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Lecture Notes on Basic Electronics for Students in Computer Science

John Kar-kin Zao and Wen-Hsiao Peng Department of Computer Science, National Chiao-Tung Univeristy 1001 Ta-Hsueh Rd., 30010 HsinChu, Taiwan

August 2006

Contents

1

Preamble

1

1.1 Goal of This Course

1

1.2 Content of This Course

1

1.3 Relationship with Other Disciplines

 

1

I

System and Circuit Analysis

 

2

2

Signals and Systems

3

2.1 Basic Concepts

3

2.2 Types of Systems

4

2.3 Axiomatic Properties of Systems .

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5

2.4 Time-Domain Analysis

6

2.4.1 Impulse Response

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6

2.4.2 Step Response

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2.4.3 Sinusoidal Response

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10

2.4.4 Initial Value/Driving Free/Natural Response

 

12

2.4.5 Transient Response

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12

2.4.6 Steady-State Response

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12

2.5 Frequency-Domain Analysis

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12

2.5.1 Phasor

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2.5.2 Spectrum and Fourier Transform

 

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2.5.3 System Transfer Function H s (ω )

14

2.5.4 Time Domain versus Frequency Domain

 

15

3

Electrical Circuits

16

3.1 Basic Concepts

16

3.2 Circuit Elements

17

3.3 Circuit Laws

19

3.4 Network Theorems

20

ii

CONTENTS

 

3.4.1 One-Port Networks

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20

3.4.2 Two-Port Networks .

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23

3.5 Laplace Transforms

 

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25

3.6 System Transfer Function in Time and Laplace Domains

 

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3.7 Bode Plots

 

35

II

Devices — Diode, BJT, MOSFETs

 

42

4 Semiconductor

 

43

 

4.1 Intrinsic Silicon

 

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4.2 Doped Silicon

 

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5 Diode

 

48

 

5.1 Physical Structure

 

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48

5.1.1 The pn Junction Under Open Circuit

 

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5.1.2 The pn Junction Under Reverse-Bias

 

50

5.1.3 The pn Junction in the Breakdown Region

 

52

5.1.4 The pn Junction Under Forward Bias Conditions

 

52

5.2 Characteristics

 

54

5.2.1 Forward Bias

5.3 Model

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54

5.2.2 Reverse Bias

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5.2.3 Breakdown Region .

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56

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5.3.1 Large Signal Model

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56

5.3.2 Small Signal Model

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60

5.3.3 Circuit Analysis with Diodes

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62

5.4 Special Diodes

 

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5.4.1 Zener diode

 

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5.4.2 Switching Controlled Rectier (SCR)

 

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5.4.3 LED/Varactors

 

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65

5.5 Applications

 

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5.5.1 Regulator

 

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5.5.2 Rectier

 

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67

5.5.3 Limiting

 

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5.5.4 Clamping

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5.5.5 Digital Logic

 

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6 MOS Field-Eect Transistors (MOSFETs)

 

74

 

6.1

Structure

74

CONTENTS

 

6.1.1

Physical Structure

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74

6.2

Characteristics (NMOS)

 

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76

6.2.1 Regions of Operations

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6.2.2 Saturation (v GS >V t ,v DS >v GS V t )

 

78

6.2.3 Cut-oRegion (v GS <V t )

 

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79

6.2.4 Body Eect

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6.2.5 Summary

 

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6.3

Model

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6.3.1 Small Signal Model

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6.3.2 Frequency Response

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7 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

 

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7.1

Structure

 

82

7.1.1 PNP

 

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82

7.1.2 NPN

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82

7.2

Characteristics

7.2.1 Forward

Model

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82

82

7.2.2 Reverse Biasing

 

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82

7.3

7.2.3 Early Eect and Voltage .

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82

82

7.3.1 Small Signal Model

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82

7.3.2 Frequency Response

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82

8 Summary and Comparison

 

83

III

Analog Circuits

 

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9 Amplier

 

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10 Single Transistor Amplier with MOSFET

 

86

10.1 Common Source Inverter .

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86

 

10.1.1 Characteristic

 

