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Two main parts 1.

CNS ( nerves inside the brain and spinal cord ) Brain -------- three main parts i. Cerebellum = co-ordinates body movements ii. Cerebrum = consisting of two hemispheres, each hemisphere divided into lobes iii. Brain stem = connects the cerebrum with spinal cord Ventricles of brain = brain has four cavities which are continuous with each other one in each hemisphere = called lateral ventricles choroid plexus = cells which line the ventricles, these cells secrete CSF Spinal cord = it is continuous with medulla oblongata and extends from foramen magnum to the mid point of sacrum meninges of brain and spinal cord (PAD) i. piamatter ------------ innermost ii. arachnoid iii. duramatter ---------- outer most 2. PNS (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord) 3 ways of classification of PNS PNS i. Somatic NS = nerves that connect the CNS with skeletal muscles ii. Autonomic NS = nerves that connect the CNS with internal organs = functions involuntarily. Functions mediated by this division are a. Respiration c. Vasomotor tone b. Cardiac activity d. Defecation, urination, e. Secretion of sweat , visual accommodation f. Deglutition, Emesis, secretion of gastric juices, GIT motility, g. Uterine contractions, erection of penis, milk let down a. Sympathetic = for emergency situations = thoraco-lumbar divisions b. Para-sympathetic = for ordinary situations = cranial and sacral divisions PNS i. Cranial nerves = that connect the brain with body parts = 12 pairs ii. Spinal nerves = originate from spinal cord = 36 42 pairs depending upon spp Both cranial and spinal nerves can b sympathetic or parasympathetic PNS i. Sensory or afferent nerves ii. Motor or efferent nerves The overall function of nervous system is based on reaction Diseases of nervous system on the basis of lesion a. functional (milk fever, hypomagnesemic tetany, preg toxemia, vit E deficiency) b. structural on the basis of area of nervous system 1. central brain spinal cord 2. peripheral somatic autonomic on the basis of nerves involved

1. sensory 2. motor 3. both 1. developmental defects a. genetic basis b. nutritional deficiency (brain compression due to vit A deficiency, sway back, enzootic ataxia), common deficiencies of livestock include vit A and E, Cu, Se and Mg c. infection early in preg 2. primary diseases a. infection= listeriosis, tetanus, louping ill, rabies, pseudorabies, coenurosis, toxoplasmosis b. metabolic and nutritional causes a. hypoxia ( secondary to cardiopulmonary dz ) b. acidosis due to diarrhea can cause mental depression and ataxia c. hypoglycemia d. hypomagnesaemia e. Cu deficiency in preg animals c. exogenous substances a. intoxication (lead poisoning, strychnine poisoning) b. organophosphate insecticides, c. Se, d. feed additives like urea, e. poisonous plants d. endogenous substances a. bacterial toxins b. ammonia c. CO2 e. Tumors --- uncommon in large animals f. traumatic and physical injuries 3. secondary diseases 4. reflex effect a. painful conditions ( local as well as general ) b. ascarid parasites in intestines causing convulsions DD The first step in considering the diagnosis in a case in which nervous system is thought to b involved is to determine whether other relevant systems are functioning normally. In this way a decision to implicate the nervous system is based on the exclusion of other systems 1. Traumatic injuries, some types of toxic, infectious and metabolic diseases Occur acutely, developing the full range of CF within few hrs. if the dz is not fatal, the signs either stabilize by 24 hrs and remain constant thereafter or improve 2. Degenerative, viral or neoplastic diseases May develop more slowly requiring days to wks before full extent of CF is apparent o Mistakes a. Unwillingness to use a limb b/c of pain may b mistaken for paralysis b. Muscular weakness for ataxia c. Depression of malnutrition for brain dz o Presence of fever ----- usually infection o Absence of fever ----- usually non-infectious Convulsions due to any reason may cause fever Prognosis o Construction of a sign-time graph allows the clinician to plot the severity of the CF against time

o Acute disease processes can b either progressive or non-progressive o However chronic diseases are usually progressive o A slow progressive dz carries a poorer prognosis than one that has passed its peak of severity and is now improving o The duration the CF are observed also can b used as a prognostic indicator b/c nervous tissue is fairly intolerant of long term insults o Very few diseases of the nervous system in large animals are treatable successfully over an extended period of time o Neurological deficits that manifest themselves as sensory and motor deprivations are associated with a poorer prognosis than those that just produce motor losses Diseases of nervous system 1. diseases of brain diffuse traumatic injury cerebral hypoxia increased intra cranial pressure, cerebral edema, and brain swelling hydrocephalus encephalitis encephalomalacia focal brain abscess tumors otitis media coenurosis ( gid, sturdy ) 2. diseases of spinal cord traumatic injury myelitis spinal cord compression myelomalacia 3. diseases of meninges meningitis 4. diseases of PNS infl ( neuritis ) degenerative traumatic toxic metabolic and nutritional tumors autonomic nervous system grass sickness in horse Diseases of ruminants that may produce cortical / thalamic signs 1. rabies 2. pseudorabies 3. trauma/ hematoma / brain edema 4. poisoning a. sulfur d. plants b. lead e. urea c. salt f. ammonia g. organophosphates, carbamates, h. Nitrofurazone i. propylene glycol poisoning j. propylene glycol toxicosis k. ethylene glycol 5. BSE 7. border dz 6. scrapie 8. deficiencies 3

