00 voturi pozitive00 voturi negative

50 vizualizări0 paginiRCC design

Sep 22, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

RCC design

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

50 vizualizări

00 voturi pozitive00 voturi negative

RCC design

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 0

DRAFT

REINFORCED CONCRETE

CVEN4555

c VICTOR

E. SAOUMA,

Fall 2002

University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428

December 26, 2002

Draft

02

Victor Saouma

Draft

Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1.1 Mix Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1.1.1 Constituents . . . . . . . .

1.1.1.1.2 Preliminary Considerations

1.1.1.1.3 Mix procedure . . . . . . .

1.1.1.1.4 Mix Design Example . . .

1.1.1.2 Mechanical Properties . . . . . . . .

1.1.2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Design Philosophy, USD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Analysis vs Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4 Basic Relations and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5 ACI Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 FLEXURE

2.1 Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E 2-1 Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 Section Cracked, Stresses Elastic . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.1 Basic Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.2 Working Stress Method . . . . . . . . . . . .

E 2-2 Cracked Elastic Section . . . . . . . . . . . .

E 2-3 Working Stress Design Method; Analysis . . .

E 2-4 Working Stress Design Method; Design . . .

2.3 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method .

2.3.1 Whitney Stress Block . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.2 Balanced Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.3 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4 Practical Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4.1 Minimum Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4.2 Beam Sizes, Bar Spacing, Concrete Cover . .

2.4.3 Design Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.5 USD Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E 2-5 Ultimate Strength; Review . . . . . . . . . .

E 2-6 Ultimate Strength; Design I . . . . . . . . . .

E 2-7 Ultimate Strength; Design II . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

11

. 11

. 11

. 11

. 11

. 15

. 15

. 18

. 19

. 113

. 114

. 115

. 116

. 116

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

21

. 21

. 22

. 23

. 23

. 24

. 25

. 26

. 27

. 28

. 28

. 210

. 211

. 211

. 212

. 212

. 213

. 213

. 215

. 215

. 216

. 217

Draft

02

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

CONTENTS

T Beams, (ACI 8.10) . . . . . . . . . . .

2.6.1 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.6.2 Design, (balanced) . . . . . . . . .

E 2-9 T Beam; Moment Capacity I . . .

E 2-10 T Beam; Moment Capacity II . . .

E 2-11 T Beam; Design . . . . . . . . . .

Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beams . .

2.7.1 Tests for fs and fs . . . . . . . . .

2.7.2 Moment Equations . . . . . . . . .

E 2-12 Doubly Reinforced Concrete beam;

E 2-13 Doubly Reinforced Concrete beam;

Moment-Curvature Relations . . . . . . .

Bond & Development Length . . . . . . .

2.9.1 Moment Capacity Diagram . . . .

3 SHEAR

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Shear Strength of Uncracked Section

3.3 Shear Strength of Cracked Sections .

3.4 ACI Code Requirements . . . . . . .

3.5 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E 3-1 Shear Design . . . . . . . . .

3.6 Shear Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E 3-2 Shear Friction . . . . . . . . .

3.7 Brackets and Corbels . . . . . . . . .

3.8 Deep Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

Review

Design .

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 217

. 220

. 221

. 222

. 222

. 223

. 224

. 226

. 227

. 229

. 230

. 232

. 233

. 235

. 239

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

31

. 31

. 32

. 35

. 36

. 38

. 38

. 39

. 311

. 312

. 312

4 CONTINUOUS BEAMS

4.1 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2 Methods of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.1 Detailed Analysis . . . . . . . . .

4.2.2 ACI Approximate Method . . . .

4.3 Eective Span Design Moment . . . . .

4.4 Moment Redistribution . . . . . . . . .

4.4.1 Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Section .

4.4.2 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E 4-1 Moment Redistribution . . . . .

4.5 Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

41

41

42

42

42

44

44

44

46

46

47

51

5.1 Types of Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.2 One Way Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

5.3 Design of a One Way Continuous Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Victor Saouma

Draft

CONTENTS

6 SERVICEABILITY

6.1 Control of Cracking . . . . .

E 6-1 Crack Width . . . . .

6.2 Deections . . . . . . . . . .

6.2.1 Short Term Deection

6.2.2 Long Term Deection

E 6-2 Deections . . . . . .

03

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

7.1 Vertical Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.2 Horizontal Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.2.1 Portal Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E 7-1 Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to

Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. . . . .

. . . . .

. . . . .

Vertical

. . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

61

61

63

63

64

65

67

71

. . . . . . . . . . 71

. . . . . . . . . . 74

. . . . . . . . . . 74

and Horizontal

. . . . . . . . . . 76

8 COLUMNS

81

9 COLUMNS

9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.1.1 Types of Columns . . . . . . . . .

9.1.2 Possible Arrangement of Bars . . .

9.2 Short Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.2.1 Concentric Loading . . . . . . . . .

9.2.2 Eccentric Columns . . . . . . . . .

9.2.2.1 Balanced Condition . . .

9.2.2.2 Tension Failure . . . . . .

9.2.2.3 Compression Failure . . .

9.2.3 ACI Provisions . . . . . . . . . . .

9.2.4 Interaction Diagrams . . . . . . . .

9.2.5 Design Charts . . . . . . . . . . .

E 9-1 R/C Column, c known . . . . . . .

E 9-2 R/C Column, e known . . . . . . .

E 9-3 R/C Column, Using Design Charts

9.2.6 Biaxial Bending . . . . . . . . . .

E 9-4 Biaxially Loaded Column . . . . .

9.3 Long Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9.3.1 Euler Elastic Buckling . . . . . . .

9.3.2 Eective Length . . . . . . . . . .

9.3.3 Moment Magnication Factor; ACI

E 9-5 Long R/C Column . . . . . . . . .

E 9-6 Design of Slender Column . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

Provisions

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

91

. 91

. 91

. 92

. 92

. 92

. 92

. 93

. 95

. 96

. 97

. 97

. 97

. 97

. 99

. 913

. 914

. 917

. 918

. 918

. 919

. 921

. 924

. 925

10 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . .

10.1.1 Materials . . . . . . .

10.1.2 Prestressing Forces . .

10.1.3 Assumptions . . . . .

10.1.4 Tendon Conguration

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

101

. 101

. 101

. 104

. 104

. 104

Victor Saouma

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Draft

04

CONTENTS

10.1.6 Load Deformation . . . . . .

10.2 Flexural Stresses . . . . . . . . . . .

E 10-1 Prestressed Concrete I Beam

10.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge . .

10.3.1 Cross-Section Properties . . .

10.3.2 Prestressing . . . . . . . . . .

10.3.3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10.3.4 Flexural Stresses . . . . . . .

Victor Saouma

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 104

. 104

. 106

. 108

. 1010

. 1012

. 1012

. 1013

. 1013

Draft

List of Figures

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 12

. 110

. 111

. 111

. 111

. 112

. 113

Transformed Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stress Diagram Cracked Elastic Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Desired Stress Distribution; WSD Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cracked Section, Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Whitney Stress Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bar Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

T Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

T Beam as Rectangular Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

T Beam Strain and Stress Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Decomposition of Steel Reinforcement for T Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Doubly Reinforced Beams; Strain and Stress Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Dierent Possibilities for Doubly Reinforced Concrete Beams . . . . . . . . . .

Strain Diagram, Doubly Reinforced Beam; is As Yielding? . . . . . . . . . . . .

Strain Diagram, Doubly Reinforced Beam; is As Yielding? . . . . . . . . . . . .

Summary of Conditions for top and Bottom Steel Yielding . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bending of a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Moment-Curvature Relation for a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bond and Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Actual Bond Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Splitting Along Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bar cuto requirements of the ACI code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Standard cuto or bend points for bars in approximately equal spans with uniformly distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.27 Moment Capacity Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 21

. 22

. 23

. 24

. 28

. 210

. 215

. 220

. 220

. 221

. 221

. 226

. 227

. 227

. 228

. 229

. 234

. 235

. 236

. 237

. 237

. 238

. 238

. 240

. 241

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.10

2.11

2.12

2.13

2.14

2.15

2.16

2.17

2.18

2.19

2.20

2.21

2.22

2.23

2.24

2.25

2.26

3.1

MicroCracks in Concrete under Compression . . .

Concrete Stress Strain Curve . . . . . . . . . . . .

Modulus of Rupture Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Split Cylinder (Brazilian) Test . . . . . . . . . . .

Biaxial Strength of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . .

Time Dependent Strains in Concrete . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 242

. 243

Draft

02

LIST OF FIGURES

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

Shear Strength of Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mohrs Circle for Shear Strength of Uncracked Section . . . . . . .

Shear Strength of Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Free Body Diagram of a R/C Section with a Flexural Shear Crack

Equilibrium of Shear Forces in Cracked Section . . . . . . . . . . .

Summary of ACI Code Requirements for Shear . . . . . . . . . . .

Corbel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shear Friction Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shear Friction Across Inclined Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

. 31

. 32

. 33

. 34

. 35

. 36

. 37

. 39

. 310

. 310

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

Load Positioning on Continuous Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ACI Approximate Moment Coecients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Negative Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Moment Diagram of a Rigidly Connected Uniformly Loaded Beam

Moment Curvature of an Elastic-Plastic Section . . . . . . . . . . .

Plastic Moments in Uniformly Loaded Rigidly Connected Beam . .

Plastic Redistribution in Concrete Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Block Diagram for R/C Building Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

41

41

43

44

45

45

45

46

48

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

Types of Slabs . . . . . . . . .

One vs Two way slabs . . . . .

Load Distribution in Slabs . . .

Load Transfer in R/C Buildings

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

Uncracked Transformed and Cracked

Time Dependent Deection . . . . .

Time Dependent Strain Distribution

Short and long Term Deections . .

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.7

7.8

7.9

7.10

7.11

7.12

7.13

7.14

Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Axial Forces73

Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Moments 73

Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Shear . . . 75

Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Girder Moment . . 75

Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Axial Force76

Example; Approximate Analysis of a Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Vertical Loads . . . . . . . 79

Approximate Analysis of a Building; Shears Due to Vertical Loads . . . . . . . . 710

Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Spread-Sheet Format . . . . . . . . . . 712

Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Equations in Spread-Sheet . . . . . . . 713

Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Lateral Loads . . . . . . . 714

Portal Method; Spread-Sheet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716

Portal Method; Equations in Spread-Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717

9.1

9.2

Types of columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Tied vs Spiral Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Victor Saouma

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

51

52

52

53

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transformed X Sections

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

62

64

65

66

66

Draft

LIST OF FIGURES

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9

9.10

9.11

9.12

9.13

9.14

9.15

9.16

9.17

9.18

03

Sources of Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Load Moment Interaction Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Strain and Stress Diagram of a R/C Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Column Interaction Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Failure Surface of a Biaxially Loaded Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Load Contour at Plane of Constant Pn , and Nondimensionalized Corresponding

plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Biaxial Bending Interaction Relations in terms of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bilinear Approximation for Load Contour Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns

Euler Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Column Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Critical lengths of columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Eective length Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Standard Alignment Chart (ACI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Minimum Column Eccentricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

P-M Magnication Interaction Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 92

. 93

. 93

. 94

. 98

. 914

. 915

. 916

. 916

. 918

. 919

. 920

. 921

. 922

. 922

. 923

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

10.5

10.6

Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

7 Wire Prestressing Tendon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)105

Determination of Equivalent Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Load-Deection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

10.7 Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity; Maximum

Moment Section and Support Section, (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

10.8 Walnut Lane Bridge, Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011

10.9 Walnut Lane Bridge, Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012

Victor Saouma

Draft

04

Victor Saouma

LIST OF FIGURES

Draft

List of Tables

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

ASTM C33 Grading Limits for Coarse Concrete Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . .

ASTM C33 Grading Limits for Fine Concrete Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . .

Example of Fineness Modulus Determination for Fine Aggregate . . . . . . . .

Recommended Slumps (inches) for Various Types of Construction . . . . . . .

Recommended Average Total Air Content as % of Dierent Nominal Maximum

Sizes of Aggregates and Levels of Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7 Approximate Mixing Water Requirements, lb/yd3 of Concrete For Dierent

Slumps and Nominal Maximum Sizes of Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.8 Relationship Between Water/Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength . . . . .

1.9 Volume of Dry-Rodded Coarse Aggregate per Unit Volume of Concrete for Different Fineness Moduli of Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10 Creep Coecients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.11 Properties of Reinforcing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.12 Strength Reduction Factors, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

13

13

13

15

16

. 16

. 17

. 17

. 18

. 113

. 114

. 114

2.1

2.2

Minimum Width (inches) according to ACI Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

4.1

5.1

7.1

7.2

Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads . . . . . . . . . . 719

Draft

02

Victor Saouma

LIST OF TABLES

Draft

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Material

1.1.1

Concrete

This section is adapted from Concrete by Mindess and Young, Prentice Hall, 1981

1.1.1.1

1.1.1.1.1

Mix Design

Constituents

Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement, water, and aggregates (usually sand and crushed

stone).

Portland cement is a mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials which are calcined in

a kiln and then pulverized. When mixed with water, cement hardens through a process called

hydration.

1. A minimum amount of cement-water paste is used to ll the interstices between the

particles of aggregates.

2. A minimum amount of water is provided to complete the chemical reaction with cement.

Strictly speaking, a water/cement ratio of about 0.25 is needed to complete this reaction,

but then the concrete will have a very low workability.

In such a mixture, about 3/4 of the volume is constituted by the aggregates, and the remaining

1/4 being the cement paste.

Smaller particles up to 1/4 in. in size are called ne aggregates, and the larger ones being

coarse aggregates.

I Normal

II Moderate sulfate resistant, moderate heat of hydration

III High early strength (but releases too much heat)

Draft

12

INTRODUCTION

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

111

000

1111 1111111

0000 0000000

1111 1111111

0000 0000000

1111111

0000000

1111

0000

1111 1111 1111

0000 0000 0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111 1111

0000 0000

1111

0000

1111 1111

0000 0000

1111

0000

1111 1111

0000 0000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

1111

0000

1111 1111

0000 0000

111

000

1111 1111 1111

0000 0000 0000

111

000

111

000

1111 1111 1111

0000 0000 0000

111

000

111

000

1111

0000

111

000

111

000

1111 1111

0000 0000

111

000

1111

0000

111

000

1111 1111 111

0000 0000 000

111

000

1111 1111 111

0000 0000 000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

111

000

1111

0000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111 1111 1111

0000 0000 0000

1111

0000

1111 1111 1111

0000 0000 0000

1111

0000

1111 1111

0000 0000

1111

0000

11 111 11000

00 000 00000

11 11000 11111

00 00000 00111

111

000

11 11111 11111

00 00111 00000

111

000

111 111

000 000

111

000

111 111

000 000

111

000

11 1111

00 0000

111 1111

000 0000

1111

0000

11 11 1111 11

00 00 0000 00

111 1111

000 0000

11 0000

00 0000

1111

1111

0000

1111

11 11

00 00

1111

0000

11

00

111 1111 111

000 0000 000

11 11

00 00

11

00

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111 111

000 000

111

000

111 111

000 000

111 111

000 000

11

00

111

000

111

000

111

000

111 11

000 00

111 111

000 000

111

000

111 1111

000 0000

1111

0000

111 1111 11

000 0000 00

111 1111

000 0000

111 1111111

000 0000000

111 1111

000 0000

111 1111111

000 0000000

111 1111000

000 0000000

111

111

000

1111

0000

111

111

000

111

000

111

000

111 1111

000 0000

1111

0000

111

000

111 1111

000 0000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

111

000

1111 111

0000 000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

11

00

111

000

111

000

11

00

111

000

111 11

000 00

111 11

000 00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11 111

00 000

11 111

00 000

11

00

000 000 000 0

1111

11 0000

00 0000

111 11000 111 1

000 00000 000 0

1

0

11 0000

00 1111

1 0000

0 1111

1111

1

0

111 11111 111

000 00111 000

1

0

1111 111 1 0000

0000 000 0 0000

11 1111

00 1111

1

0

1111 111

0000 000

1111

0000

1111

0000

11 11 11 1

00 00 00 0

1111 1111

0000 0000

11

00

1111 1

0000 0

111 11 1111 11

000 00 0000 00

1111 1111

0000 0000

11

00

11 1111 1

00 1111 0

1111 1

0000 0

111 11 0000 11

000 00 0000 00

1111

0000

1111 1111 1

0000 0000 1

1

0

1111

0000

111 11 11 0 11

000 00 00 0 00

1111

0000 1

1

0

1

0

1111

0000

1111 0 11 1

0000 0 00 0

1

0

1

0

1111

0000

1

1111 000 0

0000 1

1111 000 1111

0000 111 0000

1

0

1 000 1111

0 111 0000

111

000 11

11

00

111 0 00

1

1

0

1 111 1111

0 000 0000

11

00

1 11

0 00

1

0

111

000

1111 111 1

0000 000 0

1111

0000

11

00

1111 11 1111 11

0000 00 0000 00

1111

0000

1111 1111 1111

0000 0000 0000

1

0

1111

0000

11111

00000

1111

0000 1111

1111 11

0000 00

1

0

1111 0000

0000 0000

1111

11

00

11 111 1111

00 000 0000

1111 11111

0000 00000

11111

00000

11 111 1111

00 000 0000

11

00

11 111

00 000

1111 1111 11111

0000 0000 00000

1111

0000 1

111

000

1111 1111 1 11 0

0000 0000 0 00 0

11 1111

00 0000 1

1

0

1111

0000

11 1111

00 0000

1 11

0 00

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111 1

0000 0

1

0

111

000

1111

0000

1111 1

0000 0

11

00

111

000

1

0

1 1111

0 0000

111

000

1

0

1

0

111111

000000

1111

0000

1

0

1111

0000

1111

0000

11111

00000

1111

0000

1111

0000

111

000

1111

0000

1111

0000

11

00

1111

0000

1111 111

0000 000

11

00

1111 11 1 1111

0000 00 0 0000

111

000

1111 11 1 1111

0000 00 0 0000

11

00

1111 1

0000 0111 1111

1

0

1111 1000 0000

0000 0000 0000

111

1111 1111 0000

0000 0000 1111

1111

1

0

1

0

111 1111

000 0000

11

00

1

0

1

0

111 1

000 0

11

00

1

0

11

00

11

00

111

000

11

00

11

00

111

000

11 11

00 00

11 11 111

00 00 000

11 111

00 000

111

000

11 111

00 000

11 111

00 000

11

00

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111 111

000 000

111

000

111 111

000 000

111 111

000 000

11

00

11

00

11

00

111

000

111

000

111

000

11 111

00 000

11 111

00 000

111

000

11

00

11

00

11

00

111

000

1 1111

0 0000

11

00

11 1111

00 0000

111

000

1

0

11 1111

00 0000

111

000

11

00

11 1111

00 0000

111

000

1111

11

00

1111

0000 111

1 0000

0 0000

1111

11

00

1111

0000 000

1111 00

0000 1

1

0

1111

0000

11

1111 0

0000 0

1111 111

0000 000

11

00

1111 0

0000 1

1111 111

0000 000

11

1111 00

0000 1

111

000

1111

0000

11

00

111

000

11

00

1111 111 111

0000 000 000

11 1

00 0

11 111

00 000

1111

0000

11

00

11

00

11 1

00 0

11 111

00 000

1111

0000

11

00

11

00

11

00

1111 11111 111

0000 00000 000

1111

0000

11

00

11 11 111 11111

00 00 000 00000

111

000

11

00

11 11 111 11111

00 00 000 00000

11

00

111 111 11

000 000 00

111

000

1111

0000

1

0

111

000

1111

0000

1

0

111

000

11 1111111 1111

00 0000000 0000

1111

0000

111

000

111

000

11 1111111 1111

00 0000000 0000

1111

0000

1

0

11 0

00 1111111 1111

1111

0000

111111

000000

1

11 0000000 0000

00 0000000 0000

1111

11

00

1

0

11 1111000

00 0000111 1111

111

000

111100

11 1

00 0

1111 0 000000

0000111

111

000

111111

1 000011

1

0

1

0

111

000

1 1111

0 0000

1

0

111

000

1111

0000

111

000

111111

000000

1111 11

0000 00

111

000

111111

000000

1111 11

0000 00

11

00

11 1111 11

00 0000 00

11111

00000

11 1111 111

00 0000 000

1

0

11 11

00 00

1

0

1111 111 111

0000 000 000

1111 111 111

0000 000 000

111 111

000 000

1

0

11

00

111

000

111 111

000 000

1

0

1

0

1

0

11

00

111

000

1

0

1 1

0 0

111

000

1

0

1

0

111

000

111

000

11

00111

1

0

111

000

111

000

11000

00000

111

111

000

111

000

11111

00000

111

000

111 11 11

000 00 00

111

000

1

0

11 11

00 00

111 11 11

000 00 00

1

0

1111 111

0000 000

1111 111

0000 000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11

00

11

00

111

000

11

00

111

000

11

00

111

000

11

00

111

000

IV Low heat Portland cement, minimizes thermal cracking but must control initial temperature

V Sulfate resistant (marine environment)

Aggregate usually occupy 70% to 80% of the volume of concrete. They are granular material

derived, for the most part, from natural rock, crushed stone, natural gravels and sands.

ASTM C33 (Standard Specications for Concrete Aggregates) governs the types of rock which

can produce aggregates.

The surface texture can be glassy, smooth, granular, rough, crystalline or honeycombed.

the amount of paste for a workable concrete, Fig. 1.1. Since cement is the most expensive

component, proper gradation is of paramount importance.

10

sample of the aggregate is passed through a stack of sieves aranged in order of decreasing size

opening of the sieve.

11

12

Coarse aggregate fraction is that retained on the No. 4 sieve, Table 1.1.

Fine aggregate fraction is that passing the No. 4 sieve.

13

ASTM C33 sets grading limits for coarse and ne aggregates, Table 1.2 and 1.3 respectively.

If a concrete does not comply with these limits, than there will be a need for more paste,

and there will be the possibility of aggregate segregation.

14

Since aggregates contain some porosity, water can be absorbed. Also water can be retained

on the surface of the particle as a lm or moisture. Hence, it is necessary to quantify the

moisture content of the aggregates in order to make adjustments to the water. Because dry

aggregates will remove water from the paste, then the w/c is eectively reduced. On the other

hand moist aggregates may eectively increase the w/c ratio.

15

Victor Saouma

Draft

1.1 Material

13

ASTM

Design.

Size

mm

Coarse Aggregate

3 in.

75

21/2 in.

63

2 in.

50

11/2 in.

37.5

1 in.

25

3/4 in.

19

1/2 in.

12.5

3/8 in.

9.5

Fine Aggregate

No. 4

4.75

No. 8

2.36

No. 16

1.18

No. 30 0.60 (600 m)

No. 50

300 m

No. 100

150 m

in.

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.75

0.50

0.375

0.187

0.0937

0.0469

0.0234

0.0124

0.0059

Table 1.1: ASTM Sieve Designations Nominal Sizes Used for Concrete Aggregates

Sieve Size

11/2 in.

1 in.

3/4 in.

1/2 in.

3/8 in.

No. 4

No. 8

(Nominal Maximum Size)

11/2 in.

1 in.

3/4 in. 1/2 in.

95-100

100

95-100

100

35-70

90-100

100

25-60

90-100

10-30

20-55

40-70

0-5

0-10

0-10

0-15

0-5

0-5

0-5

Table 1.2: ASTM C33 Grading Limits for Coarse Concrete Aggregates

Sieve Size

3/4 in.

No. 4

No. 8

No. 16

No. 30

No. 50

No. 100

% Passing

100

95-100

80-100

50-85

25-60

10-30

2-10

Table 1.3: ASTM C33 Grading Limits for Fine Concrete Aggregates

Victor Saouma

Draft

14

16

INTRODUCTION

Air-dry (AD): all moisture is removed from the surface, but internal pores are partially full.

Saturated-surface-dry (SSD): All pores are lled with water, but no lm of water on the

surface.

Wet: All pores are completely lled with a lm of water on the surface.

17

Absorption capacity (AC): is the maximum amount of water the aggregate can absorb

AC =

WSSD WOD

100%

WOD

(1.1)

most normal -weight aggregates (ne and coarse) have an absorption capacity in the range

of 1% to 2%.

Surface Moisture (SM): is the water in excess of the SSD state

SM =

WW et WSSD

100%

WSSD

(1.2)

The neness modulus is a parameter which describe the grading curve and it can be used

to check the uniformity of the grading. It is usually computed for ne aggregates on the basis

of

cumulative percent retained on standard sieves

(1.3)

F.M. =

100

where the standard sieves used are No. 100, No. 50, No. 30, No. 16, No. 8, and No. 4, and

3/8 in, 3/4 in, 11/2 in and larger.

18

The neness modulus for ne aggregate should lie between 2.3 and 3.1 A small number

indicates a ne grading, whereas a large number indicates a coarse material.

19

20

Fineness modulus of ne aggregate is required for mix proportioning since sand gradation

has the largest eect on workability. A ne sand (low neness modulus) has much higher paste

requirements for good workability.

21

22

The neness modulus of coarse aggregate is not used for mix design purposes.

no-nes concrete has little cohesiveness in the fresh state and can not be compacted to a

void-free condition. Hence, it will have a low strength, high permeability. Its only advantage is

low density, and high thermal insulation which can be used if structural requirements are not

high.

