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ALUMINIUMPOWDER AND ALUMINIUM PASTES FOR BUILDING MATERIALS AND PYROTECHNICS

Aluminiumpulver & -pasten fr Baustoffe und Pyrotechnik

STANDART STAPA

Contents

Introduction

45

STANDART Aluminium powder RO

67

STAPA Hydropor pastes

89

Retarded STAPA Hydropor pastes

10 11

STAPA Alupor pastes

12

Retarded STAPA Alupor pastes

14

STAPA Alupor Poral pastes

15 16

Aluminium contained in nonautoclaved construction materials

17 18

STANDART Pyro aluminium powder

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Introduction Lightweight Concrete Powders / Pastes

For several decades, laminar aluminium flakes have been playing a major part in the construction industry, in addition to other applications such as paints, plastics and printing inks. These so-called technical aluminium flakes are widely used in the manufacture of lightweight concrete. In this context, they have the function of generating gas which gives the lightweight concrete its characteristic properties. Since the mid-90s, the lightweight concrete industry has shown a tendency towards increasingly lower densities of the raw material in the individual strength categories. This trend and the continuous development of processes as well as different methods of manufacturing lightweight concrete have led to the development of a wide range of blowing agents. All products are made from pure aluminium (99.5%).

They can be divided into three product categories: STANDART Aluminium powders STAPA Hydropor pastes Alupor pastes STAPA The properties of the aluminium flakes vary according to the particle size and the type and the level of inhibitor used. A range of products is offered to achieve optimum results under various production methods.

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STANDART

Aluminium powder RO

Aluminium powders have been used since the beginning of the commercial manufacture of lightweight concrete. Continuous and user-oriented development led to the development of the STANDART aluminium powders RO. Special characteristics of these solvent-free blowing agents are the initial delayed reaction combined with high casting stability which are created by physical processes. The coding of these aluminium powders indicates their fineness. The higher the indicated number (e.g. 550), the finer is the particle size. All RO types can be blended or processed in any proportion. This also applies to their suspensions, thus enabling manufacturers to adjust their required reactivities with a wide variety of combinations. Table 1 gives an overview of the STANDART aluminium powder RO basic types. The following test methods were used for their characterisation: Filtering of near-mesh material (wet sieving according to DIN 53195) One of the main methods used to test aluminium flakes for technical purposes is the determination of the particle size, as the reaction duration and consequently the suitability for a certain quality are mainly dependent on the distribution of particle size. The particle size is most effectively determined by filtering of near-mesh material. This process is generally carried out using a wet filtering technique with a suitable solvent.

Laser granulometry The determination of the distribution of particle size using laser granulometry only gives relative values as this method is more suitable for sphere-shaped particles than platelet-shaped particles. The indicated values are suitable for specification to a limited extent only. Active metal content The active metal content indicates which portion of the flakes is pure metal. This is used to determine the quantity of aluminium flakes required to develop Hydrogen in the blowing process. Surface determination To measure the surface, the Blaine-apparatus standardised according to DIN 66127 has been used. A sample is compacted to a pre-determined porosity through which a gas, usually air, is passed. The flow resistance serves to calculate the surface size according to the Carman-Kozeny equation.

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Table 1 STANDART Aluminium powder RO

RO powder standard types

Screen analysis / Wet sieving with water as rinsing liquid

Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with

Active metal content

Apparent density

Blaine values

Raw density categories

Product fineness

according to DIN 53195 < 160 m % RO 50 RO 100 RO 200 RO 400 RO 500 RO 550 > _ 75 > _ 97 > _ 55 > _ 80 > _ 97 > _ 85 > _ 98 > _ 99 > _ 99 > _ 90 > _ 94 > _ 96 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m

Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 85 70 50 30 24 20 % > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 91 > _ 90 kg/dm3 0,16 0,22 0,11 0,15 0,09 0,13 0,09 0,13 0,09 0,13 0,09 0,13 cm2/g ~ 10.000 ~ 13.000 ~ 17.000 ~ 22.000 ~ 27.000 ~ 30.000 > _ 350, light very fine g/dm3 > _ 800, heavy coarse

Selection An important requirement is the raw density to be generated. As a general rule, light qualities demand fine particle sizes and heavy qualities demand coarser particle sizes. Other important factors are: the characteristic of the raw materials (e. g. sand quality, setting characteristics of the raw materials) the composition of the used formulation (e. g. solid water factor, lime-cement proportion) the resulting process parameters (e. g. casting temperature, cycle times, standing times) characteristics of the plant

We offer to all customers technical consultation and are happy to assist you on your premises in the choice of the types most suitable for your production processes.