a. vit A c. Mg b. Ca d. Hypoglycemia e. Nervous ketosis 12. meningitis 9. sarcocystis 13. grass staggers 10. brain tumor 14. malignant catarrhal fever 11. brain abscess 15. IBR 16. CAE 17. maedi 18. hepatic encephalopathy 20. trypanosomiasis 19. heart water 21. nervous coccidiosis 22. theileriosis 23. babesiosis 24. louping ill Modes of nervous dysfunction 1. excitation or irritation major manifestations of irritation i. motor system tetany local muscle tremor whole body convulsions ii. sensory system hyperesthesia Paresthesia 2. release signs 3. paralysis 4. nervous shock Clinical manifestations of diseases of nervous system 3 most imp CF are i. posture and gait ii. sensory perception iii. mental state 1. abnormalities of mental state a. excitation states i. anxiety ii. restlessness 1. mania 2. frenzy iii. aggressive behavior b. depressive mental states ------ most common change seen in neurological diseases i. dull, depressed, mildly to moderately obtunded ii. sever depression/ obtundation iii. stupor iv. coma v. narcolepsy / catalepsy vi. syncope 2. blindness 3. abnormalities of autonomic system 4. sensory disturbances a. loss of pain sensation b. hyperesthesia c. etc 5. motor disturbances a. gait abnormalities i. conscious proprioceptive defects ii. circling iii. ataxia

b.

c. d. e. f.

g.

iv. paresis vii. v. dysmetria viii. vi. spasm posture abnormalities i. limb posture ii. iii. head tilt or head turn iv. tremor nystagmus paralysis ( spastic or flaccid ) forced movements i. compulsive walking iii. ii. head pressing iv. involuntary movements i. shivering iii. ii. tremors iv. v. myoclonus vi. convulsions = seizures = fits = ictus vii. involuntary spastic paresis 1. behavior and Mental State

stiffness myotonia

trunk posture righting responses

aimless wandering circling tics tetany

Normally o normally an animal should appear as sensitive to its environment as its herd mates o alertness = conscious, observant, responding appropriately to stimuli o if an animal has been removed from its habitat, it should b aware of the examiner and follow the examiner s movement with its head, eyes and ears o all animals should avoid painful stimuli and appear alert and wary of new situation o the clinician should give the animal sufficient time to calm down if it is not in its normal environment Abnormal behavior o diseases of nervous system in the majority of cases are suspected b/c of abnormal behavior of the animal o e.g. licking, bellowing, yawning, head shaking, mania, convulsions, etc o head shaking in horse otitis externa ocular dz ear mite cranial nerve dysfunction cervical injury guttural pouch mycosis vasomotor rhinitis idiopathic = seen in nasal irritation, sneezing, snorting, nasal discharge, coughing, and excessive lacrimation o animals with sever neck pain will hold their neck in a fixed position and b reluctant to move the head and neck o outdoor abnormal behavior may suggest efforts to avoid light o Depression or hyperexcitability is not difficult to judge, the difficulty lies in deciding whether the abnormality is due to primary or secondary change in brain. 1. anxiety = increased responsiveness to stimuli 2. restlessness = more sever state in which movement is almost constant consisting of lying down, rolling, getting up again

looking at flanks, kicking at belly, groaning or bellowing i. mania = compulsive behavior = licking of some specific parts of body surfaces = ketosis, pseudorabies licking, chewing of foreign material pressing forward with head = meningitis circling abnormal voice, constant bellowing, apparent blindness, drunken gait, aggressiveness in normal docile animals = furious rabies furious rabies, ketosis, preg toxemia ii. Frenzy = characterized by violent activity, movements are uncontrolled often accompanied by tendency to aggressive physical attacks. When death is imminent, animal may show anxiety with a fixed, haggard expression acute Pb poisoning hypomagnesemic tetany

Levels
Level of Consciousness Hyper excitability Appropriate Reduced No No

of

consciousness
Description of behavior -Striking with front legs, kicking, -Charging, violent struggling, -excessive vocalization, -possibly normal behavior

Response to External Painful stimuli stimuli

2 alertness 3 depression 4 stupor 5 coma 6 narcolepsy 7 dementia

Appropriate -unwillingness to rise, - head pressing, propulsive walking, -lack of recognition, inappetence Responsive, But -Droopy ears, holding head low, it may b blunted -Reluctance to move -Recumbent, convulsions No -absence of blinking when cornea is touched + absence of pupillary R -rapid eye movements, after the episode animal returns to normal -Afraid of feed, -Self mutilation, running into walls Reduced

Inappropriate

3. dummy = advanced degree of failure to response to external stimuli although animal remains standing and is capable of movements i. listeriosis ii. Pb poisoning iii. ketosis 4. coma i. advanced milk fever 5. depression leading to coma a. encephalomyelitis e. toxemia, septicemia b. uremia f. advanced milk fever c. hypoglycemia g. heat stroke d. hepatic insufficiency

