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American petroleum Institute's inverted scale for denoting the 'lightness' or 'heaviness' of crude oils and other liquid

hydrocarbons. Calibrated in API degrees (or degrees API), it is used universally to expresses a crude's relative density in an inverse measure lighter the crude, higher the API gravity, and vice versa because lighter the crude higher its market value. Oil with API greater than 30 is termed light; between 22 and 30, medium; below 22, heavy; and below 10, extra heavy. Asphalt on average has an API gravity of 8, Brent Crude of 35.5, and gasoline of 50. Formula: {(141.5 relative density of the crude (at 15.5C or 60F)} - 131.5. Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/API-gravity.html#ixzz2Zl8ToKFA

Density of Fluids - Changing Pressure and Temperature


Calculating density of fluids when changing pressure and temperature
Sponsored Links The density of a fluid changes with temperature and pressure. The density of water versus temperature and pressure is indicated in the chart below:

Density and change in Temperature


When temperature is changed the density of a fluid can be expressed as

1 = 0 / (1 + (t1 - t0)) where 1 = final density (kg/m3) 0 = initial density (kg/m3)

(1)

= volumetric temperature expansion coefficient (m3/m3 oC) t1 = final temperature (oC) t0 = initial temperature (oC) Volumetric Temperature Coefficients -

water : 0.0002 (m3/m3 oC) at 20oC ethyl alcohol : 0.0011 (m3/m3 oC)

Note! - volumetric temperature coefficients varies strongly with temperature.

Density and change in Pressure


When pressure is changed the density of a fluid can be expressed as 1 = 0 / (1 - (p1 - p0) / E) where E = bulk modulus fluid elasticity (N/m2) 1 = final density (kg/m3) 0 = initial density (kg/m3) p1 = final pressure (N/m2) p0 = initial pressure (N/m2) Bulk Modulus Fluid Elasticity some common Fluids - E

(2)

water : 2.15 109 (N/m2) ethyl alcohol : 1.06 109 (N/m2) oil : 1.5 109 (N/m2)

Density of a fluid changing both Temperature and Pressure

The density of a fluid when changing both temperature and pressure can be expressed with (1) and (2) by substituting 0 in eq. 2 with the expression for 1 in eq. 1. 1 = 1(from eq.1) / (1 - (p1 - p0) / E) = 0 / (1 + (t1 - t0)) / (1 - (p1 - p0) / E) (3)

Example - Density of Water at 100 bar and 20oC


density of water 0oC: 999.8 (kg/m3) expansion coefficent of water at 10oC: 0.000088 (m3/m3oC) (average value between 0 and 20oC) bulk modulus of water: 2.15 109 (N/m2)

Density of water can be calculated with (3): 1 = 999.8 (kg/m3) / (1 + 0.000088 (m3/m3oC) (20 (oC) - 0 (oC))) / (1 - (100 105 (Pa) - 1 105 (Pa)) / 2.15 109 (N/m2)) = 998.0 / 0.995 = 1002.7 (kg/m3)