Sunteți pe pagina 1din 0

Draft

DRAFT

Lecture Notes in:

Mechanics and Design of


REINFORCED CONCRETE
CVEN4555

c VICTOR

E. SAOUMA,

Fall 2002

Dept. of Civil Environmental and Architectural Engineering


University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0428
December 26, 2002

Draft
02

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1.1 Mix Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1.1.1 Constituents . . . . . . . .
1.1.1.1.2 Preliminary Considerations
1.1.1.1.3 Mix procedure . . . . . . .
1.1.1.1.4 Mix Design Example . . .
1.1.1.2 Mechanical Properties . . . . . . . .
1.1.2 Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Design Philosophy, USD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Analysis vs Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4 Basic Relations and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 ACI Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 FLEXURE
2.1 Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 2-1 Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Section Cracked, Stresses Elastic . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 Basic Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 Working Stress Method . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 2-2 Cracked Elastic Section . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 2-3 Working Stress Design Method; Analysis . . .
E 2-4 Working Stress Design Method; Design . . .
2.3 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method .
2.3.1 Whitney Stress Block . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.2 Balanced Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.3 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.4 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Practical Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 Minimum Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 Beam Sizes, Bar Spacing, Concrete Cover . .
2.4.3 Design Aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 USD Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 2-5 Ultimate Strength; Review . . . . . . . . . .
E 2-6 Ultimate Strength; Design I . . . . . . . . . .
E 2-7 Ultimate Strength; Design II . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

11
. 11
. 11
. 11
. 11
. 15
. 15
. 18
. 19
. 113
. 114
. 115
. 116
. 116

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

21
. 21
. 22
. 23
. 23
. 24
. 25
. 26
. 27
. 28
. 28
. 210
. 211
. 211
. 212
. 212
. 213
. 213
. 215
. 215
. 216
. 217

Draft
02

2.6

2.7

2.8
2.9

CONTENTS

E 2-8 Exact Analysis . . . . . . . . . . .


T Beams, (ACI 8.10) . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.1 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6.2 Design, (balanced) . . . . . . . . .
E 2-9 T Beam; Moment Capacity I . . .
E 2-10 T Beam; Moment Capacity II . . .
E 2-11 T Beam; Design . . . . . . . . . .
Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beams . .
2.7.1 Tests for fs and fs . . . . . . . . .
2.7.2 Moment Equations . . . . . . . . .
E 2-12 Doubly Reinforced Concrete beam;
E 2-13 Doubly Reinforced Concrete beam;
Moment-Curvature Relations . . . . . . .
Bond & Development Length . . . . . . .
2.9.1 Moment Capacity Diagram . . . .

3 SHEAR
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Shear Strength of Uncracked Section
3.3 Shear Strength of Cracked Sections .
3.4 ACI Code Requirements . . . . . . .
3.5 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 3-1 Shear Design . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Shear Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 3-2 Shear Friction . . . . . . . . .
3.7 Brackets and Corbels . . . . . . . . .
3.8 Deep Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
Review
Design .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

. 217
. 220
. 221
. 222
. 222
. 223
. 224
. 226
. 227
. 229
. 230
. 232
. 233
. 235
. 239

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

31
. 31
. 32
. 35
. 36
. 38
. 38
. 39
. 311
. 312
. 312

4 CONTINUOUS BEAMS
4.1 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Methods of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Detailed Analysis . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 ACI Approximate Method . . . .
4.3 Eective Span Design Moment . . . . .
4.4 Moment Redistribution . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1 Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Section .
4.4.2 Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 4-1 Moment Redistribution . . . . .
4.5 Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

41
41
42
42
42
44
44
44
46
46
47

5 ONE WAY SLABS


51
5.1 Types of Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.2 One Way Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.3 Design of a One Way Continuous Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
CONTENTS

6 SERVICEABILITY
6.1 Control of Cracking . . . . .
E 6-1 Crack Width . . . . .
6.2 Deections . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 Short Term Deection
6.2.2 Long Term Deection
E 6-2 Deections . . . . . .

03

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

7 APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS


7.1 Vertical Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Horizontal Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Portal Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E 7-1 Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to
Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
Vertical
. . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

61
61
63
63
64
65
67

71
. . . . . . . . . . 71
. . . . . . . . . . 74
. . . . . . . . . . 74
and Horizontal
. . . . . . . . . . 76

8 COLUMNS

81

9 COLUMNS
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1 Types of Columns . . . . . . . . .
9.1.2 Possible Arrangement of Bars . . .
9.2 Short Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1 Concentric Loading . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2 Eccentric Columns . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2.1 Balanced Condition . . .
9.2.2.2 Tension Failure . . . . . .
9.2.2.3 Compression Failure . . .
9.2.3 ACI Provisions . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.4 Interaction Diagrams . . . . . . . .
9.2.5 Design Charts . . . . . . . . . . .
E 9-1 R/C Column, c known . . . . . . .
E 9-2 R/C Column, e known . . . . . . .
E 9-3 R/C Column, Using Design Charts
9.2.6 Biaxial Bending . . . . . . . . . .
E 9-4 Biaxially Loaded Column . . . . .
9.3 Long Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1 Euler Elastic Buckling . . . . . . .
9.3.2 Eective Length . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.3 Moment Magnication Factor; ACI
E 9-5 Long R/C Column . . . . . . . . .
E 9-6 Design of Slender Column . . . . .

. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
Provisions
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

91
. 91
. 91
. 92
. 92
. 92
. 92
. 93
. 95
. 96
. 97
. 97
. 97
. 97
. 99
. 913
. 914
. 917
. 918
. 918
. 919
. 921
. 924
. 925

10 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
10.1.1 Materials . . . . . . .
10.1.2 Prestressing Forces . .
10.1.3 Assumptions . . . . .
10.1.4 Tendon Conguration

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

101
. 101
. 101
. 104
. 104
. 104

Victor Saouma

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
04

CONTENTS

10.1.5 Equivalent Load . . . . . . .


10.1.6 Load Deformation . . . . . .
10.2 Flexural Stresses . . . . . . . . . . .
E 10-1 Prestressed Concrete I Beam
10.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge . .
10.3.1 Cross-Section Properties . . .
10.3.2 Prestressing . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.3 Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3.4 Flexural Stresses . . . . . . .

Victor Saouma

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

. 104
. 104
. 106
. 108
. 1010
. 1012
. 1012
. 1013
. 1013

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
List of Figures
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

. 12
. 110
. 111
. 111
. 111
. 112
. 113

Strain Diagram Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Transformed Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stress Diagram Cracked Elastic Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Desired Stress Distribution; WSD Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cracked Section, Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Whitney Stress Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bar Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T Beam as Rectangular Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
T Beam Strain and Stress Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Decomposition of Steel Reinforcement for T Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doubly Reinforced Beams; Strain and Stress Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dierent Possibilities for Doubly Reinforced Concrete Beams . . . . . . . . . .
Strain Diagram, Doubly Reinforced Beam; is As Yielding? . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strain Diagram, Doubly Reinforced Beam; is As Yielding? . . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of Conditions for top and Bottom Steel Yielding . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bending of a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment-Curvature Relation for a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bond and Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Actual Bond Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splitting Along Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Development Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bar cuto requirements of the ACI code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard cuto or bend points for bars in approximately equal spans with uniformly distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.27 Moment Capacity Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 21
. 22
. 23
. 24
. 28
. 210
. 215
. 220
. 220
. 221
. 221
. 226
. 227
. 227
. 228
. 229
. 234
. 235
. 236
. 237
. 237
. 238
. 238
. 240
. 241

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
2.21
2.22
2.23
2.24
2.25
2.26

3.1

Schematic Representation of Aggregate Gradation


MicroCracks in Concrete under Compression . . .
Concrete Stress Strain Curve . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modulus of Rupture Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split Cylinder (Brazilian) Test . . . . . . . . . . .
Biaxial Strength of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Dependent Strains in Concrete . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

. 242
. 243

Principal Stresses in Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Draft
02

LIST OF FIGURES

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11

Types of Shear Cracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Shear Strength of Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mohrs Circle for Shear Strength of Uncracked Section . . . . . . .
Shear Strength of Uncracked Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Free Body Diagram of a R/C Section with a Flexural Shear Crack
Equilibrium of Shear Forces in Cracked Section . . . . . . . . . . .
Summary of ACI Code Requirements for Shear . . . . . . . . . . .
Corbel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear Friction Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shear Friction Across Inclined Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

. 31
. 32
. 33
. 34
. 35
. 36
. 37
. 39
. 310
. 310

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Continuous R/C Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Load Positioning on Continuous Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACI Approximate Moment Coecients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Negative Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moment Diagram of a Rigidly Connected Uniformly Loaded Beam
Moment Curvature of an Elastic-Plastic Section . . . . . . . . . . .
Plastic Moments in Uniformly Loaded Rigidly Connected Beam . .
Plastic Redistribution in Concrete Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Block Diagram for R/C Building Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

41
41
43
44
45
45
45
46
48

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Types of Slabs . . . . . . . . .
One vs Two way slabs . . . . .
Load Distribution in Slabs . . .
Load Transfer in R/C Buildings

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Crack Width Equation Parameters .


Uncracked Transformed and Cracked
Time Dependent Deection . . . . .
Time Dependent Strain Distribution
Short and long Term Deections . .

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14

Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Girder Moments . 72


Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Axial Forces73
Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Moments 73
Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Shear . . . 75
Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Girder Moment . . 75
Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Axial Force76
Example; Approximate Analysis of a Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Vertical Loads . . . . . . . 79
Approximate Analysis of a Building; Shears Due to Vertical Loads . . . . . . . . 710
Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Spread-Sheet Format . . . . . . . . . . 712
Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Equations in Spread-Sheet . . . . . . . 713
Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Lateral Loads . . . . . . . 714
Portal Method; Spread-Sheet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
Portal Method; Equations in Spread-Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717

9.1
9.2

Types of columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Tied vs Spiral Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Victor Saouma

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

51
52
52
53

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transformed X Sections
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

62
64
65
66
66

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

LIST OF FIGURES
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
9.18

03

Possible Bar arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Sources of Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Moment Interaction Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strain and Stress Diagram of a R/C Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column Interaction Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failure Surface of a Biaxially Loaded Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Contour at Plane of Constant Pn , and Nondimensionalized Corresponding
plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biaxial Bending Interaction Relations in terms of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bilinear Approximation for Load Contour Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns
Euler Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Critical lengths of columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eective length Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard Alignment Chart (ACI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum Column Eccentricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
P-M Magnication Interaction Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 92
. 93
. 93
. 94
. 98
. 914
. 915
. 916
. 916
. 918
. 919
. 920
. 921
. 922
. 922
. 923

10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6

Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102


Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7 Wire Prestressing Tendon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)105
Determination of Equivalent Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Load-Deection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
10.7 Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity; Maximum
Moment Section and Support Section, (Nilson 1978) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
10.8 Walnut Lane Bridge, Plan View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011
10.9 Walnut Lane Bridge, Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
04

Victor Saouma

LIST OF FIGURES

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
List of Tables
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

ASTM Sieve Designations Nominal Sizes Used for Concrete Aggregates . . . .


ASTM C33 Grading Limits for Coarse Concrete Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . .
ASTM C33 Grading Limits for Fine Concrete Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Fineness Modulus Determination for Fine Aggregate . . . . . . . .
Recommended Slumps (inches) for Various Types of Construction . . . . . . .
Recommended Average Total Air Content as % of Dierent Nominal Maximum
Sizes of Aggregates and Levels of Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Approximate Mixing Water Requirements, lb/yd3 of Concrete For Dierent
Slumps and Nominal Maximum Sizes of Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8 Relationship Between Water/Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength . . . . .
1.9 Volume of Dry-Rodded Coarse Aggregate per Unit Volume of Concrete for Different Fineness Moduli of Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 Creep Coecients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.11 Properties of Reinforcing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Strength Reduction Factors, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.

13
13
13
15
16

. 16
. 17
. 17
. 18
. 113
. 114
. 114

2.1
2.2

Total areas for various numbers of reinforcing bars (inch2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214


Minimum Width (inches) according to ACI Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

4.1

Building Structural Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

5.1

Recommended Minimum Slab and Beam Depths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

7.1
7.2

Columns Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads . . . . . . . . . 718


Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads . . . . . . . . . . 719

Draft
02

Victor Saouma

LIST OF TABLES

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1

Material

1.1.1

Concrete

This section is adapted from Concrete by Mindess and Young, Prentice Hall, 1981
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1.1

Mix Design
Constituents

Concrete is a mixture of Portland cement, water, and aggregates (usually sand and crushed
stone).

Portland cement is a mixture of calcareous and argillaceous materials which are calcined in
a kiln and then pulverized. When mixed with water, cement hardens through a process called
hydration.

Ideal mixture is one in which:


1. A minimum amount of cement-water paste is used to ll the interstices between the
particles of aggregates.
2. A minimum amount of water is provided to complete the chemical reaction with cement.
Strictly speaking, a water/cement ratio of about 0.25 is needed to complete this reaction,
but then the concrete will have a very low workability.

In such a mixture, about 3/4 of the volume is constituted by the aggregates, and the remaining
1/4 being the cement paste.
Smaller particles up to 1/4 in. in size are called ne aggregates, and the larger ones being
coarse aggregates.

Portland Cement has the following ASTM designation


I Normal
II Moderate sulfate resistant, moderate heat of hydration
III High early strength (but releases too much heat)

Draft
12

INTRODUCTION

1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
111
000
1111 1111111
0000 0000000
1111 1111111
0000 0000000
1111111
0000000
1111
0000
1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111 1111
0000 0000
1111
0000
1111 1111
0000 0000
1111
0000
1111 1111
0000 0000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
1111
0000
1111 1111
0000 0000
111
000
1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000
111
000
111
000
1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000
111
000
111
000
1111
0000
111
000
111
000
1111 1111
0000 0000
111
000
1111
0000
111
000
1111 1111 111
0000 0000 000
111
000
1111 1111 111
0000 0000 000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
111
000
1111
0000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000
1111
0000
1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000
1111
0000
1111 1111
0000 0000
1111
0000

11 111 11000
00 000 00000
11 11000 11111
00 00000 00111
111
000
11 11111 11111
00 00111 00000
111
000
111 111
000 000
111
000
111 111
000 000
111
000
11 1111
00 0000
111 1111
000 0000
1111
0000
11 11 1111 11
00 00 0000 00
111 1111
000 0000
11 0000
00 0000
1111
1111
0000
1111
11 11
00 00
1111
0000
11
00
111 1111 111
000 0000 000
11 11
00 00
11
00
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111 111
000 000
111
000
111 111
000 000
111 111
000 000
11
00
111
000
111
000
111
000
111 11
000 00
111 111
000 000
111
000
111 1111
000 0000
1111
0000
111 1111 11
000 0000 00
111 1111
000 0000
111 1111111
000 0000000
111 1111
000 0000
111 1111111
000 0000000
111 1111000
000 0000000
111
111
000
1111
0000
111
111
000
111
000
111
000
111 1111
000 0000
1111
0000
111
000
111 1111
000 0000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
111
000
1111 111
0000 000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000

111
000
11
00
111
000
111
000
11
00
111
000
111 11
000 00
111 11
000 00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11 111
00 000
11 111
00 000
11
00

111 111 111 1


000 000 000 0
1111
11 0000
00 0000
111 11000 111 1
000 00000 000 0
1
0
11 0000
00 1111
1 0000
0 1111
1111
1
0
111 11111 111
000 00111 000
1
0
1111 111 1 0000
0000 000 0 0000
11 1111
00 1111
1
0
1111 111
0000 000
1111
0000
1111
0000
11 11 11 1
00 00 00 0
1111 1111
0000 0000
11
00
1111 1
0000 0
111 11 1111 11
000 00 0000 00
1111 1111
0000 0000
11
00
11 1111 1
00 1111 0
1111 1
0000 0
111 11 0000 11
000 00 0000 00
1111
0000
1111 1111 1
0000 0000 1
1
0
1111
0000
111 11 11 0 11
000 00 00 0 00
1111
0000 1
1
0
1
0
1111
0000
1111 0 11 1
0000 0 00 0
1
0
1
0
1111
0000
1
1111 000 0
0000 1
1111 000 1111
0000 111 0000
1
0
1 000 1111
0 111 0000
111
000 11
11
00
111 0 00
1
1
0
1 111 1111
0 000 0000
11
00
1 11
0 00
1
0
111
000
1111 111 1
0000 000 0
1111
0000
11
00
1111 11 1111 11
0000 00 0000 00
1111
0000
1111 1111 1111
0000 0000 0000
1
0
1111
0000
11111
00000
1111
0000 1111
1111 11
0000 00
1
0
1111 0000
0000 0000
1111
11
00
11 111 1111
00 000 0000
1111 11111
0000 00000
11111
00000
11 111 1111
00 000 0000
11
00
11 111
00 000
1111 1111 11111
0000 0000 00000
1111
0000 1
111
000
1111 1111 1 11 0
0000 0000 0 00 0
11 1111
00 0000 1
1
0
1111
0000
11 1111
00 0000
1 11
0 00
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111 1
0000 0
1
0
111
000
1111
0000
1111 1
0000 0
11
00
111
000
1
0
1 1111
0 0000
111
000
1
0
1
0
111111
000000
1111
0000
1
0
1111
0000
1111
0000
11111
00000
1111
0000
1111
0000
111
000
1111
0000
1111
0000
11
00
1111
0000
1111 111
0000 000
11
00
1111 11 1 1111
0000 00 0 0000
111
000
1111 11 1 1111
0000 00 0 0000
11
00
1111 1
0000 0111 1111
1
0
1111 1000 0000
0000 0000 0000
111
1111 1111 0000
0000 0000 1111
1111
1
0
1
0
111 1111
000 0000
11
00
1
0
1
0
111 1
000 0
11
00
1
0

11
00
11
00
111
000
11
00
11
00
111
000
11 11
00 00
11 11 111
00 00 000
11 111
00 000
111
000
11 111
00 000
11 111
00 000
11
00

111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111 111
000 000
111
000
111 111
000 000
111 111
000 000

11
00
11
00
11
00
111
000
111
000
111
000
11 111
00 000
11 111
00 000
111
000
11
00
11
00

11
00
111
000
1 1111
0 0000
11
00
11 1111
00 0000
111
000
1
0
11 1111
00 0000
111
000
11
00
11 1111
00 0000
111
000
1111
11
00
1111
0000 111
1 0000
0 0000
1111
11
00
1111
0000 000
1111 00
0000 1
1
0
1111
0000
11
1111 0
0000 0
1111 111
0000 000
11
00
1111 0
0000 1
1111 111
0000 000
11
1111 00
0000 1
111
000
1111
0000
11
00
111
000
11
00
1111 111 111
0000 000 000
11 1
00 0
11 111
00 000
1111
0000
11
00
11
00
11 1
00 0
11 111
00 000
1111
0000
11
00
11
00
11
00
1111 11111 111
0000 00000 000
1111
0000
11
00
11 11 111 11111
00 00 000 00000
111
000
11
00
11 11 111 11111
00 00 000 00000
11
00
111 111 11
000 000 00
111
000
1111
0000
1
0
111
000
1111
0000
1
0
111
000
11 1111111 1111
00 0000000 0000
1111
0000
111
000
111
000
11 1111111 1111
00 0000000 0000
1111
0000
1
0
11 0
00 1111111 1111
1111
0000
111111
000000
1
11 0000000 0000
00 0000000 0000
1111
11
00
1
0
11 1111000
00 0000111 1111
111
000
111100
11 1
00 0
1111 0 000000
0000111
111
000
111111
1 000011
1
0
1
0
111
000
1 1111
0 0000
1
0
111
000
1111
0000
111
000
111111
000000
1111 11
0000 00
111
000
111111
000000
1111 11
0000 00
11
00
11 1111 11
00 0000 00
11111
00000
11 1111 111
00 0000 000
1
0
11 11
00 00
1
0
1111 111 111
0000 000 000
1111 111 111
0000 000 000
111 111
000 000
1
0
11
00
111
000
111 111
000 000
1
0
1
0
1
0
11
00
111
000
1
0
1 1
0 0
111
000
1
0
1
0
111
000
111
000
11
00111
1
0
111
000
111
000
11000
00000
111
111
000
111
000
11111
00000
111
000
111 11 11
000 00 00
111
000
1
0
11 11
00 00
111 11 11
000 00 00
1
0

1111 111
0000 000
1111 111
0000 000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11
00
11
00
111
000
11
00
111
000
11
00
111
000
11
00
111
000

Figure 1.1: Schematic Representation of Aggregate Gradation


IV Low heat Portland cement, minimizes thermal cracking but must control initial temperature
V Sulfate resistant (marine environment)
Aggregate usually occupy 70% to 80% of the volume of concrete. They are granular material
derived, for the most part, from natural rock, crushed stone, natural gravels and sands.