6. narcolepsy = episodic condition in which animal exhibits stupor without motor activity ( episodes of uncontrolled sleep ) 7. Syncope = sudden onset of fainting e.g. acute heart failure traumatic concussion, contusion lightening stroke, electrocution 2. Sensory Disturbances Loss of pain sensation animal with a loss of pain sensation has a graver prognosis than an animal with a loss of conscious proprioception and motor function types o superficial pain sensation superficial pain is most easily assessed by using a needle to prick the surface of the skin lightly or by using a pair of hemostats to pinch the skin o deep pain sensation deep pain assessment requires a more aggressive approach to evaluate the animals response to elicit a deep pain response, the examiner must stimulate the periosteum of the bone placing a large pair of hemostats above the coronary band across the dorsal surface of P1 and pinching aggressively can elicit a deep pain response in sheep and goats a positive response to pain stimuli may result in o vocalization o kicking at the offending object o animal moving its head in the direction of the stimulus o however limb withdrawal should not b interpreted as a behavioral response to a stimulus b/c of the local reflex arcs in the spinal cord Paraesthesia (sensory aberration) examples include o cutaneous pruritis of central origin ----- rabies, pseudorabies o paraesthesia of eyes = exhibited by fly catching = the animal sn aps as if as flies which don t in fact exist = rabies, encephalitis, early stages of ophthalmia o paraesthesia of other senses can not b demonstrated in animals and at most is only occasionally suspected 3. Motor Disturbances Abnormalities of gait After examining the head, evaluate the gait and posture to have a general assessment of brain stem, spinal card, peripheral nerves, and muscle function Examine the animal while o Standing still o Walking straight line (simple motor activity ) o over obstructions ( complex motor activity o Walking up and down a slope ( complex motor activity ) o Walking with head and neck held extended o Walking blind folded o Running free in an enclosure = best way = even slight abnormalities can b determined

o Trotting o tight circle ( complex motor activity ) o Backing up o sway response main gait abnormalities are o Which limbs are abnormal o Evidence of lameness = musculoskeletal abnormality o weakness or paresis o ataxia others are o conscious proprioceptive defects o circling o spasm o dysmetria ( hypo or hyper ) o stiffness o myotonia Proprioception is the sense of position in the space. Proprioceptive disturbances may appear at Standing or Walking, o exacerbated by turning the animal in a circle or stepping it on and off a curb walking and then trotting or walking and trotting the animal briskly and then suddenly stopping backing up o animal often slap down the feet hard, walking the animal off a curb or step exaggerates this abnormalities in proprioception include o knuckling o stumbling o adduction or abduction or circumduction o interference b/w limbs Paresis and ataxia paresis = decrease in the ability of the animal to move a limb properly ataxia = lack of coordination Clinically it is often difficult to distinguish paresis from ataxia. And there is no need of it. Signs of paresis 1. animal drags its legs + has worn hooves 2. when an animal bears wt on a wk limb, the limb often trembles, and animal may even collapse on that limb b/c of lack of support 3. while circling, walking on a slope and walking with the head elevated = an animal freq will stumble on a wk limb and knuckle over at the fetlock 4 degrees of paresis 1. animals that can support themselves if helped but can not rise 2. can not rise, can not support themselves if helped up but can make purposeful movements in attempting to rise 3. animals that can rise but are paretic and can move the limbs well and stumble only slightly on walking 4. animals which move with difficulty and have sever in-coordination or stumbling DD o sever weakness in all 4 limbs but with no ataxia, and spasticity = neuromuscular dz

o obvious weakness in only one limb is suggestive of a peripheral nerve or muscle lesion in that nerve or muscle lesion in that limb terms a. mono paresis = one leg b. tetra paresis = all 4 legs c. para paresis = bilateral ( both hind limbs or forelimbs ) d. hemi paresis = one side of body ( one forelimb and one hind limb ) Ataxia it is an unconscious, general proprioceptive deficit causing incoordination when moving the limbs and body this results in swaying from side to side of the pelvis, trunk and sometimes the whole body It may also appear as a weaving of the affected limb during the swing phase of the stride. This often results in abducted or adducted foot placement, crossing the limbs, or stepping of the opposite foot Walking an animal on slope with the head held elevated often exaggerates the ataxia esp. in pelvic limbs When a weak and ataxic animal is turned sharply in circles, it leaves the affected limb in one place while pivoting around it An ataxic gait may b most pronounced when an animal is moving freely, at a trot or canter, esp. when attempting to stop The sway response = test to confirm that animal has ataxia & / or weakness a. Gently push the hind quarters to one side or pull it by the tail to one side as the animal is walked b. Normal animal resists theses movements o step briskly to one side as it is pushed or pulled c. The weak animal can b easily pulled to one side and may stumble or fall Knuckling the flexed foot To determine conscious proprioception, Not useful in large animals Hypermetria Lack of direction + increased range of movement Seen as over reaching of the limbs with excessive joint movement Hypometria Stiff or spastic movement of the limbs with no or little flexion of joint s esp. carpal and tarsal Righting response most easily tested in small ruminants and in recumbent large animals normal response to stimulation is to lift the head, assume sternal recumbancy and to rise abnormal response 1. animal is unable to rise 2. reluctant to rise but do so normally after sufficient stimulation 3. animals that are in lateral recumbancy and are unable to lift the head from the ground when the lesion side is up 4. animal can lift the head and neck, arise on forelimbs and assume a dog sitting position when stimulated Abnormalities of posture adoption of abnormal posture

