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MODULE 2- Philippine Culture

SPECIAL FILIPINO CLASS 2

PHILIPPINE HEROES Dr. Jose P. Rizal (1861-1896) The Philippines' national hero. Born in Calamba, Laguna, on June 19, 1861. Published his masterpiece Noli Me Tangere in Berlin(Germany) in 1887 and his second novel El Filibusterismo in Ghent(Belgium) in 1891. His two novels stirred the conscience of his people. He contributed various literary works to La Solidaridad. For his leadership in the reform movement and for his incendiary novels, Rizal was arrested and later killed by musketry in Bagumbayan, Manila, on December 30, 1896. His execution was the last straw for other Filipinos who called for a bloody revolution against Spain. Andres Bonifacio (1863-1897) He founded the secret society, Katipunan , on July 7, 1892, to fight Spain. He was also president of the Tagalog republic from August 24, 1896 to May 10, 1897. Born in Tondo, Manila, on November 30, 1863. He grew up in the slums and never knew the benefits of a prosperous life. He married Gregoria de Jesus in 1892. He was killed on May 10, 1897, near Mount Buntis, Maragondon, Cavite.

Gregorio del Pilar (1875-1899) Hero of Tirad Pass. Born on November 14, 1875, in Bulacan, Bulacan. Died on December 2, 1899, in the battle of Tirad Pass, to enable Aguinaldo to escape from the Americans. One of the youngest and bravest generals ever produced by the Philippines.

Emilio Aguinaldo (1899-1964) He officially proclaimed the Philippine independence in Malolos, Bulacan, on January 23, 1899, with him as the first president. It was the first republic in Asia. Born in Kawit, Cavite, on March 22, 1869. Died at the Veterans Memorial Hospital, Quezon City, on February 6, 1964.

Apolinario Mabini (1864-1903) Sublime paralytic and the brain of the revolution. Born in Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas, on June 22, 1864. He joined La Liga Filipina in 1892 and Aguinaldo's revolutionary government from June 1898 to May 1899. He was captured by the American forces in December 1899 and deported to Guam in January 1901. He died in Manila on May 13, 1903.

MODULE 2- Philippine Culture

SPECIAL FILIPINO CLASS 2

Emilio Jacinto (1875-1899) Brains of the Katipunan. Born in Trozo, Manila, on December 15, 1875. He joined the Katipunan in 1894 and became Bonifacio's trusted friend and adviser. He wrote the Kartilya ng Katipunan, the primer of the Katipunan which embodied the teachings of the organization. He founded and edited the Katipunan newspaper, Kalayaan, whose first issue came out in January 1896. Died on April 16, 1899. He was one of the heroic figures in Philippine history. Antonio Luna (1866-1899) The greatest general of the revolution. Younger brother of Juan Luna, the famous painter. Editor of La Independencia, whose first issue came out on September 3, 1898. Born in Binondo, Manila, on October 29, 1866. He was one of the propagandists in Spain who were working for political reforms in the Philippines. He contributed articles to La Solidaridad. He was assassinated in Cabanatuan City, on June 5, 1899.

Melchora Aquino (1812-1919) Better known as Tandang Sora. Born in Banlat, Kalookan City, on January 6, 1812. She helped the Katipuneros under the leadership of Andres Bonifacio by providing them food, shelter, and other material goods. She is recognized as the Grand Woman of the revolution and the Mother of Balintawak. She died on March 12, 1919.

Juan Luna (1857-1899) A genius of the brush and a patriot of the highest order. Creator of the world-famous painting, SPOLARIUM, which was awarded the gold medal in the Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid in 1884. It is also known as the greatest painting of all times. Born in Badoc, Ilocos, Norte, on October 23, 1857. He was closely associated with the Reform Movement, together with Rizal, Lopez-Jaena, Ponce, etc. He died in Hongkong on December 7, 1899. Marcelo H. Del Pilar (1850-1896) Political analyst of the Filipino colony in Spain. Born in Kupang, Bulacan, Bulacan, on August 30, 1850. In 1882, he founded the nationalistic newspaper, Diariong Tagalog. In December 1889, he became the editor of La Solidaridad and became the moving spirit behind the propaganda movement. Died on July 4, 1896.

Diego Silang (1730-1763)

MODULE 2- Philippine Culture

SPECIAL FILIPINO CLASS 2

He led the revolt of the Ilocanos in opposition to the tribute and abuses of the Spanish officials. Born in Aringay, La Union, on December 16, 1730. The revolt started in Vigan, Ilocos Sur. He was killed by Miguel Vicos, a Spanish mestizo who bore grievances against Diego Silang.

Lapu-Lapu (c. 16th century) Chief of Mactan who led the first successful Filipino armed resistance against Spanish aggression. He fought and killed Magellan in a battle in Mactan, on April 27, 1521.