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86

10.1.2 Time Domain Analysis

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86

10.1.3 Frequency Domain Analysis

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86

10.2 Common Drain Voltage Follower .

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87

10.3 Common Gate Ampliers

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87

10.4 Applications

 

87

 

10.4.1

Dierential Amplier

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87

CONTENTS

11 Single Transistor Amplier with BJT

 

88

11.1 Common Emitter

88

11.1.1 Time Domain Analysis

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88

11.1.2 Frequency Domain Analysis

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88

11.2 Common Collector

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11.3 Common Base

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11.4 Applications

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11.4.1 Current Mirror

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11.4.2 Power Amplier with Active Load

 

89

12 Operational Amplier (OP-AMP)

 

90

1

Preamble

1.1 Goal of This Course

Analysis and design of electronic circuits.

1.2 Content of This Course

Electric circuit (Passive Circuit ) analysis.

Only containing Resistor (R ), Capacitor (C ), and Inductor (L).

No signal amplication.

Electronic circuit (Active Circuit ) analysis.

Containing transistor.

Single transistor circuit.

Signal amplication.

Operational amplier and application.

1.3 Relationship with Other Disciplines

— Signal ampli fi cation. • Operational ampli fi er and application. 1.3 Relationship with Other

1

Part I

System and Circuit Analysis

2

2

Signals and Systems

2.1 Basic Concepts

Denition 2.1 System stands for the transformation of signal from one to another. It

can be viewed as a process in which input signals are transformed by the system or cause the system to respond in some way, resulting in other signals as outputs.

Systems

Objects Abstraction Decomposition Components Systems Composition System characteristics Analysis /brhaviors
Objects
Abstraction
Decomposition
Components
Systems
Composition
System characteristics
Analysis
/brhaviors
Synthesis
Formalization

Models

Figure 2.1: System from engineering perspective.

Approach

Abstraction

Representing a real object by its special characteristics; that is, the relation between its inputs and outputs, which becomes a system.

Decomposition

Dividing a system into several smaller systems (components) and studying them to understand the large system.

Composition

Putting several systems together to form a larger system and studying it.

Model

3

Sec 2.2. Types of Systems

Relative

Inputs

 
 
 
LTI Systems Outputs

LTI Systems

LTI Systems Outputs

Outputs

States

Input Output States
Input
Output
States

Perspectives

Time domain.

Frequency domain.

2.2 Types of Systems

Temporal characteristic

Continuous-Time Systems

Inputs/outputs of the systems are functions dened at continuous time.

Input x(t) Output y(t) Continuous-Time System Magnitude t
Input x(t)
Output y(t)
Continuous-Time
System
Magnitude
t

Figure 2.2: Continuous-time systems.

Discrete-Time Systems

Inputs/outputs of the systems are functions dened at discrete time.

Magnitude

Analog systems

Inputs/outputs of the system have continuously varying values.

Digital systems

Inputs/outputs of the system have discrete values.

Lecture 2. Signals and Systems

Input x[n] Output y[n] Discrete-Time System Magnitude 6789 t 012345
Input x[n]
Output y[n]
Discrete-Time
System
Magnitude
6789
t
012345

Figure 2.3: Discrete-time systems.

Input x(t) Output y(t) Digital System Magnitude t
Input x(t)
Output y(t)
Digital System
Magnitude
t

Figure 2.4: Digital system.

2.3 Axiomatic Properties of Systems

Linearity

If an input consists of the weighted sum of several signals, then the output is the superposition of the responses of the system to each of those signals.

y 1(t) =

H

{x1(t)}

y 2(t) =

H

{x2(t)}

(2.1)

a × y 1(t) + b × y 2(t) = H {a × x1(t) + b × x2(t)}

Time-Invariant

The behavior and characteristics of the system are xed over time.

For example, the magnitudes of resistors and capacitors of a circuit are un- changed over time.

y (t) = H {x(t)}

y (t τ ) = H {x(t τ )}

(2.2)

Sec 2.4. Time-Domain Analysis

Causality

x(t)

Sec 2.4. Time-Domain Analysis • Causality x(t) y(t) System Inverse System x(t) Figure 2.5: Inverse system.

y(t)

Sec 2.4. Time-Domain Analysis • Causality x(t) y(t) System Inverse System x(t) Figure 2.5: Inverse system.