o NS dz = usually continuous o Pain = intermittent Examples o Head deviation o Head tilt ( i.e. rotation ) o Head pressing o Drooping of lips, eyelids, cheeks, ears o Opisthotonus or orthotonus ; these two are often intermittent in that they occur as a part of a convulsive seizure o Dog sitting posture Vestibular dz o Vestibular system helps to maintain the position of eyes, trunk, and limbs in relationship to movements and positioning of head o Signs of the vestibular dz vary depending upon whether the dz involves there are Unilateral or Bilateral lesions Peripheral or Central components o Causes Otitis media-interna Listeriosis o Signs ; General signs include Staggering, drifting sideways when walking, leaning, rolling, Circling, accompanied by increased tone in the contralateral limbs Head tilt + animal often falls to the affected side Strabismus, nystagmus Otitis media = head tilt + animal falls on affected side + usually facial paralysis on the same side + in the recumbent position, affected side is held to the ground and if these animals are rolled over to the opposite side they quickly roll back to the affected side Paradoxical vestibular dz = head tilting + but circling towards unaffected side Listeriosis = animal falls to affected side o DD ------------- head tilt also occurs in Brain abscess Head trauma Verminous larval migration Condition PNS CNS Mental status Normal Freq depressed Gait Asymmetric ataxia, may cause increased Asymmetric ataxia, extensor tone contralaterally, falling, rolling, paresis Postural Reactions Normal Abnormal Cranial nerves May have deficits in CN 5, 7, Horners May have deficits in CN syndrome, head tilt 6, 7, 9, 10, or 12 Nystagmus Horizontal or rotatory, not altered in direction Horizontal, rotatory or with changes in head position, fast phases away vertical; may change from the side of the lesion, positional ventral direction with position of strabismus the head No nystagmus or vestibular eye movements, Bilateral

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peripheral Vestibular dz

symmetric ataxia, crouching posture with jerky swinging movements of the head, deafness

Muscular Paralysis Paralysis may arise from the involvement of motor and /or sensory nervous system. If o Motor = muscular paresis or paralysis o Sensory = hypoesthesia or anesthesia terms o monoplegia = paralysis of one leg only o paraplegia o hemiplegia two main types 1. central a. cerebral paralysis b. spinal paralysis 2. peripheral cerebral o it is often unilateral ( hemiplegia ) o spastic in nature o the reflex responses may b reduced or exaggerated o no obvious degenerative atrophy o frequently accompanied by loss of consciousness spinal o usually bilateral ( paraplegia ) o extent depends upon the location and degree of spinal damage o initially it may b spastic ( muscle tone is increased so that hind limbs are extended stiffly and passive movements are resisted ) o the reflex responses may b reduced or exaggerated o no degenerative atrophy unless the disease process is progressive and flaccid paralysis supervenes o sever damage to spinal cord will causes flaccid paralysis from the onset peripheral o affects only the region supplied by one or a few nerve fibers (monoplegia) o it is of flaccid type i.e. muscle tone is absent and passive movements of the affected part are not actively resisted o reflex responses, pain induced or otherwise, are lost and visible wasting of the muscles soon occurs ( degenerative atrophy ) Schiff sherrington phenomenon = in some animals with acute sever lesions of the spinal cord b/w T2 and L3, the hind limb paralysis is accompanied by an extensor rigidity of the forelimb when the animal is in lateral recumbancy another way of classification 1. infranuclear 2. supranuclear Spasm pathological exaggerated contraction of muscles associated with greatly increased tone types 1. continuous or tonic = e.g. in trismus ( spasm of the jaw muscles) or tetanus

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2. clonic = alternation b/w muscular contraction and relaxation = e.g. in strychnine poisoning if clonic spasms are so violent that whole body is shaken, they are described as convulsions or fits epileptiform = attacks comprising of first tonic and then clonic spasms of all body muscles, with loss of consciousness Convulsions = seizers = fits = ictus o violent muscular contractions which usually continue for short periods with intermission of variable duration but may appear continuous as well o if clonic spasms are so violent that whole body is shaken = described as convulsions or fits o may b o preceded by prodromal phase ( restlessness before convulsions ) o followed by depression o types i. localized ii. generalized o types i. clonic = repeated muscle spasms with periods of relaxation paddling myoclonus = brief intermittent tetanic contractions of skeletal muscles which result in the entire body being rigid for several seconds followed by relaxation ii. tonic = continuous muscle spasm (may b intensified periodically to become clonic) tetany = continuous contraction of muscles without tremor, the limbs are rigid and can not b passively flexed easily Tetany should not b confused with tetanus generalized condition tonic muscular spasm + excitement + panting usually associated with metabolic disturbances e.g. hypomagnesemic tetany Tremor definition = rapid sequence of limited clonic muscular contractions which i. produce quivering of the muscles but ii. little or no movement of any part of the body except in sever cases Definition = persistent, repetitive twitching of skeletal muscles. Often visible but always palpable. As a rule active movements by the animal intensify the tremor example i. Cl loss in dehydration, ii. cerebral dysfunction ( here exercise causes tremor to intensify ) types 1. coarse 2. fine types 1. general 2. localized DD = 1. keep difference b/w tremor and rigor 2. twitching = contraction of individual bundles of muscle fibers 3. fasciculations = tremor of local skin only

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4. tics = spasmodic twitching movements made at much longer intervals than in tremor ( interval = at least several seconds and often much longer ) Nystagmus jerking movements of eyeball from o left to right = horizontal N o above to below = vertical N o circular direction = rotary N causes o spasm of eye muscles o cerebral meningitis o etc Strabismus eye is dilated and deviated to a fixed ventrolateral position Ptosis drooping upper eyelid Clinical examination 1. Palpation palpation of cranium shape, contour, presence of pain, areas of softening palpation of spinal cord abnormalities due to senility or developmental defect upward, downward or lateral curvature of vertebral column transecting injuries of spinal cord cause bilateral motor paralysis of and loss of sensation below the injury site complete section of the anterior part of cervical spinal cord results in immediate death due to respiratory paralysis Complete division of the cord at cervical enlargement causes flaccid paralysis of all four legs + loss of cutaneous sensitivity below the lesion site. b/c of spinal shock all spinal reflexes including those controlling defecation and urination are in abeyance at least in early stages Complete section of the spinal cord in thoracic or lumbar regions --- the flaccid paralysis and loss of sensitivity affect only the posterior parts of the abdomen and hind limbs. Urination and defecation are suppressed but the reflexes excepting the patellar and extensor thrust are maintained Compression injury to spinal cord Causes = Vertebral fracture, dislocation, abscessation, hematoma, degenerative changes in the vertebrae, intervertebral disc protrusion or neoplasia, Compression injury to lumbar = initially results in spastic paralysis with the hind legs extended stiffly b/w the forelimbs Later other signs depending upon the part of spinal cord appear e.g. when anterior part of lumbar division = flaccid paralysis of hind limbs with preservation of reflexes elsewhere and suppression of defecation and urination ( but when the bladder becomes very full or pressure is applied, complete evacuation happens ) when posterior part of lumbar division = flaccid paralysis of hind legs + complete loss of reflexes and incontinence of urine and feces