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STAPA

Product description Hydropor pastes

STAPA Hydropor pastes allow for dust-free processing of aluminium pigments and therefore are a significant contributing factor to safety. Hydropor pastes are aqueous based and consequently do not contain hydrocarbon solvents. In addition, they disperse easily and aid quick processing and short mixing times. They are used in the most diverse systems and have proved particularly useful in formulations with a lime-cement proportion < 1. The coding gives the user an idea of their particle size. The higher the indicated number (e. g. 900), the finer the particle size. The letters N or V indicate the applicable particle size distribution. Types marked with N have a comparatively narrower particle size, types marked V have a wider particle size. All Hydropor types can be blended or processed at any proportion. This also applies to their suspensions and offers a broad range of combinations to achive optimum reactivity.

Tables 2 and 3 give an overview of the STAPA Hydropor pastes. The following features are used for their characterisation. Filtering of near-mesh material (wet sieving according to DIN 53195) One of the main methods of testing aluminium flakes for technical purposes is the determination of the particle size, as the reaction duration and consequently the suitability for a certain quality are mainly dependent on the distribution of particle size. The particle size is most effectively determined by filtering near-mesh material. This process is generally carried out using a wet filtering technique with a suitable solvent. Laser granulometry The determination of the distribution of particle size using laser granulometry only gives relative values as this method is more suitable for sphere-shaped particles than platelet-shaped particles. The indicated values are suitable for specification to a limited extent only. Active metal content The active metal content indicates which portion of the flakes is pure metal. This is used to determine the quantity of aluminium flakes required to develop Hydrogen in the blowing process. Solid Content The solid content setting indicates the percentage of solids in the listed type. STAPA Hydropor pastes are offered as standard in two solid contents.

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Table 2 STAPA Hydropor pastes

Hydropor N Screen analysis / Wet sieving with water as standard types according to DIN 53195 < 160 m % N 100 N 200 N 300 N 500 N 700 N 900 N 1000 > _ 94 92-98 > _ 90 83-93 98-99,2 > _ 97,5 > _ 99 > _ 99 91-93 92-97 96,5-99 > _ 98 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m rinsing liquid

Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 85 52 47 38 32 30 25

Active metal content

Solid content

Raw density categories

Product fineness

% > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 89

% 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75

g/dm3 > _ 800, heavy coarse

> _ 350, light

very fine

STAPA Hydropor pastes

Hydropor V Screen analysis / Wet sieving with water as standard types according to DIN 53195 < 160 m % V 100 V 200 V 300 V 500 V 700 V 900 92-97 94-98 75-85 80-90 > _ 90 > _ 95 > _ 98 > _ 90 > _ 94 > _ 95 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m rinsing liquid

Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 60 55 35 22 19 17

Active metal content

Solid content

Raw density categories

Product fineness

% > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 90 > _ 90 > _ 90 > _ 89

% 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75

g/dm3 > _ 800, heavy coarse

> _ 350, light

very fine

Table 3

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STAPA

Retarded STAPA Hydropor pastes

The increased reduction of apparent density and consequently more sensitive expanding processes generated a requirement for blowing agents with modified reaction properties. For this reason, in the mid-90s STAPA Hydropor pastes with a specially modified initial reactivity were developed. These pastes are coded with an additional number in their particle size categorisation (e. g. 903). The full range of STAPA Hydropor pastes with this modification is available and can be combined to any proportion with the standard products listed in Tables 2 and 3. They can be used to achieve the following positive effects: reduction of casting viscosity prevention or reduction of cavities (air cavities in the porous structure) increased temperature tolerance during production improvement of physical characteristics a more homogenous pore appearance in the blowing direction reduced use of blowing agents

The delay of the initial reaction can take several minutes and is customised according to our clients' specifications as much as possible. A proven method for testing the delay of technical aluminium products is the so-called calcium hydroxide reactivity In this process, the aluminium pastes are made to react with a calcium hydroxide solution while the generation of hydrogen is timed. (Graph 1)