ASTM C33 (Standard Specications for Concrete Aggregates) governs the types of rock which
can produce aggregates.

The shape can be rounded, irregular, angular, aky, or elongated.

The surface texture can be glassy, smooth, granular, rough, crystalline or honeycombed.

The particle size distribution or grading of aggregates is very important as it determines


the amount of paste for a workable concrete, Fig. 1.1. Since cement is the most expensive
component, proper gradation is of paramount importance.
10

The grading of an aggregate supply is determined by a sieve analysis. A representative


sample of the aggregate is passed through a stack of sieves aranged in order of decreasing size
opening of the sieve.
11

12

We divide aggregates in two categories

Coarse aggregate fraction is that retained on the No. 4 sieve, Table 1.1.
Fine aggregate fraction is that passing the No. 4 sieve.
13

ASTM C33 sets grading limits for coarse and ne aggregates, Table 1.2 and 1.3 respectively.

If a concrete does not comply with these limits, than there will be a need for more paste,
and there will be the possibility of aggregate segregation.

14

Since aggregates contain some porosity, water can be absorbed. Also water can be retained
on the surface of the particle as a lm or moisture. Hence, it is necessary to quantify the
moisture content of the aggregates in order to make adjustments to the water. Because dry
aggregates will remove water from the paste, then the w/c is eectively reduced. On the other
hand moist aggregates may eectively increase the w/c ratio.

15

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1.1 Material

13

ASTM
Design.

Size

mm
Coarse Aggregate
3 in.
75
21/2 in.
63
2 in.
50
11/2 in.
37.5
1 in.
25
3/4 in.
19
1/2 in.
12.5
3/8 in.
9.5
Fine Aggregate
No. 4
4.75
No. 8
2.36
No. 16
1.18
No. 30 0.60 (600 m)
No. 50
300 m
No. 100
150 m

in.
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.75
0.50
0.375
0.187
0.0937
0.0469
0.0234
0.0124
0.0059

Table 1.1: ASTM Sieve Designations Nominal Sizes Used for Concrete Aggregates
Sieve Size

11/2 in.
1 in.
3/4 in.
1/2 in.
3/8 in.
No. 4
No. 8

% Passing Each Sieve


(Nominal Maximum Size)
11/2 in.
1 in.
3/4 in. 1/2 in.
95-100
100
95-100
100
35-70
90-100
100
25-60
90-100
10-30
20-55
40-70
0-5
0-10
0-10
0-15
0-5
0-5
0-5

Table 1.2: ASTM C33 Grading Limits for Coarse Concrete Aggregates
Sieve Size
3/4 in.
No. 4
No. 8
No. 16
No. 30
No. 50
No. 100

% Passing
100
95-100
80-100
50-85
25-60
10-30
2-10

Table 1.3: ASTM C33 Grading Limits for Fine Concrete Aggregates
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
14
16

INTRODUCTION

Moisture states are dened as

Oven-dry (OD): all moisture is removed from the aggregate.


Air-dry (AD): all moisture is removed from the surface, but internal pores are partially full.
Saturated-surface-dry (SSD): All pores are lled with water, but no lm of water on the
surface.
Wet: All pores are completely lled with a lm of water on the surface.
17

Based on the above, we can determine

Absorption capacity (AC): is the maximum amount of water the aggregate can absorb
AC =

WSSD WOD
100%
WOD

(1.1)

most normal -weight aggregates (ne and coarse) have an absorption capacity in the range
of 1% to 2%.
Surface Moisture (SM): is the water in excess of the SSD state
SM =

WW et WSSD
100%
WSSD

(1.2)

The neness modulus is a parameter which describe the grading curve and it can be used
to check the uniformity of the grading. It is usually computed for ne aggregates on the basis
of
cumulative percent retained on standard sieves
(1.3)
F.M. =
100
where the standard sieves used are No. 100, No. 50, No. 30, No. 16, No. 8, and No. 4, and
3/8 in, 3/4 in, 11/2 in and larger.
18

The neness modulus for ne aggregate should lie between 2.3 and 3.1 A small number
indicates a ne grading, whereas a large number indicates a coarse material.

19

20

Table 1.4 illustrates the determination of the neness modulus.

Fineness modulus of ne aggregate is required for mix proportioning since sand gradation
has the largest eect on workability. A ne sand (low neness modulus) has much higher paste
requirements for good workability.

21

22

The neness modulus of coarse aggregate is not used for mix design purposes.

no-nes concrete has little cohesiveness in the fresh state and can not be compacted to a
void-free condition. Hence, it will have a low strength, high permeability. Its only advantage is
low density, and high thermal insulation which can be used if structural requirements are not
high.
23

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1.1 Material

15
Sieve
Size
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

Weight
Amount
Cumulative
Cumulative
Retained Retained
Amount
Amount
(g)
(wt. %) Retained (%) Passing (%)
4
9
2
2
98
8
46
9
11
89
16
97
19
30
70
30
99
20
50
50
50
120
24
74
26
100
91
18
92
8
Sample Weight 500 g.
= 259
Fineness modulus=259/100=2.59

Table 1.4: Example of Fineness Modulus Determination for Fine Aggregate


1.1.1.1.2
24

Preliminary Considerations

There are two fundamental aspects to mix design to keep in mind:

1. Water/Cement ratio: where the strength is inversely proportional to the water to cement
ratio, approximately expressed as:
fc =

A
B 1.5w/c

(1.4)

For fc in psi, A is usually taken as 14,000 and B depends on the type of cement, but may
be taken to be about 4. It should be noted that w/c controls not only the strength, but
also the porosity and hence the durability.
2. Aggregate Grading: In order to minimize the amount of cement paste, we must maximize
the volume of aggregates. This can be achieved through proper packing of the granular
material. The ideal grading curve (with minimum voids) is closely approximated by
the Fuller curve
d q
Pt =
(1.5)
D
where Pt is the fraction of total solids ner than size d, and D is the maximum particle
size, q is generally taken as 1/2, hence the parabolic grading.
1.1.1.1.3

Mix procedure

Before starting the mix design process, the following material properties should be determined:

25

1. Sieve analysis of both ne and coarse aggregates


2. Unit weight of the coarse aggregate
3. Bulk specic gravities

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
16

INTRODUCTION

4. absorption capacities of the aggregates


1. Slump1 must be selected for the particular job to account for the anticipated method
of handling and placing concrete, Table 1.5 As a general rule, adopt the lowest possible
Type of Construction
Foundation walls and footings
Plain footings, caissons
Beams and reinforced walls
Building columns
Pavement and slabs
Mass concrete

Max
3
3
4
4
3
3

Min
1
1
1
1
1
1

Table 1.5: Recommended Slumps (inches) for Various Types of Construction


slump.
2. Maximum aggregate size: in general the largest possible size should be adopted.
However, it should be noted that:
(a) For reinforced concrete, the maximum size may not exceed one-fth of the minimum dimensions between the forms, or three-fourths of the minimum clear spacing
between bars, or between steel and forms.
(b) For slabs on grade, the maximum size may not exceed one-third the slab depth.
In general maximum aggregate size is 3/4 in or 1 in.
3. Water and Air content Air content will aect workability (some time it is better to
increase air content rather than increasing w/c which will decrease strength). Air content
can be increased through the addition of admixtures. Table 1.6 tabulates recommended
values of air content (obtained through such admixtures) for dierent conditions (for
instance under severe freezing/thawing air content should be high).
Recommended water requirements are given by Table 1.7.

Exposure
Mild
Moderate
Extreme

in.
4.5
6.0
7.5

3/8

Sizes of Aggregates
1/2 in. 3/4 in. 1 in.
4.0
3.5
3.5
5.5
5.0
4.5
7.0
6.0
6.05

11/2 in.
3.0
4.4
5.5

Table 1.6: Recommended Average Total Air Content as % of Dierent Nominal Maximum Sizes
of Aggregates and Levels of Exposure
1
The slump test (ASTM C143) is a measure of the shear resistance of concrete to owing under its own weight.
It is a good indicator of the concrete workability. A hollow mold in the form of a frustum of a cone is lled
with concrete in three layers of equal volume. Each layer is rodded 25 times. The mold is then lifted vertically,
and the slump is measured by determining the dierence between the height of the mold and the height of the
concrete over the original center of the base of the specimen.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1.1 Material

17
Slump
in.
1-2
3-4
6-7
1-2
3-4
6-7

Sizes of Aggregates
3/8 in. 1/2 in. 3/4 in. 1 in.
Non-Air-Entrained Concrete
350
335
315
300
385
365
340
325
410
385
360
340
Air-Entrained Concrete
305
295
280
270
340
325
305
295
365
345
325
310

11/2 in.
275
300
315
250
275
290

Table 1.7: Approximate Mixing Water Requirements, lb/yd3 of Concrete For Dierent Slumps
and Nominal Maximum Sizes of Aggregates
4. Water/cement ratio: this is governed by both strength and durability. Table 1.8
provides some guidance in terms of strength.
28 days
fc
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000

w/c Ratio by Weight


Non-air-entrained Air-entrained
0.41
0.48
0.40
0.57
0.48
0.68
0.59
0.82
0.74

Table 1.8: Relationship Between Water/Cement Ratio and Compressive Strength


For durability, if there is a severe exposure (freeze/thaw, exposure to sea-water, sulfates),
then there are severe restrictions on the W/C ratio (usually to be kept just under 0.5)
5. Cement Content: Once the water content and the w/c ratio are determined, the amount
of cement per unit volume of concrete is determined simply by dividing the estimated
water requirement by the w/c ratio.
6. Coarse Aggregate Content: Volume of coarse aggregate required per cubic yard of
concrete depends on its maximum size and the neness modulus of the ne aggregate,
Table 1.9. The oven dry (OD) volume of coarse aggregate in ft3 required per cubic yard
is simply equal to the value from Table 1.9 multiplied by 27. This volume can then be
converted to an OD weight by multiplying it by the dry-rodded2 weight per cubic foot of
coarse aggregate.
7. The ne aggregate content can be estimated by subtracting the volume of cement,
water, air and coarse aggregate from the total volume. The weight of the ne aggregate
can then be obtained by multiplying this volume by the density of the ne aggregate.
2

Dry Rodded Volume (DRV) is the normal volume of space a material occupies.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
18

INTRODUCTION
Agg. Size
in
3/8
1/2
3/4

1
11/2

Sand
2.40
0.50
0.59
0.66
0.71
0.76

Fineness Moduli
2.60 2.80 3.00
0.48 0.46 0.44
0.57 0.55 0.53
0.64 0.62 0.60
0.69 0.67 0.65
0.74 0.72 0.70

Table 1.9: Volume of Dry-Rodded Coarse Aggregate per Unit Volume of Concrete for Dierent
Fineness Moduli of Sand
8. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregates: is necessary. If aggregates are air
dry, they will absorb some water (thus eectively lowering the w/c), or if aggregates are
too wet they will release water (increasing the w/c and the workability but reducing the
strength).
1.1.1.1.4

Mix Design Example

Concrete is required for an exterior column to be located above ground in an area where
substantial freezing and thawing may occur. The concrete is required to have an average 28day compressive strength of 5,000 psi. For the conditions of placement, the slump should be
between 1 and 2 in, the maximum aggregate size should not exceed 3/4 in. and the properties
of the materials are as follows:
Cement: Type I specic gravity = 3.15
Coarse Aggregates: Bulk specic gravity (SSD) = 2.70; absorption capacity= 1.0%; Total
moisture content = 2.5%; Dry-rodded unit weight = 100 lb/ft3
Fine Aggregates: Bulk specic gravity (SSD) = 2.65; absorption capacity = 1.3 %; Total
moisture content=5.5%; neness modulus = 2.70
The sieve analyses of both the coarse and ne aggregates fall within the specied limits. With
this information, the mix design can proceed:
1. Choice of slump is consistent with Table 1.5.
2. Maximum aggregate size (3/4 in) is governed by reinforcing details.
3. Estimation of mixing water: Because water will be exposed to freeze and thaw, it must
be air-entrained. From Table 1.6 the air content recommended for extreme exposure is
6.0%, and from Table 1.7 the water requirement is 280 lb/yd3
4. From Table 1.8, the water to cement ratio estimate is 0.4
5. Cement content, based on steps 4 and 5 is 280/0.4=700 lb/yd3
6. Coarse aggregate content, interpolating from Table 1.9 for the neness modulus of
the ne aggregate of 2.70, the volume of dry-rodded coarse aggregate per unit volume of
concrete is 0.63. Therefore, the coarse aggregate will occupy 0.63 27 = 17.01 ft3 /yd3 .
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1.1 Material

19

The OD weight of the coarse aggregate is 17.01 ft3 /yd3 , 100 lbs/ft3 =1,701 lb. The SSD
weight is 1,701 1.01=1,718 lb.

7. Fine aggregate content Knowing the weights and specic gravities of the water, cement,
and coarse aggregate, and knowing the air volume, we can calculate the volume per yd3
occupied by the dierent ingredients.
Water
Cement
Coarse Aggregate (SSD)
Air

280/62.4
700/(3.15)(62.4)
1,718/(2.70)(62.4)
(0.06)(27)

=
=
=
=

4.49
3.56
1.62
1.62
19.87

ft3
ft3
ft3
ft3
ft3

Hence, the ne aggregate must occupy a volume of 27.0 19.87 = 7.13 ft3 . The required
SSD weight of the ne aggregate is 7.13 ft3 (2.65)(62.4)lb/ft3 =1,179 lbs lb.
8. Adjustment for moisture in the aggregate. Since the aggregate will be neither SSD or
OD in the eld, it is necessary to adjust the aggregate weights for the amount of water
contained in the aggregate. Only surface water need be considered; absorbed water does
not become part of the mix water. For the given moisture contents, the adjusted aggregate weights become:
Coarse aggregate (wet)=1,718(1.025-0.01) = 1,744 lb/yd3 of dry coarse
Fine aggregate (wet)=1,179(1.055-0.013) = 1,229 lb/yd3 of dry ne
Surface moisture contributed by the coarse aggregate is 2.5-1.0 = 1.5%; by the ne aggregate: 5.5-1.3 = 4.2%; Hence we need to decrease water to
280-1,718(0.015)-1,179(0.042) = 205 lb/yd3 .
Thus, the estimated batch weight per yd3 are
Water
Cement
Wet coarse aggregate
Wet ne aggregate
3,878
27

1.1.1.2
26

205 lb
700 lb
1,744 lb
1,229 lb
3,878 lb/yd3
143.6 lb/ft3

Mechanical Properties

Contrarily to steel to modulus of elasticity of concrete depends on the strength and is given

by
E = 57, 000 fc

(1.6)

E = 33 1.5

(1.7)

or
fc

where both fc and E are in psi and is in lbs/ft3 .


Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
110

INTRODUCTION

27

Normal weight and lightweight concrete have equal to 150 and 90-120 lb/ft3 respectively.

28

Poissons ratio = 0.15.

Typical concrete (compressive) strengths range from 3,000 to 6,000 psi; However high strength
concrete can go up to 14,000 psi.

29

30

Stress-strain curve depends on


1. Properties of aggregates
2. Properties of cement
3. Water/cement ratio
4. Strength
5. Age of concrete
6. Rate of loading, as rate , strength

Non-linear part of stress-strain curve is caused by micro-cracking around the aggregates, Fig.
1.2

31

Non-Linear
~ 0.5 c
f
Linear

Figure 1.2: MicroCracks in Concrete under Compression


32

Irrespective of fc , maximum strain under compression is 0.003, Fig. 1.3

33

Full strength of concrete is achieved in about 28 days


fct =

t
f
4.0 + .85t c,28

(1.8)

or
t (days)
%fc,28
34

1
20

2
35

4
54

7
70

10
80

15
90

Concrete always gain strength in time, but a decreasing rate

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1.1 Material

111

f
c

f / 2
c

u =

0.003

Figure 1.3: Concrete Stress Strain Curve


35 The tensile strength of concrete ft is very dicult to measure experimentally. Accepted
values

ft 0.07 0.11fc
35

(1.9-a)

fc

(1.9-b)

36 Rather than the tensile strength, it is common to measure the modulus of rupture fr , Fig.
1.4

11
00
11
00
11
00

11
00
11
00
11
00

Figure 1.4: Modulus of Rupture Test

Figure 1.5: Split Cylinder (Brazilian) Test

fr 7.5
Victor Saouma

fc

(1.10)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
112

INTRODUCTION
f
t
1

f
c
f
t

2
1

1
2
f
c

~ 20% increase in strength


2

Figure 1.6: Biaxial Strength of Concrete


Using split cylinder (or brazilian test), Fig. 1.5 ft 68 fc . For this test, a nearly uniform
tensile stress
2P
(1.11)
=
dt
where P is the applied compressive load at failure, d and t are diameter and thickness of the
specimen respectively.
37

In most cases, concrete is subjected to uniaxial stresses, but it is possible to have biaxial
(shells, shear walls) or triaxial (beam/column connections) states of stress.

38

39

Biaxial strength curve is shown in Fig. 1.6

40

Concrete has also some time-dependent properties

Shrinkage: when exposed to air (dry), water tends to evaporate from the concrete surface,
shrinkage. It depends on the w/c and relative humidity. sh 0.0002 0.0007. Shrinkage
can cause cracking if the structure is restrained, and may cause large secondary stresses.
If a simply supported beam is fully restrained against longitudinal deformation, then
sh = Esh

(1.12-a)

3, 000
= 57, 000 3, 000(0.0002) = 624 psi >
10

(1.12-b)

ft

if the concrete is restrained, then cracking will occur3 .