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sever dz of cauda equina leads to retention of urine and feces paralysis of tail relaxation of anal sphincter loss of sensory perception in the perineal region priapism(freq erection of penis)& self mutilation are not uncommon signs of spinal cord dz assessment of spinal reflexes will assist in assessing the spinal cord injuries caused by compression, and in differentiating them from infl and degenerative dz and those caused by insecticides and other toxic substances such as strychnine, lead and arsenic an area of incline is useful for exacerbating locomotor deficits esp. when horse is led with head elevated 2. Examination of head a. Reflexes The functional status of NS is largely assessed by determining the integrity of reflex arcs A reflex may b o Absent or Diminished = when the effector organ is diseased the reflex arc is interrupted at any point ( e.g. in nuclear and infranuclear paralysis ) without organic lesion e.g. in unconsciousness, narcosis, collapse o Exaggerated =When the inhibitory action of cerebrum or hypothalamus is removed irritation of reflex arc or its center 1st of all check cranial reflexes and then spinal reflexes and tail tone 1. Cranial reflexes = total 12 cranial nerves Nerve no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Nerves Olfactory Optic Oculomotor Trochlear Trigeminal Abducent Facial Vestibulocochlear Glossopharyngeal Vagus Spinal accessory Hypoglossal Abbreviations Some Say My Madam is Blind My Bother Say Blind is Blind Madam is Madam S = sensory

M = motor

B = both ( mixed )

CN 1 = olfactory nerve = if animal is eating, the assumption is that CN1 is intact. Other tests are unsatisfactory in animals CN 2 = optic nerve = Testing optic nerve a. Cotton wool ball is dropped in front of animal = noting whether any head movement occurs

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b. Menace or eye preservation R= most reliable and easiest method = making a threatening gesture toward each eye, this causes the normal animal to blink. It is slower in neonates normally ( so in ruminants cotton wool ball is used ) c. papillary light r = direct and consensual a. the reflex is examined by first shading both the eyes and then directing a pencil beam of light onto one of the eyes in a darkened place b. normally the pupil dilates in the dark and rapidly becomes constricted on exposure to light c. consensual effect = in mammals, the pupil of the other eye also constricts a bit d. constricted pupil = miosis morphine poisoning increased intra cranial tension dz of cervical section of spinal cord injury to cranial bones e. dilated pupil = mydriasis = pupillary reflex is absent in mydriasis atropine, botulinus toxin, injury in oculomotor nerve or its center loss of conscious dz of optic tract in sever pain, fright and excitement, there is a transitory dilatation of the pupil, d. obstacle R or retinal R = blindfold one eye at a time to detect blindness of either eye CN 3 = oculomotor nerve = responsible for constriction of pupils = o loss of function of nerve results in Mydriasis when parasympathetic component is involved defective pupillary constriction when the light intensity is increased Palpebral ptosis Abnormal Eyeball movements ( tested by moving one hand in front of animals face ) o Pupillary defects are tested by pupillary light reflex normally = presence of both direct + consensual pupillary light reflex abnormal = defective pupillary constriction when the light intensity is increased o Abnormal eyeball movements are tested by hand test =move your hand in front of the face. In paralysis of CN 3 deviation from normal ocular axis + rotation of globe Absence of normal horizontal nystagmus reaction with a medial jerk of the eyeball in response to quick passive movement of the head. Failure to jerk laterally indicates a defect of abducens nerve menace R + pupillary light R = used to differentiate b/w central and peripheral blindness o central blindness due to polioencephalomalacia menace R = absent pupillary light R = usually present o peripheral blindness due to ocular form of vit A deficiency in cattle menace R = absent pupillary light reflex = absent ( pupils are widely dilated in this dz ) CN 4 = damage to this nerve causes dorsomedial strabismus ( eyeball is turned inward and slightly upward )