23

Victor Saouma

Draft

1.1 Material

15

Sieve

Size

No.

No.

No.

No.

No.

No.

Weight

Amount

Cumulative

Cumulative

Retained Retained

Amount

Amount

(g)

(wt. %) Retained (%) Passing (%)

4

9

2

2

98

8

46

9

11

89

16

97

19

30

70

30

99

20

50

50

50

120

24

74

26

100

91

18

92

8

Sample Weight 500 g.

= 259

Fineness modulus=259/100=2.59

1.1.1.1.2

24

Preliminary Considerations

1. Water/Cement ratio: where the strength is inversely proportional to the water to cement

ratio, approximately expressed as:

fc =

A

B 1.5w/c

(1.4)

For fc in psi, A is usually taken as 14,000 and B depends on the type of cement, but may

be taken to be about 4. It should be noted that w/c controls not only the strength, but

also the porosity and hence the durability.

2. Aggregate Grading: In order to minimize the amount of cement paste, we must maximize

the volume of aggregates. This can be achieved through proper packing of the granular

material. The ideal grading curve (with minimum voids) is closely approximated by

the Fuller curve

d q

Pt =

(1.5)

D

where Pt is the fraction of total solids ner than size d, and D is the maximum particle

size, q is generally taken as 1/2, hence the parabolic grading.

1.1.1.1.3

Mix procedure

Before starting the mix design process, the following material properties should be determined:

25

2. Unit weight of the coarse aggregate

3. Bulk specic gravities

Victor Saouma

Draft

16

INTRODUCTION

1. Slump1 must be selected for the particular job to account for the anticipated method

of handling and placing concrete, Table 1.5 As a general rule, adopt the lowest possible

Type of Construction

Foundation walls and footings

Plain footings, caissons

Beams and reinforced walls

Building columns

Pavement and slabs

Mass concrete

Max

3

3

4

4

3

3

Min

1

1

1

1

1

1

slump.

2. Maximum aggregate size: in general the largest possible size should be adopted.

However, it should be noted that:

(a) For reinforced concrete, the maximum size may not exceed one-fth of the minimum dimensions between the forms, or three-fourths of the minimum clear spacing

between bars, or between steel and forms.

(b) For slabs on grade, the maximum size may not exceed one-third the slab depth.

In general maximum aggregate size is 3/4 in or 1 in.

3. Water and Air content Air content will aect workability (some time it is better to

increase air content rather than increasing w/c which will decrease strength). Air content

can be increased through the addition of admixtures. Table 1.6 tabulates recommended

values of air content (obtained through such admixtures) for dierent conditions (for

instance under severe freezing/thawing air content should be high).

Recommended water requirements are given by Table 1.7.

Exposure

Mild

Moderate

Extreme

in.

4.5

6.0

7.5

3/8

Sizes of Aggregates

1/2 in. 3/4 in. 1 in.

4.0

3.5

3.5

5.5

5.0

4.5

7.0

6.0

6.05

11/2 in.

3.0

4.4

5.5

Table 1.6: Recommended Average Total Air Content as % of Dierent Nominal Maximum Sizes

of Aggregates and Levels of Exposure

1

The slump test (ASTM C143) is a measure of the shear resistance of concrete to owing under its own weight.

It is a good indicator of the concrete workability. A hollow mold in the form of a frustum of a cone is lled

with concrete in three layers of equal volume. Each layer is rodded 25 times. The mold is then lifted vertically,

and the slump is measured by determining the dierence between the height of the mold and the height of the

concrete over the original center of the base of the specimen.

Victor Saouma

Draft

1.1 Material

17

Slump

in.

1-2

3-4

6-7

1-2

3-4

6-7

Sizes of Aggregates

3/8 in. 1/2 in. 3/4 in. 1 in.

Non-Air-Entrained Concrete

350

335

315

300

385

365

340

325

410

385

360

340

Air-Entrained Concrete

305

295

280

270

340

325

305

295

365

345

325

310

11/2 in.

275

300

315

250

275

290

Table 1.7: Approximate Mixing Water Requirements, lb/yd3 of Concrete For Dierent Slumps

and Nominal Maximum Sizes of Aggregates

4. Water/cement ratio: this is governed by both strength and durability. Table 1.8

provides some guidance in terms of strength.

28 days

fc

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

Non-air-entrained Air-entrained

0.41

0.48

0.40

0.57

0.48

0.68

0.59

0.82

0.74

For durability, if there is a severe exposure (freeze/thaw, exposure to sea-water, sulfates),

then there are severe restrictions on the W/C ratio (usually to be kept just under 0.5)

5. Cement Content: Once the water content and the w/c ratio are determined, the amount

of cement per unit volume of concrete is determined simply by dividing the estimated

water requirement by the w/c ratio.

6. Coarse Aggregate Content: Volume of coarse aggregate required per cubic yard of

concrete depends on its maximum size and the neness modulus of the ne aggregate,

Table 1.9. The oven dry (OD) volume of coarse aggregate in ft3 required per cubic yard

is simply equal to the value from Table 1.9 multiplied by 27. This volume can then be

converted to an OD weight by multiplying it by the dry-rodded2 weight per cubic foot of

coarse aggregate.

7. The ne aggregate content can be estimated by subtracting the volume of cement,

water, air and coarse aggregate from the total volume. The weight of the ne aggregate

can then be obtained by multiplying this volume by the density of the ne aggregate.

2

Dry Rodded Volume (DRV) is the normal volume of space a material occupies.

Victor Saouma

Draft

18

INTRODUCTION

Agg. Size

in

3/8

1/2

3/4

1

11/2

Sand

2.40

0.50

0.59

0.66

0.71

0.76

Fineness Moduli

2.60 2.80 3.00

0.48 0.46 0.44

0.57 0.55 0.53

0.64 0.62 0.60

0.69 0.67 0.65

0.74 0.72 0.70

Table 1.9: Volume of Dry-Rodded Coarse Aggregate per Unit Volume of Concrete for Dierent

Fineness Moduli of Sand

8. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregates: is necessary. If aggregates are air

dry, they will absorb some water (thus eectively lowering the w/c), or if aggregates are

too wet they will release water (increasing the w/c and the workability but reducing the

strength).

1.1.1.1.4

Concrete is required for an exterior column to be located above ground in an area where

substantial freezing and thawing may occur. The concrete is required to have an average 28day compressive strength of 5,000 psi. For the conditions of placement, the slump should be

between 1 and 2 in, the maximum aggregate size should not exceed 3/4 in. and the properties

of the materials are as follows:

Cement: Type I specic gravity = 3.15

Coarse Aggregates: Bulk specic gravity (SSD) = 2.70; absorption capacity= 1.0%; Total

moisture content = 2.5%; Dry-rodded unit weight = 100 lb/ft3

Fine Aggregates: Bulk specic gravity (SSD) = 2.65; absorption capacity = 1.3 %; Total

moisture content=5.5%; neness modulus = 2.70

The sieve analyses of both the coarse and ne aggregates fall within the specied limits. With

this information, the mix design can proceed:

1. Choice of slump is consistent with Table 1.5.

2. Maximum aggregate size (3/4 in) is governed by reinforcing details.

3. Estimation of mixing water: Because water will be exposed to freeze and thaw, it must

be air-entrained. From Table 1.6 the air content recommended for extreme exposure is

6.0%, and from Table 1.7 the water requirement is 280 lb/yd3

4. From Table 1.8, the water to cement ratio estimate is 0.4

5. Cement content, based on steps 4 and 5 is 280/0.4=700 lb/yd3

6. Coarse aggregate content, interpolating from Table 1.9 for the neness modulus of

the ne aggregate of 2.70, the volume of dry-rodded coarse aggregate per unit volume of

concrete is 0.63. Therefore, the coarse aggregate will occupy 0.63 27 = 17.01 ft3 /yd3 .

Victor Saouma

Draft

1.1 Material

19

The OD weight of the coarse aggregate is 17.01 ft3 /yd3 , 100 lbs/ft3 =1,701 lb. The SSD

weight is 1,701 1.01=1,718 lb.

7. Fine aggregate content Knowing the weights and specic gravities of the water, cement,

and coarse aggregate, and knowing the air volume, we can calculate the volume per yd3

occupied by the dierent ingredients.

Water

Cement

Coarse Aggregate (SSD)

Air

280/62.4

700/(3.15)(62.4)

1,718/(2.70)(62.4)

(0.06)(27)

=

=

=

=

4.49

3.56

1.62

1.62

19.87

ft3

ft3

ft3

ft3

ft3

Hence, the ne aggregate must occupy a volume of 27.0 19.87 = 7.13 ft3 . The required

SSD weight of the ne aggregate is 7.13 ft3 (2.65)(62.4)lb/ft3 =1,179 lbs lb.

8. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregate. Since the aggregate will be neither SSD or

OD in the eld, it is necessary to adjust the aggregate weights for the amount of water

contained in the aggregate. Only surface water need be considered; absorbed water does

not become part of the mix water. For the given moisture contents, the adjusted aggregate weights become:

Coarse aggregate (wet)=1,718(1.025-0.01) = 1,744 lb/yd3 of dry coarse

Fine aggregate (wet)=1,179(1.055-0.013) = 1,229 lb/yd3 of dry ne

Surface moisture contributed by the coarse aggregate is 2.5-1.0 = 1.5%; by the ne aggregate: 5.5-1.3 = 4.2%; Hence we need to decrease water to

280-1,718(0.015)-1,179(0.042) = 205 lb/yd3 .

Thus, the estimated batch weight per yd3 are

Water

Cement

Wet coarse aggregate

Wet ne aggregate

3,878

27

1.1.1.2

26

205 lb

700 lb

1,744 lb

1,229 lb

3,878 lb/yd3

143.6 lb/ft3

Mechanical Properties

Contrarily to steel to modulus of elasticity of concrete depends on the strength and is given

by

E = 57, 000 fc

(1.6)

E = 33 1.5

(1.7)

or

fc

Victor Saouma

Draft

110

INTRODUCTION

27

Normal weight and lightweight concrete have equal to 150 and 90-120 lb/ft3 respectively.

28

Typical concrete (compressive) strengths range from 3,000 to 6,000 psi; However high strength

concrete can go up to 14,000 psi.

29

30

1. Properties of aggregates

2. Properties of cement

3. Water/cement ratio

4. Strength

5. Age of concrete

6. Rate of loading, as rate , strength

Non-linear part of stress-strain curve is caused by micro-cracking around the aggregates, Fig.

1.2

31

Non-Linear

~ 0.5 c

f

Linear

32

33

fct =

t

f

4.0 + .85t c,28

(1.8)

or

t (days)

%fc,28

34

1

20

2

35

4

54

7

70

10

80

15

90

Victor Saouma

Draft

1.1 Material

111

f

c

f / 2

c

u =

0.003

35 The tensile strength of concrete ft is very dicult to measure experimentally. Accepted

values

ft 0.07 0.11fc

35

(1.9-a)

fc

(1.9-b)

36 Rather than the tensile strength, it is common to measure the modulus of rupture fr , Fig.

1.4

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

fr 7.5

Victor Saouma

fc

(1.10)

Draft

112

INTRODUCTION

f

t

1

f

c

f

t

2

1

1

2

f

c

2

Using split cylinder (or brazilian test), Fig. 1.5 ft 68 fc . For this test, a nearly uniform

tensile stress

2P

(1.11)

=

dt

where P is the applied compressive load at failure, d and t are diameter and thickness of the

specimen respectively.

37

In most cases, concrete is subjected to uniaxial stresses, but it is possible to have biaxial

(shells, shear walls) or triaxial (beam/column connections) states of stress.

38

39

40

Shrinkage: when exposed to air (dry), water tends to evaporate from the concrete surface,

shrinkage. It depends on the w/c and relative humidity. sh 0.0002 0.0007. Shrinkage

can cause cracking if the structure is restrained, and may cause large secondary stresses.

If a simply supported beam is fully restrained against longitudinal deformation, then

sh = Esh

(1.12-a)

3, 000

= 57, 000 3, 000(0.0002) = 624 psi >

10

(1.12-b)

ft

Creep: can be viewed as the squeezing out of water due to long term stresses (analogous to

consolidation in clay), Fig. 1.7.

3

For this reason a minimum amount of reinforcement is always necessary in concrete, and a 2% reinforcement,

can reduce the shrinkage by 75%.

Victor Saouma

Draft

1.1 Material

113

Elastic recovery

creep

Creep recovery

Residual

no load

constant load

no load

Creep coecient, Table 1.10

Cu =

Ct =

fc

Cu

3,000

3.1

4,000

2.9

ct

23

ci

t0.6

Cu

10 + t0.6

6,000

2.4

(1.13-a)

(1.13-b)

8,000

2.0

41

Coecient of thermal expansion is 0.65 105 /deg F for normal weight concrete.

1.1.2

42

Reinforcing Steel

Bars have a deformation on their surface to increase the bond with concrete, and usually

have a yield stress of 60 ksi.

43

44

Stirrups, used as vertical reinforcement to resist shear, usually have a yield stress of only 40

ksi

45

Steel loses its strength rapidly above 700 deg. F (and thus must be properly protected from

re), and becomes brittle at 30 deg. F

46

47

Victor Saouma

Draft

114

INTRODUCTION

Bar Designation

No. 2

No. 3

No. 4

No. 5

No. 6

No. 7

No. 8

No. 9

No. 10

No. 11

No. 14

No. 18

Diameter

(in.)

2/8=0.250

3/8=0.375

4/8=0.500

5/8=0.625

6/8=0.750

7/8=0.875

8/8=1.000

9/8=1.128

10/8=1.270

11/8=1.410

14/8 =1.693

18/8 =2.257

Area

( in2 )

0.05

0.11

0.20

0.31

0.44

0.60

0.79

1.00

1.27

1.56

2.25

4.00

Perimeter

in

0.79

1.18

1.57

1.96

2.36

2.75

3.14

3.54

3.99

4.43

5.32

7.09

Weight

lb/ft

0.167

0.376

0.668

1.043

1.5202

2.044

2.670

3.400

4.303

5.313

7.650

13.60

Welded wire fabric is often used to reinforce slabs and shells. It has both longitudinal and

transverse cold-drawn steel. They are designated by AAW B B, such as 66W 1.41.4

where spacing of the wire is 6 inch, and a cross section of 0.014 in2 .

48

1.2

ACI refers to this method as the Strength Design Method, (previously referred to as the

Ultimate Strength Method).

49

Rn i Qi

(1.14)

where

is a strength reduction factor, less than 1, and must account for the type of structural

element, Table 1.12 (ACI 9.3.2)

Type of Member

Axial Tension

Flexure

Axial Compression, spiral reinforcement

Axial Compression, other

Shear and Torsion

Bearing on concrete

0.9

0.9

0.75

0.70

0.85

0.70

Rn is the nominal resistance (or strength).

Victor Saouma

Draft

115

i is the load factor corresponding to Qi and is greater than 1.

i Qi is the required strength based on the factored load:

i is the type of load

Mn Mu

(1.15-a)

Vn Vu

(1.15-b)

Pn Pu

(1.15-c)

50

51

The various factored load combinations which must be considered (ACI: 9.2) are

1. 1.4D+1.7L

2. 0.75(1.4D+1.7L+1.7W)

3. 0.9D+1.3W

4. 1.05D+1.275W

5. 0.9D+1.7H

6. 1.4D +1.7L+1.7H

7. 0.75(1.4D+1.4T+1.7L)

8. 1.4(D+T)

where D= dead; L= live; Lr= roof live; W= wind; E= earthquake; S= snow; T= temperature;

H= soil. We must select the one with the largest limit state load.

52 Serviceability Limit States must be assessed under service loads (not factored). The

most important ones being

1. Deections

2. Crack width (for R/C)

3. Stability

1.3

53

Analysis vs Design

Analysis: Given a certain design, determine what is the maximum moment which can be

applied.

Design: Given an external moment to be resisted, determine cross sectional dimensions (b and

h) as well as reinforcement (As ). Note that in many cases the external dimensions of the

beam (b and h) are xed by the architect.

54

We often consider the maximum moment along a member, and design accordingly.

Victor Saouma

Draft

116

1.4

INTRODUCTION

In developing a design/analysis method for reinforced concrete, the following basic relations

will be used:

55

reinforcement = Compression in concrete; and 2) M = 0 or external moment (that is the

one obtained from the moment envelope) equal and opposite to the internal one (tension

in steel and compression of the concrete).

2. Material Stress Strain: We recall that all normal strength concrete have a failure strain

u = .003 in compression irrespective of fc .

56

Compatibility of Displacements: Perfect bond between steel and concrete (no slip). Note

that those two materials do also have very close coecients of thermal expansion under

normal temperature.

Plane section remain plane strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis.

Neglect tensile strength in all cases.

1.5

ACI Code

Attached is an unauthorized copy of some of the most relevant ACI-318-89 design code provisions.

8.1.1 - In design of reinforced concrete structures, members shall be proportioned for adequate strength in accordance with provisions of this code, using load factors and strength

reduction factors specied in Chapter 9.

8.3.1 - All members of frames or continuous construction shall be designed for the maximum

eects of factored loads as determined by the theory of elastic analysis, except as modied

according to Section 8.4. Simplifying assumptions of Section 8.6 through 8.9 may be used.

8.5.1 - Modulus of elasticity Ec for concrete may be taken as Wc1.5 33 fc ( psi) for values

of Wc between 90 and 155 lb per cu ft. For normal weight concrete, Ec may be taken as

57, 000 fc .

8.5.2 - Modulus of elasticity Es for non-prestressed reinforcement may be taken as 29,000

psi.

9.1.1 - Structures and structural members shall be designed to have design strengths at all

sections at least equal to the required strengths calculated for the factored loads and forces in

such combinations as are stipulated in this code.

9.2 - Required Strength

9.2.1 - Required strength U to resist dead load D and live load L shall be at least equal to

U = 1.4D + 1.7L

(1.16)

9.2.2 - If resistance to structural eects of a specied wind load W are included in design,

the following combinations of D, L, and W shall be investigated to determine the greatest

required strength U

U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W )

(1.17)

Victor Saouma

Draft

117

where load combinations shall include both full value and zero value of L to determine the more

severe condition, and

U = 0.9D + 1.3W

(1.18)

but for any combination of D, L, and W, required strength U shall not be less than Eq. (9-1).

9.3.1 - Design strength provided by a member, its connections to other members, and its

cross sections, in terms of exure, axial load, shear, and torsion, shall be taken as the nominal

strength calculated in accordance with requirements and assumptions of this code, multiplied

by a strength reduction factor .

9.3.2 - Strength reduction factor shall be as follows:

9.3.2.1 - Flexure, without axial load 0.90

9.4 - Design strength for reinforcement Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of

reinforcement fy in excess of 80,000 psi, except for prestressing tendons.

10.2.2 - Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to

the distance from the neutral axis, except, for deep exural members with overall depth to

clear span ratios greater than 2/5 for continuous spans and 4/5 for simple spans, a non-linear

distribution of strain shall be considered. See Section 10.7.

10.2.3 - Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression ber shall be assumed

equal to 0.003.

10.2.4 - Stress in reinforcement below specied yield strength fy for grade of reinforcement

used shall be taken as Es times steel strain. For strains greater than that corresponding to fy ,

stress in reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to fy .

10.2.5 - Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in exural calculations of reinforced

concrete, except when meeting requirements of Section 18.4.

10.2.6 - Relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain

may be assumed to be rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any other shape that results in

prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests.

10.2.7 - Requirements of Section 10.2.5 may be considered satised by an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution dened by the following:

10.2.7.1 - Concrete stress of 0.85fc shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel

to the neutral axis at a distance (a = 1 c) from the ber of maximum compressive strain.

10.2.7.2 - Distance c from ber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured

in a direction perpendicular to that axis.

10.2.7.3 - Factor 1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths fc up to and including

4,000 psi. For strengths above 4,000 psi, 1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.05 for

each 1000 psi of strength in excess of 4,000 psi, but 1 shall not be taken less than 0.65.

10.3.2 - Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when tension reinforcement

reaches the strain corresponding to its specied yield strength fy just as concrete in compression

reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0.003.

10.3.3 - For exural members, and for members subject to combined exure and compressive axial load when the design axial load strength (Pn ) is less than the smaller of (0.10fc Ag )

or (Pb ), the ratio of reinforcement p provided shall not exceed 0.75 of the ratio b that would

produce balanced strain conditions for the section under exure without axial load. For members with compression reinforcement, the portion of b equalized by compression reinforcement

need not be reduced by the 0.75 factor.

10.3.4 - Compression reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement

may be used to increase the strength of exural members.

Victor Saouma

Draft

118

INTRODUCTION

10.5.1 - At any section of a exural member, except as provided in Sections 10.5.2 and

10.5.3, where positive reinforcement is required by analysis, the ratio provided shall not be

less than that given by

200

(1.19)

min =

fy

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 2

FLEXURE

This is probably the longest chapter in the notes, we shall cover in great details exural

design/analysis of R/C beams starting with uncracked section to failure conditions.

2. cracked elastic (service stage)

3. Ultimate (failure)

2.1

Uncracked Section

c

d

As

2

Assuming perfect bond between steel and concrete, we have s = c , Fig. 2.1

s = c

fs

fc

Es

=

fs =

fc fs = nfc

Es

Ec

Ec

Es

Ec

(2.1)

Draft

22

FLEXURE

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

(n-1)A S 00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

2

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

(n-1)A S

2

5

fc =

Mc

fs = nfc

I

(2.2)

+

Make sure that max < ft

in2

Given fc = 4,000 psi; ft = 475 psi; fy = 60,000 psi; M = 45 ft-k = 540,000 in-lb; As = 2.35

+

yt

25" 23"

2

As = 2.35 in

yb

10"

Solution:

29, 000

57 4, 000

(10)(25)( 25 ) + (16.45)(2)

2

=

(25)(10) + 16.45

= 11.8 in

n =

yb

yb

y t = 25 11.8 = 13.2 in

(10)(25)3

I =

+ (25)(10)(13.2 12.5)2 + (16.45)(23 13.2)2

12

= 14, 722 in2

(540, 000) lb.in(13.2)in

Mc

=

= 484 psi

fcc =

I

(14, 722) in4

Victor Saouma

(2.3-a)

(2.3-b)

(2.3-c)

(2.3-d)

(2.3-e)

(2.3-f)

(2.3-g)

Draft

23

Mc

(540, 000) lb.in(25 13.2) in

= 433 psi < 475 psi

=

4

I

(14, 722) in

(540, 000)(23 13.2) in

Mc

= (8)

= 2, 876 psi

= n

I

(14, 722)

fct =

fs

2.2

(2.3-h)

(2.3-i)

This is important not only as an acceptable alternative ACI design method, but also for the

later evaluation of crack width under service loads.

2.2.1

Basic Relations

If fct > fr , fcc < .5fc and fs < fy we will assume that the crack goes all the way to the

N.A and we will use the transformed section, Fig. 2.3

8

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

(n-1)A S 00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

2

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

(n-1)A S

2

fc

C

kd/3

kd

d

(1-k/3)d=jd

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

To locate N.A, tension force = compressive force (by def. NA) (Note, for linear stress distribution and with Fx = 0; = by bydA = 0, thus b ydA = 0 and ydA = yA = 0, by

denition, gives the location of the neutral axis)

9

10

Es

Ec

Tensile and compressive forces are equal to C = bkd fc & T = As fs and neutral axis is

2

determined by equating the moment of the tension area to the moment of the compression

area

11

b(kd)

kd

2

= nAs (d kd)

M = T jd = As fs jd fs =

M = Cjd =

M

As jd

bkd

bd2

fc jd =

kjfc fc =

2

2

(2.4-a)

(2.4-b)

1

bd2 kj

2

(2.4-c)

where j = (1 k/3).

Victor Saouma

Draft

24

2.2.2

FLEXURE

Referred to as Alternate Design Method (ACI Code Appendix A); Based on Working

Stress Design method.

12

13

fcc .45fc

fst 20 ksi for grade 40 or 50 steel

fst 24 ksi for grade 60 steel

14

(2.5)

= As

bd

k = 2n + (n)2 n

(kd)

b(kd) 2

= nAs (d kd)

(2.6)

Design: Objective is to have fc & fs preset & determine As , Fig. 2.4, and we thus seek the

optimal value of k in such a way that concrete and steel reach their respective limits

simultaneously.

c

fc

C

kd/3

kd

d

(1-k/3)d=jd

T

fs

c

s

c

s

=

=

=

kd

dkd

fc

Ec

fs

Es

f c Es

Ec f s

n

r

=

=

=

k

1k

Es

Ec

fs

fc

k=

n

n+r

(2.7)

Balanced design in terms of : What is the value of such that steel and concrete will both

reach their maximum allowable stress values simultaneously

C = bkd fc

2

fc

T = As fs

n

2 bkd = b fs bd

b = 2r(n+r)

(2.8)

n

C = T

k = n+r

= As

bd

15

16

Governing equations

Victor Saouma

Draft

25

If < b steel reaches max. allowable value before concrete, and

(2.9)

M = As fs jd

If > b concrete reaches max. allowable value before steel and

M = fc

bkd

jd

2

(2.10)

or

1

M = fc jkbd2 = Rbd2

2

(2.11)

1

fc kj

2

(2.12)

where

k=

2n + (n)2 n

Design We dene

def

R =

where k =

n

n+r ,

M

R

assume b and solve for d. Finally we can determine As from

bd2 =

As = b bd

17

(2.13)

(2.14)

Summary

Review

b, d, As

M?