Creep: can be viewed as the squeezing out of water due to long term stresses (analogous to
consolidation in clay), Fig. 1.7.
3

For this reason a minimum amount of reinforcement is always necessary in concrete, and a 2% reinforcement,
can reduce the shrinkage by 75%.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1.1 Material

113

Elastic recovery

creep

Creep recovery

Residual

no load

constant load

no load

Figure 1.7: Time Dependent Strains in Concrete


Creep coecient, Table 1.10
Cu =
Ct =

fc
Cu

3,000
3.1

4,000
2.9

ct
23
ci
t0.6
Cu
10 + t0.6
6,000
2.4

(1.13-a)
(1.13-b)

8,000
2.0

Table 1.10: Creep Coecients

41

Coecient of thermal expansion is 0.65 105 /deg F for normal weight concrete.

1.1.2
42

Reinforcing Steel

Steel is used as reinforcing bars in concrete, Table 1.11.

Bars have a deformation on their surface to increase the bond with concrete, and usually
have a yield stress of 60 ksi.

43

44

Maximum allowable fy is 80 ksi.

Stirrups, used as vertical reinforcement to resist shear, usually have a yield stress of only 40
ksi

45

Steel loses its strength rapidly above 700 deg. F (and thus must be properly protected from
re), and becomes brittle at 30 deg. F

46

47

Prestressing Steel cables have an ultimate strength up to 270 ksi.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
114

INTRODUCTION
Bar Designation
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 8
No. 9
No. 10
No. 11
No. 14
No. 18

Diameter
(in.)
2/8=0.250
3/8=0.375
4/8=0.500
5/8=0.625
6/8=0.750
7/8=0.875
8/8=1.000
9/8=1.128
10/8=1.270
11/8=1.410
14/8 =1.693
18/8 =2.257

Area
( in2 )
0.05
0.11
0.20
0.31
0.44
0.60
0.79
1.00
1.27
1.56
2.25
4.00

Perimeter
in
0.79
1.18
1.57
1.96
2.36
2.75
3.14
3.54
3.99
4.43
5.32
7.09

Weight
lb/ft
0.167
0.376
0.668
1.043
1.5202
2.044
2.670
3.400
4.303
5.313
7.650
13.60

Table 1.11: Properties of Reinforcing Bars


Welded wire fabric is often used to reinforce slabs and shells. It has both longitudinal and
transverse cold-drawn steel. They are designated by AAW B B, such as 66W 1.41.4
where spacing of the wire is 6 inch, and a cross section of 0.014 in2 .

48

1.2

Design Philosophy, USD

ACI refers to this method as the Strength Design Method, (previously referred to as the
Ultimate Strength Method).

49

Rn i Qi

(1.14)

where
is a strength reduction factor, less than 1, and must account for the type of structural
element, Table 1.12 (ACI 9.3.2)
Type of Member
Axial Tension
Flexure
Axial Compression, spiral reinforcement
Axial Compression, other
Shear and Torsion
Bearing on concrete

0.9
0.9
0.75
0.70
0.85
0.70

Table 1.12: Strength Reduction Factors,


Rn is the nominal resistance (or strength).

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

1.3 Analysis vs Design

115

Ru = Rd = Rn is the design strength.


i is the load factor corresponding to Qi and is greater than 1.
i Qi is the required strength based on the factored load:
i is the type of load
Mn Mu

(1.15-a)

Vn Vu

(1.15-b)

Pn Pu

(1.15-c)

50

Note that the subscript d and u are equivalent.

51

The various factored load combinations which must be considered (ACI: 9.2) are
1. 1.4D+1.7L
2. 0.75(1.4D+1.7L+1.7W)
3. 0.9D+1.3W
4. 1.05D+1.275W
5. 0.9D+1.7H
6. 1.4D +1.7L+1.7H
7. 0.75(1.4D+1.4T+1.7L)
8. 1.4(D+T)

where D= dead; L= live; Lr= roof live; W= wind; E= earthquake; S= snow; T= temperature;
H= soil. We must select the one with the largest limit state load.
52 Serviceability Limit States must be assessed under service loads (not factored). The
most important ones being

1. Deections
2. Crack width (for R/C)
3. Stability

1.3
53

Analysis vs Design

In R/C we always consider one of the following problems:

Analysis: Given a certain design, determine what is the maximum moment which can be
applied.
Design: Given an external moment to be resisted, determine cross sectional dimensions (b and
h) as well as reinforcement (As ). Note that in many cases the external dimensions of the
beam (b and h) are xed by the architect.
54

We often consider the maximum moment along a member, and design accordingly.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
116

1.4

INTRODUCTION

Basic Relations and Assumptions

In developing a design/analysis method for reinforced concrete, the following basic relations
will be used:

55

1. Equilibrium: of forces and moment at the cross section. 1) Fx = 0 or Tension in the


reinforcement = Compression in concrete; and 2) M = 0 or external moment (that is the
one obtained from the moment envelope) equal and opposite to the internal one (tension
in steel and compression of the concrete).
2. Material Stress Strain: We recall that all normal strength concrete have a failure strain
u = .003 in compression irrespective of fc .
56

Basic assumptions used:

Compatibility of Displacements: Perfect bond between steel and concrete (no slip). Note
that those two materials do also have very close coecients of thermal expansion under
normal temperature.
Plane section remain plane strain is proportional to distance from neutral axis.
Neglect tensile strength in all cases.

1.5

ACI Code

Attached is an unauthorized copy of some of the most relevant ACI-318-89 design code provisions.
8.1.1 - In design of reinforced concrete structures, members shall be proportioned for adequate strength in accordance with provisions of this code, using load factors and strength
reduction factors specied in Chapter 9.
8.3.1 - All members of frames or continuous construction shall be designed for the maximum
eects of factored loads as determined by the theory of elastic analysis, except as modied
according to Section 8.4. Simplifying assumptions of Section 8.6 through 8.9 may be used.
8.5.1 - Modulus of elasticity Ec for concrete may be taken as Wc1.5 33 fc ( psi) for values
of Wc between 90 and 155 lb per cu ft. For normal weight concrete, Ec may be taken as
57, 000 fc .
8.5.2 - Modulus of elasticity Es for non-prestressed reinforcement may be taken as 29,000
psi.
9.1.1 - Structures and structural members shall be designed to have design strengths at all
sections at least equal to the required strengths calculated for the factored loads and forces in
such combinations as are stipulated in this code.
9.2 - Required Strength
9.2.1 - Required strength U to resist dead load D and live load L shall be at least equal to
U = 1.4D + 1.7L

(1.16)

9.2.2 - If resistance to structural eects of a specied wind load W are included in design,
the following combinations of D, L, and W shall be investigated to determine the greatest
required strength U
U = 0.75(1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W )
(1.17)
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

1.5 ACI Code

117

where load combinations shall include both full value and zero value of L to determine the more
severe condition, and
U = 0.9D + 1.3W
(1.18)
but for any combination of D, L, and W, required strength U shall not be less than Eq. (9-1).
9.3.1 - Design strength provided by a member, its connections to other members, and its
cross sections, in terms of exure, axial load, shear, and torsion, shall be taken as the nominal
strength calculated in accordance with requirements and assumptions of this code, multiplied
by a strength reduction factor .
9.3.2 - Strength reduction factor shall be as follows:
9.3.2.1 - Flexure, without axial load 0.90
9.4 - Design strength for reinforcement Designs shall not be based on a yield strength of
reinforcement fy in excess of 80,000 psi, except for prestressing tendons.
10.2.2 - Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to
the distance from the neutral axis, except, for deep exural members with overall depth to
clear span ratios greater than 2/5 for continuous spans and 4/5 for simple spans, a non-linear
distribution of strain shall be considered. See Section 10.7.
10.2.3 - Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression ber shall be assumed
equal to 0.003.
10.2.4 - Stress in reinforcement below specied yield strength fy for grade of reinforcement
used shall be taken as Es times steel strain. For strains greater than that corresponding to fy ,
stress in reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to fy .
10.2.5 - Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in exural calculations of reinforced
concrete, except when meeting requirements of Section 18.4.
10.2.6 - Relationship between concrete compressive stress distribution and concrete strain
may be assumed to be rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any other shape that results in
prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive tests.
10.2.7 - Requirements of Section 10.2.5 may be considered satised by an equivalent rectangular concrete stress distribution dened by the following:
10.2.7.1 - Concrete stress of 0.85fc shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded by edges of the cross section and a straight line located parallel
to the neutral axis at a distance (a = 1 c) from the ber of maximum compressive strain.
10.2.7.2 - Distance c from ber of maximum strain to the neutral axis shall be measured
in a direction perpendicular to that axis.
10.2.7.3 - Factor 1 shall be taken as 0.85 for concrete strengths fc up to and including
4,000 psi. For strengths above 4,000 psi, 1 shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.05 for
each 1000 psi of strength in excess of 4,000 psi, but 1 shall not be taken less than 0.65.
10.3.2 - Balanced strain conditions exist at a cross section when tension reinforcement
reaches the strain corresponding to its specied yield strength fy just as concrete in compression
reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0.003.
10.3.3 - For exural members, and for members subject to combined exure and compressive axial load when the design axial load strength (Pn ) is less than the smaller of (0.10fc Ag )
or (Pb ), the ratio of reinforcement p provided shall not exceed 0.75 of the ratio b that would
produce balanced strain conditions for the section under exure without axial load. For members with compression reinforcement, the portion of b equalized by compression reinforcement
need not be reduced by the 0.75 factor.
10.3.4 - Compression reinforcement in conjunction with additional tension reinforcement
may be used to increase the strength of exural members.
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
118

INTRODUCTION

10.5.1 - At any section of a exural member, except as provided in Sections 10.5.2 and
10.5.3, where positive reinforcement is required by analysis, the ratio provided shall not be
less than that given by
200
(1.19)
min =
fy

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 2

FLEXURE
This is probably the longest chapter in the notes, we shall cover in great details exural
design/analysis of R/C beams starting with uncracked section to failure conditions.

1. Uncracked elastic (uneconomical)


2. cracked elastic (service stage)
3. Ultimate (failure)

2.1

Uncracked Section
c

d
As

Figure 2.1: Strain Diagram Uncracked Section


2

Assuming perfect bond between steel and concrete, we have s = c , Fig. 2.1
s = c

where n is the modular ratio n =

fs
fc
Es
=
fs =
fc fs = nfc
Es
Ec
Ec

Es
Ec

Tensile force in steel Ts = As fs = As nfc

Replace steel by an equivalent area of concrete, Fig. 2.2.

(2.1)

Draft
22

FLEXURE
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
(n-1)A S 00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
2
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000

(n-1)A S
2

Figure 2.2: Transformed Section


5

Homogeneous section & under bending


fc =

Mc
fs = nfc
I

(2.2)

+
Make sure that max < ft

Example 2-1: Uncracked Section


in2

Given fc = 4,000 psi; ft = 475 psi; fy = 60,000 psi; M = 45 ft-k = 540,000 in-lb; As = 2.35
+

Determine fmax , fmax , and fs

yt
25" 23"
2

As = 2.35 in

yb

10"

Solution:

29, 000

= 8 (n 1)As = (8 1)(2.35) = 16.45 in2


57 4, 000
(10)(25)( 25 ) + (16.45)(2)
2
=
(25)(10) + 16.45
= 11.8 in

n =
yb
yb

y t = 25 11.8 = 13.2 in
(10)(25)3
I =
+ (25)(10)(13.2 12.5)2 + (16.45)(23 13.2)2
12
= 14, 722 in2
(540, 000) lb.in(13.2)in
Mc
=
= 484 psi
fcc =
I
(14, 722) in4
Victor Saouma

(2.3-a)
(2.3-b)
(2.3-c)
(2.3-d)
(2.3-e)
(2.3-f)
(2.3-g)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.2 Section Cracked, Stresses Elastic

23

Mc
(540, 000) lb.in(25 13.2) in
= 433 psi < 475 psi
=
4
I
(14, 722) in
(540, 000)(23 13.2) in
Mc
= (8)
= 2, 876 psi
= n
I
(14, 722)

fct =
fs

2.2

(2.3-h)
(2.3-i)

Section Cracked, Stresses Elastic

This is important not only as an acceptable alternative ACI design method, but also for the
later evaluation of crack width under service loads.

2.2.1

Basic Relations

If fct > fr , fcc < .5fc and fs < fy we will assume that the crack goes all the way to the
N.A and we will use the transformed section, Fig. 2.3
8

11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
(n-1)A S 00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
2
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000

111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
(n-1)A S
2

fc
C

kd/3

kd
d
(1-k/3)d=jd

11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000

Figure 2.3: Stress Diagram Cracked Elastic Section


To locate N.A, tension force = compressive force (by def. NA) (Note, for linear stress distribution and with Fx = 0; = by bydA = 0, thus b ydA = 0 and ydA = yA = 0, by
denition, gives the location of the neutral axis)
9

10

Note, N.A. location depends only on geometry & n

Es
Ec

Tensile and compressive forces are equal to C = bkd fc & T = As fs and neutral axis is
2
determined by equating the moment of the tension area to the moment of the compression
area
11

b(kd)

kd
2

= nAs (d kd)

M = T jd = As fs jd fs =
M = Cjd =

2nd degree equation


M
As jd

bkd
bd2
fc jd =
kjfc fc =
2
2

(2.4-a)
(2.4-b)

1
bd2 kj
2

(2.4-c)

where j = (1 k/3).
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
24

2.2.2

FLEXURE

Working Stress Method

Referred to as Alternate Design Method (ACI Code Appendix A); Based on Working
Stress Design method.

12

13

Places a limit on stresses and uses service loads (ACI A.3).


fcc .45fc
fst 20 ksi for grade 40 or 50 steel
fst 24 ksi for grade 60 steel

14

(2.5)

Location of neutral axis depends on whether we are analysing or designing a section.

Review: We seek to locate the N.A by taking the rst moments:

= As

bd
k = 2n + (n)2 n

(kd)
b(kd) 2
= nAs (d kd)

(2.6)

Design: Objective is to have fc & fs preset & determine As , Fig. 2.4, and we thus seek the
optimal value of k in such a way that concrete and steel reach their respective limits
simultaneously.
c

fc
C

kd/3

kd
d
(1-k/3)d=jd
T

fs

Figure 2.4: Desired Stress Distribution; WSD Method

c
s

c
s

=
=
=

kd
dkd
fc
Ec
fs
Es

f c Es
Ec f s

n
r

=
=
=

k
1k
Es
Ec
fs
fc

k=

n
n+r

(2.7)

Balanced design in terms of : What is the value of such that steel and concrete will both
reach their maximum allowable stress values simultaneously

C = bkd fc
2
fc

T = As fs
n
2 bkd = b fs bd
b = 2r(n+r)
(2.8)
n
C = T
k = n+r

= As
bd
15

16

Governing equations

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.2 Section Cracked, Stresses Elastic

25

Review Start by determining ,


If < b steel reaches max. allowable value before concrete, and
(2.9)

M = As fs jd
If > b concrete reaches max. allowable value before steel and
M = fc

bkd
jd
2

(2.10)

or
1
M = fc jkbd2 = Rbd2
2

(2.11)

1
fc kj
2

(2.12)

where
k=

2n + (n)2 n

Design We dene
def

R =
where k =

n
n+r ,

solve for bd2 from

M
R
assume b and solve for d. Finally we can determine As from
bd2 =

As = b bd
17

(2.13)

(2.14)

Summary
Review

b, d, As
M?
= As
bd
k = 2n + (n)2 n
r = fs
fc
n
b = 2r(n+r)
< b M = As fs jd
> b M = 1 fc bkd2 j
2

Design

M
b, d, As ?
n
k = n+r
j =1 k
3
r = fs
fc
R = 1 fc kj
2
n
b = 2r(n+r)
bd2 = M
R
As = b bd or As =

M
fs jd

Example 2-2: Cracked Elastic Section

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
26

FLEXURE

Same problem as example 2.1 fc = 4,000 psi; ft = 475 psi; fy = 60,000 psi; As = 2.35 in2
however, M is doubled to M = 90 k.ft (instead of 45). Determine concrete and steel stresses
Solution:
Based on previous example, fct would be 866 psi
valid.
The neutral axis is obtained from

fr and the solution is thus no longer

As
2.35
=
= 0.0102
bd
(10)(23)
n = (0.010)(8) = 0.08174
=

2n +

k =

(n)2

(2.15-a)
(2.15-b)

(2.15-c)

2(0.08174) + (0.08174)2 (0.08174) = 0.33

kd = (.33)(23) = 7.6 in
0.33
(23) = 20.47 in
jd =
1
3
M
fs =
As jd
(90)(1, 000)(12)
= 22, 400 psi
=
(2.35)(20.47)
2M
fc =
bjkd2
(2)(90)(12, 000)
= 1, 390 psi
=
(10) (20.47) (7.6)
jd

I =

k.ft
in
psi
in4
psi
in

(2.15-e)
(2.15-f)
(2.15-g)
(2.15-h)
(2.15-i)
(2.15-j)

kd

(10)(7.6)3
+ (10)(7.6)
12

M
N.A
fcc
I
fs

(2.15-d)

Uncracked
45
13.2
485
14,710
2,880
1

7.6
2

+ 8(2.35)(23 7.6)2 = 5, 922 in4

Cracked
90
7.6
1,390 (< .5fc )
5,910
22,400
4

(2.15-k)

Cracked/uncracked
2
2.9
1
.4 ( I )
( 7 )
4

Example 2-3: Working Stress Design Method; Analysis


Same problem as example 2.1 fc = 4,000 psi; ft = 475 psi; fy = 60,000 psi; As = 2.35 in2 .
Determine Moment capacity.
Solution:

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.2 Section Cracked, Stresses Elastic

27

2.35
As
=
= .0102
bd
(10)(23)
= 24 ksi

(2.16-a)

=
fs

(2.16-b)

fc = (.45)(4, 000) = 1, 800 psi

(2.16-c)

2n + (n)2 n = 2(.0102)8 + (.0102)2 (8)(.0102) = .331


(2.16-d)
k
j = 1 = .889
(2.16-e)
3
N.A. @ (.331)(23) = 7.61 in
(2.16-f)
8
n
=
= .014 >
Steel reaches elastic (2.16-g)
limit
b =
2r(n + r)
(2)(13.33)(8 + 13.33)
k =

= As fs jd = (2.35)(24)(.889)(23) = 1, 154 k.in = 96 k.ft

(2.16-h)

Note, had we used the alternate equation for moment (wrong) we would have overestimated
the design moment:
M

1
= = fc bkd2 j
2
1
(1.8)(10)(0.33)(0.89)(23)2 = 1, 397 k.in > 1, 154 k.in
=
2

(2.17-a)
(2.17-b)

If we dene c = fc /1, 800 and s = fs /24, 000, then as the load increases both c and s
increase, but at dierent rates, one of them s reaches 1 before the other.