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Palpebral reflex = touching the medial and lateral canthi of the eyelid causes closure of eyelids Nerves responsible for eye movements i. CN 3 ii. CN 4 iii. CN 6 =Abducent Lesions affecting these 3 nerves can only b clinically assessed by moving the animal head and observing the ocular movements Cerebral and vestibular diseases also produces nystagmus but the strabismus changes when the head and neck is moved CN 5 Causes 1. dropped jaw 2. loss of pain in eye, etc loss of pain in eye is tested by 1. Palpebral reflex 2. Corneal reflex CN 6 = dz causes medial rotation of the eyeball with inability to direct axis of vision in a lateral direction CN 7 = Facial nerve = dz causes 1. dropped ear but not eyelid 2. inability to close the eye leading to excessive tear production and conjunctivitis CN 12 = 1. in unilateral paralysis ---------- tongue protrudes ( later atrophies ) 2. bilateral paralysis causes tongue to continuously protrude from the mouth Corneal reflex = while eyelids are held open, cornea is touched preferably at peripheral part with moistened fingertip or with a clean feather 1. Observe eyeball for retraction 2. 3rd eyelid for prolapse 2. Spinal reflexes Procedure; performed in following steps o Place the animal in lateral recumbancy o Assess the musculature and tone by palpation to determine any obvious abnormality Passive extension and flexion of the limb can b used to assess the muscle tone. Animals with LMN dz exhibit depressed or absent resistance to the flexion Whereas animals with UMN dz display an increased tone of the extensor muscles as the limb is manipulated o Usually the pelvic limbs are examined first o Examiner must identify any muscular injury before beginning the neurological exam these reflexes can only b tested when animal is lying on its side (b/c theses reflexes can be tested on uppermost limb only) The reflex responses are assigned a qualitative clinical score LMN dz in either sensory or motor components 0 -------------- no reflex activity 1 -------------- hypoactive both sensory and motor components are intact 2 -------------- normal an abnormality in UMN pathway

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3 -------------- hyperactive 4 -------------- hyperactive with clonus clonus is a phenomenon observed with sever UMN lesions (the response of the muscle = rapid, repeated contractions rather than a single contraction ) in large animals, reflex responses are more subtle and may not b elicited in some normal patients Upper motor neurons ( UMNs ) Nerve cells whose axons and cell bodies remain within the CNS They influence the LMNs activities As a result when interruptions occur in UMNs, animals often have hyper-reflexia or hypertonia The muscular atrophy ( if occurs ), takes longer to develop and is not as pronounced as in LMN dz Another book says = Their dz results in normal to increased spinal reflexes, ataxia, variable severity of weakness, sometimes spasticity ( increased muscle tone ) Lower motor neurons ( LMNs ) Nerve cells whose cell bodies lie in the brainstem or spinal cod Their dz results in hyporeflexia, areflexia, ataxia, moderate to sever weakness, hypotonia, atonia, rapid and pronounced atrophy of denervated muscles, paresis difference UMNs = primarily responsible for dampening or inhibitory spinal reflexes spinal reflexes are used to evaluate the integrity of the LMNs Types 1. Myotatic reflexes = these are basic to the regulation of posture and movement Absence or depression of the reflex suggest a lesion in the LMN pathway the bilateral absence of reflexes indicates a segmental spinal cord lesion exaggerated reflexes or increased muscle tone indicate a lesion in UMN pathways a UMN lesion in the spinal cord is ipsilateral to the affected limb 1. Myotatic or tendon reflexes Nerves Spinal cord segment Patellar reflex ( most imp ) Peroneal and ischiatic L6 ----- S2 Cranial tibial R Femoral L4 ----- L6 Gastrocnemius R Sciatic L6 ----- S2 Extensor carpi radialis R Radial C5 ----- T2 Triceps R Radial C5 ----- T2 Biceps R Musculocutaneous C6 ----- C8 Forelimb 5 nerves C5 ----- T2 Pedal R or Flexor withdrawal R Hind limb Peroneal, tibial, ischiatic L6 ----- S2 Crossed extensor R 2. Other spinal reflexes Anal or Perineal R S1 ------ S5 Panniculus or cutaneous R Cutaneous muscle R Postural R patellar R o absent when femoral nerve is paralyzed 17

spinal cord is extensively damaged o assessed by lying the animal on its side as the examiner supports the femur with the stifle slightly flexed, the patellar lig is sharply tapped o normal response = animal extends the stifle quickly cranial tibial reflex o it is performed if the patellar reflex is abnormal or a sciatic nerve lesion is suspected o anal reflex = tested by touching the anus or the contiguous skin o normal animal = short series of jerky contractions of the anal sphincter, with tensing the surrounding skin o absence of this response in recumbent cow or horse shows a serious nerve dysfunction Pedal reflex = tested in horse and cow by pricking the skin of coronet. Applied on recumbent animal that can not rise or stand unless supported o normal = leg is promptly withdrawn o it is absent in forelimb = damaged cervicothoracic section of spinal cord, hind limb = when cord area posterior to 4 th thoracic vertebrae is affected cutaneous R = tested by touching or lightly pricking the skin with a pin or hypodermic needle in certain areas of body o when an animal suffering from a disorder of consciousness fails to respond this stimulus, it does not invariably mean that the skin of the area is insensitive cutaneous muscle R = tested by touching the animal body with the finger,( the area behind the shoulder is most responsive) o normal animal = cutaneous muscle twitches and the animal usually turns its head towards the examiner o valuable test in dogs 3. postural reflexes = see else where 4. BAER = to assess hearing loss = requires sophisticated equipment 5. Gastric reflex = I think it is swallowing reflex Examination of gait and posture Examination of neck and forelimbs

Peripheral Neuropathies (of spinal nerves) Usually results in paralysis accompanied by muscle atrophy 1. suprascapular nerve signs o adduction of forelimb so that the point of shoulder tend to roll outward during progression o spine of scapula becomes prominent due to atrophy of muscles 2. brachial plexus signs o complete motor and sensory paralysis of forelimb which is dragged along hanging loosely from the shoulder