= As

bd

k = 2n + (n)2 n

r = fs

fc

n

b = 2r(n+r)

< b M = As fs jd

> b M = 1 fc bkd2 j

2

Design

M

b, d, As ?

n

k = n+r

j =1 k

3

r = fs

fc

R = 1 fc kj

2

n

b = 2r(n+r)

bd2 = M

R

As = b bd or As =

M

fs jd

Victor Saouma

Draft

26

FLEXURE

Same problem as example 2.1 fc = 4,000 psi; ft = 475 psi; fy = 60,000 psi; As = 2.35 in2

however, M is doubled to M = 90 k.ft (instead of 45). Determine concrete and steel stresses

Solution:

Based on previous example, fct would be 866 psi

valid.

The neutral axis is obtained from

As

2.35

=

= 0.0102

bd

(10)(23)

n = (0.010)(8) = 0.08174

=

2n +

k =

(n)2

(2.15-a)

(2.15-b)

(2.15-c)

kd = (.33)(23) = 7.6 in

0.33

(23) = 20.47 in

jd =

1

3

M

fs =

As jd

(90)(1, 000)(12)

= 22, 400 psi

=

(2.35)(20.47)

2M

fc =

bjkd2

(2)(90)(12, 000)

= 1, 390 psi

=

(10) (20.47) (7.6)

jd

I =

k.ft

in

psi

in4

psi

in

(2.15-e)

(2.15-f)

(2.15-g)

(2.15-h)

(2.15-i)

(2.15-j)

kd

(10)(7.6)3

+ (10)(7.6)

12

M

N.A

fcc

I

fs

(2.15-d)

Uncracked

45

13.2

485

14,710

2,880

1

7.6

2

Cracked

90

7.6

1,390 (< .5fc )

5,910

22,400

4

(2.15-k)

Cracked/uncracked

2

2.9

1

.4 ( I )

( 7 )

4

Same problem as example 2.1 fc = 4,000 psi; ft = 475 psi; fy = 60,000 psi; As = 2.35 in2 .

Determine Moment capacity.

Solution:

Victor Saouma

Draft

27

2.35

As

=

= .0102

bd

(10)(23)

= 24 ksi

(2.16-a)

=

fs

(2.16-b)

(2.16-c)

(2.16-d)

k

j = 1 = .889

(2.16-e)

3

N.A. @ (.331)(23) = 7.61 in

(2.16-f)

8

n

=

= .014 >

Steel reaches elastic (2.16-g)

limit

b =

2r(n + r)

(2)(13.33)(8 + 13.33)

k =

(2.16-h)

Note, had we used the alternate equation for moment (wrong) we would have overestimated

the design moment:

M

1

= = fc bkd2 j

2

1

(1.8)(10)(0.33)(0.89)(23)2 = 1, 397 k.in > 1, 154 k.in

=

2

(2.17-a)

(2.17-b)

If we dene c = fc /1, 800 and s = fs /24, 000, then as the load increases both c and s

increase, but at dierent rates, one of them s reaches 1 before the other.

Load

Design a beam to carry LL = 1.9 k/ft, DL = 1.0 k/ft with fc = 4, 000 psi, fy = 60, 000 psi,

L = 32 ft.

Solution:

Victor Saouma

(2.18-a)

Draft

28

FLEXURE

fs = 24, 000 psi

Es

29, 000

n =

=

=8

Ec

57 4, 000

24

fs

= 13.33

=

r =

fc

1.8

8

n

=

= .375

k =

n+r

8 + 13.33

d

.375

j = 1 =1

= .875

3

3

n

8

b =

=

= .01405

2r(n + r)

2(13.33)(8 + 13.33)

1

1

fc kj = (1, 800)(.375)(.875) = 295 psi

R =

2

2

(2.18-b)

(2.18-c)

(2.18-d)

(2.18-e)

(2.18-f)

(2.18-g)

(2.18-h)

M

(32)2

= 435 k.ft

8

435 k.ft in2 (12, 000) lb.in

M

=

= 17, 700 in3

R

(295) lbs ft k

(2.19-a)

bd2 =

(2.19-b)

2

ft2

Check beam weight (18)(36) (.15) in 2 k3 = .675 k/ft

145

in

As = (.01405)(18)(31.4) = 7.94

2.3

in2

ft

2.3.1

f

c

c

c

h

C= fcb

c

a/2 = c

a= 1c

C= fab

c

d

As

fs

fs

Actual

Figure

Victor Saouma

Draft

29

18 At failure we have, linear cross strain distribution (ACI 10.2.2) (except for deep beams),

non-linear stress strain curve for the concrete, thus a non-linear stress distribution.

19

Two options:

1. Analytical expression of exact integration

2. Replace exact stress diagram with a simpler and equivalent one, (ACI 10.2.6)

20 For the equivalent stress distribution, all we need to know is C & its location, thus and .

We adopt a rectangular stress, with depth a = 1 c, and stress equal to fc (ACI 10.2.7.1)

C = fc bc = fc ab

fav

=

fc

a = 1 c

Thus

=

(2.20-a)

(2.20-b)

(2.20-c)

(2.21)

But the location of the resultant forces must be the same, hence

1 = 2

21

From Experiments

fc ( psi)

1 = 2

= /1

22

(2.22)

<4,000

.72

.425

.85

0.85

5,000

.68

.400

.80

0.85

6,000

.64

.375

.75

0.85

8,000

.56

.325

.65

0.86

1 = .85

1

= .85 (.05)(fc 4, 000) 1,000

23

7,000

.60

.350

.70

0.86

if fc 4, 000

if 4, 000 < fc < 8, 000

(2.23)

crushing of concrete: c = .003; Sudden; (ACI 10.3.2).

Victor Saouma

Draft

210

FLEXURE

u=0.003

0.85 fc

a= 1c

C=0.85f ab

c

c

h

d

d

As

2.3.2

Balanced Design

fs = fy

As fs = .85fc ab = .85fc b1 c

c=

As

= bd

Tension Failure:

fy

.85fc 1 d

(2.24)

Compression Failure:

c = .003

fs

s =

Es

.003

c

=

c=

d

.003 + s

(2.25-a)

(2.25-b)

.003

fs

+.003

Es

(2.25-c)

Balanced Design:

Balanced design occurs if we have simultaneous yielding of the steel and crushing of the

concrete. Hence, we simply equate the previous two equations

24

fy

.85fc 1 d

25

= b

.003

fs

+.003

Es

bf 2d

.85fc 1

.003

fs

+.003

Es

fc 87,000

b = .851 fy 87,000+fy

(2.27)

< .75b

26

(2.26)

(ACI 8.4.3)

U

U

Md = M u

Victor Saouma

=

=

=

=

1.4D + 1.7L

0.75(1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W )

Mn

.90

(ACI

(ACI

(ACI

(ACI

9.2.1)

9.2.2)

9.1.1)

9.3.2.2)

(2.28)

Draft

27

211

min

200

fy

(2.29)

(ACI 10.5.1)

Note, that need not be as high as 0.75b . If steel is relatively expensive, or deection is of

concern, can use lower .

28

29

2.3.3

30

Review

act = As

bd

fc 87

b

= (.85)1 fy 87+fy

(2.30)

A f

s

a = .85f yb

Fx = 0

c

a

Md = As fy (d 2 ) M = 0

(2.31)

act > b is not allowed by code, in this case we have an extra unknown fs .

We now have one more unknown fs , and we will need an additional equation (from strain

diagram).

31

A s

c = .85fs fb1

c

c

.003

d = .003+s

Md = As fs (d

Fx = 0

From strain diagram

1 c

2 ) M = 0

(2.32)

2.3.4

32

Design

I b d and As , unknown; Md known; Since design failure is triggered by fs = fy

Fx = 0 a =

=

As f y

0.85fc b

As

bd

y

a = 0.85f

c

Md = As fy d

Md = fy 1 .59

a

2

fy

fc

bd2

(2.33-a)

R = fy 1 .59

Victor Saouma

fy

fc

(2.34)

Draft

212

FLEXURE

which does not depend on unknown quantities. Then solve for bd2 :

bd2 =

Md

R

(2.35)

Solve for b and d (this will require either an assumption on one of the two, or on their

ratio).

As = bd

II b & d known & Md known there is no assurance that we can have a design with b

If the section is too small, then it will require too much steel resulting in an over-reinforced

section.

Iterative approach

(a) Since we do not know if the steel will be yielding or not, use fs .

(b) Assume an initial value for a (a good start is a = d )

5

(c) Assume initially that fs = fy

(d) Check equilibrium of moments (M = 0)

As =

Md

fs d

(2.36)

a

2

a=

As fs

.85fc b

(2.37)

(f) Check assumption of fs by either comparing with b , or from the strain diagram

.003

dc

s

=

fs = Es

.003 < fy

dc

c

c

where c =

(2.38)

a

1 .

2.4

2.4.1

33

Minimum Depth

Simply

supported

Solid One

way slab

Beams or

ribbed One way slab

One end

continuous

Both ends

continuous

Cantilever

L/20

L/24

L/28

L/10

L/16

L/18.5

L/21

L/8

34

Victor Saouma

Draft

2.4.2

35

213

1. Use whole inches for overall dimensions, except for slabs use

1

2

inch increment.

2. Ideally, the overall depth to width ratio should be between 1.5 to 2.0 (most economical).

3. For T beams, ange thickness should be about 20% of overall depth.

36

Reinforcing bars

1. Minimum spacing between bars, and minimum covers are needed to

(a) Prevent Honeycombing of concrete (air pockets)

(b) Concrete (usually up to 3/4 in MSA) must pass through the reinforcement

(c) Protect reinforcement against corrosion and re

2. Use at least 2 bars for exural reinforcement

3. Use bars #11 or smaller for beams.

4. Use no more than two bar sizes and no more than 2 standard sizes apart (i.e #7 and #9

acceptable; #7 and #8 or #7 and #10 not).

5. Use no more than 5 or 6 bars in one layer.

6. Place longest bars in the layer nearest to face of beam.

7. Clear distance between parallel bars not less that db (to avoid splitting cracks) nor 1 in.

(to allow concrete to pass through).

8. Clear distance between longitudinal bars in columns not less that 1.5db or 1.5 in.

9. Minimum cover of 1.5 in.

10. Summaries in Fig. 2.7 and Table 2.1, 2.2.

2.4.3

37

Design Aids

Review Given b d and known steel ratio and material strength, Mn can be readily obtained

from Mn = Rbd2

Design in this case

Set Md = Rbd2

From tabulated values, select max and min often 0.5b is a good economical choice.

Select R from tabulated values of R in terms of fy , fc and . Solve for bd2 .

Select b and d to meet requirements. Usually depth is about 2 to 3 times the width.

Using tabulated values select the size and number of bars giving preference to larger

bar sizes to reduce placement cost (careful about crack width!).

6. Check from tables that the selected beam width will provide room for the bars chosen

with adequate cover and spacing.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Victor Saouma

Draft

214

Bar

Size

#3

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#14

#18

FLEXURE

Nominal

Diam.

0.375

0.500

0.625

0.750

0.875

1.000

1.128

1.270

1.410

1.693

2.257

1

0.11

0.20

0.31

0.44

0.60

0.79

1.00

1.27

1.56

2.25

4.00

2

0.22

0.40

0.62

0.88

1.20

1.58

2.00

2.54

3.12

4.50

8.00

3

0.33

0.60

0.93

1.32

1.80

2.37

3.00

3.81

4.68

6.75

12.00

Number of Bars

4

5

6

7

0.44

0.55

0.66

0.77

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.24

1.55

1.86

2.17

1.76

2.20

2.64

3.08

2.40

3.00

3.60

4.20

3.16

3.95

4.74

5.53

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

5.08

6.35

7.62

8.89

6.24

7.80

9.36

10.92

9.00

11.25 13.50 15.75

16.00 20.00 24.00 28.00

8

0.88

1.60

2.48

3.52

4.80

6.32

8.00

10.16

12.48

18.00

32.00

9

0.99

1.80

2.79

3.96

5.40

7.11

9.00

11.43

14.04

20.25

36.00

10

1.10

2.00

3.10

4.40

6.00

7.90

10.00

12.70

15.60

22.50

40.00

Table 2.1: Total areas for various numbers of reinforcing bars (inch2 )

Bar

Size

#4

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#14

#18

Number of bars

2

3

4

6.8

8.3

9.8

6.9

8.5 10.2

7.0

8.8 10.5

7.2

9.1 11.0

7.3

9.3 11.3

7.6

9.9 12.1

7.8 10.3 12.9

8.1 10.9 13.7

8.9 12.3 15.7

10.6 15.1 19.6

5

6

7

8

11.3 12.8 14.3 15.8

11.8 13.4 15.1 16.7

12.3 14.0 15.8 17.5

12.8 14.7 16.6 18.5

13.3 15.3 17.3 19.3

14.4 16.6 18.9 21.2

15.4 18.0 20.5 23.0

16.6 19.4 22.2 25.0

19.1 22.5 25.9 29.3

24.1 28.6 33.2 37.7

Victor Saouma

Draft

215

2.5

USD Examples

Determine the ultimate moment capacity of example 2.1 fc = 4,000 psi; ft = 475 psi; fy =

60,000 psi; As = 2.35 in2

yt

25" 23"

2

As = 2.35 in

yb

10"

Solution:

2.35

As

=

= .0102

bd

(10)(23)

87

4

f

87

b = .851 c

= .0285 > act

= (.85)(.85)

fy 87 + fy

60 87 + 60

As fy

(2.35)(60)

a =

=

= 4.15 in

.85fc b

(.85)(4)(10)

a

4.15

= (2.35)(60) 23

= 2, 950 k.in

Mn = As fy d

2

2

act =

(2.39-a)

(2.39-b)

(2.39-c)

(2.39-d)

(2.39-e)

Note:

Victor Saouma

Draft

216

FLEXURE

1. From equilibrium, Fx = 0 c =

As f y

.851 bfc

(2.35)(60)

(.85)(.85)(4)(10)

= 4.87 in

c

M

uncracked

13.2

45

cracked

7.61

90

ultimate

4.87

245

1.7 = 144

3. Alternative solution:

Mn = act fy bd2 (1 .59act

= As fy d(1 59act

fy

)

fc

fy

)

fc

60

(.0102)] = 2, 950 k.in = 245 k.ft

4

= Mn = (.9)(2, 950) = 2, 660 k.in

= (2.35)(60)(23)[1 (.59)

Md

(2.40-a)

(2.40-b)

(2.40-c)

(2.40-d)

Design a R/C beam with L = 15 ft; DL = 1.27 k/ft; LL = 2.44 k/ft; fc = 3,000 psi; fy =

40 ksi; Neglect beam owns weight; Select = 0.75b

Solution:

Factored load

wu = 1.4(1.27) + 1.7(2.44) = 5.92 k/ft

2

2

wu L

(5.92)(15)

=

= 166.5 k.ft(12) in/ft = 1, 998 k.in

Md =

8

8

f

87

= 0.75b = (0.75)(0.85)1 c

fy 87 + fy

87

3

= .0278

= (0.75)(.85)2

40 87 + 40

fy

R = fy 1 .59

fc

40

= 0.869 psi

= (.0278)(40) 1 (0.59)(.0278)

3

1, 998

Md

=

= 2, 555 in3

bd2 =

R

(0.9)(0.869)

(2.41-a)

(2.41-b)

(2.41-c)

(2.41-d)

(2.41-e)

(2.41-f)

(2.41-g)

Victor Saouma

Draft

217

Design a R/C beam for b = 11.5 in; d = 20 in; fc = 3 ksi; fy = 40 ksi; Md = 1, 600 k.in

Solution:

Assume a =

d

5

20

5

= 4 in

As =

(1, 600)

Md

= 2.47 in2

a =

fy (d 2 )

(.9)(40)(20 4 )

2

(2.42)

As fy

(2.47)(40)

=

= 3.38 in

(.85)fc b

(.85)(3)(11.5)

(2.43)

check assumption,

a=

Thus take a = 3.3 in.

As =

a =

act =

b =

max =

(1, 600)

= 2.42 in2

(.9)(40)(20 3.3 )

2

(2.42)(40)

= 3.3 in

(.85)(3)(11.5)

2.42

= .011

(11.5)(20)

87

3

= .037

(.85)(.85)

40 87 + 40

.75b = .0278 > act

(2.44-a)

(2.44-b)

(2.44-c)

(2.44-d)

(2.44-e)

As an Engineer questioning the validity of the ACI equation for the ultimate exural capacity

of R/C beams, you determined experimentally the following stress strain curve for concrete:

=

fc

2 max

1+

(2.45)

max

1. Determine the exact balanced steel ratio for a R/C beam with b = 10, d = 23, fc =

4, 000 psi, fy = 60 ksi, max = 0.003.

(a) Determine the equation for the exact stress distribution on the section.

(b) Determine the total compressive force C, and its location, in terms of the location

of the neutral axis c.

Victor Saouma

Draft

218

FLEXURE

2. Using the ACI equations, determine the:

(a) Ultimate moment capacity.

(b) Balanced steel ratio.

3. For the two approaches, compare:

(a) Balanced steel area.

(b) Location of the neutral axis.

(c) Centroid of resultant compressive force.

(d) Ultimate moment capacity.

Solution:

1. Stress-Strain:

=

2 4,000

.003

1+

2

.003

2.667 106

1 + 1.11 105 2

(2.46)

=

3. Combine those two equation:

0.003

y

c

(2.47)

8, 000 y

c

1+

(2.48)

y 2

c

c

dF = b

=

0

dy = b

0

b 1

8, 000

c2 1

8, 000 y

c

01

y

ln 1 +

c

y

c

+

2

2 dy = b

= 8, 000

0

8, 000

c

c

01

y

+

y

b c2

ln 1 +

c 2

c

dy

1 2

c

2 c

(2.49)

(2.50)

0

(2.51)

2, 773bc = As fy

(2.52)

.003

c

c =

Victor Saouma

y + .003

(.003)d

c=

d

y + .003

(.003)(23)

= 13.6 in

60

29,000 + .003

(2.53)

(2.54)

Draft

219

As =

(2, 773)(10)(13.6)

= 6.28 in2

60, 000

(2.55)

7. To determine the moment, we must rst determine the centroid of the compressive force

measured from the neutral axis

2

8, 000 yc

2

8, 000b

0 1 + (y/c)

dy =

2, 773bc

2, 773bc2

c

ydA

y =

=

A

2.885

c2

2, 773bc

c

01

ydy

=

y2

+

1 2 2

y

c

dy =

.01557 yc2 c2

1

1

c2

2.885

(13.61)2

tan1 y

y

1 2

c

c

01

01

1 2

c

y2

+

dy

1 2 2

y

c

dy

+

1 2 2

y

c

1

c2

(2.56)

(2.57)

(2.58)

0

8. Next we solve for the moment

M = As fy (d c + y) = (6.28)(60)(23 13.61 8.43) = 6, 713 k.in

(2.60)

b = .851

fc 87

4 87

= (.85)2

= .0285

fy 87 + 60

60 147

As fy

(6.55)(60)

=

= 11.57 in

a =

.85f cb

(.85)(4)(10)

a

11.57

= (6.55)(60) 23

M = As fy d

2

2

11.57

a

= 13.61

=

c =

1

.85

(2.61)

(2.62)

(2.63)

= 6, 765 k.in

(2.64)

(2.65)

10. We summarize

As

c

y

M

Victor Saouma

Exact

6.28

13.6

5.18

6,713

ACI

6.55

13.6

5.78

6,765

Draft

220

FLEXURE

be

b

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

hf

bw

2.6

Equivalent width for uniform stress, Fig. 2.8 must satisfy the following requirements (ACI

8.10.2):

38

1.

1

2 (b

bw ) 8hf

3. hf >

4. b <

39

bw

2

L

4

Two possibilities:

1. Neutral axis within the anges (c < hf ) rectangular section of width b, Fig. 2.9.

2. Neutral axis in the web (c > hf ) T beam.

b

h

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

h d

As

For T beams, we have a large concrete area, start by assuming that failure will occur by steel

yielding, Fig. 2.10.

40

41

Victor Saouma

Draft

221

b

hf

hd

u =0.003 0.85 fc

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

a=1 c

C=0.85f a

As

T=A yf

s

bw

1. Asf resists compression force in (b bw )hf

2. (As Asf ) resists compression force in bw c

2.6.1

42

Review

b

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

hf

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

A sf

bw

As

A s A sf

(bb w f

)h

bw

c

43

Flanges:

Asf

Mn1 =

fy

h

Asf fy (d 2f )

F = 0

(2.66)

M = 0

Web:

a =

.85fc bw

F = 0

a

Mn2 = (As Asf )fy (d )

2

M = 0

(2.67-a)

(2.67-b)

Total moment:

Mn = Mn1 + Mn2

Victor Saouma

(2.68)

Draft

222

2.6.2

44

FLEXURE

Design, (balanced)

c

u

Strain Compatibility

=

d

u + y

As fy = .85fc 1 cbw + .85fc (b bw )hf

F = 0

(2.69-a)

(2.69-b)

Asf fy

thus,

def

def

As fy

As

bw d

Asf

bw d

w = .85

u

fc

1

+f

fy u + y

(2.70)

Hence,

wb = b + f

(2.71)

For the following beam: As = 8 # 11 ( 12.48 in2 ); fc =3,000 psi; fy = 50,000 psi. Determine

Mn

30"

7"

36"

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

u=0.003

0.85 fc

a= 1c

C=0.85f ab

c

T=Asfy

14"

Solution:

1. Check requirements for isolated T sections

(a) bw = 30 in should not exceed 4bw = 4(14) = 56 in

u

(b) hf b2 7 14

2

a=

Victor Saouma

As fy

(12.48)(50)

=

= 8.16 in > hf

.85fc b

(0.85)(3)(30)

(2.73)

Draft

223

3. For a T section

Asf

=

=

Asw =

w =

b =

=

.85fc hf (b bw )

fy

(.85)(3)(7)(30 14)

= 5.71 in2

50

Asf

5.71

= .0113

=

bwd

(14)(36)

As Asf = 12.48 5.71 = 6.77 in2

12.48

Asw

=

= .025

bw d

(14)(36)

f

87

.851 c

fy 87 + fy

87

3

= .0275

(.85)(.85)

50 87 + 50

(2.74-a)

(2.74-b)

(2.74-c)

(2.74-d)

(2.74-e)

(2.74-f)

(2.74-g)

max = .75(b + f )

= .75(.0275 + .0113) = .029 > w

(2.75-a)

(2.75-b)

Mn1 = (5.71)(50) 36

7

2

= 9, 280 k.in

.85fc bw

(6.77)(50)

= 9.48 in

=

(.85)(3)(14)

9.48

) = 10, 580 k.in

= (6.77)(50)(36

2

= (.9)(9, 280 + 10, 580) = 17, 890 k.in 17, 900 k.in

a =

Mn2

Md

(2.76-a)

(2.76-b)

(2.76-c)

(2.76-d)

(2.76-e)

Determine the moment capacity of the following section, assume ange dimensions to satisfy

ACI requirements; As = 6#10 = 7.59 in2 ; fc = 3 ksi; fy =60 ksi.

Victor Saouma

Draft

224

FLEXURE

28"

6"

26"

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

11111111111111111

00000000000000000

u=0.003

0.85 fc

a= 1c

C=0.85f ab

c

T=Asfy

10"

Solution:

Assume rectangular beam

=

b =

a =

=

Asf

Asw

w =

f

max =

7.59

= .0104

(28)(26)

87

3

= .0214 > fs = fy

(.85)(.85)

60

87 + 60

(As Asf )fy

.85fc bw

(7.59)(60)

= 6.37 in > 6 in T beam

(.85)(3)(28)

(.85)(3)(18)(6)

= 4.59 in2

60

7.59 4.59 = 3.00 in2

7.59

= .0292

(26)(10)

4.59

= .0177

(26)(10)

.75(.0214 + .0177) = .0294 > .0292 Ductile failure

As Asf

= 7.59 4.59 = 3. in

(3)(60)

= 7.07 in

a =

(.85)(3)(10)

7.07

) = 4, 050 k.in

Mn2 = (3.00)(60)(26

2

Md = (.9)(6, 330 + 4, 050) = 9, 350 k.in

2

(2.77-a)

(2.77-b)

(2.77-c)

(2.77-d)

(2.77-e)

(2.77-f)

(2.77-g)

(2.77-h)

(2.77-i)

(2.77-j)

(2.77-k)

(2.77-l)

(2.77-m)

(2.77-n)

given L = 24 ft; fy = 60 ksi; fc = 3 ksi; Md = 6, 400 k.in; Design a R/C T beam.