Load

Example 2-4: Working Stress Design Method; Design


Design a beam to carry LL = 1.9 k/ft, DL = 1.0 k/ft with fc = 4, 000 psi, fy = 60, 000 psi,
L = 32 ft.
Solution:

fc = (.45)(4, 000) = 1, 800 psi


Victor Saouma

(2.18-a)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
28

FLEXURE
fs = 24, 000 psi
Es
29, 000
n =
=
=8
Ec
57 4, 000
24
fs
= 13.33
=
r =
fc
1.8
8
n
=
= .375
k =
n+r
8 + 13.33
d
.375
j = 1 =1
= .875
3
3
n
8
b =
=
= .01405
2r(n + r)
2(13.33)(8 + 13.33)
1
1
fc kj = (1, 800)(.375)(.875) = 295 psi
R =
2
2

(2.18-b)
(2.18-c)
(2.18-d)
(2.18-e)
(2.18-f)
(2.18-g)
(2.18-h)

Estimate beam weight at .5 k/ft, thus


M

(32)2
= 435 k.ft
8
435 k.ft in2 (12, 000) lb.in
M
=
= 17, 700 in3
R
(295) lbs ft k

(2.19-a)

= [(1.9) + (1.0 + .5)]

bd2 =

(2.19-b)

Take b = 18 in & d = 31.4 in h = 36 in


2

ft2
Check beam weight (18)(36) (.15) in 2 k3 = .675 k/ft
145
in

As = (.01405)(18)(31.4) = 7.94

2.3

in2

ft

use 8# 9 bars in 2 layers As = 8.00 in2

Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method

2.3.1

Whitney Stress Block

f
c
c

c
h

C= fcb
c

a/2 = c

a= 1c

C= fab
c

d
As

fs

fs

Actual

Figure 2.5: Cracked Section, Limit State


Figure
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.3 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method

29

18 At failure we have, linear cross strain distribution (ACI 10.2.2) (except for deep beams),
non-linear stress strain curve for the concrete, thus a non-linear stress distribution.
19

Two options:
1. Analytical expression of exact integration
2. Replace exact stress diagram with a simpler and equivalent one, (ACI 10.2.6)

Second approach adopted by most codes.


20 For the equivalent stress distribution, all we need to know is C & its location, thus and .
We adopt a rectangular stress, with depth a = 1 c, and stress equal to fc (ACI 10.2.7.1)

C = fc bc = fc ab
fav
=
fc
a = 1 c
Thus
=

(2.20-a)
(2.20-b)
(2.20-c)

(2.21)

But the location of the resultant forces must be the same, hence
1 = 2
21

From Experiments
fc ( psi)

1 = 2
= /1

22

(2.22)

<4,000
.72
.425
.85
0.85

5,000
.68
.400
.80
0.85

6,000
.64
.375
.75
0.85

8,000
.56
.325
.65
0.86

Thus we have, (ACI-318 10.2.7.3):


1 = .85
1
= .85 (.05)(fc 4, 000) 1,000

23

7,000
.60
.350
.70
0.86

if fc 4, 000
if 4, 000 < fc < 8, 000

(2.23)

Failure can occur by either

yielding of steel: s = y ; Progressive


crushing of concrete: c = .003; Sudden; (ACI 10.3.2).

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
210

FLEXURE
u=0.003

0.85 fc
a= 1c

C=0.85f ab
c

c
h

d
d

As

Figure 2.6: Whitney Stress Block

2.3.2

Balanced Design

fs = fy

As fs = .85fc ab = .85fc b1 c
c=

As
= bd

Tension Failure:

fy
.85fc 1 d

(2.24)

Compression Failure:

c = .003
fs
s =
Es
.003
c
=
c=
d
.003 + s

(2.25-a)
(2.25-b)
.003
fs
+.003
Es

(2.25-c)

Balanced Design:

Balanced design occurs if we have simultaneous yielding of the steel and crushing of the
concrete. Hence, we simply equate the previous two equations

24

fy
.85fc 1 d

25

= b

.003
fs
+.003
Es

bf 2d
.85fc 1

.003
fs
+.003
Es

Es = 29, 000 ksi

fc 87,000
b = .851 fy 87,000+fy

To ensure failure by yielding,


(2.27)

< .75b

26

(2.26)

(ACI 8.4.3)

ACI strength requirements


U
U
Md = M u

Victor Saouma

=
=
=
=

1.4D + 1.7L
0.75(1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W )
Mn
.90

(ACI
(ACI
(ACI
(ACI

9.2.1)
9.2.2)
9.1.1)
9.3.2.2)

(2.28)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.3 Cracked Section, Ultimate Strength Design Method


27

211

Also we need to specify a minimum reinforcement ratio


min

200
fy

(2.29)

(ACI 10.5.1)

to account for temperature & shrinkage


Note, that need not be as high as 0.75b . If steel is relatively expensive, or deection is of
concern, can use lower .
28

29

As a rule of thumb, if < 0.5b , there is no need to check for deection.

2.3.3
30

Review

Given, b, d, As , fc , fy , determine the moment capacity M .


act = As
bd
fc 87
b
= (.85)1 fy 87+fy

(2.30)

act < b : Failure by yielding and


A f

s
a = .85f yb
Fx = 0
c
a
Md = As fy (d 2 ) M = 0

(2.31)

act > b is not allowed by code, in this case we have an extra unknown fs .
We now have one more unknown fs , and we will need an additional equation (from strain
diagram).
31

A s
c = .85fs fb1
c
c
.003
d = .003+s
Md = As fs (d

Fx = 0
From strain diagram
1 c
2 ) M = 0

(2.32)

We can solve by iteration, or substitution and solution of a quadratic equation.

2.3.4
32

Design

We consider two cases:


I b d and As , unknown; Md known; Since design failure is triggered by fs = fy
Fx = 0 a =
=

As f y
0.85fc b
As
bd

y
a = 0.85f
c
Md = As fy d

Md = fy 1 .59

a
2

fy
fc

bd2
(2.33-a)

where is specied by the designer; or


R = fy 1 .59
Victor Saouma

fy
fc

(2.34)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
212

FLEXURE

which does not depend on unknown quantities. Then solve for bd2 :
bd2 =

Md
R

(2.35)

Solve for b and d (this will require either an assumption on one of the two, or on their
ratio).
As = bd
II b & d known & Md known there is no assurance that we can have a design with b
If the section is too small, then it will require too much steel resulting in an over-reinforced
section.
Iterative approach
(a) Since we do not know if the steel will be yielding or not, use fs .
(b) Assume an initial value for a (a good start is a = d )
5
(c) Assume initially that fs = fy
(d) Check equilibrium of moments (M = 0)
As =

Md
fs d

(2.36)

a
2

(e) Check equilibrium of forces in the x direction (Fx = 0)


a=

As fs
.85fc b

(2.37)

(f) Check assumption of fs by either comparing with b , or from the strain diagram
.003
dc
s
=
fs = Es
.003 < fy
dc
c
c
where c =

(2.38)

a
1 .

(g) Iterate until convergence is reached.

2.4
2.4.1
33

Practical Design Considerations


Minimum Depth

ACI 9.5.2.1 stipulates that the minimum thickness of beams should be


Simply
supported
Solid One
way slab
Beams or
ribbed One way slab

One end
continuous

Both ends
continuous

Cantilever

L/20

L/24

L/28

L/10

L/16

L/18.5

L/21

L/8

where L is in inches, and members are not supporting partitions.


34

Smaller values can be taken if deections are computed.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.4 Practical Design Considerations

2.4.2
35

213

Beam Sizes, Bar Spacing, Concrete Cover

Beam sizes should be dimensioned as


1. Use whole inches for overall dimensions, except for slabs use

1
2

inch increment.

2. Ideally, the overall depth to width ratio should be between 1.5 to 2.0 (most economical).
3. For T beams, ange thickness should be about 20% of overall depth.
36

Reinforcing bars
1. Minimum spacing between bars, and minimum covers are needed to
(a) Prevent Honeycombing of concrete (air pockets)
(b) Concrete (usually up to 3/4 in MSA) must pass through the reinforcement
(c) Protect reinforcement against corrosion and re
2. Use at least 2 bars for exural reinforcement
3. Use bars #11 or smaller for beams.
4. Use no more than two bar sizes and no more than 2 standard sizes apart (i.e #7 and #9
acceptable; #7 and #8 or #7 and #10 not).
5. Use no more than 5 or 6 bars in one layer.
6. Place longest bars in the layer nearest to face of beam.
7. Clear distance between parallel bars not less that db (to avoid splitting cracks) nor 1 in.
(to allow concrete to pass through).
8. Clear distance between longitudinal bars in columns not less that 1.5db or 1.5 in.
9. Minimum cover of 1.5 in.
10. Summaries in Fig. 2.7 and Table 2.1, 2.2.

2.4.3
37

Design Aids

Basic equations developed in this section can be easily graphed.

Review Given b d and known steel ratio and material strength, Mn can be readily obtained
from Mn = Rbd2
Design in this case
Set Md = Rbd2
From tabulated values, select max and min often 0.5b is a good economical choice.
Select R from tabulated values of R in terms of fy , fc and . Solve for bd2 .
Select b and d to meet requirements. Usually depth is about 2 to 3 times the width.
Using tabulated values select the size and number of bars giving preference to larger
bar sizes to reduce placement cost (careful about crack width!).
6. Check from tables that the selected beam width will provide room for the bars chosen
with adequate cover and spacing.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
214

Bar
Size
#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
#9
#10
#11
#14
#18

FLEXURE

Nominal
Diam.
0.375
0.500
0.625
0.750
0.875
1.000
1.128
1.270
1.410
1.693
2.257

1
0.11
0.20
0.31
0.44
0.60
0.79
1.00
1.27
1.56
2.25
4.00

2
0.22
0.40
0.62
0.88
1.20
1.58
2.00
2.54
3.12
4.50
8.00

3
0.33
0.60
0.93
1.32
1.80
2.37
3.00
3.81
4.68
6.75
12.00

Number of Bars
4
5
6
7
0.44
0.55
0.66
0.77
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.24
1.55
1.86
2.17
1.76
2.20
2.64
3.08
2.40
3.00
3.60
4.20
3.16
3.95
4.74
5.53
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
5.08
6.35
7.62
8.89
6.24
7.80
9.36
10.92
9.00
11.25 13.50 15.75
16.00 20.00 24.00 28.00

8
0.88
1.60
2.48
3.52
4.80
6.32
8.00
10.16
12.48
18.00
32.00

9
0.99
1.80
2.79
3.96
5.40
7.11
9.00
11.43
14.04
20.25
36.00

10
1.10
2.00
3.10
4.40
6.00
7.90
10.00
12.70
15.60
22.50
40.00

Table 2.1: Total areas for various numbers of reinforcing bars (inch2 )

Bar
Size
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
#9
#10
#11
#14
#18

Number of bars
2
3
4
6.8
8.3
9.8
6.9
8.5 10.2
7.0
8.8 10.5
7.2
9.1 11.0
7.3
9.3 11.3
7.6
9.9 12.1
7.8 10.3 12.9
8.1 10.9 13.7
8.9 12.3 15.7
10.6 15.1 19.6

in single layer of reinf.


5
6
7
8
11.3 12.8 14.3 15.8
11.8 13.4 15.1 16.7
12.3 14.0 15.8 17.5
12.8 14.7 16.6 18.5
13.3 15.3 17.3 19.3
14.4 16.6 18.9 21.2
15.4 18.0 20.5 23.0
16.6 19.4 22.2 25.0
19.1 22.5 25.9 29.3
24.1 28.6 33.2 37.7

Table 2.2: Minimum Width (inches) according to ACI Code

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.5 USD Examples

215

Figure 2.7: Bar Spacing

2.5

USD Examples

Example 2-5: Ultimate Strength; Review


Determine the ultimate moment capacity of example 2.1 fc = 4,000 psi; ft = 475 psi; fy =
60,000 psi; As = 2.35 in2
yt
25" 23"
2

As = 2.35 in

yb

10"

Solution:
2.35
As
=
= .0102
bd
(10)(23)

87
4
f
87
b = .851 c
= .0285 > act
= (.85)(.85)
fy 87 + fy
60 87 + 60
As fy
(2.35)(60)
a =
=
= 4.15 in
.85fc b
(.85)(4)(10)
a
4.15
= (2.35)(60) 23
= 2, 950 k.in
Mn = As fy d
2
2

act =

Md = Mn = 0.9(2, 950) = 2, 660 k.in

(2.39-a)
(2.39-b)
(2.39-c)
(2.39-d)
(2.39-e)

Note:
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
216

FLEXURE

1. From equilibrium, Fx = 0 c =

As f y
.851 bfc

(2.35)(60)
(.85)(.85)(4)(10)

= 4.87 in

2. Comparing with previous analysis

c
M

uncracked
13.2
45

cracked
7.61
90

ultimate
4.87
245
1.7 = 144

3. Alternative solution:
Mn = act fy bd2 (1 .59act
= As fy d(1 59act

fy
)
fc

fy
)
fc

60
(.0102)] = 2, 950 k.in = 245 k.ft
4
= Mn = (.9)(2, 950) = 2, 660 k.in
= (2.35)(60)(23)[1 (.59)

Md

(2.40-a)
(2.40-b)
(2.40-c)
(2.40-d)

Example 2-6: Ultimate Strength; Design I


Design a R/C beam with L = 15 ft; DL = 1.27 k/ft; LL = 2.44 k/ft; fc = 3,000 psi; fy =
40 ksi; Neglect beam owns weight; Select = 0.75b
Solution:

Factored load
wu = 1.4(1.27) + 1.7(2.44) = 5.92 k/ft
2
2
wu L
(5.92)(15)
=
= 166.5 k.ft(12) in/ft = 1, 998 k.in
Md =
8
8
f
87
= 0.75b = (0.75)(0.85)1 c
fy 87 + fy
87
3
= .0278
= (0.75)(.85)2
40 87 + 40
fy
R = fy 1 .59
fc
40
= 0.869 psi
= (.0278)(40) 1 (0.59)(.0278)
3
1, 998
Md
=
= 2, 555 in3
bd2 =
R
(0.9)(0.869)

(2.41-a)
(2.41-b)
(2.41-c)
(2.41-d)
(2.41-e)
(2.41-f)
(2.41-g)

Take b = 10 in, d = 16 in As = (.0278)(10)(16) = 4.45 in2 use 3 # 11


Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.5 USD Examples

217

Example 2-7: Ultimate Strength; Design II


Design a R/C beam for b = 11.5 in; d = 20 in; fc = 3 ksi; fy = 40 ksi; Md = 1, 600 k.in
Solution:
Assume a =

d
5

20
5

= 4 in
As =

(1, 600)
Md
= 2.47 in2
a =
fy (d 2 )
(.9)(40)(20 4 )
2

(2.42)

As fy
(2.47)(40)
=
= 3.38 in
(.85)fc b
(.85)(3)(11.5)

(2.43)

check assumption,
a=
Thus take a = 3.3 in.

As =
a =
act =
b =
max =

(1, 600)
= 2.42 in2
(.9)(40)(20 3.3 )
2

(2.42)(40)
= 3.3 in
(.85)(3)(11.5)
2.42
= .011
(11.5)(20)
87
3
= .037
(.85)(.85)
40 87 + 40
.75b = .0278 > act

(2.44-a)
(2.44-b)
(2.44-c)
(2.44-d)
(2.44-e)

Example 2-8: Exact Analysis


As an Engineer questioning the validity of the ACI equation for the ultimate exural capacity
of R/C beams, you determined experimentally the following stress strain curve for concrete:
=

fc
2 max

1+

(2.45)

max

where fc corresponds to max .


1. Determine the exact balanced steel ratio for a R/C beam with b = 10, d = 23, fc =
4, 000 psi, fy = 60 ksi, max = 0.003.
(a) Determine the equation for the exact stress distribution on the section.
(b) Determine the total compressive force C, and its location, in terms of the location
of the neutral axis c.
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
218

FLEXURE

(c) Apply equilibrium


2. Using the ACI equations, determine the:
(a) Ultimate moment capacity.
(b) Balanced steel ratio.
3. For the two approaches, compare:
(a) Balanced steel area.
(b) Location of the neutral axis.
(c) Centroid of resultant compressive force.
(d) Ultimate moment capacity.
Solution:

1. Stress-Strain:
=

2 4,000
.003
1+

2
.003

2.667 106
1 + 1.11 105 2

(2.46)

2. Assume crushing at failure, hence strain distribution will be given by


=
3. Combine those two equation:

0.003
y
c

(2.47)

8, 000 y
c

1+

(2.48)

y 2
c

4. The total compressive force is given by


c

dF = b

=
0

dy = b
0

b 1
8, 000
c2 1

8, 000 y
c

01

y
ln 1 +
c

y
c

+
2

2 dy = b

= 8, 000
0

8, 000
c

c
01

y
+

y
b c2
ln 1 +
c 2
c

= 4, 000bc ln(2) = 2, 773bc

dy
1 2
c
2 c

(2.49)

(2.50)
0

(2.51)

5. Equilibrium requires that T = C


2, 773bc = As fy

(2.52)

From the strain diagram:


.003
c

c =

Victor Saouma

y + .003
(.003)d
c=
d
y + .003
(.003)(23)
= 13.6 in
60
29,000 + .003

(2.53)
(2.54)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.6 T Beams, (ACI 8.10)

219

6. Combining Eq. 2.52 with Eq. 2.54


As =

(2, 773)(10)(13.6)
= 6.28 in2
60, 000

(2.55)

7. To determine the moment, we must rst determine the centroid of the compressive force
measured from the neutral axis
2

8, 000 yc
2
8, 000b
0 1 + (y/c)
dy =
2, 773bc
2, 773bc2
c

ydA
y =
=

A
2.885
c2

2, 773bc

c
01

ydy
=

y2
+

1 2 2
y
c

dy =

.01557 yc2 c2

1
1
c2

2.885
(13.61)2

tan1 y

y
1 2
c
c

01

01

1 2
c

y2
+

dy
1 2 2
y
c

dy
+

1 2 2
y
c

1
c2

(2.56)
(2.57)

(2.58)
0

= .01557 c3 c3 tan1 (1) = (.01557)(13.61)3 (1 tan1 (1)) = 8.43 in (2.59)


8. Next we solve for the moment
M = As fy (d c + y) = (6.28)(60)(23 13.61 8.43) = 6, 713 k.in

(2.60)

9. Using the ACI Code


b = .851

fc 87
4 87
= (.85)2
= .0285
fy 87 + 60
60 147

As = b bd = (.0285)(10)(23) = 6.55 in2


As fy
(6.55)(60)
=
= 11.57 in
a =
.85f cb
(.85)(4)(10)
a
11.57
= (6.55)(60) 23
M = As fy d
2
2
11.57
a
= 13.61
=
c =
1
.85

(2.61)
(2.62)
(2.63)
= 6, 765 k.in

(2.64)
(2.65)

10. We summarize

As
c
y
M

Victor Saouma

Exact
6.28
13.6
5.18
6,713

ACI
6.55
13.6
5.78
6,765

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
220

FLEXURE
be
b

11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000

hf

bw

Figure 2.8: T Beams

2.6

T Beams, (ACI 8.10)

Equivalent width for uniform stress, Fig. 2.8 must satisfy the following requirements (ACI
8.10.2):
38

1.