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3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

o excoriation of those parts of limb which are in contact with ground radial nerve paralysis causes o rib or humerus fracture o brachial plexus avulsion effect = inability to extend the carpus manifestation = shoulder lifts in an exaggerated motion to advance the limb signs o often affected animals extend their elbows but knuckle over onto the dorsum of their hooves b/c of paralysis of the extensor muscles of carpus and digits o if the pressure is applied to the anterior aspect the carpal region, so that it is maintained in the normal wt bearing position, the leg will support the animals wt. but bends again as soon as the pressure on the carpus is removed o animals may have scuffed or abnormal shaped hooves, as well as abrasions on the front of fetlocks DD o Radial paralysis = Absence of sensory perception in upper part of the limb only medial and ulnar nerve effect = carpus is over flexed manifestation = same as for radial nerve lumbosacral plexus signs o paralysis of plexus is associated with atrophy and loss of sensation in all muscles of the area o hock can b lifted and brought forward but is lowered uncertainly with the hock strongly flexed femoral nerve paralysis causes o injection site infection o extreme rear limb extension effect = bunny hopping and a shortened stride manifestations = difficulty in bringing both rear or one rear limb forward signs o when the nerve is paralyzed, the stifle joint can not b fixed and the limb can b advanced only incompletely o animal drags or carry its rear limb and hopping on the unaffected hind limb o there is atrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle and loss of sensation over the medial aspect of the limb obturator nerve paralysis causes o extreme adduction of the rear limb o parturition injury effect = limbs slide laterally without the animal replacing them manifestations = inability to abduct the limb; gait is normal signs o animal is unable to adduct its rear limb so the limb may slide laterally on slippery surfaces o the hind limb is abducted during the forward progression, producing a scything action

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o when affected with bilateral obturator nerve paralysis ( not uncommon occurrence in cows at parturition, more commonly in heifers producing disproportionately large calves) = an affected animal will do the splits on a slippery surface o unilateral involvement of obturator nerve causes fewer gait abnormalities than bilateral involvement DD o Pelvic fracture 8. sciatic nerve paralysis structure o two branches Peroneal tibial innervates posterior thigh muscles and those muscles which flex and extend the hock and digits causes o most commonly as a sequel to a pelvic or lumbosacral fracture o improperly administered injections often injures peroneal nerve, resulting in knuckling over onto the dorsum of the fetlock and over extension of the hock effect = loss of sensation and paralysis of muscles below the stifle effect = rear foot is thrown forward by proximal trunk muscles manifestation = hock is over flexed signs o lumbosacral fracture usually causes bilateral hind limb paresis o paralysis o femur fracture causing nerve damage will result in dropped hock and the limb will b knuckled over 9. tibial nerve this nerve is one of the terminal branches of the sciatic nerve signs o hock remains flexed when animal is walking, the flexion being accentuated if the animal bears wt o voluntary extension of the hock and flexion of the phalangeal joints are impossible, but the limb can still be partially advanced and wt borne on it 10. peroneal nerve also a terminal branch of sciatic nerve signs o the leg is dragged along the ground with the dorsal aspect of the foot downwards, and the hock joint over extended o if the phalangeal joints are supported, wt can b taken on the limb o there is muscular atrophy and loss of sensation in the anterior and lateral aspects of the limb below the stifle 11. pudic nerve ( internal pudendal nerve ) supplied to o external anal sphincter, muscles of the penis, vulva, and urethra o sensory perception in the skin of these areas signs o loss of sensation in the area o relaxation of external anal sphincter, and absence of perineal reflex

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o the penis protrudes from the prepuce and can not b retracted o secondary dependent edema is a likely development

Behavior
1. response of animal to approach of vet a. normal c. dummy b. dull d. hypersensitive 2. expression ---a. facial expression is an indicator of mental state b. abnormal positioning of the eye or eyelids will change the facial expression c. haggard expression ---- caused by diseases associated with rapid wt loss, sever dehydration, or exhaustion b/c of pain d. anxious expression ---- caused by tetanus ( muscular rigidity, dilatation of nostrils, wide separation of eyelids) e. maniacal expression --- an intense expression due to partially opened lips and rolling of eyes 3. asymmetry of face -------- may be due to a. swelling i. soft tissue ii. bones b. positioning of eyes c. degree of eyelid closure d. the position of lower lip relative to the upper e. position of the ears e.g. drooping 4. facial nerve paralysis a. drooping of ear b. upper lip drawn towards normal side c. lower lip hangs down on the affected side 5. extension of both head and neck a. characteristic feature of strangles and pharyngitis in horse 6. head position a. opisthotonus ---------- elevation of head ( not neck ) b. orthotonus ------------- extension of head ( not neck ) 7. cause of opisthotonus or orthotonus intermittent generalized increase in muscle tone during the convulsive episodes 1. tetanus 3. hypomagnesemic tetany 2. strychnine poisoning 4. encephalopathy arising from acute lead poisoning or some cases of encephalitis 8. dummy mental state a. cattle i. listeriosis ii. acetonemia iii. sub acute lead poisoning b. horse i. encephalomyelitis ii. hepatic cirrhosis 9. nervous signs in hepatic dz are due to a. hypoglycemia