Victor Saouma

Draft

225

3"

20"

11"

47"

Solution:

1. Determine eective ange width:

bw ) 8hf

16hf + bw = (16)(3) + 11 = 59 in

L

24

= 72 in

4 = 4 12

Center Line spacing

= 47 in

1

2 (b

b = 47 in

(2.78-a)

2. Assume a = 3 in

As =

a =

6, 400

Md

= 6.40 in2

a =

fy (d 2 )

(0.9)(60)(20 3 )

2

As fy

(6.4)(60)

=

= 3.20 in > hf

(.85)fc b

(.85)(3)(47)

(2.79-a)

(2.79-b)

Asf

Md1

Md2

.85fc (b bw )hf

(.85)(3)(47 11)(3)

= 4.58 in2

=

fy

60

hf

3

) = (.90)(4.58)(60)(20 ) = 4, 570 k.in

= Asf fy (d

2

2

= Md Md1 = 6, 400 4, 570 = 1, 830 k.in

=

(2.80-a)

(2.80-b)

(2.80-c)

(2.80-d)

As Asf =

1, 830

(.90)(60) 20

4

2

= 1.88 in2

d

5

20

5

= 4. in

(2.81)

5. check

a =

(1.88)(60)

= 4.02 in 4.00

(.85)(3)(11)

6.46

= .0294

w =

(11)(20)

Victor Saouma

(2.82-a)

(2.82-b)

(2.82-c)

Draft

226

FLEXURE

f

b

max

4.58

= .0208

(11)(20)

87

3

= .0214

= (.85)(.85)

60

87 + 60

(2.82-d)

(2.82-e)

(2.82-f)

6. Note that 6.46 in2 (T beam) is close to As = 6.40 in2 if rectangular section was assumed.

2.7

45

1. Increase internal moment resistance capacity (not very ecient)

2. Support stirrups

3. Reverse moments (moving load)

4. Provide ductility (earthquake)

5. Reduce creep (long term deections)

Approach will again be based on a strain compatibility analysis & equilibrium equation, Fig.

2.12.

46

0.85 fc

u=0.003

A

s

h

A f

s s

0.85 fc

A f

s s

a= 1c

a= 1c

dd

d

As

Asfs

Asfs

(As A )f s

s

47

48

1. As to resist the force in the top steel (assuming both yield)

2. As As to resist compression in the concrete.

and we dene

=

Victor Saouma

As

bd

(2.83)

Draft

2.7.1

49

227

Yes

Yes

A yield?

s

No

As yield?

No

Yes

A yield?

s

No

II

III

IV

f = fy

f = fy

f < fy

f < fy

f = f y

f < f

f = f

f < f y

s

s

Test 1 fs = fy ?

Assuming s = y , and fs = fy , we have from the strain diagram, Fig. 2.14

d

A

s

h

u =0.003

s

d

s = y

As

b

Figure 2.14: Strain Diagram, Doubly Reinforced Beam; is As Yielding?

u

d

u + y

d

= u (u + y )

d

= E s s

c =

s

fs

(2.84-a)

(2.84-b)

(2.84-c)

From equilibrium:

bdfy = bdfs + .85fc 1 bc

(2.85)

Combining:

b = 1 =

Victor Saouma

f

fs

u

+ .85 c 1

fy

fy u + y

(2.86)

Mechanics andb

Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

228

FLEXURE

thus

fs

+ b

fy

f

= 0.75b + s

fy

b = 1 =

max

(2.87)

(2.88)

Note that 0.75 premultiplies only one term as in the other failure is ipso facto by yielding.

We also note the similarity with max of T Beams (where 0.75 premultiplied both terms).

Test 2 fs = fy is fs = fy ?

We set s = y , and from the strain diagram

u =0.003

s = y

d

A

s

h

d

s >

y

As

b

Figure 2.15: Strain Diagram, Doubly Reinforced Beam; is As Yielding?

c=

u

d

u y

(2.89)

from equilibrium

bdfy = bdfy + .85fc 1 cb

(2.90)

combining

min 2 = + .851

87

fc d

fy d 87 fy

(2.91)

which corresponds to the minimum amount of steel to ensure yielding of compression steel

at failure. Thus, if < min then fs < fy . Note that some times min can be larger than

.

Test 3 fs < fy , is fs = fy (not allowed by ACI)?

From strain diagram:

c =

s =

Victor Saouma

u

d

u y

dc

y

cd

(2.92-a)

(2.92-b)

Draft

229

From equilibrium

bdfs = bdfy + .85fc 1 bc

(2.93-a)

combining

= 3 =

cd

f c

+ .851 c

dc

fy d

(2.94)

Test 1

Test 2

min

II

f < f

y

s

Test 3

III

I

f = f y

f=fy f <fy

s

s

IV

f < f y f = f y

s

Figure 2.16: Summary of Conditions for top and Bottom Steel Yielding

2.7.2

Moment Equations

Case I fs = fy and fs = fy , usually occur if we have small bottom and top reinforcement

ratios.

As fy = As fy + .85fc ab

(As As )fy

a =

.85fc b

I

Mn = .85fc ab d

a

+ As fy (d d )

2

(2.95-a)

(2.95-b)

(2.96)

Case II We have fs = fy and fs < fy (small bottom and large top reinforcement ratios, most

common case)

cd

c

= E s s

s = u

(2.97-a)

fs

(2.97-b)

As fy = As fs + .85fc b1 c

(2.97-c)

Alternatively, those equations can be combined yielding

(0.85fc b)a2 + (0.003Es As As fy )a (0.003Es As 1 d ) = 0

Victor Saouma

(2.98)

Draft

230

FLEXURE

Using a = 1 c

II

Mn = .85fc ab d

a

+ As fs (d d )

2

(2.99)

Case III fs < fy and fs = fy (large bottom and small top reinforcement ratios, rare)

s = u

(2.100-a)

fs

dc

c

= E s s

(2.100-b)

As fs = As fy + .85fc ab

(2.100-c)

a = 1 c

(2.100-d)

solve for a

III

Mn = .85fc ab d

a

+ As fy (d d )

2

(2.101)

Case IV (not allowed by ACI) fs < fy and fs < fy (large bottom and top reinforcement

ratios, rare)

cd

c

dc

= u

c

= As fs + .85fc ab

s = u

(2.102-a)

(2.102-b)

As fs

a = 1 c

(2.102-c)

(2.102-d)

solve for a

IV

Mn = .85fc ab d

a

+ As fs (d d )

2

(2.103)

50 Note that in most beams of normal size and proportions, it will be found that fs < fy when

fs = fy . We nevertheless use As in order to ensure ductility, stiness and support for the

stirrups.

Given, fc = 4, 000 psi, fy = 60,000 psi, As = 3 (1.56) = 4.68 in2 , As = 4 (1.56) = 6.24 in2 ,

determine the moment carrying capacity of the following beam.

Victor Saouma

Draft

0.85 f

c

u =0.003

A = 3 # 11

s

3"

231

A f

s s

0.85 f

c

A f

s y

a=1 c

a= c

27.3"

dd

d

As s

f

As y

f

(As A s)f

s

16"

As = 4 # 11

Solution:

1. Determine :

4

fc 87

87

= (.85)(.85)

= .0285

fy 87 + fy

60 87 + 60

6.24

= .0143

(16)(27.3)

4.68

= .0107

(16)(27.3)

b = (.85)1

=

(2.104-a)

(2.104-b)

(2.104-c)

u

fc d

1

fy d u y

4

3

.003

= .0107 + (.85) (.85)

= .0278 >

60

60

27.3 .003 29,000

min = + .85

(2.105-a)

(2.105-b)

Hence

b

.0143 < .0278 < .0285

(2.106)

3. We have two equations: strain compatibility (nonlinear equation) and summation of forces

(linear equation), and two unknowns c and fs

c3

cd

= (29, 000)(.003)

c

c

c3

= 87

c

= As fs + .85fc b1 c

fs = Es u

As fy

(2.107-a)

(2.107-b)

(2.107-c)

(2.107-d)

(2.107-e)

fs = 9.9c + 80.2

(2.107-f)

Victor Saouma

Draft

232

FLEXURE

50

25

-25

-50

-75

-100

We note that fs increases with c from the strain diagram, but fs decreases with c from

equilibrium. If c increases, force in concrete increases too and force in steel decreases.

Graphically the solution is around 4.9.

4. Combining those two equations1

c2 + .7085c 26.42 = 0

(2.108)

we obtain c = 4.80 in a = 0.85(4.8) = 4.078 in, and fs = (.003)(29, 000) 4.803 = 32.6 ksi

4.80

5. Substituting into the moment equation

a

+ As fs (d d )

2

4.078

= (.85)(4)(4.078)(16) 27.3

2

= 9, 313 k.in

Mn = .85fc ab d

(2.109-a)

+ (4.68)(32.62)(27.3 3) (2.109-b)

(2.109-c)

(2.109-d)

6. Check

max = .75b +

fs

fy

= (.75)(.0285) +

(2.110-a)

32.6

(.0107) = .027

60

(2.110-b)

Given Md = 505 k.ft, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, b = 12 in, h = 24.5 in, d = 21 in, and

d = 2.5 in, determine the reinforcement As and possibly As .

Solution:

1

5

Victor Saouma

Draft

233

Md = (505)(12) = 6, 060 k.in

87

4

f

87

b = .851 c

= .0285

= (.85)(.85)

fy 87 + fy

60 87 + 60

max = .75b = (.75)(.0285) = .0213

(2.111-b)

Amax

s

(2.111-d)

= (.0213)(12)(21) = 5.37 in

As fy

(5.37)(60)

=

= 7.89 in

a =

.85fc b

(.85)(4)(12)

a

7.89

= (.9)(5.37)(60) 21

Mmax = (0.9)As fy d

2

2

= 4, 943 k.in < 6, 060 k.in

(2.111-a)

(2.111-c)

(2.111-e)

(2.111-f)

(2.111-g)

2. Assuming that fs = fy

Md2 = 6, 060 4, 943 = 1, 117 k.in

1, 117

Md2

=

= 1.12 in2

As =

fy (d d )

(0.9)(60)(21 2.5)

As =

1.12 in2

(2.112-a)

(2.112-b)

(2.112-c)

(2.112-d)

3. Check that fs = fy

1.12

= .00444

(12)(21)

6.49

= .0257

=

(12)(21)

u

f d

min = + .851 c

fy d u y

87

4 2.5

= .0229 < (.0257)

= .00444 + (.85)(.85)

60 21.0 87 60

(2.113-a)

(2.113-b)

(2.113-c)

(2.113-d)

Note that if it turned out that fs < fy , then we will need to make an assumption on As (such

as As = As , as we will have three equations (2 of equilibrium and one of strain compatibility)

2

and four unknowns (As , As , fs and c).

2.8

Moment-Curvature Relations

In ordinary reinforced concrete design, we need not be concerned by the moment curvature relation of a exural member. Yet this relation is important to properly understand (in

subsequent chapters)

51

Victor Saouma

Draft

234

FLEXURE

2. Short and long term deections with the shifting of the neutral axis under service load.

3. Ductility in seismic design, i.e. the ability of a section to exhibit enough exibility during

seismic excitation, and thus absorbs enough energy.

52

Fig.2.17 shows portion of an originally straight beam which has been bent to the radius

fy

y

STEEL

y

C

c d y

b

A

M

a

B

CONCRETE

el

by end couples M , thus the segment is subjected to pure bending. It is assumed that plane

cross-sections normal to the length of the unbent beam remain plane after the beam is bent.

Therefore, considering the cross-sections AB and CD a unit distance apart, the similar sectors

Oab and bcd give

y

(2.114)

=

where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis), the radius of curvature.

53

=

=

y

c

(2.115)

Next we seek to derive the moment curvature for a beam. This will clearly depend on the

location of the neutral axis, and we identify the following key stages, Fig. ??:

54

Mcr =

cr =

fr Iut

c2

r

fr

=

c2

E c c2

(2.116-a)

(2.116-b)

Cracked Elastic: when the section cracks, the stiness is immediately reduced and the curvature increases (the moment does not change). We will then have a linear response up

Victor Saouma

Draft

<

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

11111111

00000000

el

cr

c2

=

fr

cr

=

c = kd

M

el

d

cS = dkd

EI

ct

Failure

ut

M el

jd

<

T=A

el

EI

n

el

< <

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

235

f =f

E

S

M cr

Proportional

Limit of Concrete

Cracking

inel

d

Z

=

cs

T=A

E

S

< A fy

S

to the limit of elasticity of the concrete where, Eq. 2.4-c

Mel =

el =

1 =

el

we should check that fs =

M

As jd

bd2

kjfc

2

fc,el

Ec

el

c1

(2.117-a)

(2.117-b)

(2.117-c)

fy .

1. Select top face concrete strain el u

2. Assume the neutral axis depth to be at a distance c1 below top bers.

3. From the strain diagram and similarity of triangles, determine s = cs .

4. Determine the tensile steel stress fs = Es s fy , and T + As fs .

5. Check equilibrium of forces (C = T ), this requires computing C (area under the

nonlinear stress curve). If equilibrium is not satied, adjust location of neutral axis

upward or downward until equilibrium is reached. The internal lever arm z is then

determined.

6. Solve for

i

Minel = Ci zi

i

1

i

inel =

ci

1

(2.118-a)

(2.118-b)

2.9

Considering the equilibrium of forces acting on an innitesimal portion of a rebar, Fig. 2.19,

and dening U as the force per unit length, we have

55

Victor Saouma

Draft

236

FLEXURE

M

M +M

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

C + dC

V+dV

111111111111111111

000000000000000000

111111111111111111

000000000000000000

111111111111111111

000000000000000000

jd

T+dT

T+dT

dx

dx

U dx = dT U =

56

(2.119)

M

= T jd

dM

=

jd

dT

57

dT

dx

(2.120-a)

(2.120-b)

V =

dM

dx

(2.121)

V

jd

(2.122)

U=

58

u=

U

0

(2.123)

If plain bar weak adhesion slip need end anchorage no bond u = 0 dT = 0

max

steel stress is constant over entire length T = Mjd total steel elongation >than if bond

present large deection and large crack width.

59

60

Actual stress distribution along steel bar is quite complex, Fig. 2.20.

61

62

dM

dx

It frequently starts at diagonal cracks dowel action increases the tendancy of splitting

shear and bond failures are often interrelated.

63

Based on tests with one single bar, ultimate average bond force/inch of length of bar is

Un 35 fc .

64

Victor Saouma

Draft

237

u stresses on concrete

u stresses on rebar

1111111111111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000000000000

Steel tension slope =dT

dx

Bond stress u

Victor Saouma

Draft

238

FLEXURE

65 If we have several bars in one layer spaced 6 in or less, then the ultimate bond capacity is

80% of the single bar case.

66

un =

35 fc

0

(2.124)

1111111111111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000000000000

T=0

s

Ld

Ts= A y

f

b

Putting it dierently, the minimum length necessary to develop through bond a force As fy

is, Fig. ??.

Ab f

Ld = Uny

0.028Ab fy

Un = un 0

(2.125)

l =

d

fc

35 fc

un =

0

67

A sf y

68

ld =

0.035Ab fy

1 0.028Ab fy

=

0.8

fc

fc

(2.126)

If actual development length l is smaller than ld , then we must provide anchorage in order

to avoid a bond failure.

69

70

Note:

1. un is independent of diameter

Victor Saouma

Draft

2. For a given fs

T

ld

239

= Ab fs

d2

ld =

= fs 4 b

Ab f s

= Un

fs d2

b

4Un

(2.127)

ld increases with the square of db small bar diameters require shorter development

length.

Top bars, with more than 12 inch of concrete below them, will have a reduced bond stress

(due to rise of water during vibration). This reduction in bond results in an increase of ld by

40%

71

72 ACI 12.2.2 may be obtained from above but rather than use we increase ld by 15% for

safety.

b

ldb = .04

=

=

A fy

fc

f

y

.085

fc

f

y

.125

fc

#14

(2.128)

#18

Consult ACI 12.5 code for hooks geometry, and corrections to this basic equation.

Check ACI code for modications related to top reinforcement, lightweight aggregate, high

strength reinforcement, excess reinforcement, and spiral connement.

73

(2.129)

ld = d dd ldb

74

If not enough development length can be provided provide hooks, Fig. 2.24 at

1. 90 degrees: bar must extend by 12db

2. 180 degrees: see code.

where

d

lhb = 1200 b

fc

(2.130)

ldh = d lhb

and d is given in the ACI code.

2.9.1

Ideally, the steel should be everywhere as nearly fully stressed as possible. Since the steel

force is proportional to the moment, then the steel area is nearly proportional to the moment

diagram.

75

76

Victor Saouma

Draft

240

FLEXURE

db

As in part (b)

Critical

section

12db

ldh

(a)

db

Critical

section

ldh

4db

Nos. 3 through 8

5db

Nos. 9, 10, 11

6db

4db or 2 1/2

in. min.

Nos. 14 and 18

(b)

1. At least As in simple beams and

3

in. into support.

As

4

2. If negative bars are cut, they must extend at least ld beyond face of support.

3. Negative bars must extend d or 12db beyond theoretical cuto point dened by moment

diagram.

4. At least one third of top reinforcement at support must extend at least ld beyond theln

oretical cuto point of other bars, and d, 12db or 16 beyond the inection point of the

negative moment diagram.

Determination of cuto points can be rather tedious, for nearly equal spans uniformly loaded,

in which no more than about one half the tensile steel is to be cut o or bent, locations shown

in Fig. 2.26 are satisfactory (note that left support is assumed simply supported).

77

78

Victor Saouma

Draft

241

Theoretical

positive

moment

Inflection point

for (+As)

Theoretical

negative

moment

of span

Moment Capacity

of bars O

Inflection point

for (-As)

C

L

Face of support

Moment capacity

of bars M

Greatest of d, 12 d , ln/16

b

d or 12 db

ld

Bars M

ld

Bars N

ld

Bars L

ld

Bars O

d or 12 db

1/4 of (+AS)

(1/3 for simple spans)

Victor Saouma

Draft

242

FLEXURE

L1

4

L1

3

0"

6"

L1

L1

8

L1

4

6"

L2

3

0"

6"

0"

L1

L1

4

L2

8

6"

L1

3

L1

7

L2

3

L2

L2

3

L2

3

0"

6"

6"

L2

4

L2

8

L2

L2

4

Figure 2.26: Standard cuto or bend points for bars in approximately equal spans with uniformly distributed load

Victor Saouma

Draft

2 bars

243

5 bars

4 bars

AA

BB

Ld

Ld

Mcap

of 5 bars

CC

Mcap of 4 bars

Md=Mn

Ld

Mcap

of 2 bars

d or 12

Victor Saouma

Draft

244

Victor Saouma

FLEXURE

Draft

Chapter 3

SHEAR

3.1

Introduction

Beams are subjected to both exural and shear stresses. Resulting principal stresses (or stress

trajectory) are shown in Fig. 3.1.

45

90

Tension trajectories

Compression trajectories

45

2

Due to exure, vertical exural cracks develop from the bottom bers.

As a result of the tensile principal stresses, two types of shear cracks may develop, Fig. 3.2:

Large V

Small M

Small V

Large M

Flexural Cracks

Large V

Small M

Flexural Cracks

Web shear cracks: Large V, small M. They initiate in the web & spread up & down at 45o .

Draft

32

SHEAR

exural crack, initially vertical, then curve.

4

1. Shear span ratio

2. Steel ratio =

M

Vd

As

bd

We shall rst examine the shear strength of uncracked sections, then the one of cracked

sections (with shear reinforcement).

3.2

Question: What is the maximum shear force which can be applied before a exural crack

develop into a exural shear crack?

2. Apply V exural shear crack

Note that all shear resistance is provided by the concrete. As with exural reinforcement,

steel is ineective as long as the section is uncracked.

vn

vc

fc

jd

Flexure

Shear

Shear

9

Solution strategy:

1. Determine the exural compressive stress fc in terms of M

2. Determine shear stress v in terms of V

Victor Saouma

Draft

33

4. Equate principal tensile stress to the tensile strength

10

1. Assume that fc is directly proportional to steel stress

fc = fs

f = Mn

n

c

nAs jd

= As

Mn

bd

Mn = As fs jd fs = As jd

2. Shear stress

vn = F2

fc =

Mn

Mn

= F1

2

njbd

nbd2

Vn

bd

(3.1)

(3.2)

vn

f1

fc

vn

f1 =

fc

+

2

fc

2

2

2

+ vn

(3.3)

f1 = ft f1

Vn

bd

=

=

ft Vn

f1 bd

ft

f1 bd

Vn

Vn

Vn

= ft

bd

bd

(3.4-a)

(3.4-b)

(3.4-c)

Victor Saouma

Draft

34

SHEAR

Vn

=

bd

F1 Ec

2 Es

Mn

Vn d

ft

F E

1 c

+

2 Es

C1

Mn

Vn d

1/2

(3.5)

2

+ F2

C2

C1

5. set ft = 4 fc

Vn

=

bd fc

Vn

bd fc

C1

fc M n

Vn d

C1

fc M n

Vn d

(3.6)

+ C2

&

M n fc

Vn d

7. This is how far we can go analytically. To determine the exact factors associated with

this equation, one has to undertake a series of tests.

8. From 440 tests, Fig. 3.5 it is found that

Vn

bd f

c

3.5

2.0

1.9

Vn d

M f

n

c

Figure 3.5: Shear Strength of Uncracked Section

Vn d

Vn

= 1.9 + 2, 500

3.5

bd fc

Mn fc

or if we set vc =

Vn

bd ,

then

vc = 1.9 fc + 2, 500

Victor Saouma

(3.7)

Vn d

M

Vn d

3.5

Mn

fc

(ACI 11.3.2.1)

(3.8)

V

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

35

10. This equation is usually found acceptable for predicting the exure shear cracking load

M

for shear span/depth ratio Vnn of 2.5 to 6 & is found to be very conservative for lower

d

values

11. Increasing has a benecial eort as a larger amount of steel results in narrower & smaller

exural tension cracks before formation of diagonal cracks larger area of uncracked

concrete can resist the shear.

12. Use of Vu & Mu instead of Vn =

3.3

Vu

& Mn =

Mu

d

If the shear stress exceeds 1.9 fc + 2, 500 Vnd , then the exural crack will extend into a

M

exural shear crack, Fig. 3.6. and if

11

C

Vc

A v fv z

Va

Vd

T=A fs

s

p

Figure 3.6: Free Body Diagram of a R/C Section with a Flexural Shear Crack

1. No shear reinforcements failure

2. Stirrups are present stirrups will carry part of shear force

12

Vext = Vc + n Av fv + Vd + Vay

(3.9)

Vint

where

Vc

n

Av

fv

Vd

Va

13

# of stirrup traversing the crack n =

Area of shear reinforcement

Shear reinforcement stress

Dowel force in steel

Aggregate interlock

p

s

Victor Saouma

Draft

36

SHEAR

V int

in

t

V cz

Vd

V ay

Yield of stirups

Failure

Inclined cracking

Flexural cracking

Vs

V

ext

1. Due to yielding large separation between 2 sides of cracks Va 0

2. Neglect Vd

3. Vext = Vn =

Vc

+nAv fy

unknown

4. We will assume that at failure the shear force provided by concrete is equal to the one

d

which caused the diagonal crack to form va = 1.9 fc + 2, 500 Vnd . Thus, Vc = va bw d

M

5. Finally, if we assume p = d (implying a crack at 45 )

Vn = Vc + Av fy

d

s

(ACI 11.1.1)

(3.10)

Vs

3.4

14

1. Design for Vu (factored shear) rather than Vn =

Vu

Vc

Vc

Vu d

Mu

=

2 fc bw d

or

d

=

[1.9 fc + 2, 500w Vuu ]bw d 3.5

M

where

<

1

(ACI 11.3.1.1)

fc bw d (ACI 11.3.2.1)

(3.11)

Victor Saouma

Draft

37

4. If 0.5Vc < Vu Vc use minimum shear reinforcement; select Av (usually #3 bars) and

determine

Av f y

s = 50bw (ACI 11.5.5.3)

(3.12)

s < d

(ACI 11.5.4.1)

2

s < 24 in (ACI 11.5.4.1)

Vu

= Vn = Vc + Vs = Vc +

or

Av fy d

s

(ACI 11.17)

Av fy

Av fy d

=

(vu vc )b

Vc

s =

(3.14)

Vu

d

4

(3.13)

7. Upper limit:

Vu Vc < 8 fc bw d

(ACI 11.5.6.8)

(3.15)

9. Critical section is at d from support (reduces design shear force), (ACI 11.1.3.1)

d

V

b wd

Vu

f c

f c

Steel

f c

4

f c

f c

10

Concrete

s max=d/4 or 12"

s=

A vfy d

Vu

Vc

s max=d/2 or 24"

s =

Avfy

v

(v u c) b

no stirups

not allowable

A v fy

min. stirups

50b w

f c

Victor Saouma

Draft

38

3.5

SHEAR

Examples

b = 12 in.; d=22 in.; wu = 8.8 k/ft; L= 20 ft.; As = 3# 11; fc = 4 ksi; fy = 40 ksi;

Design vertical stirrup

Solution:

1. At support: Vu = 8.8 (20) = 88 k and vu =

2

2. At d from support Vu = 88

22

12 (8.8)

88

(12)(22)

= .333 ksi

= 71.9 k and vu =

71.9

(12)(22)

= .272 ksi

4.

vc

2

= 53.6 psi

6. vu vc = 272 126 = 146 psi < 4

psi

fc

333

Vu

272

107.1

v c

53.6

v c

2

x

19"

min. reinforcement no reinforcement

38.6"

7. vu vc = 0

333

(10)(12) x

vc

2

333

(10)(12) x

8. vu

=0

smax =

Victor Saouma

Av f y

50bw

(.22)(40,000)

= 14.66

(50)(12)

d

22

2 = 2 = 11

in

in

smax = 11 in

(3.16)

Draft

39

10. at support

s =

Av fy d

Av fy

=

(vu vc )b

Vc

(3.17-a)

Vu

(.85)(.22)(40, 000)

(272 107.1)(12)

(3.17-b)

3.78 in

(3.17-c)

(3.17-d)

3.6

Shear Friction

Previous design procedure was applicable to diagonal tension cracks (where tension was

induced by shear), for those cases where we do have large pure shear, Fig. 3.9, use shear

friction concept.

