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A. globe 1. Fibrous Tunic 1. Cornea 2. sclera 1. sclera 2. Choroid 3. retina 1. sclera 2.Vascular tunic 1. Iris + Ciliary body 2.

Choroid 3. Neural Tunic 1. Retina 2. Optic nerve 1. Orbit 1. Orbital fascia and Fat 2. Extraoccular Muscles 4. optic nerve 5. Ciliary body 6. lens 2. pupil 2. Eyelids

B. Adnexa 3. Conjunctiva 1. Palpebral C 2. Bulbar C 3. Nictitans C 7. cornea 8. pupil 9. iris 3. cornea showing iris 4. Lacrimal and nasolacrimal system 1. Lacrimal gland 2. Gland of 3rd eyelid 3. Accessory gland of Krause and Wolfring 4. Gland of zies 5. Tarsal glands 6. Nasolacrimal duct system 1

Explanation eye consists of two parts 1. globe 2. Adnexa Globe It is composed of 2 things 1. outer tunics or coats ------------ 3 in number i. fibrous tunic ii. vascular tunic iii. neural tunic 2. inner segments the three tunics surround the following structures i. anterior segment (contains aqueous humor), divided into 2 chambers anterior camber posterior chamber ii. lens iii. posterior segment (contains Vitrous humor) tunics or coats 1. fibrous tunic ------------- outer most anterior 20 % = cornea posterior 80 % = sclera both join each other at corneoscleral junction = limbus 2. vascular tunic = uvea ------------ middle Uvea or uveal tract = the pigmented inside lining of the eye. It consists of anterior = iris + Ciliary body posterior = choroid 3. neural tunic ------------- inner most retina optic nerve cornea anterior 20 % of fibrous tunic dome shaped meets sclera at limbus transparent conjunctiva just covers the sclera but dose not cover the cornea, yet the outer layer of cornea continues with it at periphery shape = elliptical in sheep ( horizontal diameter is greater than vertical ) after a deep corneal injury, keratocytes can differentiate into fibroblasts and contribute to scar formation Sclera Also called the white of eye Tough outer layer (Posterior 80% of fibrous tunic) Iris attached to 1. sclera 2. ciliary body circular colored area of eye un-pigmented iris = wall eye It is a muscular diaphragm suspended b/w the cornea and lens its central aspect has an aperture called pupil the iris divides the anterior segment into two chambers ( anterior and posterior ) anterior segment = the space b/w the cornea and the lens

pupil

grossly the iris is divided into two parts i. central = pupillary zone ii. peripheral region = ciliary zone the iris color depends upon the density of pigment in the stroma

an aperture or window at the centre of iris color = black shape = it is oval in a horizontal plane in sheep and horse it has several round, variably sized black masses at the superior and inferior aspects of pupillary border called the granula iridica Herbivores For better near vision and motion detection, Herbivores generally have large corneas horizontally oval shaped pupils a large anterior chamber Adnexa lens o have an outer capsule o herbivores have poor near vision Vitrous body o Gel like (with 98 % water ) Conjunctiva Near the front of the eye, the sclera is covered by a thin membrane (conjunctiva), which runs to the edges of the cornea. (cornea is not covered by conjunctiva) Conjunctiva also lines the inside of eyelids called the Palpebral C 3rd eyelid contains a T- shaped cartilage lacrimal system 2 lacrimal puncta ---------- 2 lacrimal canaliculi ----------- 2 lacrimal ducts -----------------1 lacrimal sac ----------- 1 nasolacrimal duct

Examination of eye
investigation for eye disease include 3 things 1. history 2. the examiner should observe the animals movements in a small area before beginning the ophthalmic examination 3. ophthalmic exam vision testing o the animal should b encouraged to maneuver around obstacles in bright and dim light o B/c sheep and goats have laterally placed eyes, unilateral blindness is less likely to b compensated for by the contralateral eye. An animal turns its head in an attempt to see in front of it when visual acuity is compromised on one side o If the examiner still harbors doubts concerning vision, he or she can cover each eye individually for better assessment Before touching the head, the examiner should assess the eyes for o symmetry in size and position o abnormal ocular discharge