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b. accumulation of excess amino acids or of acetylcholine due to failure of usual hepatic detoxification mechanism 10. old age ---- signs a. emaciation b. dropped back + pendulous abdomen c. senile alopecia + de-pigmentation + graying of hairs 11. Abnormal posture a. Congenital curvature of spine in cows b. pneumonia ---- both horses and cattle remain standing and lie down only when completely exhausted c. cow stands with her elbows abducted i. chest pain ii. difficult breathing iii. traumatic reticuloperitonitis d. cow = hind limb not held flexed next to abdomen but sticks straight out in an awkward position i. hip dislocation ii. sciatic nerve paralysis e. sheep = preg toxemia ----blind and immobile but stand with head up and have an expression of extreme alertness f. scratching base of ear + head shaking i. ear mite ii. presence of debris deep in ear g. frog like sitting ( legs behind body ) in sternal recumbancy i. sheep ----- hypocalcemia ii. cattle ----- bilateral hip dislocation h. tetanus i. horse may stand in stiff manner with its all 4 legs abducted from the body, called saw horse stance ii. rigidity of ears and limbs iii. elevation and rigidity of tail i. cow = arching of back with limbs tucked under body --- mild abdominal pain j. cow = downward arching of back + saw horse straddling of legs --- sever abdominal pain, usually spasmodic k. arching of back ----- acute nephritis l. acute lameness in horse --- hind legs are carried forward under the body and forefeet are advanced in front of body m. lateral recumbancy i. pain ii. weakness n. sternal recumbancy + head deviated towards flank i. meningitis iii. sever anemia ii. hypocalcemia iv. sever dehydration v. acidosis ( secondary to ruminal acidosis ) o. recumbancy i. muscle disease --------- mostly in young animals ii. hypocalcemia iii. peracute coliform mastitis iv. acute diffuse peritonitis p. lying habitually on one side i. one sided chest pain q. prolonged recumbancy can lead to

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i. pulmonary congestion iii. pneumonia ii. hypoxia iv. altered thermoregulation r. horse = dog sitting posture with rolling and kicking at belly i. abdominal pain ii. pressure on diaphragm after acute gastric dilatation due to engorgement on grains s. horse = colic ---- urinating posture due to increased intra abdominal pressure + straining t. straining to urinate in foal = ruptured bladder u. animal remains in urinating posture for some time after the flow ceases + increased freq with passage of small amounts of fluid i. cystitis ii. urethritis 12. Sheep = anal pumping + perineal urethral pulsation --- obstructive urolithiasis 13. anal pumping v. obstructive urolithiasis in sheep w. respiratory system pain 2. frequent attempts to urinate a. obstruction of urethra b. irritation of MM of bladder and urethra 3. incontinence + constant dribbling a. partial obstruction of urethra b. paralysis of its sphincter 4. observe animal urinating to rule out obstructive urolithiasis 5. check sphincter tone in urinary incontinence or stranguria 6. Check preputual hairs and urethral process for sediment and stones. Grit on preputual hair is often due to urolithiasis 7. to collect urine sample i. cow ---- stroking the perineal region ii. bull ---- washing the prepuce with warm water iii. sheep / goat ----- stop breathing until urinate 8. tenesmus may originate in a. alimentary tract i. hepatic failure iii. intussusceptions or telescoping ii. rectal tears or strictures iv. sever rectal irritation b. urinary tract i. urolithiasis c. genital tract i. vaginitis ii. ROP iii. Dystokia d. CNS i. Rabies ii. CNS diseases causing retention of feces or urine 9. pain in abdomen a. GIT b. Urinary system i. Pyelonephritis ii. Cystitis iii. calculi esp. on urination 10. Abnormal gait a. Somersault ---- later stages of grass Tetany b. Turn stiffly ---- pericarditis c. Staggering ---- hypomagnesaemia d. Ataxia in lambs ---- Cu deficiency

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e. Progress in succession of jumps ( high stepping gait ) ----- looping illness in sheep f. Lactiacidosis --- reluctance to move unless coaxed g. Walking in circle can be with i. Head rotation or tilt ----- defects of vestibular apparatus ii. Head deviation ----- unilateral involvement of medulla and cranial cervical cord h. Walking in circles i. spasmodically 1. Preg toxemia 2.Acetonemia ii. Permanently 1. listeriosis i. walking directly ahead regardless of obstruction (compulsive walking)= encephalomyelitis j. walking on knees i. foot rot ii. CAE 11. flaccid limbs following repeated joint flexion ----- nervous dz 12. doming of forehead ------- some cases of congenital hydrocephalus 13. CF of plant poisoning are variable and may include a. Ataxia d. Head tremors, convulsions b. Paralysis e. Sudden death c. Coma 14. non plant neurointoxicants include a. lead c. sulfur b. ethylene glycol d. organic mercurials e. chlorinated hydrocarbons f. propylene glycol ---- ataxia, depression and coma g. organophosphates or carbamates = parasympathetic and neuromuscular activation = ataxia, coma, muscle tremors, salivation and miotic pupils h. salt (due to high salt in water or water deprivation) = blindness, dullness, seizers, coma and death i. petroleum distillates ( motor oil, gasoline, kerosene ) ---- can induce narcosis j. ammonia or ammoniated feed stuffs = hyperesthesia, excitability, coma and convulsions k. etc 15. dietary deficiencies a. Cu = ataxia, recumbancy b. Vit A = convulsions, blindness c. Vit E = ataxia recumbancy d. Vit E / Se = weakness, recumbancy, acute death e. Mg =grass tetany/ transport tetany/ milk tremors = convulsions, tremors, ataxia f. K = weakness = postpartum recumbancy g. Ca / P = milk fever / pathological vertebral fractures / tetany = weakness, ataxia, recumbancy, tetany 16. calves with sever diarrhea may convulse secondary to hypokalemia, hypernatremia, or hypoglycemia 17. Head pressing or compulsive walking -----causes a. toxic and metabolic brain dz esp. hepatic insufficiency

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b. encephalomyelitis 18. circling in sheep a. gid b. listeriosis c. periodically in ketosis or preg toxemia 19. signs in nervous form of ketosis a. depraved appetite b. compulsive licking c. incoordinated movements 20. Risk factors tetanus = horses and small ruminants are more susceptible than cattle botulism and listeriosis = ingestion of rotting vegetation

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