15

An=

N uc

fy

#7

V

u

weld

Nuc

A n part of A v f

close sriru

(usually #3)

Avf

assumed crack

+ shear plane

remainder of A v f

assumed crack

V

u

The crack for which shear-friction reinforcement is required may not have been caused by

shear. However once the crack has occurred a shear transfer mechanism must be provided for,

Fig. 3.10. The shear friction theory is based on the assumption that a crack will occur and

then reinforcement across it will resist relative displacement along the crack.

16

17

Vn = Avf fy

18

(3.18)

If the shear reinforcement is inclined with respect to the crack, Fig. 3.11

c vertical force due to friction;

19

Vn = T cos f + C

C = T sin f

Victor Saouma

Vn = T (cos f sin f )

T = Avf fy

f

Draft

310

SHEAR

Vn

Vn

Vn

crack separation

due to slip

crack

Vn

Vn

A vf f y

Sheartransfer

reinforcement

A

Avf f y

2

vf

fy

Avf f y

2

Tsin f

Tcos f

assumed crack

applied shear=V

n

A vf fy

C=Tsin f

f

T

Victor Saouma

Draft

311

20

21

Avf

Vu

fy

Avf

22

=

=

Vu

ACI 11.27 (3.21)

fy (cos f + sin f )

(3.20)

concrete cast monolithically

= 1.4

concrete against hardened concrete = 1.0

concrete against steel

= 0.7

where = 1.0 for normal weight concrete and = .75 for lightweight concrete. and

Vn <

0.2fc Ac

800Ac

(3.22)

Example 3-2: Shear Friction

Design reinforcement needed at the bearing region of a precast beam 14 wide & 28 deep

supported on a 4 bearing pad. Vu = 105k, horizontal force due to restraint, shrinkage, creep

is 0.3 Vu

possible crack

20

vf

3#6

15

N uc

2#6

15

N uc

V

u

4"

Vuc

24"

Solution:

1. Assume all the shear Vu will be acting parallel to crack (small angle 20 )

2. Assume all Vu is parallel to crack required Avf =

Vu

fy

105

(0.85)(60)(1.4)

= 1.47 in2

fy

(0.85)(60)

As = Avf + An = 1.47 + 0.62 in2 = 2.09 in2 use 5# 6 (As = 2.20 in2 )

4. Note: ACI 11-9-3-4 Nuc > 0.2 Vu for Corbels;

Victor Saouma

Draft

312

3.7

SHEAR

To be Edited

23

24

25

1. For

a

d

2

2. For

a

d

3. For

1

2

a

d

Vn = [6.5 5.1

Nu 3

Nuc

](1 0.5 ) 1 + [64 + 160 (

) ]

Vu

d

Vu

fc bw d

(3.23)

fc

u

where = As ; and 0.13 fy ; Nu not to be taken < 0.20 in calculating vu ; Nu = (+ve)

??

V

compression, and (-ve) tension; Ah < As also Ah 0.50As distributed uniformly; thru

fc

As

2

3 d adjacent to As ; = bd .04 fy .

3.8

Deep Beams

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 4

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

4.1

Continuity

R/C bldgs constructions commonly have oor slabs, beams, girders and columns continuously

placed to form a monolithic system

+ve

In a continuous system, load must be placed in such a way to maximize desired eect (Mmax

ve

Mmax Vmax , Fig. 4.2

2

Max +ve M @

AB_CD_EF

Max -ve M @ B

Min -ve @ B

Max -ve @ C

Min -ve @ C

Max -ve @ D

Min -ve @ D

Given the moment diagram for various load cases, a designer should draw the moment

enveloppe and design for the maximum negative and positive moments (eventhough they may

not be caused by the same load case).

Draft

42

4.2

4

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

Methods of Analysis

Two approaches:

1. Detailed analysis

(a) Moment distribution

(b) Computer analysis (such as RISA, SAP, etc...)

2. Approximate (but conservative) based on ACI 8.3.3 moment coecients

4.2.1

5

Refer to CVEN3525/3535/4525

4.2.2

6

Detailed Analysis

1. 2 or more spans

2. Spans are approximately equals, and the larger of adjacent ones not greater than the

shorter by more than 20%

3. Loads are uniformably distributed

4. LL < 3DL

5. Prismatic members

Positive Moment

End Spans

Continuous end unrestrained

Continuous end integral with support

Interior spans

Negative Moment

Negative moment at exterior face of rst of rst interior support

Two spans

> Two spans

Negative moment at other faces of interior support

......................................

Shear

Shear in end member at face of rst interior support

Shear at face of all other supports

1

2

11 wu Ln

1

2

14 wu Ln

1

2

16 wu Ln

1

2

9 wu Ln

1

2

10 wu Ln

1

2

11 wu Ln

......

1.15 wu2Ln

wu Ln

2

7

These moment coecients take into account some inelastic action (stress redistribution).

Victor Saouma

Draft

43

Victor Saouma

Draft

44

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

C column

L

C column

L

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

VaL

2

C span

L

VaL

6

VaL

3

C beam

L

aL

2

Column width aL

VaL

2

VaL

3

VaL

6

L

2

Moment curve based on prismatic member

aL

2

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000 VaL

6

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

Adjusted Moment Curve

1111111111111111111111111 L

0000000000000000000000000 C beam

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111 L

0000000000000000000000000 C beam

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

1111111111111111111111111

0000000000000000000000000

4.3

9

10

Negative moments should be the one at the face of the columns, Fig. 4.4.

We recall that the change in moment is equal to the area under shear diagram.

M = Mcl

V aL

2

(4.1)

but V and M vary in some unknown way between center line of column and edge, thus we can

reduce M by V b/3 where b is the width of the column. Thus

ve

ve

Md Mmax

11

Vb

3

(4.2)

4.4

4.4.1

Moment Redistribution

Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Section

12

13

The beam has an elastic plastic moment curvature relation, Fig. 4.6

Victor Saouma

Draft

45

2

WL

24

1

0

1

0

1

0

11

00

11

00

11

00

WL

12

WL

12

M

Mp

Curvature

14

|M ve | > |M +ve | as w

, M ve Mp rst

12Mp

wL2

= Mp w =

12

L2

15

Thus we will have a plastic hinge at the support however this is not synonymous with collapse.

Collapse or failure occurs when we have a mechanism or 3 adjacent hinges (plastic or otherwise). This can be easily determined from statics, Fig. 4.7

16

w

16 M

L

M

12 M

2Mp =

wu =

17

wu L2

8

16Mp

L2

Thus capacity was increased 33% after rst plastic hinge occurred.

This is accompanied by large rotation of the plastic hinges at the supports, and when comand M +ve

pared with the linear elastic solution M ve

18

19

Victor Saouma

Draft

46

4.4.2

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

Concrete

Concrete is brittle hence by itself no appreciable plastic deformation can occur, however in

R/C, Fig. 4.8

20

ce

.003

fc

fc

kd

dkd

dc

u

Asf y

s= y

M

s> y

.003

c

u

Steel yielding

M

M

Asf y

y

First crack

cr

cr y

Strain caused by

moment redistribution

Unit rotation

If certain rotation capacity exists (i.e., if is low) M is controlled by yielding of the steel

while the concrete strain is still low compared to 0.003 reserve rotation capacity u y is

then available for a redistribution of moment to occur before 0.003

21

be decreased by no more than

22

M = 20(1

)% ACI 8.4.1

b

(4.3)

fc

87

where b = 0.851 fy ( 87+fy ) provided that

2. or < 0.5b

23

of ductile members.

24

Earthquake resistant structures must have a certain ductility to absorb the lateral oscillating

load large amount of reinforcement at the joints.

25

Victor Saouma

Draft

4.5 Buildings

47

Determine the moment redistribution for the following singly reinforced beam with = 0.5b

2

WL

20

WL

24

+

WL

12

WL

12

0.9

WL

12

0.9 W L

12

Solution:

From above, amout of redistribution

M

M ve

M +ve

4.5

26

= 20(1

)%

2

= 0.9 wL

12

2

2

= 1.2 wL = wL

24

20

Buildings

Structural System

Frame

Shear Wall-Frame

Single framed tube

Tube in Tube

Number of Stories

Up to 15

up to 40

up to 40

up to 80

27

Vertical loads: DL and LL. This is typically done for a oor, through a grid analysis. No

need to model the entire structure. We can use

ACI Approximate equations

Exact (Moment distribution, computer)

Lateral laod: WL, EL. This requires the analysis of a 2D or 3D frame. Two approaches:

Approximate method: Portal method, or cantilever method.

Exact Moment distribution, computer.

28

Victor Saouma

Draft

48

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

1. Use ACI approximate equations for the design of the slab. Then, there is no need to worry

about optimal placement of load to maximize positive or negative moments, or moment

redistribution.

2. Once the slab is designed, use exact method for beams, girders. Reduce negative moments.

3. Tabulate maximum +ve and -ve moments for each beam.

4. Determine the column loads, tabulate.

5. Can use approximate or exact method of analysis for frames. Tabulate results.

6. Add maximum positive and negative moments due to vertical and lateral loads.

7. Design accordingly.

29

E-W SLAB

N-S BEAM

E-W GIRDER

N-S GIRDER

hf

DL

w0

w0

LL

wu

M

L

hf

h

M

V

R

PW

WL

W0

Wa

Col

Fou

V

Span

Slab thickness

Beam/girder depth

Flexure

Shear

Reation

Partition wall

Wind load

Self weight

Total factored load

Column

Foundation

PW

PW

wu

WL

w0

PW

WL

wu

wu

w0

Col

W

Fou

S

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 5

5.1

1

Types of Slabs

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

oneway slab

twoway slab

oneway slab

Grid slab

Flat slab

2

1. One way slab: long span/short span > 2. Load is transmitted along the short span.

2. Two Way slab: Long span/short span <2. Load is transmitted along two orthogonal

directions.

If

L

s

> 2 than most of the load ( 95%) is carried in the short directions, Fig. 5.3

Load transfer in one way slabs is accomplished hierarchically through an interaction of slab,

beam, girder, column and foundations, Fig. 5.4

Draft

52

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

Strip

B

L

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

0000

1111

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

0000

1111

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

Beam 2

10"

Beam 2

Beam 1

Strip

Beam 1

Beam 1

B

10"

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

Beam 1

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

111

000

111

000

P A

1

A0

1

0

1

0

1

0A

1

0

1

0

111

000

111

000

B

Victor Saouma

Draft

53

Victor Saouma

Draft

54

Simply

supported

Solid One

way slab

Beams or

ribbed One way slab

One end

continuous

Both ends

continuous

Cantilever

L/20

L/24

L/28

L/10

L/16

L/18.5

L/21

L/8

5.2

5

1. Load on slabs ksf.

2. Design an imaginary 12 in strip.

3. The area of reinforcement is As /ft of width or

As

= Ab

ft

12 in

bar spacing in inches

(5.1)

Bar spacing in inches =

12Ab

As

(5.2)

4. Slab thickness t is usually assumed, and we design reinforcement. ACI 9.5.2.1 recommended minimum thickness of beams/slabs are given by Table 5.1. where L is in inches,

and members are not supporting partitions. If a slab is so dimensioned

(a) Deection need not be checked

(b) Usually, neither exure, nor shear controls

5. In reinforcement design, a good initial guess for

a

d

is 0.15.

6. Slab thickness are rounded to the neares 1/4 inch for slabs less than 6 inch, and 1/2 for

thicker ones.

7. ACI Sect. 7.7.1 gives minimum cover for corrosion control

(a) Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground, No. 11 or smaller 3/4

inch.

(b) Concrete exposed to weather or in contact with ground:

i. No. 5 bars and smaller, 1.5 inch.

ii. No. 6 and larger, 2. inch.

8. Transverse reinforcement (shrinkage, temperature) must be provided

As

ACI 7.12.2.1

=

bh

0.0018 Grade 60 and welded wire fabric

Victor Saouma

(5.3)

Draft

55

9. Shear does not usually control & no minimum reinforcement is needed (vc = 2 fc )

10. Principal reinforcement shall not be spaced at more than 3 times the slab thickness nor

18 in (ACI 7.6.5).

11. Usually No. 4 and larger bars are used for exural reinforcement, as No. 3 may be

bent out of position by workers walking on it. This is more critical for top than bottom

reinforcement.

12. Sometimes, No.3 is used for bottom, and No. 4 for top.

13. Shrinkage/temperature reinforcement shall not be spaced at more than 5 times the slab

thickness nor 18 in (ACI 7.12.2.2).

5.3

Design an 8 span oor slab. Each span is 15 ft long, fc = 3, 750 psi, fy = 60 ksi, wl =100 psf,

oor cover is 0.5 psf, mechanical equipment 4 psf, and ceiling 2 psf. Interior supporting beams

have a width of 14 inch, and exterior ones 16 inches. First span is measured from exterior of

exterior beam to center of rst interior beam.

Thickness: of the oor is based on ACI recommendation:

16 14

= 165 in

2

2

14

= (15)(12) 2 = 166 in

2

165

l

=

= 6.88 in

=

24

24

166

l

=

= 5.93 in

=

28

28

le = (15)(12)

(5.4-a)

li

(5.4-b)

he

min

hi

min

(5.4-c)

(5.4-d)

We round h up to h = 7.25 in. Assuming 3/4 in. cover and No. 4 bars

d = 7.25 0.75 +

Factored Loads

0.5

2

= 6.25 in

(5.5)

Slab

wd =

7.25

(150) = 90.6 psf of oor surface

12

(5.6)

Factored load

wu = 1.4(97.1) + 1.7(100) = 306 psf

(5.7)

Since wl < 3wd we can use the ACI 8.3.3 coecients to compute the moments.

Net spans

1. First interior span ln = (15)(12)

Victor Saouma

16

2

14

2

= 165 in = 13.75 ft

Draft

56

1

3. Average span ln = 1 (165 + 166) 12 = 13.79 ft

2

Flexural Design

ai = 0.15d = 0.15(6.25) = 0.9375 in

12Mu

0.222

Mu

As =

=

=

Mu

fy (d a )

0.9(60)(6.25 a )

6.25 a

2

2

2

As fy

60

=

As = 1.569As

a =

0.85fc b

(0.85)(3.75)(12)

(5.8-a)

(5.8-b)

(5.8-c)

s

(5.8-d)

For maximum spacing, ACI species 3h = 3(7.25) = 21.75 in but no more than 18 in,

smax = 18 in.

ln , ft

2

wu l n

M Coe.

Mu ft-kip/ft

a

As

a

As

a

As

Amin

s

Reinf.

Aprov

s

Support

13.75

57.85

1/24

2.41

0.937

0.092

0.145

0.087

0.136

0.087

0.157

#4@15

0.16

Midspan

13.75

57.85

1/14

4.13

0.937

0.159

0.249

0.150

0.235

0.150

0.157

#4 @15

0.16

Support

13.79

58.19

1/10

5.82

5.82

0.937

0.223

0.351

0.213

0.334

0.212

0.157

#4@12

0.20

1/11

5.29

Midspan

13.83

58.53

1/16

3.66

0.937

0.141

0.221

0.132

0.207

0.132

0.157

#4@15

0.16

Support

13.83

58.53

1/11

5.32

0.937

0.204

0.320

0.194

0.304

0.194

0.157

#4@12

0.20

Midspan

13.83

1/16

3.66

1. Exterior face of the rst interior support

Vu = 1.15wu

(1.15)(306)(157)

ln

=

= 2, 302 lb/ft of width

2

2

(5.9)

(1.0)(306)(166)

ln

=

= 2, 117 lb/ft of width

2

2

(5.10)

Vu = 1.0wu

The shear resistance is

Vc = (0.85)2 f cbw d = (0.85)(2)

(5.11)

Victor Saouma

Draft

57

of the slab

(5.12)

As = 0.0018bh = 0.0018(12)(7.25) = 0.157 in2 /f t

and maximum spacing is 18 in. Therefore, we can provide # 4 bars at 15 in. as shrinkage

and temperature reinforcement. They should be placed on top of the lower layer of steel.

Note that in this problem a 6.5 in. thickness was acceptablee for the six interior spans, but a

7.25 in. thickness was required for the end spans.

If the entire oor were made of 6. in. thick slab instead of 7.25 in. about 45 cubic yards of

concrete could have been saved (for a total oor width of about 90 ft) per or or 180 kips of

dead load per oor. This would represent a considerable saving in say a 20 story building.

In this case, it would be advisable to use 6., and check for delfections in the end spans.

Victor Saouma

Draft

58

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 6

SERVICEABILITY

So far we have focused on the ultimate structural behaviour (failure), Vu & Mu , i.e the strength

of a member.

1

2 It is important to also control the behaviour of structural elements under service load (unfactored)

1. Cracking

2. Deection

6.1

Control of Cracking

3 As y

, y larger crack width is associated with large fy . This is why the ACI code

places a limitation on max fy = 80ksi. (ACI 9.4)

4

The concern is not the # of crack (we can not control it) but rather the crack width.

1. Appearance

2. Corrosion of steel

3. Redistributions of internal stresses

4. Eect on deection

1. Surface of the reinforcing bar

(a) Round & smooth few wide cracks (bad)

(b) Irregular & deformed many small cracks (better)

2. Steel stress

3. Concrete cover

Draft

62

SERVICEABILITY

Based on purely experimental research, the following emperical relation was determined, Fig.

6.1:

w = .076fs

where

w

fs

dc

dc A

(6.1)

width in 1/1,000 in

Steel service stress ksi (if not computed can be assumed as 0.6 fy )

Thickness of concrete cover measured from tension face to center of bar

closest to this face, in.

h2

h1

Area of concrete surrounding one bar = Total eective tensile area in2

# of bars

Neutral Axis

2y

y

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

h1

Steel Centroid

w

Figure 6.1: Crack Width Equation Parameters

8

ACI

1. Expresses the crack width indirectly by z where

z=

and assumes =

h2

h1

w

= fs

.076

dc A

(ACI 10.6.4)

(6.2)

= 1.2 w = .091z

Note that to reduce z (benecial) we must

Exterior beams z 145 (w = .013 in)

reduce A or increase the number of bars.

2. Only deformed bars can be used

3. Bars should be well distributed in tension zone

4. fy < 80 ksi

5. In lieu of an accurate evaluation, fs = 0.6fy .

9

Victor Saouma

Draft

6.2 Deections

63

Exposure

dry air, or protective membrane

humidity, moist air, soil

deicing chemicals

seawater, salt

water retaining structures

wmax (in.)

.016

.012

.007

.006

.004

1111111111111111

0000000000000000

1111111111111111

0000000000000000

14.65"

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111111111

00000000000

12.15"

20"

2.5"

22.5"

7.85"

Determine z and crack width

11.5"

Solution:

1. w = .076fs 3 dc A

3. n =

29103

3,120

= 9.29

.869 kd = 7.85 in

b(kd)2

2

k

3

8

8(3.14)(.869)(20)

s jd

Note that ACI allows 0.6fy = (0.6)(40) = 24 ksi conservative

6. =

22.57.85

207.85

7. A =

(2.5)(2)(11.5)

4

14.65

12.15

= 14.38 in2

1

8. w = (.076)(1.206)(22.9) 3 (2.5)(14.38) 1,000 = .00696 in .

3

9. or z = fs dc A = (22.9) 3 (2.5)(14.38) = 75.64

6.2

Deections

10

11

Every structural design must satisfy requirements of strength, stiness & stability

Victor Saouma

Draft

64

SERVICEABILITY

With the increased usuage of: a) high strength material (resulting in smaller cross section)

& b) use of rened design methods, we can no longer rely on the factor of safety to take care

of deection, we but must detemine it

12

13

1. Visually unacceptable

2. Possible ponding of water

3. Cracking in partition walls

4. Functional diculties (windows, doors, etc )

5. Machine misalignment

6. Vibration

14

15

16

6.2.1

17

In general =

f (w,L)

EI ,

5wL4

384EI

f (w, l) and E are known, but how do we determine I? (uncracked transformed or cracked),

Fig. 6.2

18

c ut

c e1 c e2

c cr

2

1

cr

B B

19

20

Ie =

Victor Saouma

Mcr

Ma

Ig + 1

Mcr

Ma

(6.3)

Draft

6.2 Deections

65

where

Ie Ig

I

Mcr = fr yg

b

fr = 7.5 fc

21

Ie = 0.70Im + 0.15(Ie1 + Ie2 )

For beams with one end continuous Ie = 0.85Im + 15(Icon ) where Im , Ie are the moment of

inertia at the middle and the end respectively.

22

23

ous beam

5 wL4

w

=

I

384 EI

24

6.2.2

Mcr

Ma

Ie

t

inst.

t

Figure 6.3: Time Dependent Deection

25

Creep coecient:

Cc =

t

Ec =

f

i

= i (1+Cc )

Ec

1+Cc

26

1. Steel strain remains unchanged

2. As concrete undergoes creep, the N.A. moves down larger area of concrete is under

compression but since C = T stress in concrete is slightly reduced

Victor Saouma

Draft

66

SERVICEABILITY

b

Cracked

elastic

neutral axis

fci

fct

kd

t

d

A s fs

As

s

Figure 6.4: Time Dependent Strain Distribution

3. But since C is now lower and we still satisfy Mext = Mint both stresses in steel & concrete

must increase with time

27

1. Additional long term deection t

t = i

where

=

(6.4)

1+50

As

bd

and

3

1.0

Time (months)

6

1.2

12

1.4

60

2.0

(6.5)

total = initial (1 + )

LL short

DL sustained

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

0000

1111

Victor Saouma

Draft

6.2 Deections

28

67

A i,sust

B i,sust + t,sust

C sust + i,short

Note that we are usually interested in the live load deection (C-B), thus

i, short = i, sust + short i, sust

Ie (DL+LL)

29

(6.6)

Ie (DL)

Floors not supporting nonstructural elements likely to be damaged

Roofs or oors supporting nonstructural elements likely to be damaged

Floors not supporting nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged

i,sh

i,sh

t,sust + i,sh

t,sus + i,sh

<

<

<

<

b = 11.5 in.; h = 22.5 in,; d = 20 in.; As = 4 # 8; fc = 3,000 psi; fy = 40 ksi; DL = 1.27

k/ft; LL = 2.44 k/ft; L = 15 ft.

1. Determine the short term deection

2. Find the creep portion of the sustained load deection & immediate live load deections

Solution:

1. i, short = i,short + sust i, sust

2.44

1.27

1.27

2. Moment of inertias:

Ie =

Ig =

Mcr

Ma

bh3

12

Ig + 1

(11.5)(22.5)3

12

Mcr

Ma

Ict

Victor Saouma

L

180

L

360

L

480

L

240

Draft

68

SERVICEABILITY

11.5"

7.85"

20"

12.15"

b(kd)2

nAs (d kd) = 0 k =

2

2

(11.5)(7.85)3

+ (11.5)(7.85) 7.85

12

2

Ict =

.393 kd = 7.85 in

+ (9.29) (3.14)(12.152 ) = 6, 130 in4

f I

Mcr = r bg

y

(410.8)(10,916)

11.25

As

sust

Ma =

(1.27)(15)2 (12)

= 428.6 k.in = 35.72 k.ft

8

sust+short

=

Ma

= 1, 252 k.in = 104 k.ft

8

6. Moment of inertias

Ie, sust + short =

Ie, sust =

7. Deections

33.2 3

(10, 916) +

104.3

3

33.2

(10, 916) +

35.7

1

1

33.2 3

(6, 130) = 6, 209 in4

104.3

33.2 3

(6, 130) = 9, 993 in4

35.7

4

5

= 384 wL

EI

4

5

i, short + sust = 384 (1.27+2.44)[(15)(12)] = .218 in

(3,120)(6,209)

4

5

i, sust = 384 (1.27)[(15)(12)] = .046 in

(3,120)(9,993)

i = .218 .046 = .172 in

8. creep = i, sust

=

Victor Saouma

2.