o eyelids as they pass over the ocular surface o any rubbing, Blephrospasm or other abnormality the eyelids should b evaluated for o entropion o distichiasis o ectropion o trichiasis o complete closure of Palpebral fissure o increased wetness or ocular discharge on the hair adjacent to the eyelid margins Palpebral fissure = the opening formed by the free edges of the eyelids is called the Palpebral fissure. It has two ends; the medial canthus and the lateral canthus The patency of the nasolacrimal duct can b assessed by determining whether fluorescein dye passes from the lacrimal lake to nares after it is placed on the globe and flushed with saline soln. o If the dye is not evident at nares, the examiner can use a 22 or 23 gauge cannula attached to a 6 ml syringe filled with sterile saline soln to flush the nasolacrimal ducts in an orthograde direction o The distal blunt end of the cannula is inserted into the superior puncta, and saline soln. is injected until the fluid is seen to exit the inferior puncta o The cannula is then inserted into the inferior puncta and saline soln is gently injected until the fluid is seen exiting the distal nares o The procedure is performed by first applying a topical anesthetic ( 0.5 % proparacaine) to the globe and puncta palpation of the orbital rim for fractures and asymmetry difficulty in retropulsing the globe ( with eyelids closed )may indicate a retrobulbar space occupying mass or other orbital dz difficulty or pain on opening the mouth may indicate infl orbital dz topical anesthetics are required for the following o examination of posterior surface of 3rd eyelid o lavage of nasolacrimal duct Vision testing i. menance test ( blink reflex ) for a. presence of vision ------ optic nerve b. ability to blink ---------- facial nerve ii. obstacle test iii. Palpebral reflex test a. if the Palpebral fissures dont close completely, a Palpebral reflex test should b performed by touching the skin around the eyes b. this assesses the i. trigeminal nerve ii. facial nerve and iv. PLR = pupil light reflex a. Two types i. Direct ii. Consensual b. PLR can b assessed by i. Shining a focal bright light source into one eye ii. Followed immediately by similar performance on the other eye

c. Normal PLR requires normal functioning of i. Mid brain ii. Optic nerve iii. Oculomotor
v.

iv. Retina v. Iris sphincter


muscles

vi. vii. viii.

nerve d. Cortically blind animal may have a normal PLR The Dazzle response a. Assesses the visual pathway b/w the optic nerve and mid brain b. A very bright light is source directed towards the eye usually causes a bilateral blink or turning of the head away from the light stimulus The conjunctiva should not b hyperemic, thickened or edematous ( chemosis ) Exam for the hemorrhages and foreign body esp. under the nictitating membrane should be performed Also look fro lymphoid follicle hyperplasia

Positions
3rd eyelid Gland of 3rd eyelid Stem of cartilage of 3rd eyelid Lacrimal gland Accessory glands Tarsal glands Lacrimal sac or lacrimal lake Lacrimal puncta (superior & inferior) Nasolacrimal duct Opening of nasolacrimal duct ventromedially surround the stem of cartilage (just stem, not its anterior and posterior surfaces) Embedded in the fat at the inner side of the eyeball Dorsolateral wall of orbit. It gives off 2 large and 4 5 small excretory ducts which open at the lateral part of the upper eyelid Lie near the 3rd eyelid ( almost under its stem ) Lies in the free edges of the upper and lower eyelids. Their ducts open at the margin of the eyelids. These openings are arranged longitudinally Ventromedial angle of eye in the lacrimal fossa Located on Palpebral conjunctiva, just inside the edge of eyelid, medial to the tarsal gland Runs thru osseous lacrimal canal and osseous lacrimal groove of maxilla Sheep/goat/horse = In the nostrils, at the junction of pigmented and nonpigmented skin. Cow = on the medial side of the alar fold of ventral turbinate ( so not easily founded )

Red in eyes -------- two reasons


i. Conjunctivitis ii. Corneal ulceration Red eye = many conditions dilate the blood vessels in the conjunctiva, causing the white of the eye to appear red Dacrocystitis = infection of lacrimal sac. Usually results from a blockage of the nasolacrimal duct Blephritis = infl of eyelids Systemic therapy Topical tr 5