1
2 (b

bw ) 8hf

2. b < 4bw for isolated T beams only


3. hf >
4. b <
39

bw
2

L
4

Two possibilities:
1. Neutral axis within the anges (c < hf ) rectangular section of width b, Fig. 2.9.
2. Neutral axis in the web (c > hf ) T beam.
b
h

11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000

h d
As

Figure 2.9: T Beam as Rectangular Section


For T beams, we have a large concrete area, start by assuming that failure will occur by steel
yielding, Fig. 2.10.

40

41

The approach consists in decomposing As into 2 components Fig. 2.11.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.6 T Beams, (ACI 8.10)

221
b

hf
hd

u =0.003 0.85 fc

11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000

a=1 c
C=0.85f a

As

T=A yf
s

bw

Figure 2.10: T Beam Strain and Stress Diagram


1. Asf resists compression force in (b bw )hf
2. (As Asf ) resists compression force in bw c

2.6.1
42

Review

Given, b, d, hf , As , fc , fy , determine the moment capacity M , Fig. 2.11.


b

111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000

hf

111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000

111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000

A sf

bw

As

A s A sf

(bb w f
)h

bw
c

Figure 2.11: Decomposition of Steel Reinforcement for T Beams


43

The moment is obtained from

Flanges:
Asf

Mn1 =

.85fc (bbw )hf


fy
h
Asf fy (d 2f )

F = 0

(2.66)

M = 0

Web:
a =

(As Asf )fy


.85fc bw

F = 0

a
Mn2 = (As Asf )fy (d )
2

M = 0

(2.67-a)
(2.67-b)

Total moment:
Mn = Mn1 + Mn2
Victor Saouma

(2.68)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
222

2.6.2
44

FLEXURE

Design, (balanced)

Let us derive an expression for b and use it for design


c
u
Strain Compatibility
=
d
u + y
As fy = .85fc 1 cbw + .85fc (b bw )hf
F = 0

(2.69-a)
(2.69-b)

Asf fy

thus,
def

.85fc 1 cbw + Asf fy

def

As fy

As
bw d
Asf
bw d

w = .85

u
fc
1
+f
fy u + y

(2.70)

Hence,
wb = b + f

(2.71)

w,max = .75(b + f ) (2.72)

Example 2-9: T Beam; Moment Capacity I


For the following beam: As = 8 # 11 ( 12.48 in2 ); fc =3,000 psi; fy = 50,000 psi. Determine
Mn
30"
7"

36"

11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000

u=0.003

0.85 fc
a= 1c

C=0.85f ab
c

T=Asfy

14"

Solution:
1. Check requirements for isolated T sections
(a) bw = 30 in should not exceed 4bw = 4(14) = 56 in

u
(b) hf b2 7 14
2

2. Assume Rectangular section


a=

Victor Saouma

As fy
(12.48)(50)
=
= 8.16 in > hf
.85fc b
(0.85)(3)(30)

(2.73)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.6 T Beams, (ACI 8.10)

223

3. For a T section
Asf

=
=

Asw =
w =
b =
=

.85fc hf (b bw )
fy
(.85)(3)(7)(30 14)
= 5.71 in2
50
Asf
5.71
= .0113
=
bwd
(14)(36)
As Asf = 12.48 5.71 = 6.77 in2
12.48
Asw
=
= .025
bw d
(14)(36)
f
87
.851 c
fy 87 + fy
87
3
= .0275
(.85)(.85)
50 87 + 50

(2.74-a)
(2.74-b)
(2.74-c)
(2.74-d)
(2.74-e)
(2.74-f)
(2.74-g)

4. Maximum permissible ratio


max = .75(b + f )
= .75(.0275 + .0113) = .029 > w

(2.75-a)
(2.75-b)

5. The design moment is then obtained from


Mn1 = (5.71)(50) 36

7
2

= 9, 280 k.in

(As Asf )fy


.85fc bw
(6.77)(50)
= 9.48 in
=
(.85)(3)(14)
9.48
) = 10, 580 k.in
= (6.77)(50)(36
2
= (.9)(9, 280 + 10, 580) = 17, 890 k.in 17, 900 k.in

a =

Mn2
Md

(2.76-a)
(2.76-b)
(2.76-c)
(2.76-d)
(2.76-e)

Example 2-10: T Beam; Moment Capacity II


Determine the moment capacity of the following section, assume ange dimensions to satisfy
ACI requirements; As = 6#10 = 7.59 in2 ; fc = 3 ksi; fy =60 ksi.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
224

FLEXURE
28"
6"

26"

11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000
11111111111111111
00000000000000000

u=0.003

0.85 fc
a= 1c

C=0.85f ab
c

T=Asfy

10"

Solution:
Assume rectangular beam
=
b =
a =
=
Asf

Asw

w =
f

max =

7.59
= .0104
(28)(26)
87
3
= .0214 > fs = fy
(.85)(.85)
60
87 + 60
(As Asf )fy
.85fc bw
(7.59)(60)
= 6.37 in > 6 in T beam
(.85)(3)(28)
(.85)(3)(18)(6)
= 4.59 in2
60
7.59 4.59 = 3.00 in2
7.59
= .0292
(26)(10)
4.59
= .0177
(26)(10)
.75(.0214 + .0177) = .0294 > .0292 Ductile failure

Mn1 = (4.59)(60)(26 3) = 6, 330 k.in


As Asf

= 7.59 4.59 = 3. in
(3)(60)
= 7.07 in
a =
(.85)(3)(10)
7.07
) = 4, 050 k.in
Mn2 = (3.00)(60)(26
2
Md = (.9)(6, 330 + 4, 050) = 9, 350 k.in
2

(2.77-a)
(2.77-b)
(2.77-c)
(2.77-d)
(2.77-e)
(2.77-f)
(2.77-g)
(2.77-h)
(2.77-i)
(2.77-j)
(2.77-k)
(2.77-l)
(2.77-m)
(2.77-n)

Example 2-11: T Beam; Design


given L = 24 ft; fy = 60 ksi; fc = 3 ksi; Md = 6, 400 k.in; Design a R/C T beam.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.6 T Beams, (ACI 8.10)

225

3"
20"

11"
47"
Solution:
1. Determine eective ange width:
bw ) 8hf
16hf + bw = (16)(3) + 11 = 59 in
L
24
= 72 in
4 = 4 12
Center Line spacing
= 47 in
1
2 (b

b = 47 in

(2.78-a)

2. Assume a = 3 in
As =
a =

6, 400
Md
= 6.40 in2
a =
fy (d 2 )
(0.9)(60)(20 3 )
2
As fy
(6.4)(60)
=
= 3.20 in > hf
(.85)fc b
(.85)(3)(47)

(2.79-a)
(2.79-b)

3. Thus a T beam analysis is required.


Asf
Md1
Md2

.85fc (b bw )hf
(.85)(3)(47 11)(3)
= 4.58 in2
=
fy
60
hf
3
) = (.90)(4.58)(60)(20 ) = 4, 570 k.in
= Asf fy (d
2
2
= Md Md1 = 6, 400 4, 570 = 1, 830 k.in
=

(2.80-a)
(2.80-b)
(2.80-c)
(2.80-d)

4. Now, this is similar to the design of a rectangular section. Assume a =


As Asf =

1, 830
(.90)(60) 20

4
2

= 1.88 in2

d
5

20
5

= 4. in
(2.81)

5. check
a =

(1.88)(60)
= 4.02 in 4.00
(.85)(3)(11)

As = 4.58 + 1.88 = 6.46 in2


6.46
= .0294
w =
(11)(20)
Victor Saouma

(2.82-a)
(2.82-b)
(2.82-c)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
226

FLEXURE
f
b
max

4.58
= .0208
(11)(20)
87
3
= .0214
= (.85)(.85)
60
87 + 60

= (.0214 + .0208) = .042 > w

(2.82-d)

(2.82-e)
(2.82-f)

6. Note that 6.46 in2 (T beam) is close to As = 6.40 in2 if rectangular section was assumed.

2.7
45

Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beams

Negative steel reinforcement is needed to


1. Increase internal moment resistance capacity (not very ecient)
2. Support stirrups
3. Reverse moments (moving load)
4. Provide ductility (earthquake)
5. Reduce creep (long term deections)

Approach will again be based on a strain compatibility analysis & equilibrium equation, Fig.
2.12.

46

0.85 fc

u=0.003
A
s
h

A f
s s

0.85 fc

A f
s s

a= 1c

a= 1c

dd

d
As

Asfs

Asfs

(As A )f s
s

Figure 2.12: Doubly Reinforced Beams; Strain and Stress Diagrams


47

If max = .75b we can disregard compression steel

48

As for T beams, we decompose the tension steel into two components


1. As to resist the force in the top steel (assuming both yield)
2. As As to resist compression in the concrete.

and we dene
=

Victor Saouma

As
bd

(2.83)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.7 Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beams

2.7.1
49

227

Tests for fs and fs

Dierent possibilities: Fig. 2.13


Yes

Yes

A yield?
s

No

As yield?

No

Not Allowed by ACI

Yes

A yield?
s

No

II

III

IV

f = fy

f = fy

f < fy

f < fy

f = f y

f < f

f = f

f < f y

s
s

Figure 2.13: Dierent Possibilities for Doubly Reinforced Concrete Beams


Test 1 fs = fy ?
Assuming s = y , and fs = fy , we have from the strain diagram, Fig. 2.14

d
A
s
h

u =0.003
s

d
s = y

As

b
Figure 2.14: Strain Diagram, Doubly Reinforced Beam; is As Yielding?
u
d
u + y
d
= u (u + y )
d
= E s s

c =
s
fs

(2.84-a)
(2.84-b)
(2.84-c)

From equilibrium:
bdfy = bdfs + .85fc 1 bc

(2.85)

Combining:
b = 1 =
Victor Saouma

f
fs
u
+ .85 c 1
fy
fy u + y

(2.86)

Mechanics andb
Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
228

FLEXURE

thus
fs
+ b
fy
f
= 0.75b + s
fy

b = 1 =
max

(2.87)
(2.88)

Note that 0.75 premultiplies only one term as in the other failure is ipso facto by yielding.
We also note the similarity with max of T Beams (where 0.75 premultiplied both terms).
Test 2 fs = fy is fs = fy ?
We set s = y , and from the strain diagram

u =0.003
s = y

d
A
s
h

d
s >
y

As

b
Figure 2.15: Strain Diagram, Doubly Reinforced Beam; is As Yielding?
c=

u
d
u y

(2.89)

from equilibrium
bdfy = bdfy + .85fc 1 cb

(2.90)

combining
min 2 = + .851

87
fc d
fy d 87 fy

(2.91)

which corresponds to the minimum amount of steel to ensure yielding of compression steel
at failure. Thus, if < min then fs < fy . Note that some times min can be larger than
.
Test 3 fs < fy , is fs = fy (not allowed by ACI)?
From strain diagram:
c =
s =

Victor Saouma

u
d
u y
dc
y
cd

(2.92-a)
(2.92-b)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.7 Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beams

229

From equilibrium
bdfs = bdfy + .85fc 1 bc

(2.93-a)

combining
= 3 =

cd
f c
+ .851 c
dc
fy d

(2.94)

Summary of the tests are shown in Fig. 2.16

Test 1

Test 2

min

II
f < f
y
s

Test 3

III

I
f = f y

f=fy f <fy
s
s

IV

f < f y f = f y
s

Figure 2.16: Summary of Conditions for top and Bottom Steel Yielding

2.7.2

Moment Equations

Case I fs = fy and fs = fy , usually occur if we have small bottom and top reinforcement
ratios.

As fy = As fy + .85fc ab
(As As )fy
a =
.85fc b
I
Mn = .85fc ab d

a
+ As fy (d d )
2

(2.95-a)
(2.95-b)

(2.96)

Case II We have fs = fy and fs < fy (small bottom and large top reinforcement ratios, most
common case)
cd
c
= E s s

s = u

(2.97-a)

fs

(2.97-b)

As fy = As fs + .85fc b1 c

(2.97-c)

solve for c and fs by iteration.


Alternatively, those equations can be combined yielding
(0.85fc b)a2 + (0.003Es As As fy )a (0.003Es As 1 d ) = 0
Victor Saouma

(2.98)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
230

FLEXURE

Using a = 1 c
II
Mn = .85fc ab d

a
+ As fs (d d )
2

(2.99)

Case III fs < fy and fs = fy (large bottom and small top reinforcement ratios, rare)

s = u

(2.100-a)

fs

dc
c
= E s s

(2.100-b)

As fs = As fy + .85fc ab

(2.100-c)

a = 1 c

(2.100-d)

solve for a
III
Mn = .85fc ab d

a
+ As fy (d d )
2

(2.101)

Case IV (not allowed by ACI) fs < fy and fs < fy (large bottom and top reinforcement
ratios, rare)
cd
c
dc
= u
c
= As fs + .85fc ab

s = u

(2.102-a)

(2.102-b)

As fs

a = 1 c

(2.102-c)
(2.102-d)

solve for a
IV
Mn = .85fc ab d

a
+ As fs (d d )
2

(2.103)

50 Note that in most beams of normal size and proportions, it will be found that fs < fy when
fs = fy . We nevertheless use As in order to ensure ductility, stiness and support for the
stirrups.

Example 2-12: Doubly Reinforced Concrete beam; Review


Given, fc = 4, 000 psi, fy = 60,000 psi, As = 3 (1.56) = 4.68 in2 , As = 4 (1.56) = 6.24 in2 ,
determine the moment carrying capacity of the following beam.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.7 Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Beams


0.85 f
c

u =0.003

A = 3 # 11
s

3"

231

A f
s s

0.85 f
c

A f
s y

a=1 c

a= c

27.3"

dd

d
As s
f

As y
f

(As A s)f
s

16"
As = 4 # 11

Solution:

1. Determine :
4
fc 87
87
= (.85)(.85)
= .0285
fy 87 + fy
60 87 + 60
6.24
= .0143
(16)(27.3)
4.68
= .0107
(16)(27.3)

b = (.85)1
=

(2.104-a)
(2.104-b)
(2.104-c)

2. Check for min


u
fc d
1
fy d u y
4
3
.003
= .0107 + (.85) (.85)
= .0278 >
60
60
27.3 .003 29,000

min = + .85

(2.105-a)
(2.105-b)

Hence
b

< min <


.0143 < .0278 < .0285

(2.106)

and thus fs = fy and fs < fy and we have case II


3. We have two equations: strain compatibility (nonlinear equation) and summation of forces
(linear equation), and two unknowns c and fs
c3
cd
= (29, 000)(.003)
c
c
c3
= 87
c
= As fs + .85fc b1 c

fs = Es u

As fy

(6.24)(60) = (4.68)fs + (.85)(4)(16)(.85)c

(2.107-a)
(2.107-b)
(2.107-c)
(2.107-d)

374.4 = 4.68fs + 46.24c

(2.107-e)

fs = 9.9c + 80.2

(2.107-f)

Note that if we were to plott those two equations,

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
232

FLEXURE

50

25

-25

-50

-75

-100

We note that fs increases with c from the strain diagram, but fs decreases with c from
equilibrium. If c increases, force in concrete increases too and force in steel decreases.
Graphically the solution is around 4.9.
4. Combining those two equations1
c2 + .7085c 26.42 = 0

(2.108)

we obtain c = 4.80 in a = 0.85(4.8) = 4.078 in, and fs = (.003)(29, 000) 4.803 = 32.6 ksi
4.80
5. Substituting into the moment equation
a
+ As fs (d d )
2
4.078
= (.85)(4)(4.078)(16) 27.3
2
= 9, 313 k.in

Mn = .85fc ab d

(2.109-a)
+ (4.68)(32.62)(27.3 3) (2.109-b)
(2.109-c)

Md = 0.9(9, 313) = 8, 382 k.in = 699 k.ft

(2.109-d)

6. Check
max = .75b +

fs

fy

= (.75)(.0285) +

(2.110-a)

32.6
(.0107) = .027
60

(2.110-b)

Example 2-13: Doubly Reinforced Concrete beam; Design


Given Md = 505 k.ft, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, b = 12 in, h = 24.5 in, d = 21 in, and
d = 2.5 in, determine the reinforcement As and possibly As .
Solution:
1

In this problem, unfortunately an iterative method diverges if we were to start with a = d .


5

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.8 Moment-Curvature Relations

233

1. Check if singly or doubly reinforced section:


Md = (505)(12) = 6, 060 k.in
87
4
f
87
b = .851 c
= .0285
= (.85)(.85)
fy 87 + fy
60 87 + 60
max = .75b = (.75)(.0285) = .0213

(2.111-b)

Amax
s

(2.111-d)

= (.0213)(12)(21) = 5.37 in
As fy
(5.37)(60)
=
= 7.89 in
a =
.85fc b
(.85)(4)(12)
a
7.89
= (.9)(5.37)(60) 21
Mmax = (0.9)As fy d
2
2
= 4, 943 k.in < 6, 060 k.in

(2.111-a)

(2.111-c)

(2.111-e)
(2.111-f)
(2.111-g)

Thus compression steel is required.


2. Assuming that fs = fy
Md2 = 6, 060 4, 943 = 1, 117 k.in
1, 117
Md2
=
= 1.12 in2
As =
fy (d d )
(0.9)(60)(21 2.5)
As =

1.12 in2

As = 5.37 + 1.12 = 6.49 in2

(2.112-a)
(2.112-b)
(2.112-c)
(2.112-d)

3. Check that fs = fy
1.12
= .00444
(12)(21)
6.49
= .0257
=
(12)(21)
u
f d
min = + .851 c
fy d u y

87
4 2.5
= .0229 < (.0257)
= .00444 + (.85)(.85)
60 21.0 87 60

(2.113-a)
(2.113-b)
(2.113-c)
(2.113-d)

Note that if it turned out that fs < fy , then we will need to make an assumption on As (such
as As = As , as we will have three equations (2 of equilibrium and one of strain compatibility)
2
and four unknowns (As , As , fs and c).