= 2. creep = (2)(.046) = .092 in

1+0

Draft

Chapter 7

APPROXIMATE FRAME

ANALYSIS

Despite the widespread availability of computers, approximate methods of analysis are justied by

1. Inherent assumption made regarding the validity of a linear elastic analysis vis a vis of

an ultimate failure design.

2. Ability of structures to redistribute internal forces.

3. Uncertainties in load and material properties

2

We use the design sign convention for moments (+ve tension below), and for shear (ccw +ve).

In all free body diagrams assume positivee forces/moments, and take algeebraic sums.

7.1

Vertical Loads

The girders at each oor are assumed to be continuous beams, and columns are assumed to

resist the resulting unbalanced moments from the girders.

Basic assumptions

1. Girders at each oor act as continous beams supporting a uniform load.

2. Inection points are assumed to be at

(a) One tenth the span from both ends of each girder.

(b) Mid-height of the columns

3. Axial forces and deformation in the girder are negligibly small.

4. Unbalanced end moments from the girders at each joint is distributed to the columns

above and below the oor.

Draft

72

Based on the rst assumption, all beams are statically determinate and have a span, Ls

equal to 0.8 the original length of the girder, L. (Note that for a rigidly connected member, the

inection point is at 0.211 L, and at the support for a simply supported beam; hence, depending

on the nature of the connection one could consider those values as upper and lower bounds for

the approximate location of the hinge).

8

Maximum positive moment at the center of each beam is, Fig. 7.1

w

M

lft

V

V

rgt

rgt

lft

0.1L

0.1L

0.8L

L

0000

1111

0000

1111

111

000

000

111

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

Figure 7.1: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Girder Moments

1

1

M + = wL2 = w (0.8)2 L2 = 0.08wL2

s

8

8

(7.1)

Maximum negative moment at each end of the girder is given by, Fig. 7.1

w

w

M lef t = M rgt = (0.1L)2 (0.8L)(0.1L) = 0.045wL2

2

2

(7.2)

Girder Shear are obtained from the free body diagram, Fig. 7.2

V lf t =

wL

2

V rgt =

wL

2

(7.3)

Column axial force is obtained by summing all the girder shears to the axial force transmitted by the column above it. Fig. 7.2

rgt

P dwn = P up + Vi1 Vilf t

Victor Saouma

(7.4)

Draft

73

above

rgt

lft

V i1

Vi

below

Figure 7.2: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Axial Forces

h/2

h/2

above

M col

lft

i1

rgt

Mi1

lft

rgt

Mi

rgt

Vlft

Vi1

i1

Li1

Mbelow

col

lft

i

rgt

i

Li

h/2

h/2

Figure 7.3: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Moments

Victor Saouma

Draft

74

Column Moment are obtained by considering the free body diagram of columns Fig. 7.3

rgt

bot

M top = Mabove Mi1 + Milf t

M bot = top

(7.5)

Column Shear Points of inection are at mid-height, with possible exception when the columns

on the rst oor are hinged at the base, Fig. 7.3

V =

M top

h

2

(7.6)

Girder axial forces are assumed to be negligible eventhough the unbalanced column shears

above and below a oor will be resisted by girders at the oor.

7.2

10

Horizontal Loads

Low rise buidlings, where the height is at least samller than the hrizontal dimension, the

deected shape is characterized by shear deformations.

High rise buildings, where the height is several times greater than its least horizontal dimension, the deected shape is dominated by overall exural deformation.

7.2.1

Portal Method

Low rise buildings under lateral loads, have predominantly shear deformations. Thus, the

approximate analysis of this type of structure is based on

11

2. Location of inection points.

12

1. Inection points are located at

(a) Mid-height of all columns above the second oor.

(b) Mid-height of oor columns if rigid support, or at the base if hinged.

(c) At the center of each girder.

2. Total horizontal shear at the mid-height of all columns at any oor level will be distributed among these columns so that each of the two exterior columns carry half as

much horizontal shear as each interior columns of the frame.

13

Victor Saouma

Draft

75

H/2

H/2

Figure 7.4: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Shear

Column Shear is obtained by passing a horizontal section through the mid-height of the

columns at each oor and summing the lateral forces above it, then Fig. 7.4

V ext =

F lateral

V int = 2V ext

2No. of bays

(7.7)

Column Moments at the end of each column is equal to the shear at the column times half

the height of the corresponding column, Fig. 7.4

M top = V

h

2

M bot = M top

(7.8)

Girder Moments is obtained from the columns connected to the girder, Fig. 7.5

h/2

h/2

above

M col

lft

rgt

M i1

M i1

lft

rgt

rgt

Vlft

lft

Vi1

rgt

Mi

Mi

i1

Vi

below

Li1/2

Li1/2

M col

Li /2

Li /2

h/2

h/2

Figure 7.5: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Girder Moment

Victor Saouma

Draft

76

rgt

above

below

Milf t = Mcol Mcol + Mi1

Mirgt = Milf t

(7.9)

Girder Shears Since there is an inection point at the center of the girder, the girder shear

is obtained by considering the sum of moments about that point, Fig. 7.5

V lf t =

2M

L

V rgt = V lf t

(7.10)

Column Axial Forces are obtained by summing girder shears and the axial force from the

column above, Fig. ??

P

above

rgt

lft

V i1

Vi

below

Figure 7.6: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Axial Force

P = P above + P rgt + P lf t

(7.11)

Example 7-1: Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads

Draw the shear, and moment diagram for the following frame. Solution:

Vertical Loads

Victor Saouma

Draft

77

0.25 k/ft

13

6 0.5 k/ft 7

15 k

5 12

30 k

9

1

10

2

11

00

11

00

14

11

11

00

20

30

8

4

14

16

11

00

24

1. Top Girder Moments

lf

M12t

cnt

M12

rgt

M12

lf

M13t

cnt

M13

rgt

M13

lf

M14t

cnt

M14

rgt

M14

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

0.045w12 L2 = (0.045)(0.25)(20)2

12

0.08w12 L2 = (0.08)(0.25)(20)2

12

lf

M12t

0.045w13 L2 = (0.045)(0.25)(30)2

13

0.08w13 L2 = (0.08)(0.25)(30)2

13

lf

M13t

0.045w14 L2 = (0.045)(0.25)(24)2

14

0.08w14 L2 = (0.08)(0.25)(24)2

14

lf

M14t

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

4.5 k.ft

8.0 k.ft

4.5 k.ft

10.1 k.ft

18.0 k.ft

10.1 k.ft

6.5 k.ft

11.5 k.ft

6.5 k.ft

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

9.0 k.ft

16.0 k.ft

9.0 k.ft

20.3 k.ft

36.0 k.ft

20.3 k.ft

13.0 k.ft

23.0 k.ft

13.0 k.ft

lf

M9 t

cnt

M9

rgt

M9

lf

M10t

cnt

M10

rgt

M10

lf

M11t

cnt

M11

rgt

M11

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

0.045w9 L2 = (0.045)(0.5)(20)2

9

0.08w9 L2 = (0.08)(0.5)(20)2

9

lf

M9 t

0.045w10 L2 = (0.045)(0.5)(30)2

10

0.08w10 L2 = (0.08)(0.5)(30)2

10

lf

M11t

0.045w12 L2 = (0.045)(0.5)(24)2

12

0.08w12 L2 = (0.08)(0.5)(24)2

12

lf

M12t

top

M5

bot

M5

top

M6

bot

M6

top

M7

bot

M7

top

M8

bot

M8

Victor Saouma

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

lf

+M12t

top

M5

rgt

lf

M12 + M13t = (4.5) + (10.1)

top

M6

rgt

lf

M13 + M14t = (10.1) + (6.5)

top

M7

rgt

M14 = (6.5)

top

M8

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

4.5

4.5

5.6

5.6

3.6

3.6

6.5

6.5

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

Draft

78

top

M1

bot

M1

top

M2

bot

M2

top

M3

bot

M3

top

M4

bot

M4

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

lf

bot

+M5 + M9 t = 4.5 9.0

top

M1

rgt

lf

bot

+M6 M9 + M10t = 5.6 (9.0) + (20.3)

top

M2

rgt

lf

bot

+M7 M10 + M11t = 3.6 (20.3) + (13.0)

top

M3

rgt

bot

+M8 M11 = 6.5 (13.0)

top

M4

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

4.5

4.5

5.6

5.6

3.6

3.6

6.5

6.5

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

lf

V12 t

rgt

V12

lf

V13 t

rgt

V13

lf

V14 t

rgt

V14

= w122L12 =

lf

= V12 t

= w132L13 =

lf

= V13 t

= w142L14 =

lf

= V14 t

(0.25)(20)

2

(0.25)(30)

2

(0.25)(24)

2

=

=

=

=

=

=

2.5 k

2.5 k

3.75 k

3.75 k

3.0 k

3.0 k

=

=

=

=

=

=

5.00

5.00

7.50

7.50

6.00

6.00

V9lf t

V9rgt

lf

V10 t

rgt

V10

lf

V11 t

rgt

V11

= w92L9 = (0.5)(20)

2

= V9lf t

= w102L10 = (0.5)(30)

2

lf

= V10 t

= w112L11 = (0.5)(24)

2

lf

= V11 t

7. Column Shears

V5 =

V6 =

V7 =

V8 =

V1 =

V2 =

V3 =

V4 =

top

M5

H5

2

top

M6

H6

2

top

M7

H7

2

top

M8

H8

2

top

M1

H1

2

top

M2

H2

2

top

M3

H3

2

top

M4

H4

2

4.5

5.6

3.6

0.52 k

6.5

0.93 k

4.5

= 0.56 k

5.6

= 0.70 k

3.6

0.46 k

6.5

k

k

= 0.80 k

k

k

= 0.64 k

k

k

0.81 k

14

2

14

2

14

2

14

2

16

2

16

2

16

2

16

2

Victor Saouma

P5

P6

P7

P8

=

=

=

=

lf

V12 t

= 2.50 k

rgt

lf t

V12 + V13 = (2.50) + 3.75 = 6.25 k

rgt

lf

V13 + V14 t = (3.75) + 3.00 = 6.75 k

rgt

V14 Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

= 3.00 k

Draft

79

0.25K/ft

12

13

14

0.50K/ft

10

+18.0k

30

+8.0k

-4.5k

-4.5k

+16.0k

-9.0k

-20.2

-4.5k

+4.5k

+5.6k

-4.5k

+4.5k

+5.6k

+11.5k

-6.5k

+23.0k

+32.0k

k

16

24

-9.0k

14

11

3

20

-13.0k

-20.2

k

-13.0k

-5.6k

+3.6k

-5.6k

-3.6k

-6.5k

+3.6k

+6.5k

+6.5k

-3.6k

-6.5k

Victor Saouma

Draft

710

+2.5K

+3.75K

+3.0K

-2.5K

-3.75K

+7.5

+5.0

+6.0

-5.0K

-0.64K

-0.56K

-3.0K

-6.0K

-7.5K

-0.80K

+0.51K

-0.70K

+0.45K

+0.93K

+0.81K

Victor Saouma

Draft

711

=

=

=

=

P1

P2

P3

P4

rgt

P6 V10 + V9lf t = 6.25 (5.00) + 7.50

rgt

lf

P7 V11 + V10 t = 6.75 (7.50) + 6.0

rgt

P8 V11 = 3.00 (6.00)

=

=

=

=

7.5 k

18.75 k

20.25 k

9.00 k

1. Column Shears

V5

V6

V7

V8

V1

V2

V3

V4

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

15

(2)(3)

2(V5 ) = (2)(2.5)

2(V5 ) = (2)(2.5)

V5

15+30

(2)(3)

2(V1 ) = (2)(7.5)

2(V1 ) = (2)(2.5)

V1

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

2.5 k

5k

5k

2.5 k

7.5 k

15 k

15 k

7.5 k

top

M5

bot

M5

top

M6

bot

M6

H

= V12 5 =

top

= M5

H

= V62 6 =

top

= M6

(2.5)(14)

2

(5)(14)

2

=

=

=

=

17.5

17.5

35.0

35.0

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

top

M7

= 72 7 =

bot = M top

M7

7

V up H

(5)(14)

2

V up H

=

35.0 k.ft

= 35.0 k.ft

top

M8

= 82 8 =

bot = M top

M8

8

(2.5)(14)

2

=

17.5 k.ft

= 17.5 k.ft

top

= 1 2 1 =

M1

bot = M top

M1

1

V dwn H

(7.5)(16)

2

=

60 k.ft

= 60 k.ft

top

M2

= 2 2 2 =

bot = M top

M2

2

V dwn H

(15)(16)

2

=

120 k.ft

= 120 k.ft

top

M3

= 3 2 3 =

bot = M top

M3

3

V dwn H

(15)(16)

2

=

120 k.ft

= 120 k.ft

top

M4

= 4 2 4 =

bot = M top

M4

4

V dwn H

(7.5)(16)

2

=

60 k.ft

= 60 k.ft

lf

M12t

rgt

M12

lf

M13t

rgt

M13

lf

M14t

rgt

M14

Victor Saouma

=

=

=

=

=

=

top

M5

lf

M12t

rgt

top

M12 + M6 = 17.5 + 35

lf t

M13

rgt

top

M13 + M7 = 17.5 + 35

lf

M14t

=

=

=

=

=

=

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

Draft

712

A

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

Height

14

16

Span

Load

Load

APROXVER.XLS

Victor E. Saouma

L1

20

0.25

0.5

L2

L3

30

24

0.25

0.25

0.5

0.5

MOMENTS

Bay 1

Bay 2

Bay 3

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

Lft Cnt Rgt

Lft Cnr Rgt

Lft Cnt Rgt

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -4.5

8.0 -4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -10.1 18.0 -10.1AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -6.5 11.5 -6.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-5.6

3.6

6.5

AA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA5.6 AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA-3.6 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA

-6.5

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAA

AAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-9.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -20.3 36.0 -20.3AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -13.0 23.0 -13.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -9.0 16.0

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-5.6

3.6

6.5

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

5.6

-3.6

-6.5

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

SHEAR

Bay 1

Bay 2

Bay 3

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

Lft

Rgt

Lft

Rgt

Lft

Rgt

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 2.50AAAAAAAAAAAA -2.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 3.75 AAAAAAAAAAAA -3.75AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 3.00 AAAAAAAAAAAA -3.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-0.64 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-0.80

0.52

0.93

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 5.00AAAAAAAAAAAA -5.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAA -7.50AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 6.00 AAAAAAAAAAAA -6.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-0.56 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-0.70

0.46

0.81

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AXIAL FORCE

Bay 1

Bay 2

Bay 3

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0.00

0.00 AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA

0.00

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

2.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA

6.25

6.75

3.00

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0.00

0.00

0.00

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

18.75

20.25

9.00

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Victor Saouma

Victor Saouma

L1

20

0.25

0.5

H

L2

30

0.25

0.5

APROXVER.XLS

M

L3

24

0.25

0.5

Victor E. Saouma

=-F13+I13+G12

=-G14

=-K13+N13+L12

=-L14

=-P13+Q12

=-Q14

=2*G14/A5

=-D22

=+C28+D22

Bay 2

Beam

0

=+I3*I5/2

=-I22

Column

=2*L14/A5

Bay 3

Beam

0

=+N3*N5/2

=-N22

Col

=2*Q14/A5

=+G28-F22+I22

=-F20+I20

=+L28-K22+N22

=-K20+N20

=+Q28-P22

=-P20

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

=+D20

AXIAL FORCE

Bay 1

Col

Beam

0

Column

=2*C14/A5

=+D3*D5/2

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

A

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Bay 2

Bay 3

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

Lft

Rgt

Lft

Rgt

Lft

Rgt

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+D3*D4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-D20 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+I3*I4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-I20 A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N3*N4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-N20 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

=2*C11/A4

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*G11/A4

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*L11/A4

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=2*Q11/A4

SHEAR

Bay 1

Col

=+D13+C12

=-C14

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Bay 2

Bay 3

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

Lft

Cnt

Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAALft

Cnr

Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft

Cnt

Rgt

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-0.045*D4*D3^2 =0.08*D4*D3*D3 =+D10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-0.045*I4*I3^2 =0.08*I4*I3*I3 =+I10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-0.045*N4*N3^2 =0.08*N4*N3*N3 =N10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-P10

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-F10+I10

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-K10+N10

=+D10

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

=-C11

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-Q11

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-G11

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-L11

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

MOMENTS

Bay 1

Col

29

30

Span

Load

Load

24

25

26

27

28

22

23

16

17

18

19

20

21

13

14

15

A

1

2

3 Height

4 14

5 16

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Draft

7.2 Horizontal Loads

713

Draft

714

lf

M9 t

rgt

M9

lf

M10t

rgt

M10

lf

M11t

rgt

M11

15K

=

=

=

=

=

=

top

bot

M1 M5 = 60 (17.5)

lf t

M9

rgt

top

bot

M9 + M2 M6 = 77.5 + 120 (35)

lf

M10t

rgt

top

bot

M10 + M3 M7 = 77.5 + 120 (35)

lf t

M11

12

30K

13

10

20

+17.5K

+17.5K

-35K

+60K

-120K

+17.5K

-120K

+77.5

+77.5

-17.5K

-60K

+17.5K

-17.5K

K

16

24

-35K

+120K

-60K

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

k.ft

14

+35K

+35K

77.5

77.5

77.5

77.5

77.5

77.5

11

30

-17.5K

+120K

+60K

+17.5K

14

=

=

=

=

=

=

-17.5K

+77.5

-77.5K

-17.5K

-77.5K

-77.5K

Victor Saouma

Draft

715

lf

12

V12 t = L12 = (2)(17.5)

20

rgt

lf

V12 = +V12 t

2M lf t

= 1.75 k

= 1.75 k

lf

13

V13 t = L13 = (2)(17.5)

30

rgt

lf t

V13 = +V13

2M lf t

= 1.17 k

= 1.17 k

lf

14

V14 t = L14 = (2)(17.5)

24

rgt

lf t

V14 = +V14

2M lf t

= 1.46 k

= 1.46 k

20

9

V9rgt = +V9lf t

2M lf t

= 7.75 k

= 7.75 k

lf

10

V10 t = L10 = (2)(77.5)

30

rgt

lf

V10 = +V10 t

2M lf t

= 5.17 k

= 5.17 k

lf

11

V11 t = L11 = (2)(77.5)

24

rgt

lf t

V11 = +V11

2M lf t

= 6.46 k

= 6.46 k

P5

P6

P7

P8

=

=

=

=

lf

V12 t

= (1.75) k

rgt

lf t

+V12 V13 = 1.75 (1.17) = 0.58 k

rgt

lf

+V13 V14 t = 1.17 (1.46) = 0.29 k

rgt

V14 = 1.46 k

P1

P2

P3

P4

=

=

=

=

rgt

P6 + V10 + V9lf t = 0.58 7.75 (5.17)

rgt

lf

P7 + V11 + V10 t = 0.29 5.17 (6.46)

rgt

P8 + V11 = 1.46 6.46

=

=

=

=

9.5 k

3.16 k

1.58 k

7.66 k

Design Parameters On the basis of the two approximate analyses, vertical and lateral load,

we now seek the design parameters for the frame, Table 7.2.

Victor Saouma

Draft

716

Portal Method

A

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

PORTAL.XLS

Victor E. Saouma

PORTAL METHOD

# of Bays

# of Storeys

2

Force Shear

H Lat. Tot Ext Int

H1

14 15 15 2.5

H2

16 30 45 7.5 15

L1

20

L2

L3

30

24

MOMENTS

Bay 1

Bay 2

Bay 3

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.5 -17.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.5 -17.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.5 -17.5AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

17.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

35.0

35.0

17.5

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-17.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-35.0

-35.0

-17.5

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.5 -77.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.5 -77.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.5 -77.5AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

60.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

120.0

120.0

60.0

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-60.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-120.0

-120.0

-60.0

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

SHEAR

Bay 1

Bay 2

Bay 3

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

Lft Rgt

Lft Rgt

Lft Rgt

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.75 -1.75 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.17 -1.17 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.46 -1.46AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

2.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

5.00

5.00

2.50

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

2.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

5.00

5.00

2.50

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -7.75 -7.75 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -5.17 -5.17 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -6.46 -6.46AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

15.00

15.00

7.50

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

15.00

15.00

7.50

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AXIAL FORCE

Bay 1

Bay 2

Bay 3

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam Col

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0.00

0.00

0.00

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

1.75AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAA

-0.58

0.29

-1.46

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

0.00

0.00

0.00

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

9.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

-3.17

1.58

-7.92

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Victor Saouma

Draft

Portal Method

A

1 PORTAL METHOD

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

717

PORTAL.XLS

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Victor E. Saouma

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAA

AL1

A

A

AA

A L3

A

2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA3 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

# of Bays

L2

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

3

30

A

A

A

A

A

A20

A

A

AA

A

A

A 24

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A MOMENTS

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

Bay 1

Bay 2 AA

Bay 3 A

A

A

A2

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

6

Force A

Shear

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

7

H Lat. A Tot

Ext

Lft

Lft

Lft

A

AInt

A Rgt

A Rgt

A Rgt

A

AAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H9

A

A

8

=-I8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

=+J8+K9

=-M8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N8+O9

=-Q8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A=2*E9

9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+D9/(2*$F$2) AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E9*B9/2

H1

14 A15

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F9*B9/2

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K9

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H9

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A =+C9

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-K9

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H10

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K10

10

=-H9

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

11

=-I11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

=+K12-K10+J11 =-M11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O12-O10+N11 =-Q11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H12-H10AAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA30

H2

16 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+D12/(2*$F$2) A=2*E12

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F12*B12/2

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K12

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H12

A =SUM($C$9:C12) AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E12*B12/2

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

13

=-H12

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-K12

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K13

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H13

AAAAAAAA

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

14

A SHEAR

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

15 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Bay 1

Bay 2 AA

Bay 3

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

16

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

17

Lft

Rgt

Lft

Rgt

Lft

Rgt

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-2*I8/I$3 =+I18 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

18

=-2*M8/M$3

=+M18AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-2*Q8/Q$3

=+Q18AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F9

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E9

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+F9

A

A

A

A

A

A

19

=+E9

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K19

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S19

AAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O19

A

A

A

A

A

A

20

=+H19

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

21

=+I21 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

=-2*M11/M$3 =+M21AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-2*Q11/Q$3

=+Q21AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-2*I11/I$3 AAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

22

=+E12

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F12

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+F12

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E12

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

23

=+H22

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K22

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O22

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S22

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

24

A AXIAL FORCE

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

25

Bay 1

Bay 2 AA

Bay 3

A

A

A

AA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

26

Col

Beam

Column

Beam

Column

Beam

Col

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA0

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0

A

A

A

A

A

A

27

0

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

A

A

A

A

A

28 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-I18 AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+J18-M18AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N18-Q18 AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+R18 AAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA0

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0

A

A

A

A

A

A

29

0

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

30

=+H28-I21

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K28+J21-M21

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O28+N21-Q21

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S28+R21

A

A

A

A

A

A

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

5 # of Storeys

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

Victor Saouma

Draft

718

Mem.

Vert.

Moment

Axial

Shear

Moment

Axial

Shear

Moment

Axial

Shear

Moment

Axial

Shear

Moment

Axial

Shear

Moment

Axial

Shear

Moment

Axial

Shear

Moment

Axial

Shear

Hor.

4.50

7.50

0.56

5.60

18.75

0.70

3.60

20.25

0.45

6.50

9.00

0.81

4.50

2.50

0.64

5.60

6.25

0.80

3.60

6.75

0.51

6.50

3.00

0.93

60.00

9.50

7.50

120.00

15.83

15.00

120.00

14.25

15.00

60.00

7.92

7.50

17.50

1.75

2.50

35.00

2.92

5.00

35.00

2.63

5.00

17.50

1.46

2.50

Design

Values

64.50

17.00

8.06

125.60

34.58

15.70

123.60

34.50

15.45

66.50

16.92

8.31

22.00

4.25

3.14

40.60

9.17

5.80

38.60

9.38

5.51

24.00

4.46

3.43

Victor Saouma

Draft

719

Mem.

10

11

12

13

14

Vert.

-ve Moment

+ve Moment

Shear

-ve Moment

+ve Moment

Shear

-ve Moment

+ve Moment

Shear

-ve Moment

+ve Moment

Shear

-ve Moment

+ve Moment

Shear

-ve Moment

+ve Moment

Shear

Hor.

9.00

16.00

5.00

20.20

36.00

7.50

13.0

23.00

6.00

4.50

8.00

2.50

10.10

18.00

3.75

6.50

11.50

3.00

77.50

0.00

7.75

77.50

0.00

5.17

77.50

0.00

6.46

17.50

0.00

1.75

17.50

0.00

1.17

17.50

0.00

1.46

Design

Values

86.50

16.00

12.75

97.70

36.00

12.67

90.50

23.00

12.46

22.00

8.00

4.25

27.60

18.00

4.92

24.00

11.50

4.46

Victor Saouma

Draft

720

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 8

COLUMNS

Draft

Chapter 9

COLUMNS

9.1

Introduction

Columns resist a combination of axial P and exural load M , (or M = P e for eccentrically

applied load).