Hot packing + frequent cleansing Chemosis = edema of conjunctiva The iris is examined for abnormal shape = Dyscoria color thickness miosis or mydriasis inconsistent with the level of ambient light Conjunctivitis and keratitis often occur simultaneously b/c conjunctiva is continuous with outer layer of cornea The cornea is examined with a focal light source for clarity A bluish hue is indicative of edema White opacity may indicate scarring A yellow white color is often associated with white blood cell infiltration Red color is associated with neovascularization ( this condition is more prominent at limbus ) Corneal edema can result from injury to superficial corneal surface Corneal ulcers result in focal corneal edema and positive uptake of fluorescein dye A perforated corneal ulcer may have aqueous humor draining from the perforation or the iris; fibrin may occlude the perforation. Surgical intervention is the tr of choice Dexamethasone is used in some topical preparations to prevent corneal opacity swelling of eyelids bilateral i. bowel edema ii. photosensitization iii. allergy unilateral ----------- trauma eyelids kept close i. acute conjunctivitis ii. gross swelling of eyelids iii. other painful conditions of eye excessive movements of eyelids i. painful eye conditions acute conjunctivitis injury acute keratitis nervous dysfunction hypomagnesemic tetany lead poisoning sometimes in encephalitis asymmetry of face -------- may be due to i. swelling soft tissue bone ii. positioning of eyes iii. degree of eyelid closure iv. the position of lower lip relative to the upper v. position of the ears e.g. drooping eyes bulging out of eyes ----- glaucoma protrusion of 3rd eyelid

both -------- tetanus only one --- local infl one or both ------ edema of hardersian gland in dogs sign of debility in cats continuous protrusion of 3rd eyelid later stages of tetanus encephalitis painful eye conditions opacity of cornea towards medial aspect ---- foreign body under 3rd eyelid floureseine dye strips = to detect corneal ulcers blindfolding of one eye = unilateral blindness assessment blind folding is also used for vestibular disease Cornea ---- ulcers, opacities strabismus Lens ---- opacities, MM Scleral injection conjunctiva nystagmus protrusion of 3rd eyelid ----- often noted only when the animal is tapped lightly under the jaw or walked on the hard ground protrusion of eyeball------ orbital lymphomatosis retraction of eyeball ------ dehydration spasm of eyelids and excessive linking pain peripheral nerve involvement prolapse of nictitating membrane pain in orbit CNS derangement e.g. tetanus discharge from eye watery ------ obstruction of lacrimal duct, usually unilateral serous ------- early inflammation purulent ----- later stages of inflammation excessive movement of eyelids painful eye condition nervous irritability hypomagnesaemia lead poisoning 1. conjunctiva a. how to check it ; by depressing and slightly everting the lower eyelid b. color of normal conjunctiva i. horse / dog ----- pale roseate ii. cattle / sheep ----- pallor than horse c. abnormal colors i. pale and watery ----- anemia ii. yellow --------------------- jaundice iii. pale and blanched--------- shock iv. bluish------ cyanosis v. bright red ---- bovine respiratory syncitial virus inf vi. petechial hemorrhages------ HS, purpura haemorrhagica, glanders

d. conjunctival discharge i. serous iii. muco-purulant ii. mucoid iv. purulent 2. reddened conjunctiva + ocular discharge a. keratoconjunctivitis c. foreign body b. corneal ulceration d. entropion 3. Photophobia = light of normal daytime intensity causes pain in eye, with the result that the eyelids are kept closed. Caused by a. Eye diseases including all forms of acute conjunctivitis and keratitis b. Others 4. Blephrospasm a. Some cases of conjunctivitis b. Irritation of conjunctiva or cornea by Foreign body 5. wrinkling of skin over the upper eyelid ------- seen in many pathological conditions of eye 6. structural abnormalities of eye a. entropion b. ectropion c. trichiasis = abnormal deviation of eyelashes so that they impinge upon the cornea or conjunctiva d. distichiasis = double rows of eyelashes 7. pathological conditions of eye a. due to local influence = may b unilateral b. due to systemic influence = usually bilateral, although both eyes may not b equally affected 8. degree of corneal conditions a. slight haziness = mild cases or early stages of acute cases b. dense white color ( leucoma ) = advanced phase c. vascularization ( pannus ) = freq associated with conjunctivitis 9. proptosis or exophthalmos = protrusion of eye ball a. peri-orbital lymphoma b. dislocation of mandible 10. bilateral retraction of eyeballs with exposure of sclera and conjunctiva a. emaciation b. sever dehydration 11. nystagmus = abnormal movements of eyeball ( which are periodic and involuntary, the initial movement being slow with a rapid return to the original position ) may take place in a. horizontal direction or b. vertical or c. rotatory 12. causes of nystagmus a. hypoxia b. damage to cerebellum or vestibular tracts 13. in paralysis of trigeminal, oculomotor and facial nerve , blinking may b restricted, infrequent or totally absent and the aperture b/w the eyelids is reduced in width 14. ptosis = the aperture b/w the eyelids is reduced in width 15. hypopyon = pus in the anterior chamber of eye = yellow to white opacity

