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Air Solubility in Water

Amount pressure of air that can be dissolved in water - decrease with temperature - increase with

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The temperature. amount of air that can be dissolved in water increase with the system pressure and decrease with the

Deaeration

When fresh water is heated up, air bubbles start to form. The water can obviously not hold the dissolved air with

steam. increasing water is If deaerated. the temperature. water is cooled At 100 down o C at (212 then o F) again water reheated, starts to bubbles boil - the will bubbles not appear are formed until the by water evaporated starts to water boil. or The

Solubility Ratio

The solubility of air in water can be expressed as a solubility ratio:

S a = m a / m w

where

S a = solubility ratio

(1)

 m a = mass of air (lb m , kg) m w = mass of water (lb m , kg)

Henry's Law

Solution pressure of of air the in system" water follows - and Henry's can be expressed Law - "the as: amount of air dissolved in a fluid is proportional with the

p g / k H

c

where

=

(2)

 c = solubility of dissolved gas k H = proportionality constant depending on the nature of the gas and the solvent p g = partial pressure of the gas

The approximately solubility of 35.6% oxygen oxygen in water compared is higher to than 21% the in air. solubility of nitrogen. Air dissolved in water contains

Solubility of Air in Water

Temperature

 ( o F) 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140

Gauge Pressure (psig)

0

20

40

60 80

100

 0.0258 0.0613 0.0967 0.1321 0.1676 0.2030 0.0223 0.0529 0.0836 0.1143 0.1449 0.1756 0.0197 0.0469 0.0742 0.1014 0.1296 0.1559 0.0177 0.0423 0.0669 0.0916 0.1162 0.1408 0.0161 0.0387 0.0614 0.0840 0.1067 0.1293 0.0147 0.0358 0.0589 0.0750 0.0990 0.1201 0.0136 0.0334 0.0536 0.0730 0.0928 0.1126 0.0126 0.0314 0.0501 0.0699 0.0877 0.1065 0.0117 0.0296 0.0475 0.0654 0.0833 0.1012 0.0107 0.028 0.0452 0.0624 0.0796 0.0968 0.0098 0.0265
 0.0432 0.0598 0.0765 0.0931 150 0.0089 0.0251 0.0413 0.0574 0.0736 0.0898 160 0.0079 0.0237 0.0395 0.0553 0.0711 0.0869 170 0.0068 0.0223 0.0378 0.0534 0.0689 0.0844 180 0.0055 0.0208 0.0361 0.0514 0.0667 0.082 190 0.0041 0.0192 0.0344 0.0496 0.0647 0.0799 200 0.0024 0.0175 0.0326 0.0477 0.0628 0.0779 210 0.0004 0.0155 0.0306 0.0457 0.0607 0.0758

Example - Calculating Air Dissolved in Water

Free Industry

Consulting-Specifyin

Engineer

Power Engineering

International

Control Engineering

Engineering

Standards

Pressure
Air dissolved in water can be calculated with Henry's law.
1
Henry Law's Constants at a system temperature of 25 o C (77 o F)
Pa (N/m 2 )
bar
Oxygen - O 2 : 756.7 atm/(mol/litre)
mm
H 2 O
Nitrogen - N 2 : 1600 atm/(mol/litre)
kg/cm 2
Molar Weights
psi
inches H 2 O
Oxygen - O 2 : 31.9988 g/mol
Convert!
Nitrogen - N 2 : 28.0134 g/mol
Flow
Partial fraction in Air
1
Oxygen - O 2 : ~ 0.21
m
3 /s
Nitrogen - N 2 : ~ 0.79
m
3 /h
US gpm
Oxygen dissolved in the Water at atmospheric pressure can be calculated as:
cfm
c o = (1 atm) 0.21 / (756.7 atm/(mol/litre)) (31.9988 g/mol)
Convert!
= 0.0089 g/litre
Free Industry
~ 0.0089 g/kg
Nitrogen dissolved in the Water at atmospheric pressure can be calculated as:
Consulting-Specifying
c n = (1 atm) 0.79 / (1600 atm/(mol/litre)) (28.0134 g/mol)
Engineer
= 0.0138 g/litre
~ 0.0138 g/kg
Since air is the sum of Nitrogen and Oxygen:
c a = (0.0089 g/litre) + (0.0138 g/litre)
Power Engineering
= 0.0227 g/litre
International
~ 0.023 g/kg
Calculating air dissolved in water for some other pressures at temperature 25 o C (77 o F) can be summarized to:
Pressure, abs (atm)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Dissolved Air in Water
0.023
0.045
0.068
0.091
0.114
0.136
(25 o C) (g/kg)
Control Engineering
Dissolved Oxygen in Fresh Water
Engineering
Standards

Deariation

For maximum deaeration the water should be heated up to 212 o F (100 o C) at atmospheric pressure. This is common in steam systems where fresh water is supplied to the system through an heated deaeration tower on the top of the condensate receiver tank.

It is also common to install deaeration devices on the hot sides of heat exchangers in heating distribution systems to force the dissolved air out of the system.

Note! Since the maximum deaeration is limited by the minimum static pressure and maximum temperature in the system - the best deaeration result is achieved in positions at the hottest and highest levels of the systems - and/or at the suction side of pumps.

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