1

9.1.1

Types of Columns

Composite colum

Tied column

tie steel

main longitudinal steel reinforcement

Pipe column

Spiral column

2

P

Spiral

X Tied

1. Restrains longitudinal steel from outward buckling

2. Restrains Poissons expansion of concrete

3. Acts as shear reinforcement for horizontal (wind & earthquake) load

4. Provide ductility

Draft

92

COLUMNS

9.1.2

3

6 bars

4 bars

8 bars

Corner column

10 bars

12 bars

Wall column

16 bars

14 bars

9.2

Short Columns

9.2.1

4

Concentric Loading

No moment applied,

Elastic Behaviour

P

= fc Ac + fs As

= fc (Ac + nAs )

Ultimate Strength

Pd = Pn

Pn = .85fc Ac + fy As

note:

1. 0.85 is obtained also from test data

2. Matches with beam theory using rect. stress block

3. Provides an adequate factor of safety

9.2.2

5

Eccentric Columns

1. Unsymmetric moments M L = M R

2. Uncertainty of loads (must assume a minimum eccentricity)

Victor Saouma

Draft

93

P

P

M

M

L

MR

L

e= M M

P

3. Unsymmetrical reinforcement

6

1. Large eccentricity of load failure by yielding of steel

2. Small eccentricity of load failure by crushing of concrete

3. Balanced condition

c

Pn

cu

P

cu

Compression

failure range

e = 0; a = h; c =

constant e=

e small

Mn

cu

Pn

Balanced Failure

Load path for

givin e

Tension failure

range

eb

c ~ h; e=

cu

e large

M

Mn

su

> y

7

Assumptions As = As ; =

9.2.2.1

8

As

bd

As

bd ; fs

= fy

Balanced Condition

M

P

1. Steel yielding

2. Concrete crushing

Victor Saouma

Draft

94

COLUMNS

From the strain diagram (and compatibility of concrete and steel strains), Fig. 9.6

d

d

h/2

A

cs

s

A sf y

s

Pn

A sf s

A sf s

0.85f

c

A sf s

A sf y

a

e

e

c = .003

fy

y =

Es

u

d=

c =

u + y

(9.1-a)

(9.1-b)

.003

fy

Es

+ .003

(9.1-c)

Furthermore,

s

cd

s =

c

c

cd

c

c

(9.2-a)

(9.2-b)

thus the compression steel will be yielding (i.e. s = y ) for c = .003 and d = 2 in if c > 6 in

10

Pn

Pn = .85fc ab + As fy As fs a = .85fc b

a = 1 cb

fs = fy

.003

c =

d

b

fy

As = As

+.003

Pn,b = .851 fc bd fy

Es

.003

+ .003

(9.3)

Es

Victor Saouma

Draft

95

or

Pnb = .851 fc bd

87, 000

fy + 87, 000

(9.4)

11 To obtain Mnb we take moment about centroid of tension steel As of internal forces, this

must be equal and opposite to the externally applied moment, Fig. 9.6.

a

Mnb = Pnb eb = .85fc ab(d ) + As fy (d d )

2

Mext

12

(9.5)

Mint

Note: Internal moments due to As fy and As fy cancel each other for symmetric columns.

9.2.2.2

Tension Failure

In this case a and Pn are unknowns, and for failure to be triggered by fy in As we must

have e > eb .

Can still assume As fy = As fy

Fy = 0 Pn = .85fc ab a =

M = 0 Pn e

Pn

.85fc b

(9.6-a)

a

= Pn (d ) + As fy (d d )

2

(9.6-b)

Two approaches

1. Solve iteratively for those two equations

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Assume a (a < h )

2

From strain compatibility solve for fsc , center steel stress if applicable.

Fy = 0 solve for Pn

M = 0 with respect to tensile reinforcement, solve for Pn

If no convergence among the two Pn , iterate by solving for a from Fy = 0

e 2

e

d

1

Pn = .85fc bd ( 1) +

+ 2 1

d

d

d

where

=

=

Victor Saouma

e

+

d

(9.7)

As

As

bd = bd

fy

.85fc

Draft

96

COLUMNS

In this case, we only have two unknown, Pn and fs .

1 c

(9.8-a)

fy

(9.8-b)

fs

u E s

Pn

Mn

a

fs

=

def

cd

c

0.85fc ab

fy

(9.8-c)

(9.8-d)

C + As fs As fy

h

ha

+ As fs

d

C

2

2

Mn

Pn

(9.8-e)

+ As fs d

h

2

(9.8-f)

(9.8-g)

9.2.2.3

Compression Failure

Compression failure occurs if e < eb u = .003, assume fs = fy , and fs < fy

From geometry

c =

fs

d

+ u

dc

= E s u

c

a

d 1

= E s u a

fs

Es

(9.9-a)

Pn = .85fc ab + As fy As fs

a

Pn e = .85fc ab(d ) + As fy (d d )

2

(9.9-b)

(9.9-c)

this would yield a cubic equation in Pn , which can be solved analytically or by iteration.

1. Assume a (a

h)

3. From strain compatibility solve for fs

4. Check that Fy = 0 & solve for a

5. If ai+1 = ai go to step 2

Case II: c is known and c > cb ; fs , fs , and Pn are unknown

Victor Saouma

Draft

97

In this case

a = 1 c

(9.10-a)

dc

c

cd

fs = c Es

c

C = 0.85fc ab

fs = c Es

fy

(9.10-b)

fy

(9.10-c)

(9.10-d)

Pn = C + As fs + As fs

h

ha

+ As fs

d

Mn = C

2

2

9.2.3

(9.10-e)

+ As fs d

h

2

(9.10-f)

ACI Provisions

1. Governing equations

min

max

s

=

=

=

=

=

1%

8%

A

fc

0.45( Ag 1) fy

c

0.7 for tied columns

0.75 for spiral columns

ACI 10.9.1

ACI 10.5

(9.11)

where

s minimum ratio of spiral reinforcement

Ag gross area of section

Ac area of core

2. A minimum of 4 bars for tied circular and rect

3. A minimum of 6 bars for spirals (ACI10.9.2)

4. increases linearly to 0.9 as Pn decreases from 0.10fc Ag or P0 , whichever is smaller,

to zero (ACI 9.3.2).

5. Maximum strength is 0.8P0 for tied columns ( = 0.7) and 0.85P0 for spirally reinforced

columns ( = 0.75).

9.2.4

13

Interaction Diagrams

9.2.5

Design Charts

To assist in the design of R.C. columns, design charts have been generated by ACI in term

+A

Pn

M

of non dimensionalized parameters = bhf vs bh2n = e for various t where t = Asbh s and

h

f

14

fy

.85fc

Victor Saouma

Draft

98

COLUMNS

Tied:

Pn(max) = 0.80 P

0

Spir. reinf: P n(max) = 0.85 P

0

Compression

control region

P0

P n(max)

1

e

P nM n

(M

n Pn )

P d M d

(M

mi

P

n(max)

eb

ilur

d fa

ce

alan

Tension

nb

0.10f c A g

e~h; e = infty

M n

Mn

A 12 by 20 in. column is reinforced with four No. 4 bars of area 1.0 in2 each, at each

corner. fc = 3.5 ksi, fy = 50 ksi, d = 2.5 in. Determne: 1) Pb and Mb ; 2) The load and moment

for c = 5 in; 3) load and moment for c = 18 in.

Solution:

Balanced Conditions is derived by revisiting the fundamental equations, rather than mere

substitution into previously derived equation.

h d = 20 2.5 = 17.5 in

.003

.003

17.5 = 11.1 in

d = 50

fy

+ .003

29,000 + .003

E

(9.12-b)

1 cb = (0.85)(11.1) = 9.44 in

(9.12-c)

cb

a

(9.12-a)

fs

def

fs

Pnb

Mnb

=

=

eb

fy = 50 ksi

(9.12-d)

cd

11.1 2.5

c = (29, 000)(

(0.003) = 67.4 ksi > fy fs = 50 ksi

Es

(9.12-e)

c

11.1

0.85fc ab = (0.85)(3.5)(9.44)(12) = 337 k

(9.12-f)

C + As fs As fs = 337 + (2.0)(50) + (2.0)(50) = 337 k

(9.12-g)

a

Pnb e = .85fc ab(d ) + As fy (d d )

(9.12-h)

2

9.44

+ (2.0)(50)(17.5 2.5) = 5, 807 k.in = 484 k.ft (9.12-i)

337 17.5

2

5, 807

= 17.23 in

(9.12-j)

337

Tension failure, c = 5 in

fs

def

Victor Saouma

fy = 50 ksi

(9.13-a)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

fs

c E s

99

cd

c

fy

(9.13-b)

5.0 2.5

= 43.5 ksi

5.0

1 c = 0.85(5.0) = 4.25 in

0.85fc ab

(9.13-e)

(0.85)(3.5)(4.25)(12) = 152 k

(9.13-f)

C + As fs As fy

(9.13-g)

(9.13-h)

152 + (2.0)(43.5) (2.0)(50) = 139 k

h

h

ha

+ As fs

d + As fs d

about section centroid (9.13-i)

C

2

2

2

20

20

20 4.25

+ (2.0)(43.5)

2.5 + (2.0)(50) 17.5 (9.13-j)

(152)

2

2

2

Pn

Mn

=

=

(0.003)(29, 000)

(9.13-c)

(9.13-d)

=

e

(9.13-k)

2, 598

= 18.69 in

139

(9.13-l)

Compression failure, c = 18 in

a = 1 c = 0.85(18) = 15.3 in

dc

fy

fs = c Es

c

17.5 18.0

= 2.42 ksi As is under compression

= (0.003)(29, 000)

18.0

cd

fy

fs = c Es

c

18.0 2.5

= 75 ksi > fy fs = 50 ksi

= (0.003)(29, 000)

18.0

C = 0.85fc ab = (0.85)(3.5)(15.3)(12) = 546 k

Pn = C + As fs As fs

Mn

(9.14-a)

(9.14-b)

(9.14-c)

(9.14-d)

(9.14-e)

(9.14-f)

(9.14-g)

(9.14-h)

h

h

ha

+ As fs

d + As fs d

about section centroid (9.14-i)

= C

2

2

2

20 15.3

20

20

= (546)

+ (2.0)(50)

2.5 + (2.0)(2.42) 17.5 (9.14-j)

2

2

2

=

e =

(9.14-k)

2, 000

= 3.07 in

650

(9.14-l)

Victor Saouma

Draft

910

COLUMNS

fc = 3, 000 psi and fy = 40, 000 psi. The area of each bar is 1.56 in2 .

12"

20"

3"

3"

24"

c

.003

Cc

Balanced Condition:

fy

40

= .001379

=

Es

29, 000

u

.003

.003 = 14.4 in

d=

cb =

u + y

.003 + .001379

a = 1 cb = (.85)(14.4) = 12.2 in

y =

(9.15-a)

(9.15-b)

(9.15-c)

c h/2

14.4 12

u =

.003 = .0005

sc =

c

14.4

fsc = (29, 000)(.0005) = 15 ksi center bars

(9.15-d)

(9.15-g)

(9.15-e)

(9.15-f)

(9.15-h)

Note that the compression steel is yielding because d > 2 and c > 6 (as previously

proven)

Taking moment about centroid of section

Mnb = Pnb e

(9.16-a)

h a

2 2

h

h

d + As fy

d

2

2

12.2

+ 4(1.56)(9)(40)

= (.85)(3)(12.2)(20) 12

2

+4(1.56)(40 .85 3)(12 3)

= .85fc ab

+ As fy

(9.16-b)

(9.16-c)

(9.16-d)

(9.16-e)

8, 164

= 12.2 in

670.8

(9.16-f)

eb =

Victor Saouma

Draft

911

Available equations: 1) F = 0; 2) M = 0; and 3) strain diagram; Solve by iterations.

12"

20"

3"

hcd

3"

24"

c=23.5"

9"

sc

e=2.4"

e=11.4"

.003

Pn

h/2=12"

.85f

c

A sf

A sc sc

f

Cc

a=20"

1. Assume a = 20 in

c=

A sf

a/2

a

20

= 23.5 in

=

1

.85

(9.17)

sc

c h

2

.003

c

(9.18-a)

c h

2

.003

c

= Es sc

sc =

fsc

c

.003

c

23.5 12

.003 = 42.5 ksi > fy fsc = fy

= 29, 000

23.5

= Es

Victor Saouma

h

2

(9.18-b)

(9.18-c)

(9.18-d)

(9.18-e)

Draft

912

COLUMNS

a

h

= 0.85fc ab(d ) + As fy (h 2d ) + Asc fy ( d )

(9.19-a)

2

2

20

(9.19-b)

Pn (9 + 2.4) = (.85)(3)(20)(20)(21 ) + 4(1.56)(40)(24 6) + 2(1.56)(40)(9)

2

= 11, 220 + 4, 493 + 259.7

(9.19-c)

Pn e

Pn = 1, 476 k

(9.19-d)

s

h d 23.5

s

.003

c

.003

(24 3 23.5)

=

23.5

= .000319

=

(9.20-a)

(9.20-b)

(9.20-c)

(9.20-d)

Pn = 0.85fc ab + As fy + Asc fsc + As fy

(9.21-a)

(9.21-b)

1, 476 = 51a + 432.1

a = 20.4 in

Pn =

(9.21-c)

(9.21-d)

1, 476 k

(9.21-e)

e=h

(9.21-f)

two equations: 1) F = 0, and 2) M = 0.

2. Assume a = 7.9 in c =

a

1

7.9

.85

= 9.3 in

c

.003

sc

fsc

12 c

sc

12 9.3

.003 = .00087

=

9.3

= (29, 000)(0.00087) = 25.3 ksi

(9.22-a)

(9.22-b)

(9.22-c)

4. Iterate

F = 0 Pn = (.85)fc ab + Asc fsc

= (.85)(3)(7.9)(20) 2(1.56)(25.3)

= 403 79 = 324 k

a

M = 0 Pn (e + h/2 d ) = .85fc ab(d ) + As fy (d d )

2

dd

Asc fsc (

)

2

Victor Saouma

(9.23-a)

(9.23-b)

(9.23-c)

(9.23-d)

Draft

913

Pn (24 + 9) = (.85)(3)(7.9)(20)(21

+2(1.56)(25.3)(9)

7.9

) + 4(1.56)(40)(21 3)

2

(9.23-e)

Pn = 323 k

(9.23-f)

(9.23-g)

5. Determine Mn

Mn = Pn e = (323)(24) = 7, 752 k.in = 646 k.ft

(9.24)

Design the reinforcement for a column with h = 20 in, b = 12 in, d = 2.5 in, fc = 4, 000 psi,

fy = 60, 000 psi, to support PDL = 56 k, PLL = 72 k, MDL = 88 k.ft, MLL = 75 k.ft,

Solution:

1. Ultimate loads

201

= 287 k

0.7

251

= 358 k.ft

= (1.4)(88) + (1.7)(75) = 251 k.ft Mn =

0.7

Mu

(9.25-a)

(9.25-b)

2. Chart parameters

e

h

=

=

e

h

(358)(12)

= 0.75

(9.26-a)

(287)(20)

h 2d 20 (2)(2.5)

= 0.75 interpolate between A3 and A(9.26-b)

4

h

20

287

Pn

= 0.3

(9.26-c)

=

bhfc

(12)(20)(4)

= (0.3)(0.75) = 0.225

(9.26-d)

4. Reinforcement

t =

=

At

bh

fy

.85fc

At =

(0.4)(b)(h)(.85)(fc )

1

= 5.45 in2

= (0.4)(12)(20)(.85)(4)

(9.27-a)

fy

(60)

Victor Saouma

Draft

914

9.2.6

15

COLUMNS

Biaxial Bending

An exact approach entails the trial and eror determination of an inclined neutral axis, this

is an exact method but too cumbersome to use in practice.

16

17 Hence, we seek an approximate solution, the most widely used method is the load contour

method or Bresler-Parme method.

18

The failure surface of a biaxialy loaded column is shown in Fig. 9.8, and the general nondi-

Pn

M0x

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

1111111

0000000

M0y

Mny

Mnx

Figure 9.8: Failure Surface of a Biaxially Loaded Column

mensional equation for the moment contour at a constant Pn may be expressed as

Mnx

M0x

where

Mnx

Mny

M0x

M0y

and 1

=

=

=

=

and

Mny

M0y

= 1.0

Pn ey

Pn ex

Mnx capacity at axial load Pn when Mny (or ex ) is zero

Mny capacity at axial load Pn when Mnx (or ey ) is zero

2 are exponent which depend on geometry and strength.

19 Bresler suggested that we set 1 = 2 = . For practical purposes, a value of = 1.5 for

rectangular columns, and between 1.5 and 2.0 for square sections has proven acceptable.

An improvement of Bresler equation was devised by Parme. The main assumption is that at

any load Pn , Fig. 9.9

Mny

M0y

=

Mnx

M0x

or

Mnx = M0x ;

Mny = M0y

20

Victor Saouma

Draft

M 0y

915

M ny /M0y

1.0

C

M ny M

0x

C

M 0y

B

M 0y

M0x

A M

nx

M

0x

45

A

1.0

Mnx /M0x

plots

Thus, is the portion of the uniaxial moment strength permitted to act simultaneously on

the column section. It depends on the cross section, strength, and layout.

21

22

The usual range is between 0.55 and 0.70, with a recommended value of 0.65 for design.

23

M0x

M0x

0y

+ M0y

= 1.0

= 1

2

log = log 0.5

= log 0.5

log

thus,

Mnx

M0x

log 0.5/log

Mny

M0y

log 0.5/log

(9.28)

= 1.0

24

25

Gouwens proposed to replace the above curves, by a bilinear model, Fig. 9.11

Review of a section

Mny

Mnx

+

M0y

M0x

Mnx Mny

+

M0x

M0y

Mny

Mnx

M0y

M0x

Mny

Mnx

= 1 If

M0y

M0x

= 1 If

(9.29)

(9.30)

Design of a column

Mny + Mnx

Mnx + Mny

Victor Saouma

M0y

M0x

M0x

M0y

Mny

M0y

Mnx

M0x

Mny

M0y

If

Mnx

M0x

= M0y If

(9.31-a)

= M0x

(9.31-b)

Draft

916

COLUMNS

1.0

0.90

0.

0.8 85

0

0.7

5

0.7

0

0.6

5

0.8

0.6

be

ta

0.6

0.

55

=0

Nny/M0y

.5

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Mnx/M0x

Mnx

M ny /M 0y + M nx /M 0x (1 / ) =1

1.0

(M nx /M 0x ) +(M ny /M 0y) =1

M0y

0y

M0x

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

M ny /M

Pn

M nx /M 0x + M ny /M 0y (1 / ) =1

Mny

45

A

M nx /M 0x

1.0

Figure 9.11: Bilinear Approximation for Load Contour Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns

Victor Saouma

Draft

917

Note, circular or square columns with symmetric reinforcement should always be considered

rst for biaxially loaded columns.

26

Determine the adequacy of a 16 in. square tied column with 8 # 9 bars. d = 2.5 in, and

there are 3 bars on each side. The section is to carry factored loads of Pu = 144 k, Mux = 120 k.ft

and Muy = 54 k.ft, fc = 3 ksi and fy = 40 ksi. P0 = 952 k, M0x = M0y = 207 k.ft (we have a

symmetrical reinforcement).

Solution:

ey =

ex =

Mux

Pu

Muy

Pu

(120)(12)

= 10.0 in

144

(54)(12)

= 4.5 in

144

=

=

The interaction diagram for e = 10 in, e = 4.5 in and e = 0 will give Pn equal to 254, 486, and

952 kips respectively.

The required load Pn = 144 = 205 k, the corresponding moments are M0x = M0y = 207 k.ft

0.7

from the interaction diagram. Using = 0.65

Required Mnx

M0x

Required Mny

M0y

120

0.7

207

= 0.828

207

= 0.373

54

0.7

Bresler-Parme which is exact solution

Mnx

M0x

log(0.5)

log

log 0.5/log

log 0.5/log

Mny

M0y

1.609 + (0.373)1.609

(0.828)

This would have given

is safe.

Mny

M0y

Mnx

M0x ,

log 0.5

log 0.65

=

=

0.943

= 1.609

Mny

M0y

0.45 which is greater than the actual value, hence the design

Mnx

M0x

Mny

M0y

0.828 +

1

1

10.65

0.337 0.65

We note that the approximate method is on the conservative side.

Victor Saouma

Draft

918

9.3

9.3.1

COLUMNS

Long Columns

Euler Elastic Buckling

Column buckling theory originated with Leonhard Euler in 1744. An initially straight member is concentrically loaded, and all bers remain elastic until buckling occur.

27

For buckling to occur, it must be assumed that the column is slightly bent as shown in Fig.

9.12. Note, in reality no column is either perfectly straight, and in all cases a minor imperfection

28

x and y are

principal axes

L

is present.

At any location x along the column, the imperfection in the column compounded by the

concentric load P , gives rise to a moment

29

Mz = P y

(9.32)

30

Recalling that

d2 y

Mz

=

2

dx

EI

upon substitution, we obtain the following dierential equation

P

d2 y

=0

2

dx

EI

31

Letting k 2 =

P

EI ,

(9.34)

y = A sin kx B cos kx

32

(9.33)

(9.35)

The two constants are determined by applying the essential boundary conditions

1. y = 0 at x = 0, thus B = 0

2. y = 0 at x = L, thus

A sin kL = 0

Victor Saouma

(9.36)

Draft

919

This last equation can e satised if: 1) A = 0, that is there is no deection; 2) kL = 0, that is

no applied load; or 3)

kL = n

(9.37)

P

EI

n 2

L

or

P =

n2 2 EI

L2

The fundamental buckling mode, i.e. a single curvature deection, will occur for n = 1; Thus

Euler critical load for a pinned column is

33

Pcr =

2 EI

L2

(9.38)

cr =

2E

(9.39)

L 2

r

where I = Ar.

34

Note that buckling will take place with respect to the weakest of the two axis.

9.3.2

35

Large

Eective Length

kL

r

kL

r

Pfail

Pn

1

tan E

fp

Pcr

Crushing

1

tan

Buckling

(kl/r) lim

(kl/r)

36

=

Le

r

where Le is the eective length and is equal to Le = kL and r the radius of gyration (r =

37

I

A ).

Le is the distance between two adjacent (ctitious or actual) inection points, Fig. 9.13

Victor Saouma

Draft

920

COLUMNS

P cr

P cr

Pcr

i.p.

i.p.

l/4

kl= l

2

l

2

kl=l

<kl<l

i.p.

i.p.

l/4

i.p.

i.p.

Pcr

P cr

k=1

P cr

k=1/2

1/2<k<1

Pcr

cr

cr

l

kl=21

Pcr

l<kl<

i.p.

i.p.

kl=1

Pcr

P

cr

l<kl<

i.p.

k=2

i.p.

k=1

Figure 9.14: Critical lengths of columns

Victor Saouma

Draft

921

k is known for some simple highly idealized cases, but for most cases k depends on A + B

(relative stinesses of columns to connected beams), Fig. 9.15

38

( EI )of columns

L

( EI )of oor members

L

(9.40)

( EI

ln

A

( EI

ln

( EI

ln

P

( EI

ln

MA

MA

M

A

MB

MB

M

B

Single curvature

Double curvature

Braced

Unbraced

9.3.3

39

P

A

2E

kL 2

r

cr

Code recommends some minimum eccentricity to account for imperfectly placed load, Fig.

9.17

40

41

Mmax = M0

1

1

P

1Pcr

(9.41)

42 The moment magnication factor reects the amount by which the beam moment M0 is

magnied by the presence of an axial load, Fig. 9.18

The previous equation assumes the presence of hinges at each end (Euler column). In the

most general case we will have

43

Mmax = M0

Victor Saouma

Cm

P

1 Pcr

(9.42-a)

Draft

922

COLUMNS

Sidesway Inhibited

50.

10.

5.

3.

Ga

1.0

0.9

2.

Sidesway Uninhibited

Gb

50.

10.

5.

3.

100.

50.

30.

20.

2.

1.

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.7

0.3

10.

5.

4.

3.

10.

9.

8.

7.

6.

5.

2.

4.

3.

2.

2.

1.5

0.2

1.

0.1

0.

Gb

100.

50.

30.

20.

3.

0.3

0.6

20.

4.

1.

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

10.

9.

8.

7.

6.

5.

0.8

0.2

Ga

1.

0.1

0.5

0.

1.