occurs in most forms of sever keratitis 16. mydriasis = over dilation of pupils 17. bilateral mydriasis = in a. peripheral blindness b. atropine c. other dz e.g. botulism 18. cataract = opacity of lens = whole of pupillary area is greyish-white 19. peri-orbital dermatitis = caused by eye discharges 20. epiphora = over flow of tears down the face 21. eye worm = thelazia = leads to a. conjunctivitis b. keratitis c. ophthalmia d. abscessation of eyelids 22. reflex closure of eyelids does not occur when a blow is aimed at the eye, in a. peripheral and central blindness b. facial nerve paralysis ( but there may b with drawl of head in this case) 23. an obstacle test is best arranged in unfamiliar surroundings 24. test for night blindness should b performed at dusk or in moon light 25. night blindness is one of the earliest clinical sign of vit A deficiency chemosis = when the swelling of Palpebral conjunctiva is so great that the MM protrude beyond the free margin of the eyelid

Diseases of eye
1. orbit i. cellulitis 2. eyelids i. entropion iii. blephritis ii. ectropion iv. neoplasia v. lagophthalmos ( an inability to full close the lids ) vi. distichia ( extra cilia on the eyelids affecting the eye ) vii. misdirected eyelashes viii. facial nerve paralysis 3rd eyelid i. neoplasia ii. cherry eye ( hypertrophy and prolapse of gland of nictitating membrane ) lacrimal apparatus i. Dacrocystitis ii. Imperforate lacrimal puncta iii. Obstruction of nasolacrimal ducts conjunctiva and cornea i. conjunctival trauma ii. sub-conjunctival hemorrhage iii. chemosis or conjunctival edema iv. infectious conjunctivitis v. keratoconjunctivitis vi. keratitis viii. superficial keratitis vii. ulcerative keratitis ix. interstitial keratitis x. uberreiters dz ( superficial, bilateral, progressive, proliferative, chronic, superficial keratitis ) xi. corneal stromal abscess xii. corneal opacity xiii. corneal degeneration and dystrophies anterior uvea i. persistent pupillary membrane ii. atrophy of the iris iii. iridic cyst iv. anterior uveitis or irridocyclitis v. glaucoma vi. cataract vii. lens displacement viii. iritis ocular fundus ( retina, choroid, optic disc ) misc. i. anophthalmia ( complete absence of eyeballs although eyelids are present) ii. cryptophthalmia (incomplete development ) iii. cyclopia ( one eye situated at the middle of head ) iv. exophthalmia v. enophthalmia

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CORNEAL ULCERATION IN HORSE


Found commonly in equine ophthalmic disease CF Eye may be cloudy red and painful Blephrospasm and tearing Slight droopiness of upper eyelid eyelashes may be a subtle sign of corneal ulceration Corneal edema may surround the ulcers or involve the entire cornea Signs of anterior uveitis are found with every corneal ulcer of equines i.e. miosis, fibrin, hyphema or hypopyon DD 1. uveitis 2. blephritis, conjunctivitis, glaucoma & dacrocyctitis Diagnostic procedure fluorescein stain all corneal injuries to detect corneal ulcers small abrasions are detected with oblique transillumination and fluorescein dye retention a crater like defect that retains dye at its periphery but is clear in the center is a descemetocele and indicates the globe is at high risk of rupture Tr 1. antibiotic locally ----- repeat after 2 8 hrs a. chloramphenichol d. cipro b. genta e. amikacine c. tobra 2. systemic NSAID 3. topical NSAID 4. Topical atropine (12 %). Repeat after 4 hrs until the pupil dilates

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