2.8

Moment-Curvature Relations

In ordinary reinforced concrete design, we need not be concerned by the moment curvature relation of a exural member. Yet this relation is important to properly understand (in
subsequent chapters)

51

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
234

FLEXURE

1. Redistribution of moments (reducing negative moments, increasing positive ones).


2. Short and long term deections with the shifting of the neutral axis under service load.
3. Ductility in seismic design, i.e. the ability of a section to exhibit enough exibility during
seismic excitation, and thus absorbs enough energy.
52

Fig.2.17 shows portion of an originally straight beam which has been bent to the radius

fy
y

STEEL
y

C
c d y
b

A
M

a
B

CONCRETE

el

Figure 2.17: Bending of a Beam


by end couples M , thus the segment is subjected to pure bending. It is assumed that plane
cross-sections normal to the length of the unbent beam remain plane after the beam is bent.
Therefore, considering the cross-sections AB and CD a unit distance apart, the similar sectors
Oab and bcd give
y
(2.114)
=

where y is measured from the axis of rotation (neutral axis), the radius of curvature.
53

Furthermore, we dene the curvature as


=

=
y
c

(2.115)

Next we seek to derive the moment curvature for a beam. This will clearly depend on the
location of the neutral axis, and we identify the following key stages, Fig. ??:

54

Uncracked Elastic is the rst stage


Mcr =
cr =

fr Iut
c2
r
fr
=
c2
E c c2

(2.116-a)
(2.116-b)

Cracked Elastic: when the section cracks, the stiness is immediately reduced and the curvature increases (the moment does not change). We will then have a linear response up

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.9 Bond & Development Length


<

111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
11111111
00000000

el

cr

c2
=

fr

cr

=
c = kd

M
el

d
cS = dkd

EI

ct

Failure

ut

M el

jd
<

T=A

el

EI
n

el

< <

111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000

235

f =f

E
S

M cr

Proportional
Limit of Concrete
Cracking

inel

d
Z
=

cs

T=A

E
S

< A fy
S

Figure 2.18: Moment-Curvature Relation for a Beam


to the limit of elasticity of the concrete where, Eq. 2.4-c
Mel =
el =
1 =
el
we should check that fs =

M
As jd

bd2
kjfc
2
fc,el
Ec
el
c1

(2.117-a)
(2.117-b)
(2.117-c)

fy .

Cracked Section, Inelastic Material: For this case


1. Select top face concrete strain el u
2. Assume the neutral axis depth to be at a distance c1 below top bers.
3. From the strain diagram and similarity of triangles, determine s = cs .
4. Determine the tensile steel stress fs = Es s fy , and T + As fs .
5. Check equilibrium of forces (C = T ), this requires computing C (area under the
nonlinear stress curve). If equilibrium is not satied, adjust location of neutral axis
upward or downward until equilibrium is reached. The internal lever arm z is then
determined.
6. Solve for
i
Minel = Ci zi
i
1
i
inel =
ci
1

(2.118-a)
(2.118-b)

7. Plot the results.

2.9

Bond & Development Length

Considering the equilibrium of forces acting on an innitesimal portion of a rebar, Fig. 2.19,
and dening U as the force per unit length, we have

55

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
236

FLEXURE
M

M +M

111
000
111
000
111
000

111
000

111
000

C + dC

V+dV

111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000
111111111111111111
000000000000000000

jd
T+dT

T+dT

dx
dx

Figure 2.19: Bond and Development Length


U dx = dT U =
56

(2.119)

The tensile force is a function of the moment


M

= T jd
dM
=
jd

dT

57

dT
dx

(2.120-a)
(2.120-b)

But the shear is related to the moment


V =

dM
dx

(2.121)

V
jd

(2.122)

Combing those equations together, we obtain


U=
58

We dene u as the bond stress, and is equal to


u=

U
0

(2.123)

where 0 is the sum of all the bars perimeters.


If plain bar weak adhesion slip need end anchorage no bond u = 0 dT = 0
max
steel stress is constant over entire length T = Mjd total steel elongation >than if bond
present large deection and large crack width.

59

60

Actual stress distribution along steel bar is quite complex, Fig. 2.20.

61

If bond stress is too large splitting along reinforcement, Fig. 2.21.

62

Failure will initiate at points of high shear large

dM
dx

It frequently starts at diagonal cracks dowel action increases the tendancy of splitting
shear and bond failures are often interrelated.
63

Based on tests with one single bar, ultimate average bond force/inch of length of bar is
Un 35 fc .

64

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.9 Bond & Development Length

237

u stresses on concrete

u stresses on rebar

1111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000
Steel tension slope =dT
dx

Bond stress u

Figure 2.20: Actual Bond Distribution

Figure 2.21: Splitting Along Reinforcement

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
238

FLEXURE

65 If we have several bars in one layer spaced 6 in or less, then the ultimate bond capacity is
80% of the single bar case.
66

In terms of bond stress, Fig. 2.22


un =

35 fc
0

(2.124)

1111111111111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000000000000
T=0
s

Ld

Ts= A y
f
b

Figure 2.22: Development Length


Putting it dierently, the minimum length necessary to develop through bond a force As fy
is, Fig. ??.

Ab f
Ld = Uny

0.028Ab fy
Un = un 0

(2.125)
l =
d
fc
35 fc
un =
0
67

A sf y

Figure 2.23: Development Length


68

For small bar spacing, we have to decrease the bond stress


ld =

0.035Ab fy
1 0.028Ab fy
=
0.8
fc
fc

(2.126)

If actual development length l is smaller than ld , then we must provide anchorage in order
to avoid a bond failure.

69

70

Note:
1. un is independent of diameter

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.9 Bond & Development Length


2. For a given fs
T
ld

239

= Ab fs

d2
ld =
= fs 4 b

Ab f s
= Un

fs d2
b
4Un

(2.127)

ld increases with the square of db small bar diameters require shorter development
length.
Top bars, with more than 12 inch of concrete below them, will have a reduced bond stress
(due to rise of water during vibration). This reduction in bond results in an increase of ld by
40%
71

72 ACI 12.2.2 may be obtained from above but rather than use we increase ld by 15% for
safety.
b
ldb = .04

=
=

A fy
fc
f
y
.085
fc
f
y
.125
fc

#11 or smaller; and deformed wire


#14

(2.128)

#18

> 12 in. in all cases


Consult ACI 12.5 code for hooks geometry, and corrections to this basic equation.
Check ACI code for modications related to top reinforcement, lightweight aggregate, high
strength reinforcement, excess reinforcement, and spiral connement.

73

(2.129)

ld = d dd ldb

74

If not enough development length can be provided provide hooks, Fig. 2.24 at
1. 90 degrees: bar must extend by 12db
2. 180 degrees: see code.

where
d
lhb = 1200 b

fc

(2.130)

ldh = d lhb
and d is given in the ACI code.

2.9.1

Moment Capacity Diagram

Ideally, the steel should be everywhere as nearly fully stressed as possible. Since the steel
force is proportional to the moment, then the steel area is nearly proportional to the moment
diagram.

75

76

Requirements include, Fig. 2.25:

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
240

FLEXURE
db
As in part (b)

Critical
section

12db
ldh
(a)

db

Critical
section

ldh

4db

Nos. 3 through 8

5db

Nos. 9, 10, 11

6db

4db or 2 1/2
in. min.

Nos. 14 and 18

(b)

Figure 2.24: Hooks


1. At least As in simple beams and
3
in. into support.

As
4

for continuous beams should be extended at least 6

2. If negative bars are cut, they must extend at least ld beyond face of support.
3. Negative bars must extend d or 12db beyond theoretical cuto point dened by moment
diagram.
4. At least one third of top reinforcement at support must extend at least ld beyond theln
oretical cuto point of other bars, and d, 12db or 16 beyond the inection point of the
negative moment diagram.
Determination of cuto points can be rather tedious, for nearly equal spans uniformly loaded,
in which no more than about one half the tensile steel is to be cut o or bent, locations shown
in Fig. 2.26 are satisfactory (note that left support is assumed simply supported).

77

78

Fig. 2.27 is an illustration of the moment capacity diagram for a beam.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

241

Theoretical
positive
moment
Inflection point
for (+As)

Theoretical
negative
moment

of span

Moment Capacity
of bars O

Inflection point
for (-As)

C
L

Face of support

2.9 Bond & Development Length

Moment capacity
of bars M

Greatest of d, 12 d , ln/16
b

d or 12 db

for at least 1/3 of (-AS)

ld
Bars M

ld

Bars N

ld

Bars L

ld

Bars O

d or 12 db

6" for at least


1/4 of (+AS)
(1/3 for simple spans)

Figure 2.25: Bar cuto requirements of the ACI code

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
242

FLEXURE

L1
4

L1
3

0"

6"

L1

L1
8

L1
4

6"

L2
3

0"

6"

0"

L1

L1
4

L2
8

6"

L1
3

L1
7

L2
3

L2

L2
3

L2
3

0"

6"

6"

L2
4

L2
8

L2

L2
4

Figure 2.26: Standard cuto or bend points for bars in approximately equal spans with uniformly distributed load

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

2.9 Bond & Development Length

2 bars

243

5 bars

4 bars

AA

BB
Ld
Ld

Mcap

of 5 bars

CC
Mcap of 4 bars

Md=Mn
Ld
Mcap

of 2 bars

d or 12

Figure 2.27: Moment Capacity Diagram

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
244

Victor Saouma

FLEXURE

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 3

SHEAR
3.1

Introduction

Beams are subjected to both exural and shear stresses. Resulting principal stresses (or stress
trajectory) are shown in Fig. 3.1.

45

90

Tension trajectories
Compression trajectories

45

Figure 3.1: Principal Stresses in Beam


2

Due to exure, vertical exural cracks develop from the bottom bers.

As a result of the tensile principal stresses, two types of shear cracks may develop, Fig. 3.2:
Large V
Small M

Web Shear Cracks

Small V
Large M

Flexural Cracks

Large V
Small M

Flexural Shear Cracks

Flexural Cracks

Figure 3.2: Types of Shear Cracks


Web shear cracks: Large V, small M. They initiate in the web & spread up & down at 45o .

Draft
32

SHEAR

Flexural shear cracks: Large V, large M. They initiate as an extension of a pre-existing


exural crack, initially vertical, then curve.
4

Shear failure is sudden = 0.85

Some of the important parameters controlling shear failure:


1. Shear span ratio
2. Steel ratio =

M
Vd

As
bd

3. ft = 4 fc note that fr = 7.5 fc


We shall rst examine the shear strength of uncracked sections, then the one of cracked
sections (with shear reinforcement).

3.2

Shear Strength of Uncracked Section

Question: What is the maximum shear force which can be applied before a exural crack
develop into a exural shear crack?

1. Apply M exural crack


2. Apply V exural shear crack
Note that all shear resistance is provided by the concrete. As with exural reinforcement,
steel is ineective as long as the section is uncracked.

vn

vc

fc

jd

Flexure

Shear

Shear

Figure 3.3: Shear Strength of Uncracked Section


9

Solution strategy:
1. Determine the exural compressive stress fc in terms of M
2. Determine shear stress v in terms of V

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

3.2 Shear Strength of Uncracked Section

33

3. Compute the principal stresses


4. Equate principal tensile stress to the tensile strength
10

Using a semi-analytical approach


1. Assume that fc is directly proportional to steel stress

fc = fs
f = Mn
n
c
nAs jd
= As
Mn
bd
Mn = As fs jd fs = As jd
2. Shear stress
vn = F2

fc =

Mn
Mn
= F1
2
njbd
nbd2

Vn
bd

(3.1)

(3.2)

3. From Mohrs circle, the tensile principal stress is

vn
f1
fc

vn

Figure 3.4: Mohrs Circle for Shear Strength of Uncracked Section

f1 =

fc
+
2

fc
2

2
2
+ vn

(3.3)

4. Set f1 equal to the tensile strength


f1 = ft f1
Vn
bd

=
=

ft Vn
f1 bd
ft
f1 bd
Vn

Vn
Vn
= ft
bd
bd

(3.4-a)
(3.4-b)
(3.4-c)

Combining Eq. 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
34

SHEAR

Vn
=
bd

F1 Ec
2 Es

Mn
Vn d

ft

F E
1 c
+
2 Es

C1

Mn
Vn d

1/2

(3.5)

2
+ F2

C2

C1

5. set ft = 4 fc
Vn
=
bd fc

6. Let the variables be

Vn

bd fc

C1

fc M n
Vn d

C1

fc M n
Vn d

(3.6)

+ C2

&

M n fc
Vn d

7. This is how far we can go analytically. To determine the exact factors associated with
this equation, one has to undertake a series of tests.
8. From 440 tests, Fig. 3.5 it is found that

Vn
bd f
c
3.5
2.0
1.9

Vn d
M f
n
c
Figure 3.5: Shear Strength of Uncracked Section

Vn d
Vn
= 1.9 + 2, 500
3.5
bd fc
Mn fc
or if we set vc =

Vn
bd ,

then

vc = 1.9 fc + 2, 500

9. Note that vc is in terms of


Victor Saouma

(3.7)

Vn d
M

Vn d
3.5
Mn

fc

(ACI 11.3.2.1)

(3.8)

or inverse of shear span ( M )


V
Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

3.3 Shear Strength of Cracked Sections

35

10. This equation is usually found acceptable for predicting the exure shear cracking load
M
for shear span/depth ratio Vnn of 2.5 to 6 & is found to be very conservative for lower
d
values
11. Increasing has a benecial eort as a larger amount of steel results in narrower & smaller
exural tension cracks before formation of diagonal cracks larger area of uncracked
concrete can resist the shear.
12. Use of Vu & Mu instead of Vn =

3.3

Vu

& Mn =

Mu

Shear Strength of Cracked Sections

d
If the shear stress exceeds 1.9 fc + 2, 500 Vnd , then the exural crack will extend into a
M
exural shear crack, Fig. 3.6. and if
11

C
Vc
A v fv z
Va

Vd

T=A fs
s
p

Figure 3.6: Free Body Diagram of a R/C Section with a Flexural Shear Crack
1. No shear reinforcements failure
2. Stirrups are present stirrups will carry part of shear force
12

If the section is cracked, Fig. 3.7


Vext = Vc + n Av fv + Vd + Vay

(3.9)

Vint

where
Vc
n
Av
fv
Vd
Va
13

Shear resisted by uncracked section


# of stirrup traversing the crack n =
Area of shear reinforcement
Shear reinforcement stress
Dowel force in steel
Aggregate interlock

p
s

We must determine the internal (resisting) shear forces at failure where fv = fy

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
36

SHEAR

V int

in
t

V cz

Vd
V ay

Yield of stirups
Failure

Inclined cracking

Flexural cracking

Vs

V
ext

Figure 3.7: Equilibrium of Shear Forces in Cracked Section


1. Due to yielding large separation between 2 sides of cracks Va 0
2. Neglect Vd
3. Vext = Vn =

Vc

+nAv fy

unknown
4. We will assume that at failure the shear force provided by concrete is equal to the one
d
which caused the diagonal crack to form va = 1.9 fc + 2, 500 Vnd . Thus, Vc = va bw d
M
5. Finally, if we assume p = d (implying a crack at 45 )
Vn = Vc + Av fy

d
s

(ACI 11.1.1)

(3.10)

Vs

3.4
14

ACI Code Requirements

The ACI code requirements ( 11) are summarized by Fig. 3.8:


1. Design for Vu (factored shear) rather than Vn =

Vu

(ACI 11.1.1), plot Vu diagram.

2. Determine Vc (nominal shear carried by the concrete) where


Vc
Vc
Vu d
Mu

=
2 fc bw d
or
d
=
[1.9 fc + 2, 500w Vuu ]bw d 3.5
M
where
<
1

(ACI 11.3.1.1)
fc bw d (ACI 11.3.2.1)

(3.11)

3. If Vu <0.5 Vc no shear reinforcement is needed (ACI 11.5.5.1)


Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

3.4 ACI Code Requirements

37

4. If 0.5Vc < Vu Vc use minimum shear reinforcement; select Av (usually #3 bars) and
determine
Av f y
s = 50bw (ACI 11.5.5.3)
(3.12)
s < d
(ACI 11.5.4.1)
2
s < 24 in (ACI 11.5.4.1)

5. If Vu > Vc provide stirrup such that


Vu

= Vn = Vc + Vs = Vc +
or

Av fy d
s

(ACI 11.17)

Av fy
Av fy d
=
(vu vc )b
Vc

s =

(3.14)

Vu

6. If Vu Vc > 4 fc bw d, then s <

d
4

(3.13)

and s < 12 in, (ACI 11.5.4.3).

7. Upper limit:
Vu Vc < 8 fc bw d

(ACI 11.5.6.8)

(3.15)

8. fy 60 ksi, (ACI 11.5.2)


9. Critical section is at d from support (reduces design shear force), (ACI 11.1.3.1)
d
V
b wd

Vu

f c

f c

Steel

f c
4

f c

f c

10

Concrete

s max=d/4 or 12"

s=

A vfy d
Vu
Vc

s max=d/2 or 24"

s =

distance from support

Avfy
v
(v u c) b

no stirups

not allowable

A v fy
min. stirups
50b w

f c

Figure 3.8: Summary of ACI Code Requirements for Shear

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
38

3.5

SHEAR

Examples

Example 3-1: Shear Design


b = 12 in.; d=22 in.; wu = 8.8 k/ft; L= 20 ft.; As = 3# 11; fc = 4 ksi; fy = 40 ksi;
Design vertical stirrup
Solution:
1. At support: Vu = 8.8 (20) = 88 k and vu =
2
2. At d from support Vu = 88

22
12 (8.8)

88
(12)(22)

= .333 ksi

= 71.9 k and vu =

71.9
(12)(22)

= .272 ksi

3. vc = 2 fc = 2 4, 000 = 126 psi; vc = (0.85)(126) = 107.1 psi


4.

vc
2

= 53.6 psi

5. 4 fc = 2(126) = 252 psi;


6. vu vc = 272 126 = 146 psi < 4
psi

fc

333
Vu

272
107.1
v c
53.6
v c
2
x
19"
min. reinforcement no reinforcement

38.6"

7. vu vc = 0

333
(10)(12) x

= 107.1 x = 38.6 in = 3.2 ft from mid-span

vc
2

333
(10)(12) x

= 53.6 x = 19.3 in = 1.6 ft

8. vu

=0

9. Selecting #3 bars, Av = 2(.11) = .22 in2


smax =

Victor Saouma

Av f y
50bw

(.22)(40,000)
= 14.66
(50)(12)
d
22
2 = 2 = 11

in
in

smax = 11 in

(3.16)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

3.6 Shear Friction

39

10. at support
s =

Av fy d
Av fy
=
(vu vc )b
Vc

(3.17-a)

Vu

(.85)(.22)(40, 000)
(272 107.1)(12)

(3.17-b)

3.78 in

(3.17-c)
(3.17-d)

3.6

Shear Friction

Previous design procedure was applicable to diagonal tension cracks (where tension was
induced by shear), for those cases where we do have large pure shear, Fig. 3.9, use shear
friction concept.

15

An=

N uc
fy

#7

V
u
weld
Nuc

A n part of A v f

close sriru
(usually #3)

Avf

assumed crack
+ shear plane
remainder of A v f

assumed crack

V
u

Figure 3.9: Corbel


The crack for which shear-friction reinforcement is required may not have been caused by
shear. However once the crack has occurred a shear transfer mechanism must be provided for,
Fig. 3.10. The shear friction theory is based on the assumption that a crack will occur and
then reinforcement across it will resist relative displacement along the crack.

