principles for rotation about fixed point O:

∑ M = I θ O O l l − W θ − F −=
∑ M
= I
θ
O
O
l
l
W
θ
F
−= lF
I
θ
C
SO
2
2
where:
F
=
cX
and,
F
=
kX
CC
SS
2
ml
Solving for
I
:
I
=
O
O
3
substituting, following E.O.M. is obtained:
l
l
I
θ
+
F
++ lF
W
θ
= 0
O
CS
2
2
2
ml
l
cl
l
2
θ
+
θθ
++
l
k
mg
θ
= 0
3
22  
 
2
2
2
ml
cl
mgl
3
c

33
k
g
2
θ
+
θ
+
l
k +
θ
=
0
or,
θθ
+
++
θ
=
0

3
4
 
2
 
42
m

ml

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

O a c b k
O
a
c
b
k

Problem 5.19 continued:

Substituting in the given values :

m = 20 kg k = 350 N ζ = 0.10 l = 1 m
m
=
20
kg
k
=
350
N
ζ
=
0.10
l
=
1
m
m
From E.O.M :
3
k
3 g
3 350
(
)
3 9.81
(
)
rad
natural frequency :
ω
=
+
=
+
ω
= 8.20
n
n
s
m
2
l
20
2 1
()
C
ω
2
k
ζ
2 350
(
)(
0.1
)
n
Ns
damping coeffecient :
ζ
=
→ =
C
=
=
C
= 8.54
m
2
k
ω
9.20
n
2
cl
4
C
4 8.54
(
)
Ns
C =
→ =
c
=
c
= 34.16
2
2
m
4
l
1

Dropping the damping and applying conservation of energy principles:

TV +=+ TV 11 0 0 1 2 T = I θ 1 O 2
TV
+=+
TV
11
0
0
1
2
T
=
I
θ
1
O
2
1
V
=−
mgY
+
1
g
2

k

(

X

s

)

2

=−

mg

 

l

1

cos

θ

+

22

k

(

l

sin

θ

)

2

1

 

I

O

θ

O

θ

2

l

)

2

=+ T

0

V

0

2

θ

l

2

k

θθ

+

kl

sin

sin

=

0

2

Take derivative w.r.t. θ and apply energy integral realtionships:

I

mg

sin

cos

2

(

++

mgl

θθ

cos

Apply sma ll angle relationships:

ml

2

θ

(

++ mgl

l

2

k

)

θ

3

= 0

sin

θθ

and

cos

θ

1

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.20 The mechanism shown is pivoted about point O, has mass m with a mass center G, and a radius of gyration about O of k O . The springs ( spring constant k) attached to the cross-member ends are in compression at θ = 0, and are not “unloaded” by the θ rotations. The linear dampers attached to the ends of the cross member have linear damping coefficients c. Perform the following engineering analysis tasks:

a) Draw a free-body diagram and derive the equation of motion. For small motion, what is the natural frequency? What is the damping factor?

b) Drop the damping and derive the equation of motion from conservation of energy.

Kinematic relations:

θ

Xb =

1

Xb =

1

θ

θ

Xb =

2

Xb =

2

θ

M

bF

F

O

I

=

bF

O

θ

−−−− r =

SS

1212

CC

=− F

SS

1

01

2

bF

θ

kb

bF

F

S

θ

W

=+ F

S

02

θ

θ

I

O

kb

where

F

b

I

θ

F

S

01

θ

kb

C

(

O

1

+

θ

cb

)(

b

(

F

S

F

02

02

are the preload of the two springs respectively.

F

C

2

=

θ

cb

+−

θ

kb

)

2

b

(

θ

cb

)

−=

rW

θθ

I

O

)

θ =−bF bF

S 01

S 02

and

=

F

−−

SS

01

2

2

θ

bc

+

2

2 kb + rW

The natural frequency of the system is :

ω

n

=

2 2 kb + rW 2 mk O
2
2 kb
+ rW
2
mk
O
k k O θ b b _ r c c G vertical θ
k
k
O
θ
b
b
_
r
c
c
G
vertical
θ

Datum

The damping factor for the system is:

ζ =

C C E E = C 2 K M C E E
C
C
E
E
=
C
2
K M
C
E
E
22 2 cb cb ζ = = ⇒= ζ ( 22 22 22 mk )(
22
2 cb
cb
ζ
=
=
⇒=
ζ
(
22
22
22
mk
)(
kb
++
rW
)
(
mk
)(
2
kb
rW
)
OO
2 cb ( 22 mk )( 2 kb + rW ) O
2
cb
(
22
mk
)(
2
kb
+
rW
)
O