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Calcium hydroxide reactivity STAPA Hydropor V 900 und V 903 at various settings

Graph 1

No delay (V900) Slight delay (V903) Medium delay (V903) Long delay (V903)

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STAPA

Alupor pastes

STAPA Alupor pastes are blowing agent pastes based on diethylenglycol. These anhydrous products distinguish themselves by increased storage life which makes them particularly attractive for use in warmer regions. The product category of the STAPA Alupor pastes allows for good water wettability and therefore they are easy to disperse. They allow for dust-free processing and are consequently a significant contributing factor to safety. STAPA Alupor pastes are based on the same particle sizes as the STAPA Hydropor-pastes already introduced and are equally divided into N types (Table 1) and V types (Table 2). These pastes and their suspensions can be mixed at all proportions

and so allow the reactivity to be determined according to the requirements of the individual production processes. They are available in solid contents of 70 and 75%. In addition, STAPA aluminium RO porous pastes (Table 3) are also anhydrous. One special feature of this paste category is a reaction time delay created by a physical process while at the same time maintaining constantly high casting stability using the most diverse systems and formulations. STAPA aluminium RO porous pastes are very compatible with each other and can be mixed at any proportion both as a paste or a suspension. They are available with a standard 70% solid content.

STAPA Alupor pastes


Alupor N standard types according to DIN 53195 < 160 m % N 100 N 200 N 300 N 500 N 700 N 900 N 1000 > _ 94 92-98 > _ 90 83-93 98-99,2 > _ 97,5 > _ 99 > _ 99 91-93 92-97 96,5-99 > _ 98 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m Screen analysis / Wet sieving with water as rinsing liquid Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 85 52 47 38 32 30 25 % > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 89 % 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 > _ 350, light very fine g/dm3 > _ 800, heavy coarse Active metal content Solid content Raw density categories Product fineness

Table 1

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Table 2 STAPA Alupor pastes


Alupor V Standardtypes according to DIN 53195 < 160 m % V 100 V 200 V 300 V 500 V 700 V 900 92-97 94-98 75-85 80-90 > _ 90 > _ 95 > _ 98 > _ 90 > _ 94 > _ 95 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m Screen analysis / Wet sieving with water as rinsing liquid Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 60 55 35 22 19 17 % > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 90 > _ 90 > _ 90 > _ 89 % 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 > _ 350, light very fine g/dm3 > _ 800, heavy coarse Active metal content Solid content Raw density categories Product fineness

STAPA Alupor RO pastes

Alupor RO types

Screen analysis / Wet sieving with water as rinsing liquid

Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with

Active metal content

Solid content

Raw density categories

Product fineness

according to DIN 53195 < 160 m % RO 50 RO 100 RO 200 RO 400 RO 550 > _ 80 > _ 97 > _ 94 > _ 86 > _ 95 > _ 96 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m

Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 85 70 50 30 20 % > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 90 % 70 70 70 70 70 > _ 350, light very fine g/dm3 > _ 800, heavy coarse

Table 3

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STAPA

Retarded STAPA Alupor pastes

Similar to the retarded STAPA Hydropor pastes, these anhydrous pastes have also a time delayed initial reaction. This development made it possible to benefit from the advantages of blowing agents with retarded reaction in regions which are not very suited to the use of STAPA Hydropor pastes. These special pastes complete the product range of STAPA aluminium pastes and offer our customers the benefits of modern blowing agents regardless of their production site. All STAPA alupor V basic types are offered with a time-delayed initial reaction which, again, can be determined as required. (Graph 2)

The application of these products can result in the following effects: reduction of casting viscosity prevention or reduction of cavities (air cavities in the porous structure) increased temperature tolerance in the manufacturing process improvement of physical characteristics a more homogenous pore appearance in the blowing direction reduced consumption of blowing agents

STAPA Alupor pastes, retarded

Alupor V types retarded

Screen analysis / Wet sieving with water as rinsing liquid

Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with

Active metal content

Solid content

Raw density categories

Product fineness

according to DIN 53195 < 160 m % V 103 V 203 V 303 V 503 V 703 V 903 92-97 94-98 75-85 80-90 > _ 90 > _ 95 > _ 98 > _ 90 > _ 94 > _ 95 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m

Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 60 55 35 22 19 17 % > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 90 > _ 90 > _ 90 > _ 89 % 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 70/75 > _ 350, light very fine g/dm3 > _ 800, heavy coarse

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Calciumhydroxide reactivity STAPA Alupor V 900 and V 903 at various settings

Graph 2

No delay (V900) Slight delay (V903) Medium delay (V903)

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STAPA Alupor poral pastes

STAPA Alupor poral pastes are a component of our Alupor range with a base of diethylenglycol. These pastes were developed for use with formulations rich in lime. They are anhydrous and free of fatty acids and disperse well. The particle size of these products become finer with increasing code number. Particle sizes may be mixed at any proportion to adjust the reactivity. Selection An important precondition is the desired raw density of the lightweight concrete. As a general rule, light qualities demand fine and heavy qualities demand coarser particle size categories.

Other important factors are: the characteristic of the raw materials (e.g. sand quality, setting characteristics of the raw materials) the composition of the used formulation (e.g. solid water factor, lime-cement proportion) the resulting process parameters (e.g. casting temperature, cycle times, standing times) characteristics of the production plant Our application experts are able to advise customers on the best choice of product and can assist you on your premises if required. In addition, we are able to offer customer-specific solutions which our development division will customise to the requirements of individual companies.

STAPA Alupor Poral pastes

Alupor porous pastes

Screen analysis / Wet sieving with water as rinsing liquid

Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with

Active metal content

Raw density categories

Product fineness

according to DIN 53195 < 160 m % 302K 402K 502K 602K > _ 95 > _ 97 > _ 98 > _ 98 85-83 > _ 90 > _ 92 > _ 94 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m

Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 30 25 21 17 % > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 91 > _ 350, light very fine g/dm3 > _ 800, heavy coarse

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Aluminium powder for use in non-autoclaved construction materials

Aluminium powders are not only common as a component for expanding agents in the lightweight concrete industry but they are also used in other areas of chemical components for building materials. Further areas of application are, for instance: various plaster systems filling materials (mortars and concretes) mixtures containing cement to stabilise soil (for foundations and drilling activities) The use of aluminium powders in mineral plaster systems with added cement or lime compensates the shrinkage during setting and the first drying phase (solidification shrinkage). Appropriate proportioning of the used quantity causes the mixture to expand. Processing The amount to be used in the areas of application mentioned above ranges between 0.005 0.5%. Approximately 0.005 0.01% aluminium are added to plasters and between 0.01 and 0.05% aluminium are added to filling mortars and filling concretes. These values are reference values only. The exact required quantity must be determined by experiment using the intended system. It is particularly advantageous to add aluminium powder to a dry mixture produced in the workshop. After adding the water, the finished mortar should be used as quickly as possible. On site, it is important to ensure that the generated hydrogen can evaporate unhindered and that no explosive hydrogen/oxygen mixture is formed.

Products Two product ranges are available for application in these areas: STANDART aluminium powder Limestone aluminium mixtures The characteristics of the available products are determined mainly by the variance in the distribution of particle size and the particle inhibition to ensure that their reaction profile can be determined precisely. The listed STANDART aluminium powders have proven their value in particular. A test carried out by the DMT-Association for science and testing mbH [Deutsche Montan Technologie Gesellschaft German association of the coal and steel industry for science and testing] has shown that there is no risk of a dust explosion as long as the proportion of aluminium powder is <= 10% of an inert material. For this reason we offer limestone aluminium mixtures as they are composed of 10% aluminium powder and 90% limestone meal. The use of limestone aluminium mixtures makes a significant contribution to the improvement of passive safety. The following mixtures have proven particularly effective: Limestone aluminium mixture type RO 260 ALKA 10 ROG 5 Alka mixtures have a further additive. This additive influences the reactivity of the aluminium powder, the generation of pores and the workability.

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Aluminium powder contained in nonautoclaved construction materials

Screen analysis/wet sieving

Typical characteristics of particle size distribution determined with

Active metal content

Solid material settings

Blaine values

according to DIN 53195 / DIN 53196 < 160 m % Aluminium powder 10890 Slurry N 53199/G Aluminium powder RO 200 Aluminium powder RO 250 Aluminium powder RO 400 >= 99 > _ 97 > _ 97 > _ 99 > _ 85 > _ 88 > _ 98 > _ 90 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m

Cilas 1064 D 50 approx. m 50 45 30 % >= 85 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 > _ 92 kg/dm3 0,30 0,40 0,30 0,40 0,09 0,13 0,09 0,13 0,09 0,13 cm2/g ~ 11.000 ~ 17.000 ~ 19.000 ~ 22.000

Selection The use of aluminium powders and limestone aluminium mixtures depends on the raw materials and additives used. For this reason, the optimal product can only be created through user experimentation with the respective systems.