16

17

If we assume separation to be sucient steel will yield


Vn = Avf fy

18

(3.18)

If the shear reinforcement is inclined with respect to the crack, Fig. 3.11

Component of tensile force in reinforcement gives rise to compression force at interface C


c vertical force due to friction;

19

Vn = T cos f + C
C = T sin f
Victor Saouma

Vn = T (cos f sin f )
T = Avf fy

Vn = Avf fy (cos f + sin (3.19-a)


f

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
310

SHEAR

Vn

Vn

Vn

crack separation
due to slip

crack

Vn

Vn

A vf f y

Sheartransfer
reinforcement

A
Avf f y
2

vf

fy

Avf f y
2

Figure 3.10: Shear Friction Mechanism

Tsin f
Tcos f
assumed crack

applied shear=V
n

A vf fy

C=Tsin f

f
T

Figure 3.11: Shear Friction Across Inclined Reinforcement

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

3.6 Shear Friction

311

20

Note: Vu = Vn and = 0.85

21

The preceding equation can be rewritten as


Avf

Vu
fy

Avf

22

=
=

Vu
ACI 11.27 (3.21)
fy (cos f + sin f )

(3.20)

ACI-11.7.4.3 species as such that


concrete cast monolithically
= 1.4
concrete against hardened concrete = 1.0
concrete against steel
= 0.7
where = 1.0 for normal weight concrete and = .75 for lightweight concrete. and
Vn <

0.2fc Ac
800Ac

(3.22)

and Ac ( in2 ) is the area of concrete resisting shear.


Example 3-2: Shear Friction
Design reinforcement needed at the bearing region of a precast beam 14 wide & 28 deep
supported on a 4 bearing pad. Vu = 105k, horizontal force due to restraint, shrinkage, creep
is 0.3 Vu

possible crack

20

vf

3#6

15

N uc

2#6

15

N uc

V
u
4"

Vuc

24"

Solution:
1. Assume all the shear Vu will be acting parallel to crack (small angle 20 )
2. Assume all Vu is parallel to crack required Avf =

Vu
fy

105
(0.85)(60)(1.4)

= 1.47 in2

3. As = Nac = (0.3)(105) = 0.62 in2 for horizontal force


fy
(0.85)(60)
As = Avf + An = 1.47 + 0.62 in2 = 2.09 in2 use 5# 6 (As = 2.20 in2 )
4. Note: ACI 11-9-3-4 Nuc > 0.2 Vu for Corbels;

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
312

3.7

SHEAR

Brackets and Corbels

To be Edited
23

Nu might be due to shrinkage, prestressing

24

Design based on truss analogy

25

A.C.I. provisions (Chapter 11)


1. For

a
d

< 1 , use shear friction theory


2

2. For

a
d

> 1, use ordinary beam theory

3. For

1
2

a
d

Vn = [6.5 5.1

Nu 3
Nuc
](1 0.5 ) 1 + [64 + 160 (
) ]
Vu
d
Vu

fc bw d

(3.23)

fc
u
where = As ; and 0.13 fy ; Nu not to be taken < 0.20 in calculating vu ; Nu = (+ve)
??
V
compression, and (-ve) tension; Ah < As also Ah 0.50As distributed uniformly; thru
fc
As
2
3 d adjacent to As ; = bd .04 fy .

3.8

Deep Beams

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 4

CONTINUOUS BEAMS
4.1

Continuity

R/C bldgs constructions commonly have oor slabs, beams, girders and columns continuously
placed to form a monolithic system

Figure 4.1: Continuous R/C Structures


+ve
In a continuous system, load must be placed in such a way to maximize desired eect (Mmax
ve
Mmax Vmax , Fig. 4.2
2

Max +ve M @
AB_CD_EF
Max -ve M @ B

Min -ve @ B

Max -ve @ C

Min -ve @ C

Max -ve @ D

Min -ve @ D

Figure 4.2: Load Positioning on Continuous Beams


Given the moment diagram for various load cases, a designer should draw the moment
enveloppe and design for the maximum negative and positive moments (eventhough they may
not be caused by the same load case).

Draft
42

4.2
4

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

Methods of Analysis

Two approaches:
1. Detailed analysis
(a) Moment distribution
(b) Computer analysis (such as RISA, SAP, etc...)
2. Approximate (but conservative) based on ACI 8.3.3 moment coecients

4.2.1
5

Refer to CVEN3525/3535/4525

4.2.2
6

Detailed Analysis

ACI Approximate Method

This method, Fig. 4.3 can be used if:


1. 2 or more spans
2. Spans are approximately equals, and the larger of adjacent ones not greater than the
shorter by more than 20%
3. Loads are uniformably distributed
4. LL < 3DL
5. Prismatic members
Positive Moment
End Spans
Continuous end unrestrained
Continuous end integral with support
Interior spans
Negative Moment
Negative moment at exterior face of rst of rst interior support
Two spans
> Two spans
Negative moment at other faces of interior support
......................................
Shear
Shear in end member at face of rst interior support
Shear at face of all other supports

1
2
11 wu Ln
1
2
14 wu Ln
1
2
16 wu Ln

1
2
9 wu Ln
1
2
10 wu Ln
1
2
11 wu Ln

......
1.15 wu2Ln
wu Ln
2

where wu is the factored load, and Ln is the clear span.


7

These moment coecients take into account some inelastic action (stress redistribution).

They are conservative compared to an exact analysis.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

4.2 Methods of Analysis

43

Figure 4.3: ACI Approximate Moment Coecients

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
44

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

C column
L

C column
L

111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000

VaL
2

C span
L

VaL
6

VaL
3

C beam
L

aL
2
Column width aL

VaL
2

VaL
3

VaL
6

L
2
Moment curve based on prismatic member

aL
2

1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000 VaL
6
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
Adjusted Moment Curve
1111111111111111111111111 L
0000000000000000000000000 C beam
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111 L
0000000000000000000000000 C beam
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000

Figure 4.4: Design Negative Moment

4.3
9
10

Eective Span Design Moment

Negative moments should be the one at the face of the columns, Fig. 4.4.
We recall that the change in moment is equal to the area under shear diagram.
M = Mcl

V aL
2

(4.1)

but V and M vary in some unknown way between center line of column and edge, thus we can
reduce M by V b/3 where b is the width of the column. Thus
ve
ve
Md Mmax

11

Vb
3

(4.2)

This can substantially reduce high M ve .

4.4
4.4.1

Moment Redistribution
Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Section

12

Let us consider a uniformly loaded rigidly connected beam, Fig. 4.5

13

The beam has an elastic plastic moment curvature relation, Fig. 4.6

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

4.4 Moment Redistribution

45
2

WL
24

1
0
1
0
1
0

11
00
11
00
11
00

WL
12

WL
12

Figure 4.5: Moment Diagram of a Rigidly Connected Uniformly Loaded Beam


M
Mp

Curvature

Figure 4.6: Moment Curvature of an Elastic-Plastic Section


14

|M ve | > |M +ve | as w

, M ve Mp rst
12Mp
wL2
= Mp w =
12
L2

15

Thus we will have a plastic hinge at the support however this is not synonymous with collapse.

Collapse or failure occurs when we have a mechanism or 3 adjacent hinges (plastic or otherwise). This can be easily determined from statics, Fig. 4.7

16

w
16 M

L
M

12 M

Figure 4.7: Plastic Moments in Uniformly Loaded Rigidly Connected Beam


2Mp =
wu =
17

wu L2
8
16Mp
L2

Thus capacity was increased 33% after rst plastic hinge occurred.

This is accompanied by large rotation of the plastic hinges at the supports, and when comand M +ve
pared with the linear elastic solution M ve

18

19

The section must be designed to accomodate this rotation.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
46

4.4.2

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

Concrete

Concrete is brittle hence by itself no appreciable plastic deformation can occur, however in
R/C, Fig. 4.8

20

ce

.003

fc

fc

kd

dkd

dc

u
Asf y

s= y
M

s> y
.003
c

u
Steel yielding

M
M

Asf y

y
First crack

cr

cr y

Strain caused by
moment redistribution

Unit rotation

Figure 4.8: Plastic Redistribution in Concrete Sections


If certain rotation capacity exists (i.e., if is low) M is controlled by yielding of the steel
while the concrete strain is still low compared to 0.003 reserve rotation capacity u y is
then available for a redistribution of moment to occur before 0.003
21

M ve moment at support of continuous exural members calculated by elastic theory can


be decreased by no more than
22

M = 20(1

)% ACI 8.4.1
b

(4.3)

fc
87
where b = 0.851 fy ( 87+fy ) provided that

1. Moments are exactly determined (i.e., not ACI coecients)


2. or < 0.5b
23

M +ve must be increased accordingly.

This capacity to redistribute moments (reduce M ve and increase M +ve ) is a characterisitc


of ductile members.
24

Earthquake resistant structures must have a certain ductility to absorb the lateral oscillating
load large amount of reinforcement at the joints.

25

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
4.5 Buildings

47

Example 4-1: Moment Redistribution


Determine the moment redistribution for the following singly reinforced beam with = 0.5b
2

WL
20

WL
24
+

WL
12

WL
12

0.9

WL
12

0.9 W L
12

Solution:
From above, amout of redistribution
M
M ve
M +ve

4.5
26

= 20(1

)%

= 20(1 0.5) = 10%


2
= 0.9 wL
12
2
2
= 1.2 wL = wL
24
20

Buildings

Building types, Table 4.1


Structural System
Frame
Shear Wall-Frame
Single framed tube
Tube in Tube

Number of Stories
Up to 15
up to 40
up to 40
up to 80

Table 4.1: Building Structural Systems


27

We analyse separately for vertical and horizontal loads.

Vertical loads: DL and LL. This is typically done for a oor, through a grid analysis. No
need to model the entire structure. We can use
ACI Approximate equations
Exact (Moment distribution, computer)
Lateral laod: WL, EL. This requires the analysis of a 2D or 3D frame. Two approaches:
Approximate method: Portal method, or cantilever method.
Exact Moment distribution, computer.
28

Recommended analysis/design procedures

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
48

CONTINUOUS BEAMS

1. Use ACI approximate equations for the design of the slab. Then, there is no need to worry
about optimal placement of load to maximize positive or negative moments, or moment
redistribution.
2. Once the slab is designed, use exact method for beams, girders. Reduce negative moments.
3. Tabulate maximum +ve and -ve moments for each beam.
4. Determine the column loads, tabulate.
5. Can use approximate or exact method of analysis for frames. Tabulate results.
6. Add maximum positive and negative moments due to vertical and lateral loads.
7. Design accordingly.
29

A block diagram for the various steps is shown in Fig. 4.9

E-W SLAB

N-S BEAM

E-W GIRDER

N-S GIRDER

hf
DL

w0

w0

LL

wu

M
L
hf
h
M
V
R
PW
WL
W0
Wa
Col
Fou

V
Span
Slab thickness
Beam/girder depth
Flexure
Shear
Reation
Partition wall
Wind load
Self weight
Total factored load
Column
Foundation

PW

PW

wu

WL

w0

PW

WL

wu

wu

w0

Col
W

Fou
S

R/C Bldg Design

Figure 4.9: Block Diagram for R/C Building Design

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 5

ONE WAY SLABS


5.1
1

Types of Slabs

Types of slabs, Fig. 5.1

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

Beam

oneway slab

twoway slab

oneway slab

Grid slab

Flat plate slab

Flat slab

Figure 5.1: Types of Slabs


2

Two types of slabs, Fig. 5.2


1. One way slab: long span/short span > 2. Load is transmitted along the short span.
2. Two Way slab: Long span/short span <2. Load is transmitted along two orthogonal
directions.

If

L
s

> 2 than most of the load ( 95%) is carried in the short directions, Fig. 5.3

Load transfer in one way slabs is accomplished hierarchically through an interaction of slab,
beam, girder, column and foundations, Fig. 5.4

Draft
52

ONE WAY SLABS

1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000

1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000

Strip
B

L
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
0000
1111

1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
0000
1111

11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000

11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000

Beam 2

10"

Beam 2

Beam 1

Strip

Beam 1

Beam 1

B
10"

11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000

Beam 1

11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000

Figure 5.2: One vs Two way slabs

111
000
111
000

P A
1
A0
1
0
1
0

1
0A
1
0
1
0

111
000

111
000
B

Figure 5.3: Load Distribution in Slabs

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

5.1 Types of Slabs

53

Figure 5.4: Load Transfer in R/C Buildings

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
54

ONE WAY SLABS


Simply
supported

Solid One
way slab
Beams or
ribbed One way slab

One end
continuous

Both ends
continuous

Cantilever

L/20

L/24

L/28

L/10

L/16

L/18.5

L/21

L/8

Table 5.1: Recommended Minimum Slab and Beam Depths

5.2
5

One Way Slabs

Preliminary considerations for one way slabs:


1. Load on slabs ksf.
2. Design an imaginary 12 in strip.
3. The area of reinforcement is As /ft of width or
As
= Ab
ft

12 in
bar spacing in inches

(5.1)

where Ab is the area of one bar. or


Bar spacing in inches =

12Ab
As

(5.2)

4. Slab thickness t is usually assumed, and we design reinforcement. ACI 9.5.2.1 recommended minimum thickness of beams/slabs are given by Table 5.1. where L is in inches,
and members are not supporting partitions. If a slab is so dimensioned
(a) Deection need not be checked
(b) Usually, neither exure, nor shear controls
5. In reinforcement design, a good initial guess for

a
d

is 0.15.

6. Slab thickness are rounded to the neares 1/4 inch for slabs less than 6 inch, and 1/2 for
thicker ones.
7. ACI Sect. 7.7.1 gives minimum cover for corrosion control
(a) Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground, No. 11 or smaller 3/4
inch.
(b) Concrete exposed to weather or in contact with ground:
i. No. 5 bars and smaller, 1.5 inch.
ii. No. 6 and larger, 2. inch.
8. Transverse reinforcement (shrinkage, temperature) must be provided

0.002 Grade 40 and 50 bars


As
ACI 7.12.2.1
=

bh
0.0018 Grade 60 and welded wire fabric
Victor Saouma

(5.3)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

5.3 Design of a One Way Continuous Slab

55

9. Shear does not usually control & no minimum reinforcement is needed (vc = 2 fc )
10. Principal reinforcement shall not be spaced at more than 3 times the slab thickness nor
18 in (ACI 7.6.5).
11. Usually No. 4 and larger bars are used for exural reinforcement, as No. 3 may be
bent out of position by workers walking on it. This is more critical for top than bottom
reinforcement.
12. Sometimes, No.3 is used for bottom, and No. 4 for top.
13. Shrinkage/temperature reinforcement shall not be spaced at more than 5 times the slab
thickness nor 18 in (ACI 7.12.2.2).

5.3

Design of a One Way Continuous Slab

Design an 8 span oor slab. Each span is 15 ft long, fc = 3, 750 psi, fy = 60 ksi, wl =100 psf,
oor cover is 0.5 psf, mechanical equipment 4 psf, and ceiling 2 psf. Interior supporting beams
have a width of 14 inch, and exterior ones 16 inches. First span is measured from exterior of
exterior beam to center of rst interior beam.
Thickness: of the oor is based on ACI recommendation:
16 14

= 165 in
2
2
14
= (15)(12) 2 = 166 in
2
165
l
=
= 6.88 in
=
24
24
166
l
=
= 5.93 in
=
28
28

le = (15)(12)

(5.4-a)

li

(5.4-b)

he
min
hi
min

(5.4-c)
(5.4-d)

We round h up to h = 7.25 in. Assuming 3/4 in. cover and No. 4 bars
d = 7.25 0.75 +
Factored Loads

0.5
2

= 6.25 in

(5.5)

Slab
wd =

7.25
(150) = 90.6 psf of oor surface
12

(5.6)

Total dead load 90.6 + 0.5 + 4 + 2 = 97.1 psf


Factored load
wu = 1.4(97.1) + 1.7(100) = 306 psf

(5.7)

The load per foot of strip is 306 lbs/ft


Since wl < 3wd we can use the ACI 8.3.3 coecients to compute the moments.
Net spans
1. First interior span ln = (15)(12)
Victor Saouma

16
2

14
2

= 165 in = 13.75 ft

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
56

ONE WAY SLABS

2. Second interior span ln = (15)(12) 14 = 166 in = 13.83 ft


1
3. Average span ln = 1 (165 + 166) 12 = 13.79 ft
2

Flexural Design
ai = 0.15d = 0.15(6.25) = 0.9375 in
12Mu
0.222
Mu
As =
=
=
Mu
fy (d a )
0.9(60)(6.25 a )
6.25 a
2
2
2
As fy
60
=
As = 1.569As
a =
0.85fc b
(0.85)(3.75)(12)

(5.8-a)
(5.8-b)
(5.8-c)

Amin = 0.0018bh = 0.0018(12)(7.25) = 0.157 in2 /f t


s

(5.8-d)

For maximum spacing, ACI species 3h = 3(7.25) = 21.75 in but no more than 18 in,
smax = 18 in.

ln , ft
2
wu l n
M Coe.
Mu ft-kip/ft
a
As
a
As
a
As
Amin
s
Reinf.
Aprov
s

Support
13.75
57.85
1/24
2.41
0.937
0.092
0.145
0.087
0.136
0.087

0.157
#4@15
0.16

Midspan
13.75
57.85
1/14
4.13
0.937
0.159
0.249
0.150
0.235
0.150

0.157
#4 @15
0.16

Support
13.79
58.19
1/10

5.82

5.82
0.937
0.223
0.351
0.213
0.334

0.212
0.157
#4@12
0.20

1/11
5.29

Midspan
13.83
58.53
1/16
3.66
0.937
0.141
0.221
0.132
0.207
0.132

0.157
#4@15
0.16

Support
13.83
58.53
1/11
5.32
0.937
0.204
0.320
0.194
0.304

0.194
0.157
#4@12
0.20

Midspan
13.83
1/16
3.66

Shear Since we have unequal spans we must check at


1. Exterior face of the rst interior support
Vu = 1.15wu

(1.15)(306)(157)
ln
=
= 2, 302 lb/ft of width
2
2

(5.9)

(1.0)(306)(166)
ln
=
= 2, 117 lb/ft of width
2
2

(5.10)

2. Typical interior span


Vu = 1.0wu
The shear resistance is
Vc = (0.85)2 f cbw d = (0.85)(2)

3, 750(12)(6.25) = 7, 808 lb/ft

(5.11)

hence the slab is adequate for shear.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

5.3 Design of a One Way Continuous Slab

57

Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement must be provided perpendicular to the span


of the slab
(5.12)
As = 0.0018bh = 0.0018(12)(7.25) = 0.157 in2 /f t
and maximum spacing is 18 in. Therefore, we can provide # 4 bars at 15 in. as shrinkage
and temperature reinforcement. They should be placed on top of the lower layer of steel.
Note that in this problem a 6.5 in. thickness was acceptablee for the six interior spans, but a
7.25 in. thickness was required for the end spans.
If the entire oor were made of 6. in. thick slab instead of 7.25 in. about 45 cubic yards of
concrete could have been saved (for a total oor width of about 90 ft) per or or 180 kips of
dead load per oor. This would represent a considerable saving in say a 20 story building.
In this case, it would be advisable to use 6., and check for delfections in the end spans.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
58

Victor Saouma

ONE WAY SLABS

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 6

SERVICEABILITY
So far we have focused on the ultimate structural behaviour (failure), Vu & Mu , i.e the strength
of a member.
1

2 It is important to also control the behaviour of structural elements under service load (unfactored)

1. Cracking
2. Deection

6.1

Control of Cracking

3 As y
, y larger crack width is associated with large fy . This is why the ACI code
places a limitation on max fy = 80ksi. (ACI 9.4)
4

The concern is not the # of crack (we can not control it) but rather the crack width.

