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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine High Performance and Low Fuel Consumption

Written by: Volker Korte, Grant Lumsden, Neil Fraser, Jonathan Hall;

Presented by: Paul WARD

MAHLE

The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Contents

Introduction
Targets Engine Design Engine Development Results and Outlook

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MAHLE

The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Introduction


Maximising fuel economy and thereby minimising CO2 emissions are among the most important objectives for the future development of engines and vehicles. MAHLE have recently designed and built an engine to demonstrate the application of aggressive downsizing to gasoline engines in order to improve operating efficiency. A robust combustion system that allows a high compression ratio to maintain part load efficiency Good low speed torque and transient performance Real world fuel consumption benefits through a reduction in full load fuel enrichment Base engine robustness and durability

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Targets


The targets were to produce an engine capable of replacing a typical 2.4l V6 PFi engine used in a C or D class European vehicle platform (circa 1600 kg). The engine would be compliant with EU5 / ULEV2 emissions from conception.

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Design


The main engine design parameters

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Design


The main engine design parameters

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Design


Cylinder Head and Combustion Chamber

Tumble inlet ports


Centrally mounted direct injector for spray-guided operation Cooling around the injector tip Compact chamber with low surface area

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Design


Air Path and Charging System

High degree of integration The air filter, mass air flow meter and charge cooler
Aluminium charge cooler Light-weight plastic inlet manifold are, boost levels > 2.8 bar Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) The two-stage system is shown schematically
Charge air cooler EGR valve EGR cooler

Compressor bypass

HP stage Turbine Bypass Valve LP stage Turbine Wastegate

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


> 2.8 bar ERG


Charge air cooler EGR valve EGR cooler

Compressor bypass

HP stage Turbine Bypass Valve LP stage Turbine Wastegate

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Design


Cylinder Block and Crank Case

Aluminium bedplate
MAHLE Nikasil parent bore Through bolting system for cylinder head and block Piston cooling with feed via separate non filtered oil channel direct from oil pump control gallery

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


MAHLE Nikasil

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Design


Crank Train, Valve Train and Balancer System

Balancer system comprises two crank-driven plastic gears carrying the balance weights
Forged aluminium pistons A ring pack with two compression rings and a 3-piece oil-scraper ring DLC coated piston pins Forged steel conrods A steel crankshaft

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


DLC

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


High Load Combustion System

Optimisation of compression ratio and combustion chamber


Optimisation of ignition timing and cam phasing, Combustion system development Turbocharger configuration Piezo injectors in a spray-guided concept Fuel injection timing, Fuel pressure (at part load between 100 and 200 bar) Fuel injection strategy (single or double injection per cycle)

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


High Load Combustion System

Example of Camshaft Position Optimization for WOT Performance at 3000 rpm (Results at BLD Spark Timing, l = 1.0)

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


3000 rpm

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


Two-Stage Boosting System

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


Two-Stage Boosting System

Initial investigations with single turbochargers have been carried out to define suitable turbine/compressor configurations.
TC01 TC02 max. flow 0.06 m3/s max. flow 0.09 m3/s

TC03
TC04

max. flow 0.14 m3/s


max. flow 0.16 m3/s

TC01 and TC04 were chosen for testing in two-stage configuration.

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


TC01 TC02 TC03 TC04 max. flow 0.06 m3/s max. flow 0.09 m3/s max. flow 0.14 m3/s max. flow 0.16 m3/s

TC01 TC04

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


Two-Stage Boosting System

The compressor maps for the TC01 and TC04 plotted together
TC01/TC04 Compressor Maps with Characteristics for approx. 20 30 bar BMEP at 1,500 rpm & 2,500 rpm

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


TC01 TC04
TC01/TC04 . 20 30 bar BMEP 1,500 rpm 2,500 rpm

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


Two-Stage Boosting System

Provides a useful improvement in apparent volumetric efficiency


The reduced pre-turbine pressures drive the improved combustion phasing at a given BMEP

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


Transient Response

Transient behaviour is key for the acceptance of downsizing concepts by the customer.
Results of a load step from 2 bar BMEP to WOT at 1,250 rpm

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


2 bar BMEP to WOT at 1,250 rpm

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


Air Fuel Ratio Engine Map

The objective to operate the engine at l = 1 at all speeds and loads


Objective achieved, except around peak power, without the use of EGR The maximum exhaust gas temperature has been limited to 1,020 C.

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


l = 1
EGR 1,020 C

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Engine Development


Engine Mechanics and Friction

Higher valve-train losses (exhaust spring loads in particular) are the main cause of the small disadvantage at low speed.
The good result at medium and high engine speed is due to the very low power-cell friction of the MAHLE downsizing engine The effects of 3 vs. 4 cylinders, Latest technology crank shaft bearings Short stroke design Very good bore roundness

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Results and Outlook


Torque and Power Output at WOT Targets Achieved

Torque at n = 1,000 rpm


Max. Torque (n = 3,000 rpm) Max. Power (n = 6,000 rpm) Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Optimum n= 2000 rpm, 4 bar BMEP
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 180 150 120

Md = 153 Nm (BMEP = 16 bar)


Md = 286 Nm (BMEP = 30 bar)

153 Nm 16 bar
287 Nm 30 bar

Pe = 144 Kw 144 kW (Pe/VH = 120 kW/l) Targets be < 235 g/kWh be < 300 g/kWh
35 30 25
300 234 250 275 300

Achieved 234 g/kWh 285 g/kWh

Torque [Nm]

BMEP [bar]

Power [kW]

20 15
250

90 60

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Targets Torque (2-stage turbo) Power (2-stage turbo)

30 0 7000

5 0 1000

285 375

275 300 325

1000

2000

3000 4000 5000 Engine Speed [rpm]

6000

2000

3000 4000 Engine Speed [rpm]

5000

6000

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


n = 1,000 rpm
(n = 3,000 rpm) (n = 6,000 rpm) n= 2000 rpm, 4 bar BMEP
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 180 150 120

Md = 153 Nm (BMEP = 16 bar)


Md = 286 Nm (BMEP = 30 bar)

153 Nm 16 bar
287 Nm 30 bar

Pe = 144 Kw 144 kW (Pe/VH = 120 kW/l) be < 235 g/kWh be < 300 g/kWh
35 30 25
300 234 250 275 300

234 g/kWh 285 g/kWh

Torque [Nm]

BMEP [bar]

Power [kW]

20 15
250

90 60

10
Targets Torque (2-stage turbo) Power (2-stage turbo)

30 0 7000

5 0 1000

285 375

275 300 325

1000

2000

3000 4000 5000 Engine Speed [rpm]

6000

2000

3000 4000 Engine Speed [rpm]

5000

6000

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Next steps


Simulation of the vehicle fuel economy in the NEDC (kerb weight m 1,600 kg).

This results in an improvement of fuel consumption and CO2 emission of up to 30%

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


NEDC m 1,600 kg

30%

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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine Summary


Targets achieved

Contacts for further information:


Paul WARD paul.ward@gb.mahle.com +86 159 2160 1669

Peak power
Peak torque Low Speed torque BSFC

Shouping CHEN Next Step Vehicle test shouping.chen@cn.mahle.com

+86 138 1722 8830

Thank-You
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The MAHLE Downsizing Engine


Contacts for further information:


Paul WARD paul.ward@gb.mahle.com +86 159 2160 1669

Shouping CHEN shouping.chen@cn.mahle.com

+86 138 1722 8830

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