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STANDART

Pyro aluminium powder

Pyrotechnics is one of the most traditional areas of application for platelet-shaped aluminium pigments. The wide range of pyrotechnic products, from slurries and firecrackers to emergency signals and special effects lighting demands a wide range of special products with predetermined characteristics. This is where ECKART offers quality by tradition and offers sophisticated solutions for all areas of application. Demands on pyro aluminium pigments are varied and depend very much on the area of application. Pyro powders and slurries Among other factors, the reactivity of pyro powders is determined by fatty acid components. In so-called slurries they can exceed 4%. Their main use is in slurry explosives. These are explosives which belong to the category of safety explosives. In this context, aluminium pigments are mainly added for the sensitisation of the explosive. The determining factor for pyrotechnic aluminium powders is their particle size which gives many products their relevant characteristics. Pyro powders with a particle size less than 45 m are considered fine products; powders with larger particle size are considered coarser products. The colour of the aluminium powder allows the categorisation for pyrotechnic use; a differentiation is made between dark (black), grey and light qualities. Consequently, black (dark) powders often have a higher reactivity than grey or light powders.

Aluminium flitter Aluminium flitters are platelet-shaped aluminium pigments with an average particle size above 150m. Among other things, they are used for fireworks in theatres. Burning time This is a special test method for pyro aluminium powder and gives an idea of its reactivity. To determine the burning time, a mixture of pyro aluminium powder and potassium perchlorate are burned in a small cardboard tube. The elapsed time is defined as burning time. Acetone soluble part The acetone soluble part is determined using extraction and is therefore connected with the surface occupancy of the pyro powders. Filtering of near-mesh material (wet sieving according to DIN 53196) One of the main methods of testing aluminium flakes for technical purposes is the determination of the particle size, as the reaction duration and consequently the suitability for a certain quality are mainly dependent on the particle size. The particle size is most effectively determined by filtering of near-mesh material. This process is generally carried out using a wet filtering technique with a suitable solvent. Active metal content The active metal content indicates the percentage of the aluminium pyro powders is metal. This corresponds with the aluminium content which is available for the reaction.

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Standart Pyro aluminium powders

Screen analysis / Wet sieving with organic solvent as rinsing liquid

Active metal content

Bulk density

Acetone soluble part

Burning time

according to DIN 53196 < 160 m % Light powders Pyro UZ Pyro IZ Grey powders Pyro 3413 Dark powders Pyro 4413 Pyro 5413 H Super Pyro 6413 > _ 90 > _ 95 > _ 95 > _ 88 > _ 80 > _ 78 0,50 0,70 0,60 0,70 0,65 0,75 0,1 0,1 0,1 6 6 6 > _ 90 > _ 85 0,25 0,35 0,5 7 > _ 80 90 > _ 95 > _ 91 > _ 88 0,14 0,18 0,15 0,25 0,5 0,4 20 9 < 100 m < 71 m < 45 m % kg/dm3 % secs.

Standart Pyro aluminium flitter


Bulk density kg/dm3 Flitter extra fine Flitter fine Flitter medium Flitter coarse 0,50 0,45 0,40 0,35 Typical particle size m 100 500 250 630 630 1.000 1.000 2.000

Selection Typical pyro aluminium powders and aluminium flitters fit into the tables above. A wide range of additional qualities is available and we are also happy to produce individual solutions in collaboration with our development division. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you are interested or have specific requirements.

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This information and our technical advice whether verbal, in writing or by way of trials are given in good faith but without warranty, and this also applies where proprietary rights of third parties are involved. Our advice does not release you from the obligation to verify the information currently provided especially that contained in our safety data and technical information sheets and to test our products as to their suitability for the intended processes and uses. The application, use and processing of our products and the products manufactured by you on the basis of our technical advice are beyond our control and, therefore, entirely your own responsibility.

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