Victor Saouma

Draft

923

P

P

P 0(max)

P cr

M

Pu

in

Pn

em

Pu

Pu e

M

0

M c = M 2

kl/r

Mc

Cm = .6 + .4

where

M1

M1

M2

M1

M2

>0

<0

Cm < 1

Cm =1

44

45

M1

.4

M2

(9.42-b)

if single curvature

if double curvature

if members are braced against sidesway

if members are not braced against sidesway

ACI Code

Lu

k 1.0

k 1.0

r = .3h

r = .25d

M1

kLu

r < 34 12 M2

kLu

r < 22

braced columns ACI 10.11.2

unbraced columns ACI 10.11.2

rectangular x section ACI 10.11.3

circular cross section

braced, neglect slenderness ACI 10.11.4

unbraced, neglect slenderness

Mc = M2

Cm

1.0

=

P

1 Pn

cr

2 EI

10.11.5

(kLu )2

M1

= .6 + .4

M2

(9.43)

(9.44)

Pcr =

(9.45)

Cm

(9.46)

EI =

or EI =

d =

Ec Ig

5

+ Es Is

1 + d

Ec Ig

2.5

1 + d

MD

1.4PDL

=

MD + ML

1.4PDL + 1.7PLL

(9.47)

(9.48)

(9.49)

d is the ratio of maximum design load moment to maximum design total load moment (always

Victor Saouma

Draft

924

+ve) as

EI

COLUMNS

dead load has a detrimental eect (creep)

A 15 ft long, 14 circular column is connected to 40 ft long 14 by 22 beams. The column

is on the last oor, below it the column is circular and has a 16 diameter. No sidesway.

Given, Pn = 500 k, 14 22 has = .015, fc = 5, 000 psi, fy = 40, 000 psi

Solution:

22

= 13.17 ft

12

r = .25d = (.25)(14 in) = 3.5 in

Lu = 15 ft

(14)4

d4

=

= 1, 886 in4

Ig =

64

64

EIcol =

Ec Ig

2.5

1+d

d = 0

EI

L

1

= 3, 040, 000 k in2

2.5

3, 040, 000

= 16, 890 k.in

(15)(12)

=

c

Ig

(14)(22)3 1

=

= 6, 210 in4

2

12

2

(4, 030)(6, 210)

= 52, 140 k.in

(12)(40)

(EI/L)col

(16, 890)

= .162

=

(EI/L)beam

2(52, 140)

Ibeam = Icr

EI

L

=

beam

A =

bottom column I =

(16)4

64

(9.50-b)

(9.50-c)

(9.50-d)

(9.51-a)

(9.52-a)

(9.52-b)

(9.52-c)

(9.52-d)

= 3, 217 in4

EI =

EI

L

=

col

B =

= 5, 186, 000

2.5

5, 186, 000

= 28, 800 k.in

(15)(12)

16, 890 + 28, 800

= .438

2(52, 140)

kLu

r

M1

34 12

M2

kL

r

Victor Saouma

(9.50-a)

(9.53-a)

(9.53-b)

(9.53-c)

.62 and

(.65)(13.16)(12)

= 29.3

3.5

(9.54-a)

= 34 12 = 22 assuming M1 = M2

(9.54-b)

(9.54-c)

Draft

925

2 EI

2 (3, 040, 000)

=

= 2, 848 k

2

(kl)

[(.65)(13.16)(12)]2

M1

CM = .6 + .4

=1

M2

1

1

=

=

= 1.3

500

Pu

1 (.75)(2,848)

1 Pcr

Pcr =

(9.54-d)

(9.54-e)

(9.54-f)

Given: frame not braced, design AB as square column. PD = 46 k, MD = 92 k.ft, PL = 94 k,

ML = 230 k.ft, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi

L =18

u

L

3

l =43.3in

111

000

111

000

000

111

111

000

000

111

000

111

Solution:

Mu = 1.4 92 + 1.7 230 = 520 k.ft

MDL

(1.4)92

= .24

=

d =

MDL + MLL

520

(9.55-a)

(9.55-b)

(9.55-c)

2.5

8.5

22"

22"

Victor Saouma

Draft

926

COLUMNS

If

Is

224

= 19, 500 in4

12

= (2)(.015)(22)2 (8.5)2 = 1, 050 in4

=

(9.56-a)

(9.56-b)

6

Ec = 57, 000

(9.56-c)

Es = 29 10 ksi

6

EI =

=

EIc

L

EIb

L

kL

r

+ Es Is

1 + d

(3.6106 )(19,500)

5

= 3.59 1010

1 + .24

(9.56-e)

3.59 1010

= 1.66 108

12 18

(9.56-f)

(9.56-g)

AtA&B =

if

(9.56-d)

Ec Ig

5

2(1.66 108 )

= 2.13 from ACI commentary k = 1.65

1.56 108

(9.56-h)

= 22 neglect slenderness

r = (.3)(22) = 6.6 in

(1.65)(18)(12)

kL

=

= 54 > 22

r

6.6

2 EI

2 (3.59 1010 )

Pcr =

=

= 279 106 lbs

(kL)2

[(1.65)(18)(12)]2

Pu = 2.24 105 lb

Cm = 1.0(unbraced)

1

=

Moment Magnication =

P

1 Pu

1

cr

= 1.13

(9.57-a)

(9.57-b)

(9.57-c)

(9.57-d)

(9.57-e)

1

(2.24105 )

(.7)(2.79106 )

(9.57-f)

(9.57-g)

Moment for which the column is to be designed (1.13) (520) = 587 k.ft and Pu = 224

Victor Saouma

Draft

Chapter 10

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

10.1

Introduction

Beams with longer spans are architecturally more appealing than those with short ones.

However, for a reinforced concrete beam to span long distances, it would have to have to be

relatively deep (and at some point the self weight may become too large relative to the live

load), or higher grade steel and concrete must be used.

2 However, if we were to use a steel with fy much higher than 60 ksi in reinforced concrete

(R/C), then to take full advantage of this higher yield stress while maintaining full bond between

concrete and steel, will result in unacceptably wide crack widths. Large crack widths will in

turn result in corrosion of the rebars and poor protection against re.

One way to control the concrete cracking and reduce the tensile stresses in a beam is to

prestress the beam by applying an initial state of stress which is opposite to the one which will

be induced by the load.

For a simply supported beam, we would then seek to apply an initial tensile stress at the

top and compressive stress at the bottom. In prestressed concrete (P/C) this can be achieved

through prestressing of a tendon placed below the elastic neutral axis.

Main advantages of P/C: Economy, deection & crack control, durability, fatigue strength,

longer spans.

Pretensioning: Steel is rst stressed, concrete is then poured around the stressed bars. When

enough concrete strength has been reached the steel restraints are released, Fig. 10.1.

Postensioning: Concrete is rst poured, then when enough strength has been reached a steel

cable is passed thru a hollow core inside and stressed, Fig. 10.2.

10.1.1

Materials

P/C beams usually have higher compressive strength than R/C. Prestressed beams can have

fc as high as 8,000 psi.

The importance of high yield stress for the steel is illustrated by the following simple example.

Draft

102

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Vertical

bulkhead

Harping

hold-up

point

Harping

hold-down

point

Jacks

Anchorage

Prestressing

bed slab

Continuous

tendon

Precast Concrete

element

Tendon

anchorage

Jacks

Support

force

Casting bed

Jacks

Casting bed

Hold-down

force

Tendon

Anchorage

Anchorage

Intermediate

diaphragms

Jack

Beam

Jack

Tendon in conduct

Anchorage

Jack

Slab

Wrapped tendon

Victor Saouma

Draft

10.1 Introduction

103

1. An unstressed steel cable of length Ls

2. A concrete beam of length Lc

3. Prestress the beam with the cable, resulting in a stressed length of concrete and steel

equal to Ls = Lc .

4. Due to shrinkage and creep, there will be a change in length

Lc = (sh + cr )Lc

(10.1)

we want to make sure that this amout of deformation is substantially smaller than the

stretch of the steel (for prestressing to be eective).

5. Assuming ordinary steel: fs = 30 ksi, Es = 29, 000 ksi, s =

30

29,000

7. The creep and shrinkage strains are about cr + sh

.9 103

8. The residual stress which is left in the steel after creep and shrinkage took place is thus

(1.03 .90) 103 (29 103 ) = 4 ksi

Thus the total loss is

304

30

(10.2)

9. Alternatively if initial stress was 150 ksi after losses we would be left with 124 ksi or a

17% loss.

10. Note that the actual loss is (.90 103 )(29 103 ) = 26 ksi in each case

9

Having shown that losses would be too high for low strength steel, we will use

Strands usually composed of 7 wires. Grade 250 or 270 ksi, Fig. 10.3.

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111 111111

000000 000000

111111

000000

11111111111

00000000000

111111 111111

000000 000000

111111

000000

11111111111

00000000000

111111 111111

000000 000000

111111

000000

11111111111

00000000000

111111

000000

11111111111

00000000000

111111

000000

11111111111

00000000000

111111

111111

000000

11111000000

00000000000

111111

000000

11111

00000111111

111111

000000

11111111111

00000000000

111111

11111111111

00000000000

11111 000000

00000 000000

111111

000000

111111

11111111111

00000000000

11111 111111

00000 000000

111111

000000

11111111111

00000000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

111111

000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

11111

00000

111111

000000

Tendon have diameters ranging from 1/2 to 1 3/8 of an inch. Grade 145 or 160 ksi.

Wires come in bundles of 8 to 52.

Note that yield stress is not well dened for steel used in prestressed concrete, usually we take

1% strain as eective yield.

Steel relaxation is the reduction in stress at constant strain (as opposed to creep which

is reduction of strain at constant stress) occurs. Relaxation occurs indenitely and produces

signicant prestress loss. If we denote by fp the nal stress after t hours, fpi the initial stress,

and fpy the yield stress, then

10

fp

log t

=1

fpi

10

Victor Saouma

fpi

.55

fpy

(10.3)

Draft

104

10.1.2

11

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Prestressing Forces

1. Pj Jacking force. But then due to

(a) friction and anchorage slip in post-tension

(b) elastic shortening in pretension

is reduced to:

2. Pi Initial prestress force; But then due to time dependent losses caused by

(a) relaxation of steel

(b) shrinkage of concrete

(c) creep of concrete

is reduced to:

3. Pe Eective force

10.1.3

12

Assumptions

1. Materials are both in the elastic range

2. section is uncracked

3. sign convention: +ve tension, ve compression

4. Subscript 1 refers to the top and 2 to the bottom

5. I, S1 =

I

c1 ,

S2 =

I

c2 ,

(section modulus)

10.1.4

Tendon Conguration

Through proper arrangement of the tendon (eccentricity at both support and midspan)

various internal exural stress distribution can be obtained, Fig. 10.4.

13

10.1.5

Equivalent Load

An equivalent load for prestressing can be usually determined from the tendon conguration

and the prestressing force, Fig. 10.5.

14

10.1.6

15

Load Deformation

The load-deformation curve for a prestressed concrete beam is illustrated in Fig. 10.6.

Victor Saouma

h/2

2h/3

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

f

y

2f c

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

fc

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

fc =f t

fc

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

000

111

000

111

fc

2f c

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

0

1111

0000

1111

0000

+ 0000

1111

2f c

0

111 1111111

000 0000000

111 1111111

000 0000000

111 1111111

000 +0000000

111 1111111

000 0000000 =

111 1111111

000 0000000

2f c

2f =2f

t

c

2f c

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

0

fc

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

000

111

fc

111

000

111

000

= 000

111

000

111

None

P cos

2P sin

P

h/2

f

c

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

ft =f c

1111

0000

+ 0000

1111

1111

0000

Midspan

fc

111

000

111

000

0

2f c

111 1111111

000 0000000

111 1111111

000 0000000

111 0000000

000 +

1111111

111 1111111

000 0000000

111 1111111

000 0000000 =

111 1111111

000 0000000

2f c

2f

t =2f c

fc

Midspan

11

00

11

00 +

=

0

11

00

11

00

00

11

Ends

fc

0

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

2f c

fc

fc

111

000

111

000

111

= 000

000

111

000

111

fc

P cos

P cos

2Q

h/3

h/2

Ends

(g)

P

2Q

Q

P

fc

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

000

111

fc

None

(f)

P

P sin

P P sin

P cos

P

(e)

P

P

h/3

P cos

M

P sin

M P sin

P

(d)

P

e

P sin

P sin

(b)

P cos

2P sin

P cos

P

Pe

Pe

P

P

e

(c)

P

P cos

P

P

P sin

P

Equivalent load on concrete from tendon

Member

P sin

(a)

P

Victor Saouma

105

Draft

10.1 Introduction

Figure 10.4: Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

Draft

106

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Load

Ru

ptu

Steel yielding

Service load limit

including

tolerable overload

Overload

re

Tn

Service

load

range

f cr

Decompression

or higher

cgs (f=0)

Balanced

Full dead load

Deformation

(deflection of camber)

pe = Effective prestress camber

O = Selfweight deflection

D= Dead load deflection

L= Live load deflection

pe

pi

Figure 10.6: Load-Deection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical

Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

10.2

16

Flexural Stresses

I

Ac )

ec1

Pi

Pi

Pi ec1

1 2

=

+

Ac

I

Ac

r

ec2

Pi

Pi

Pi ec2

1+ 2

=

=

Ac

I

Ac

r

f1 =

(10.4)

f2

(10.5)

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment

the beam cambers due to prestressing)

Pi

ec1

M0

1 2

Ac

r

S1

ec2

M0

Pi

1+ 2 +

=

Ac

r

S2

f1 =

(10.6)

f2

(10.7)

Service Load when the prestressing force was reduced from Pi to Pe beacause of the losses,

and the actual service (not factored) load is apllied

3. Pe and M0

Victor Saouma

f1 =

(10.8)

f2

(10.9)

ec1

M0

Pe

1 2

Ac

r

S1

ec2

M0

Pe

1+ 2 +

=

Ac

r

S2

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 4

f1 =

(10.10)

f2

(10.11)

ec1

M0 + MDL + MLL

Pe

1 2

Ac

r

S1

Pe

ec2

M0 + MDL + MLL

=

1+ 2 +

Ac

r

S2

c1

c2

Pi

Ac

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

11

00

Pi

Ac

e c1

)

r2

e c2

)

r2

ec

1 ) Mo

r2

S1

Pi

(1+

Ac

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

Pi

(1

Ac

Pe

(1

Ac

Mo

e c2

)+

r2

S2

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

Pe

(1+

Ac

Pi e c 1

Ic

Pi e c 2

Ic

Mo

S1

Pi

(1

Ac

e c1

)

r2

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

111111111

000000000

e c2

)

r2

Mo

e c1

)

r2

S1

Pi

(1+

Ac

Pi

(1

Ac

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

111111

000000

e c1

Mt

)

r2

S1

e c2

Mo

)+

r2

S2

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

111

000

Pe

(1+

Ac

e c2

Mt

)+

r2

S2

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

Pe

(1

Ac

Pi

(1+

Ac

Md + Ml

S1

Mo

S2

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

1111

0000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

11111

00000

Md + Ml

S2

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

1111111111

0000000000

Victor Saouma

107

Draft

The internal stress distribution at each one of those four stages is illustrated by Fig. 10.7.

Figure 10.7: Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity; Maximum

Moment Section and Support Section, (Nilson 1978)

Draft

108

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Those (service) exural stresses must be below those specied by the ACI code (where the

subscripts c, t, i and s refer to compression, tension, initial and service respectively):

fci permitted concrete compression stress at initial stage .60fci

fti permitted concrete tensile stress at initial stage

< 3 fci

fcs permitted concrete compressive stress at service stage .45fc

fts permitted concrete tensile stress at initial stage

6 fc or 12 fc

Note that fts can reach 12 fc only if appropriate deection analysis is done, because section

would be cracked.

17

18

Full prestressing (pioneered by Freysinet), no tensile stresses, no crack, but there are some

problems with excessive camber when unloaded.

Partial prestressing (pioneered by Leonhardt, Abeles, Thurliman), cracks are allowed to

occur (just as in R/C), and they are easier to control in P/C than in R/C.

19 The ACI code imposes the following limits on the steel stresses in terms of fpu which is the

ultimate strength of the cable: Pj < .80fpu As and Pi < .70fpu As . No limits are specied for

Pe .

Adapted from (Nilson 1978)

The following I Beam has fc = 4, 000 psi, L = 40 ft, DL+LL =0.55 k/ft, concrete density

= 150 lb/ft3 and multiple 7 wire strands with constant eccentricity e = 5.19 in. Pi = 169 k,

and the total losses due to creep, shinkage, relaxation are 15%.

12"

4"

5"

2"

7"

4"

6"

24"

6"

7"

2"

5"

4"

The section properties for this beam are Ic = 12, 000 in4 , Ac = 176 in2 , S1 = S2 = 1, 000 in3 ,

I

= A = 68.2 in2 .

Determine exural stresses at midspan and at support at initial and nal conditions.

Solution:

r2

f1 =

Victor Saouma

Pi

ec1

1 2

Ac

r

(10.12-a)

Draft

109

169, 000

176

Pi

=

1+

Ac

169, 000

=

176

=

f2

(5.19)(12)

68.2

= 83 psi

ec2

r2

1+

(10.12-b)

(10.12-c)

(5.19)(12)

68.21

= 1, 837 psi

(10.12-d)

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the

beam cambers due to prestressing)

w0 =

M0 =

(176) in2

(.150) k/ ft3 = .183 k/ft

(144) in2 / ft2

(.183)(40)2

= 36.6 k.ft

8

(10.13-a)

(10.13-b)

w0

f1,2 =

M0

(36.6)(12, 000)

= 439 psi

=

S1,2

1, 000

ec1

M0

Pi

1 2

Ac

r

S1

83 439 = 522 psi

3 fc = +190

ec2

M0

Pi

1+ 2 +

Ac

r

S2

1, 837 + 439 = 1, 398 psi

.6fc = 2, 400

(10.14)

f1 =

(10.15-a)

(10.15-b)

fti =

f2 =

=

fci =

(10.15-c)

(10.15-d)

(10.15-e)

(10.15-f)

3. Pe and M0 . If we have 15% losses, then the eective force Pe is equal to (1 0.15)169 =

144 k

ec1

M0

Pe

1 2

Ac

r

S1

(5.19)(12)

144, 000

1

=

176

68.2

f1 =

(10.16-a)

439

ec2

M0

Pe

1+ 2 +

Ac

r

S2

144, 000

(5.19)(12)

=

1+

176

68.2

(10.16-c)

f2 =

(10.16-b)

(10.16-d)

+ 439

(10.16-e)

(10.16-f)

note that 71 and 1, 561 are respectively equal to (0.85)(83) and (0.85)(1, 837)

respectively.

Victor Saouma

Draft

1010

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

(0.55)(40)2

= 110 k.ft

8

(10.17)

(110)(12, 000)

= 1, 320 psi

1, 000

(10.18)

MDL + MLL =

and corresponding stresses

f1,2 =

Thus,

ec1

M0 + MDL + MLL

Pe

1 2

Ac

r

S1

510 1, 320 = 1, 830 psi

.45fc = 2, 700

ec2

M0 + MDL + MLL

Pe

1+ 2 +

Ac

r

S2

1, 122 + 1, 320 = +198 psi

6 fc = +380

f1 =

(10.19-a)

(10.19-b)

fcs =

f2 =

=

fts =

(10.19-c)

(10.19-d)

(10.19-e)

(10.19-f)

+198

10.3

2

-1122

1

-1398

-1837

-83

-510

-522

-1830

5. The stress distribution at each one of the four stages is shown below.

The historical Walnut Lane Bridge (rst major prestressed concrete bridge in the USA) is

made of three spans, two side ones with lengths of 74 ft and a middle one of length 160 feet.

Thirteen prestressed cocnrete beams are placed side by side to make up a total width of 44

fet of roadway and two 9.25 feet of sidewalk. In between the beams, and cast with them, are

transverse stieners which connect the beams laterally, Fig. 10.8

20

Victor Saouma

Draft

1011

80 ft

CENTER

LINE

9.25

44

ROAD

9.25

SIDEWALK

TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGMS

52"

10"

3"

7"

TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGM

10"

7"

3-3"

6-7"

SLOTS FOR CABLES

6 1/2"

3 1/2"

7"

30"

Victor Saouma

Draft

1012

10.3.1

21

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Cross-Section Properties

52"

8.9"

22.5"

7"

22.5"

6-7"

= 79"

61.2"

8.9"

Ac = 2(8.9)(52) + (7)(61.2) = 1, 354 in2

I = 2

c 1 = c2

S1 = S2

r2

10.3.2

(52)(8.9)3

+ (52)(8.9)

12

79 8.9

2

2

(10.20-a)

2

(7)(61.2)3

12

79

h

=

= 39.5 in

=

2

2

1, 277 103

I

=

= 32, 329 in3

=

c

39.5

1, 277 103

I

=

= 943. in2

=

A

1, 354

(10.20-b)

(10.20-c)

(10.20-d)

(10.20-e)

(10.20-f)

Prestressing

Each beam is prestressed by two middle parabolic cables, and two outer horizontal ones

along the anges. All four have approximately the same eccentricity at midspan of 2.65 ft. or

31.8 inch.

22

Each prestressing cable is made up 64 wires each with a diameter of 0.27 inches. Thus the

total area of prestressing steel is given by:

23

Victor Saouma

0.276 in 2

) = 0.0598 in2

2

(10.21-a)

Draft

1013

2

(10.21-b)

(10.21-c)

Whereas the ultimate tensile strength of the steel used is 247 ksi, the cables have been

stressed only to 131 ksi, thus the initial prestressing force Pi is equal to

24

25

Pe = (1 0.13)(2, 000) k = 1, 740 k

10.3.3

26

(10.22)

(10.23)

Loads

The concrete (density=.15 k/ ft3 ) road has a thickness of 0.45 feet. Thus for a 44 foot width,

the total load over one single beam is

1

(10.24)

qr,tot = (44) ft(0.45) ft(0.15) k/ ft3 = 0.23 k/ft

13

27

Similarly for the sidewalks which are 9.25 feet wide and 0.6 feet thick:

1

qs,tot = (2)(9.25) ft(0.60) ft(0.15) k/ ft3 = 0.13 k/ft

(10.25)

13

We note that the weight can be evenly spread over the 13 beams beacause of the lateral

diaphragms.

28

29

qDL = 0.23 + 0.13 = 0.36 k/ft

(10.26)

The live load is created by the trac, and is estimated to be 94 psf, thus over a width of

62.5 feet this gives a uniform live load of

1

(10.27)

wLL = (0.094) k/f t2 (62.5) ft = 0.45 k/ft

13

30

31

wDL+LL = 0.36 + 0.45 = 0.81 k/ft

10.3.4

(10.28)

Flexural Stresses

ec1

Pi

1 2

Ac

r

6)

(31.8)(39.5)

(2 10

1

=

1, 354

943.

Pi

ec2

=

1+ 2

Ac

r

(31.8)(39.5)

(2 106 )

1+

=

1, 354

943.

f1 =

f2

Victor Saouma

(10.29-a)

= 490. psi

(10.29-b)

(10.29-c)

= 3, 445. psi

(10.29-d)

Draft

1014

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the

beam cambers due to prestressing)

(1.72)(160)2

= 5, 504 k.ft

8

The exural stresses will thus be equal to:

M0 =

w0

f1,2 =

(10.30)

M0

(5, 50.4)(12, 000)

=

= 2, 043 psi

S1,2

943.

(10.31)

ec1

M0

Pi

1 2

Ac

r

S1

490 2, 043 = 1, 553 psi

3 fc = +190

Pi

ec2

M0

1+ 2 +

Ac

r

S2

3, 445 + 2, 043 = 1, 402. psi

.6fc = 2, 400

f1 =

(10.32-a)

(10.32-b)

fti =

f2 =

=

fci =

(10.32-c)

(10.32-d)

(10.32-e)

(10.32-f)

3. Pe and M0 . If we have 13% losses, then the eective force Pe is equal to (10.13)(2106 ) =

1.74 106 lbs

Pe

ec1

M0

f1 =

(10.33-a)

1 2

Ac

r

S1

(31.8)(39.5)

1.74 106

1

2, 043. = 1, 616 psi

(10.33-b)

=

1, 354

943.

ec2

M0

Pe

1+ 2 +

(10.33-c)

f2 =

Ac

r

S2

(31.8)(39.5)

1.74 106

1+

+ 2, 043. = 954. psi

(10.33-d)

=

1, 354

943.

4. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL

MDL + MLL =

(0.81)(160)2

= 2, 592 k.ft

8

(10.34)

f1,2 =

= 962. psi

32, 329

(10.35)

Thus,

ec1

M0 + MDL + MLL

Pe

1 2

Ac

r

S1

1, 616 962. = 2, 578. psi

.45fc = 2, 700

ec2

M0 + MDL + MLL

Pe

1+ 2 +

Ac

r

S2

954 + 962. = +8. psi

6 fc = +380

f1 =

(10.36-a)

(10.36-b)

fcs =

f2 =

=

fts =

Victor Saouma

(10.36-c)

(10.36-d)

(10.36-e)

(10.36-f)

Draft

Victor Saouma

1015

Draft

Bibliography

Billington, D. and Mark, R.: 1983, Structural studies, Technical report, Department of Civil

Engineering, Princeton University.

Nilson, A.: 1978, Design of Prestressed Concrete, John Wiley and Sons.

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.