System

Inverse

System

x(t)

Analysis • Causality x(t) y(t) System Inverse System x(t) Figure 2.5: Inverse system. — The output

Figure 2.5: Inverse system.

The output of the system depends only on the inputs at the present time and in the past.

For example, y (t) = Z 0 t x(τ )dτ.

Invertability

Distinct inputs of the system lead to distinct outputs, and an inverse system exists.

For example, a system which is y (t)=2x(t), for which the inverse system is

1

y (t) = 2 x(t).

Stability

If the input of the system is bounded, then the output must be bounded.

2.4 Time-Domain Analysis

Denition 2.2 The analysis of a LTI system that is based on the relationship between time-varying inputs and their corresponding time-varying outputs.

Inputs/outputs are time functions (waveforms).

2.4.1 Impulse Response

Output of the system with a ctitious input of Direc-Delta function δ (t).

For LTI systems, the system characteristic in time domain is the system impulse response.

Direc-Delta function δ (t).

δ (t) = (

0

if

if

t 6= 0 t = 0

Z

T

T δ (t)dt = 1, T > 0.

.

Signal sampling using Direc-Delta function.

x(τ ) = Z x(t)δ (t τ )dt

−∞

(2.3)

(2.4)

(2.5)

Lecture 2. Signals and Systems

∞ Magnitude 1/T Magnitude t t -T/2 T/2 0 Figure 2.6: Direc-Delta function δ( t
Magnitude
1/T
Magnitude
t
t
-T/2
T/2
0
Figure 2.6: Direc-Delta function
δ( t −τ )
1
x (τ)
1
x t
( )
δ (
t
τ
)
dt
=
lim
x
(
τ
)
×
×
T
=
x τ
(
)
T
T → 0
T
x (t )
t
T
T
τ+
τ−
2
2
τ

Figure 2.7: Sampling using Direc-Delta function.

Signal reconstruction: any real time-functions can be represented by using the integrals of Delta functions as in Eq. (2.6).

x(t) = Z x(τ )δ (τ t)

−∞

(2.6)

x τ δ t −τ x τ δ t −τ ( ) ( ) 1
x τ δ t −τ
x τ δ t −τ
(
)
(
)
1
1
Magnitude
(
)
(
)
2
2
x
( t )
t
τ
τ
1
2

Figure 2.8: A time function represented by a set of delta functions.

Convolution Outputs of the LTI system is the convolution of the input and the system

Sec 2.4. Time-Domain Analysis

impulse response.

y (t) = x(t) ∗h(t) = Z ∞ x(τ )h(t − τ )dτ −∞ x
y (t) =
x(t) ∗h(t) = Z ∞ x(τ )h(t − τ )dτ
−∞
x τ δ t −τ
x τ δ t −τ
(
)
(
)
1
1
Magnitude
(
)
(
)
2
2
x (t )
t
τ
τ
1
2
Magnitude
h (t )
1
LTI
Impulse Response
System
t
0
Time-Invariant
t
τ 1 τ
2
Linearity
y (t )
x τ h t −τ
(
)
(
)
2
2
x τ h t −τ
(
)
(
)
1
1
t
τ 1 τ
2

(2.7)

Figure 2.9: Continuous time convolution operation.

2.4.2 Step Response

Output of the system w.r.t. an input x(t) of step function.

operation. 2.4.2 Step Response • Output of the system w.r.t. an input x ( t )

µ(t)

1

1 t
1 t

t

1 t
operation. 2.4.2 Step Response • Output of the system w.r.t. an input x ( t )

0

Lecture 2. Signals and Systems

x [1]δ [ n 1]

x [2]δ [ n − 2] x [0]δ [ n ] x [3]δ [ n
x [2]δ [ n − 2]
x [0]δ [ n ]
x [3]δ [ n − 3]
5 4
Magnitude
4
3
x [ n ]
Input
n