By dropping damping, no non-conservative force are present, can apply conservation of energy:

TV +=+ TV 11 0 0 1 2 T = I θ 1 o 2
TV
+=+
TV
11
0
0
1
2
T
= I
θ
1
o
2
2 
V
=
2
1 k
(
b
θ
)
rW
1
 
2
 
2
2
2
1 I θθ
+
kb
rW
cos
o
2

cos

θ

θ

=+ T

0

V

0

Take derivative w.r.t. θ, and apply energy integral substitution:

θ

d

θ

2

++

I

and applying small angle identity

I

O

O

θ

2

2

2

kb

2

++

(

2

kb

rW

)

θ

=

0

θθ

rW sin

=

0

θ

=

sin

θ

Free body diagram for assembly: positive direction of motion is counter-clockwise rotation Y O x
Free body diagram for assembly: positive
direction of motion is counter-clockwise rotation
Y
O x
F 2
X
F 1
O y
F C2
F C1
θ
w

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.23

The truck shown is accelerating to the right with an acceleration a ( a = x ). The plate of length L and mass Α is pivoted at O and released from rest at θ = 0. Derive the governing equation of motion defining θ .

Defining kinematics:

θ x O
θ
x
O
L L XX : =− X sin θ YY : = cos θ GO G
L
L
XX :
=− X
sin
θ
YY :
=
cos
θ
GO
G
2
2
L
L
XX
=
θ cos
θ
Y
=−
θθ
sin
GO
G
2
2
L
L
Y
LL
XX
=
θ cos
θ
+
θ
2 sin
θ
=−
θθ
sin
GO
G
2 2
22

Applying kinetic relationship:

F

X

F

Y

=

=

mX

;

O

GX

=

mX

G

mY

;

O

GY

−= W

mY

G

θ

2

cos

θ

=+×

M

O

I

O

θ

b

OG

a

O

L

sin

1

θθ

=

mL

2

LL

sin

θ

I

+

cos

JI   × 

θ

(

a

O

)

 

2

L

mg

23

La

+− m   

2

3

2

θ

O

=

mgL

sin

θθ

(

ag +

O

sin

θ

)

 

m

32

2

⇒=

2 L

Solving for support reactions:

 

L

θ

θ

L

θ

2

sin

θ

Y

LL

θθ

sin

=

2

cos

+

2

 

G

=−

22

3

(

a

+

g sin

θ

)

 

2 L

O

   

=− ma   

O

−= −

L

θθ

L

θ

2

2

sin

θ

 

cos

θ

 

2

L

cos

+

θθ

sin

2

L

θ

 

2

2

 

 

XX

GO

θ

=

O

X

OWm

Y

θ

2

cos

θ

Free Body Diagram of plate θ Y G r W O O X X X
Free Body Diagram of plate
θ
Y
G
r
W
O
O X
X
X O
O Y

Dynamics in Engineering Practice; Childs; Chapter 5 Problems DRAFT

Problem 5.33 The cylinder below, mass m and radius r, rolls without slipping on the inclined surface. It is restrained by a linear spring of stiffness k and a linear damper with damping coefficient c. The spring is initially compressed and remains compressed during the motion of the cylinder. Perform the following engineering tasks:

a) Draw a free-body diagram for the cylinder and derive a single governing equation of motion. For k = 10 lb/in,

w = 50 lb, and r = 18 in. Determine the undamped natural frequency. Select a damping value for c such that the damping factor is ζ = 0.1.

b) Drop the damping and derive the equation of motion using conservation of energy.

Kinematic relations:

Free Body Diagram of disk:

Taking motion of center of disk, O, up incline as positive.

x Y X θ F S O f F C N w α X =
x
Y
X
θ
F
S
O
f
F C
N
w
α
X
= r θ
O
XXX
=
=
SCO
and,
X
θ
C = r

Applying Newtonian principles to free body diagram.

F

X

=

where:

mX

F

S

;

=

f

−−−

F

F

SC

kX

S

=

θ

kr

w

sin

α

=

mX

F

C

=

cX

C

f

=

cr

− =−

θ

mr

θθθ

+

cr

+

kr

w sin

α

(1)

M

I

=

OO

2

mr

θ

;

θ

−= rf

I

mr

O

θ

θ

2

→= f

2

f into (1):

mr