0 123

LTI

System

16

Magnitude

4 h [ n ] 3 2 Impulse Response 1 n 0 1 2 3
4 h [ n ]
3
2
Impulse Response
1
n
0 1
2
3
12 8 x [0]δ [ n ] → x [0] h [ n ] 4
12
8
x [0]δ [ n ] →
x [0] h [ n ]
4
n
0
1
2
3
20
15
10
x
[1]δ [ n − 1] →
x [1] h
[ n − 1]
5
n
0
123
4
16
12
8
x
[2]δ [ n − 2]
x
[2] h [ n
− 2]
4
n
01
2345
12
9
6
x [3]δ [ n − 3]
→ x
[3] h
[ n − 3]
3
n
0
1
23456
39 38
Output
32
22
16
10
3
y
[ n ]
=
x [ k ] h [ n
k ]
n
k
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

Figure 2.10: Discrete time convolution operation.

Sec 2.4. Time-Domain Analysis

x(t) = u(t) = ( 0

1

if

if

du(t)

dt

= δ (t).

t < 0 t 0

.

2.4.3 Sinusoidal Response

(2.8)

(2.9)

Output of the system w.r.t. sinusoidal function input x(t).

x(t) = cos(2t) with ω = 2πf

f is frequency.

ω = 2πf is the angular frequency.

1

T = f is period.

x(t)=cos(ωt) x(t)=cos(ωt) 1 0.5 0 -5 -2.5 0 2.5 5 t t -0.5 -1
x(t)=cos(ωt) x(t)=cos(ωt)
1
0.5
0
-5
-2.5
0
2.5
5
t t
-0.5
-1

(2.10)

Figure 2.11: Sinusoidal waveform.

For a real LTI system with a sinusoidal input function, the output is also a sinusoidal function but with changes in both magnitude and phase.

x(t) = cos ωt h(t) y (t) = kH (ω )k cos (ωt + ]H (ω )) ,

where

H (ω ) = Z h(τ )e jωτ = kH (ω )k e j ] H (ω )

−∞

(2.11)

Advanced Topics Proof.

x(t) = cos ωt h (t) y (t) = kH (ω )k cos (ωt + ]H (ω ))

Lecture 2. Signals and Systems

y (t) =

=

=

=

=

x(t) h(t) Z x(τ )h(t τ )

−∞

Z cos(ωτ )h(t τ )

−∞

1 2 Z

−∞

(e jωτ + e jωτ )h(t τ )

1 2 Z −∞ ∞ e jωτ h(t τ )+ 1

2 Z e jωτ h(t τ )

−∞

By dening τ 0 = t τ, the equation above can be written as follows:

y (t) =

1

2 Z

−∞ e jω (tτ 0 ) h(τ 0 )0 + 1

2 Z

−∞

e (tτ 0 ) h(τ 0 )dτ 0

Dene H (ω ) = Z e jωτ 0 h(τ 0 )0 = kH (ω )k e j ] H (ω ) as a complex function of ω. Its

−∞

complex conjugate is H (ω ) = Z e jωτ 0 h (τ 0 )0 = kH (ω )k e j ] H (ω ) .Since h(t) is a real

−∞

function, h (τ 0 ) = h(τ 0 ). Thus, y (t) can be

formulized as follows:

y (t) =

2 e jωt Z

1

−∞ e jωτ 0 h(τ 0 )dτ 0 + 1

2 e jωt Z

−∞

e jωτ 0 h(τ 0 )0

=

= kH (ω )k cos (ωt + ]H (ω ))

2 1 e jωt × kH (ω )k e j ] H (ω ) +

1 2 e jωt × kH (ω )k e j ] H (ω )

× k H ( ω ) k e − j ] H ( ω ) •

More generally, it is the output of the system w.r.t. complex exponential function

input x(t).

x(t) = e jωt = cos(ωt) + j sin(ωt)

(2.12)

Complex exponential function e jωt is the eigenfunction of any LTI systems.

x(t) = e jωt h(t) y (t) =

(2.13)

= kH (ω )k cos (ωt + ]H (ω )) + j kH (ω )k sin (ωt + ]H (ω ))

H (ω )e jωt

H (ω ) = Z h(t)e jωt dt.

−∞