Crack width should be minimized because:


1. Appearance
2. Corrosion of steel
3. Redistributions of internal stresses
4. Eect on deection

The controlling parameters are:


1. Surface of the reinforcing bar
(a) Round & smooth few wide cracks (bad)
(b) Irregular & deformed many small cracks (better)
2. Steel stress
3. Concrete cover

Draft
62

SERVICEABILITY

4. Distribution of steel over the tensile zone of concrete

Based on purely experimental research, the following emperical relation was determined, Fig.
6.1:

w = .076fs
where
w
fs
dc

dc A

(6.1)

Gergely & Lutz Eq.

width in 1/1,000 in
Steel service stress ksi (if not computed can be assumed as 0.6 fy )
Thickness of concrete cover measured from tension face to center of bar
closest to this face, in.
h2
h1

Area of concrete surrounding one bar = Total eective tensile area in2
# of bars

Neutral Axis

2y
y

111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000

h1

Steel Centroid

w
Figure 6.1: Crack Width Equation Parameters
8

ACI
1. Expresses the crack width indirectly by z where
z=
and assumes =

h2
h1

w
= fs
.076

dc A

(ACI 10.6.4)

(6.2)

= 1.2 w = .091z

Interior beams z 175 (w = .016 in)


Note that to reduce z (benecial) we must
Exterior beams z 145 (w = .013 in)
reduce A or increase the number of bars.
2. Only deformed bars can be used
3. Bars should be well distributed in tension zone
4. fy < 80 ksi
5. In lieu of an accurate evaluation, fs = 0.6fy .
9

Maximum acceptable crack width (ACI Committee 224).

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

6.2 Deections

63
Exposure
dry air, or protective membrane
humidity, moist air, soil
deicing chemicals
seawater, salt
water retaining structures

wmax (in.)
.016
.012
.007
.006
.004

Example 6-1: Crack Width

1111111111111111
0000000000000000
1111111111111111
0000000000000000

14.65"

11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111111111
00000000000

12.15"

20"
2.5"

22.5"

7.85"

fc = 3,000 ksi; fy = 40 ksi; As = 4 # 8; LL = 2.44 k/ft; DL = 1.27 k/ft; L = 15 ft.;


Determine z and crack width

11.5"

Solution:

1. w = .076fs 3 dc A

2. Ec = 57 3, 000 = 3, 120 ksi


3. n =

29103
3,120

= 9.29

4. Taking rst moment (Eq. 2.6)


.869 kd = 7.85 in

b(kd)2
2

nAs (d kd) = 0 k = .393 j = 1

k
3

5. M = wL and fs = AM fs = (1.27+2.44)(15) (12) = 22.9 ksi


8
8(3.14)(.869)(20)
s jd
Note that ACI allows 0.6fy = (0.6)(40) = 24 ksi conservative
6. =

22.57.85
207.85

7. A =

(2.5)(2)(11.5)
4

14.65
12.15

= 1.206 (note ACI stipulates 1.2)

= 14.38 in2

1
8. w = (.076)(1.206)(22.9) 3 (2.5)(14.38) 1,000 = .00696 in .

3
9. or z = fs dc A = (22.9) 3 (2.5)(14.38) = 75.64

6.2

Deections

10

ACI Code Sect. 9.5

11

Every structural design must satisfy requirements of strength, stiness & stability

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
64

SERVICEABILITY

With the increased usuage of: a) high strength material (resulting in smaller cross section)
& b) use of rened design methods, we can no longer rely on the factor of safety to take care
of deection, we but must detemine it

12

13

Deection should be controlled because of:


1. Visually unacceptable
2. Possible ponding of water
3. Cracking in partition walls
4. Functional diculties (windows, doors, etc )
5. Machine misalignment
6. Vibration

14

Deection are computed for service loads only

15

Both long term & short term deection should be considered.

16

As a rule of thumb, deections seldom control if < 0.5b

6.2.1
17

Short Term Deection

In general =

f (w,L)
EI ,

i.e., uniform load over simply supported beam in

5wL4
384EI

f (w, l) and E are known, but how do we determine I? (uncracked transformed or cracked),
Fig. 6.2

18

c ut

c e1 c e2

c cr

2
1
cr

B B

Figure 6.2: Uncracked Transformed and Cracked Transformed X Sections


19

It would be too complicated to have I = I(M )

20

ACI recommends to use a weighted average expression for I Ie


Ie =

Victor Saouma

Mcr
Ma

Ig + 1

Mcr
Ma

Icr (ACI 9.5.2.3)

(6.3)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

6.2 Deections

65

where

Ie Ig
I
Mcr = fr yg
b
fr = 7.5 fc

and Ma is the maximum (service) moment at stage in which deection is computed


21

For continuous beams average


Ie = 0.70Im + 0.15(Ie1 + Ie2 )

For beams with one end continuous Ie = 0.85Im + 15(Icon ) where Im , Ie are the moment of
inertia at the middle and the end respectively.
22

23

Note that Ig may be substituted for Iut

Deection evaluation is a nonlinear problem, as w


ous beam
5 wL4
w
=
I
384 EI

24

6.2.2

Mcr
Ma

Ie

and for a continu-

Long Term Deection

t
inst.
t
Figure 6.3: Time Dependent Deection
25

Creep coecient:
Cc =
t
Ec =

f
i

= i (1+Cc )

Ec
1+Cc

Creep tends to reduce the elastic modulus of concrete, Fig. 6.4


26

From Strain diagram:


1. Steel strain remains unchanged
2. As concrete undergoes creep, the N.A. moves down larger area of concrete is under
compression but since C = T stress in concrete is slightly reduced

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
66

SERVICEABILITY

b
Cracked
elastic
neutral axis

fci

fct

kd

t
d

A s fs

As
s
Figure 6.4: Time Dependent Strain Distribution

3. But since C is now lower and we still satisfy Mext = Mint both stresses in steel & concrete
must increase with time
27

According to ACI section 9.5.2.5:


1. Additional long term deection t
t = i
where
=

(6.4)

1+50
As
bd

and
3
1.0

Time (months)

6
1.2

12
1.4

60
2.0

Thus compressive reinforcement can substantially reduce long term deections


(6.5)

total = initial (1 + )

LL short
DL sustained

1111
0000
1111
0000

1111
0000
0000
1111

Figure 6.5: Short and long Term Deections


Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

6.2 Deections
28

67

Short and long term deections, Fig. 6.5


A i,sust
B i,sust + t,sust
C sust + i,short

Note that we are usually interested in the live load deection (C-B), thus
i, short = i, sust + short i, sust
Ie (DL+LL)

29

(6.6)

Ie (DL)

ACI max. deections (ACI 9.5.2.6)

Flat roof not supporting nonstructural elements likely to be damaged


Floors not supporting nonstructural elements likely to be damaged
Roofs or oors supporting nonstructural elements likely to be damaged
Floors not supporting nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged

i,sh
i,sh
t,sust + i,sh
t,sus + i,sh

<
<
<
<

Example 6-2: Deections


b = 11.5 in.; h = 22.5 in,; d = 20 in.; As = 4 # 8; fc = 3,000 psi; fy = 40 ksi; DL = 1.27
k/ft; LL = 2.44 k/ft; L = 15 ft.
1. Determine the short term deection
2. Find the creep portion of the sustained load deection & immediate live load deections
Solution:
1. i, short = i,short + sust i, sust
2.44

1.27

1.27

2. Moment of inertias:
Ie =
Ig =

Mcr
Ma
bh3
12

Ig + 1

(11.5)(22.5)3
12

Mcr
Ma

Ict

= 10, 916 in4

3. To nd Ict , need to locate N.A @ service

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

L
180
L
360
L
480
L
240

Draft
68

SERVICEABILITY

11.5"

7.85"

20"
12.15"

b(kd)2
nAs (d kd) = 0 k =
2
2
(11.5)(7.85)3
+ (11.5)(7.85) 7.85
12
2

Ict =

.393 kd = 7.85 in
+ (9.29) (3.14)(12.152 ) = 6, 130 in4

fr = 7.5 3, 000 = 410.8 psi


f I
Mcr = r bg
y
(410.8)(10,916)
11.25

As

= 33.2 k.ft = 399 k.in

4. Ma for sustained load


sust
Ma =

(1.27)(15)2 (12)
= 428.6 k.in = 35.72 k.ft
8

5. Ma for sustained and short load


sust+short
=
Ma

(1.27 + 2.44)(15)2 (12)


= 1, 252 k.in = 104 k.ft
8

6. Moment of inertias
Ie, sust + short =
Ie, sust =
7. Deections

33.2 3
(10, 916) +
104.3
3
33.2
(10, 916) +
35.7

1
1

33.2 3
(6, 130) = 6, 209 in4
104.3
33.2 3
(6, 130) = 9, 993 in4
35.7

E = 57 3, 000 = 3, 120 ksi


4
5
= 384 wL
EI
4
5
i, short + sust = 384 (1.27+2.44)[(15)(12)] = .218 in
(3,120)(6,209)
4

5
i, sust = 384 (1.27)[(15)(12)] = .046 in
(3,120)(9,993)
i = .218 .046 = .172 in

8. creep = i, sust
=

Victor Saouma

2.
= 2. creep = (2)(.046) = .092 in
1+0

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 7

APPROXIMATE FRAME
ANALYSIS
Despite the widespread availability of computers, approximate methods of analysis are justied by

1. Inherent assumption made regarding the validity of a linear elastic analysis vis a vis of
an ultimate failure design.
2. Ability of structures to redistribute internal forces.
3. Uncertainties in load and material properties
2

Vertical loads are treated separately from the horizontal ones.

We use the design sign convention for moments (+ve tension below), and for shear (ccw +ve).

Assume girders to be numbered from left to right.

In all free body diagrams assume positivee forces/moments, and take algeebraic sums.

7.1

Vertical Loads

The girders at each oor are assumed to be continuous beams, and columns are assumed to
resist the resulting unbalanced moments from the girders.

Basic assumptions
1. Girders at each oor act as continous beams supporting a uniform load.
2. Inection points are assumed to be at
(a) One tenth the span from both ends of each girder.
(b) Mid-height of the columns
3. Axial forces and deformation in the girder are negligibly small.
4. Unbalanced end moments from the girders at each joint is distributed to the columns
above and below the oor.

Draft
72

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

Based on the rst assumption, all beams are statically determinate and have a span, Ls
equal to 0.8 the original length of the girder, L. (Note that for a rigidly connected member, the
inection point is at 0.211 L, and at the support for a simply supported beam; hence, depending
on the nature of the connection one could consider those values as upper and lower bounds for
the approximate location of the hinge).
8

End forces are given by

Maximum positive moment at the center of each beam is, Fig. 7.1

w
M

lft

V
V

rgt

rgt

lft

0.1L

0.1L

0.8L
L

0000
1111
0000
1111

111
000
000
111
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00

Figure 7.1: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Girder Moments

1
1
M + = wL2 = w (0.8)2 L2 = 0.08wL2
s
8
8

(7.1)

Maximum negative moment at each end of the girder is given by, Fig. 7.1
w
w
M lef t = M rgt = (0.1L)2 (0.8L)(0.1L) = 0.045wL2
2
2

(7.2)

Girder Shear are obtained from the free body diagram, Fig. 7.2
V lf t =

wL
2

V rgt =

wL
2

(7.3)

Column axial force is obtained by summing all the girder shears to the axial force transmitted by the column above it. Fig. 7.2
rgt
P dwn = P up + Vi1 Vilf t

Victor Saouma

(7.4)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

7.1 Vertical Loads

73

above

rgt

lft

V i1

Vi

below

Figure 7.2: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Axial Forces

h/2

h/2
above

M col

lft
i1

rgt

Mi1

lft

rgt

Mi

rgt

Vlft

Vi1

i1

Li1

Mbelow
col

lft
i

rgt
i

Li
h/2

h/2

Figure 7.3: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Vertical Loads; Column Moments

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
74

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

Column Moment are obtained by considering the free body diagram of columns Fig. 7.3
rgt
bot
M top = Mabove Mi1 + Milf t

M bot = top

(7.5)

Column Shear Points of inection are at mid-height, with possible exception when the columns
on the rst oor are hinged at the base, Fig. 7.3
V =

M top
h
2

(7.6)

Girder axial forces are assumed to be negligible eventhough the unbalanced column shears
above and below a oor will be resisted by girders at the oor.

7.2
10

Horizontal Loads

We must dierentiate between low and high rise buildings.

Low rise buidlings, where the height is at least samller than the hrizontal dimension, the
deected shape is characterized by shear deformations.
High rise buildings, where the height is several times greater than its least horizontal dimension, the deected shape is dominated by overall exural deformation.

7.2.1

Portal Method

Low rise buildings under lateral loads, have predominantly shear deformations. Thus, the
approximate analysis of this type of structure is based on

11

1. Distribution of horizontal shear forces.


2. Location of inection points.
12

The portal method is based on the following assumptions


1. Inection points are located at
(a) Mid-height of all columns above the second oor.
(b) Mid-height of oor columns if rigid support, or at the base if hinged.
(c) At the center of each girder.
2. Total horizontal shear at the mid-height of all columns at any oor level will be distributed among these columns so that each of the two exterior columns carry half as
much horizontal shear as each interior columns of the frame.

13

Forces are obtained from

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

7.2 Horizontal Loads

75

H/2

H/2

Figure 7.4: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Shear
Column Shear is obtained by passing a horizontal section through the mid-height of the
columns at each oor and summing the lateral forces above it, then Fig. 7.4
V ext =

F lateral

V int = 2V ext

2No. of bays

(7.7)

Column Moments at the end of each column is equal to the shear at the column times half
the height of the corresponding column, Fig. 7.4
M top = V

h
2

M bot = M top

(7.8)

Girder Moments is obtained from the columns connected to the girder, Fig. 7.5
h/2

h/2
above

M col

lft

rgt

M i1

M i1

lft

rgt

rgt

Vlft

lft
Vi1

rgt

Mi

Mi

i1

Vi

below

Li1/2

Li1/2

M col

Li /2

Li /2

h/2

h/2

Figure 7.5: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Girder Moment

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
76

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

rgt
above
below
Milf t = Mcol Mcol + Mi1

Mirgt = Milf t

(7.9)

Girder Shears Since there is an inection point at the center of the girder, the girder shear
is obtained by considering the sum of moments about that point, Fig. 7.5
V lf t =

2M
L

V rgt = V lf t

(7.10)

Column Axial Forces are obtained by summing girder shears and the axial force from the
column above, Fig. ??
P

above

rgt

lft

V i1

Vi

below

Figure 7.6: Approximate Analysis of Frames Subjected to Lateral Loads; Column Axial Force
P = P above + P rgt + P lf t

(7.11)

Example 7-1: Approximate Analysis of a Frame subjected to Vertical and Horizontal Loads

Draw the shear, and moment diagram for the following frame. Solution:
Vertical Loads

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

7.2 Horizontal Loads

77

0.25 k/ft
13
6 0.5 k/ft 7

15 k
5 12
30 k
9
1

10
2
11
00

11
00

14
11

11
00

20

30

8
4

14
16

11
00

24

Figure 7.7: Example; Approximate Analysis of a Building


1. Top Girder Moments
lf
M12t
cnt
M12
rgt
M12
lf
M13t
cnt
M13
rgt
M13
lf
M14t
cnt
M14
rgt
M14

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.045w12 L2 = (0.045)(0.25)(20)2
12
0.08w12 L2 = (0.08)(0.25)(20)2
12
lf
M12t
0.045w13 L2 = (0.045)(0.25)(30)2
13
0.08w13 L2 = (0.08)(0.25)(30)2
13
lf
M13t
0.045w14 L2 = (0.045)(0.25)(24)2
14
0.08w14 L2 = (0.08)(0.25)(24)2
14
lf
M14t

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4.5 k.ft
8.0 k.ft
4.5 k.ft
10.1 k.ft
18.0 k.ft
10.1 k.ft
6.5 k.ft
11.5 k.ft
6.5 k.ft

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

9.0 k.ft
16.0 k.ft
9.0 k.ft
20.3 k.ft
36.0 k.ft
20.3 k.ft
13.0 k.ft
23.0 k.ft
13.0 k.ft

2. Bottom Girder Moments


lf
M9 t
cnt
M9
rgt
M9
lf
M10t
cnt
M10
rgt
M10
lf
M11t
cnt
M11
rgt
M11

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0.045w9 L2 = (0.045)(0.5)(20)2
9
0.08w9 L2 = (0.08)(0.5)(20)2
9
lf
M9 t
0.045w10 L2 = (0.045)(0.5)(30)2
10
0.08w10 L2 = (0.08)(0.5)(30)2
10
lf
M11t
0.045w12 L2 = (0.045)(0.5)(24)2
12
0.08w12 L2 = (0.08)(0.5)(24)2
12
lf
M12t

3. Top Column Moments


top
M5
bot
M5
top
M6
bot
M6
top
M7
bot
M7
top
M8
bot
M8

Victor Saouma

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

lf
+M12t
top
M5
rgt
lf
M12 + M13t = (4.5) + (10.1)
top
M6
rgt
lf
M13 + M14t = (10.1) + (6.5)
top
M7
rgt
M14 = (6.5)
top
M8

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4.5
4.5
5.6
5.6
3.6
3.6
6.5
6.5

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
78

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

4. Bottom Column Moments


top
M1
bot
M1
top
M2
bot
M2
top
M3
bot
M3
top
M4
bot
M4

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

lf
bot
+M5 + M9 t = 4.5 9.0
top
M1
rgt
lf
bot
+M6 M9 + M10t = 5.6 (9.0) + (20.3)
top
M2
rgt
lf
bot
+M7 M10 + M11t = 3.6 (20.3) + (13.0)
top
M3
rgt
bot
+M8 M11 = 6.5 (13.0)
top
M4

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4.5
4.5
5.6
5.6
3.6
3.6
6.5
6.5

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

5. Top Girder Shear


lf
V12 t
rgt
V12
lf
V13 t
rgt
V13
lf
V14 t
rgt
V14

= w122L12 =
lf
= V12 t
= w132L13 =
lf
= V13 t
= w142L14 =
lf
= V14 t

(0.25)(20)
2
(0.25)(30)
2
(0.25)(24)
2

=
=
=
=
=
=

2.5 k
2.5 k
3.75 k
3.75 k
3.0 k
3.0 k

=
=
=
=
=
=

5.00
5.00
7.50
7.50
6.00
6.00

6. Bottom Girder Shear


V9lf t
V9rgt
lf
V10 t
rgt
V10
lf
V11 t
rgt
V11

= w92L9 = (0.5)(20)
2
= V9lf t
= w102L10 = (0.5)(30)
2
lf
= V10 t
= w112L11 = (0.5)(24)
2
lf
= V11 t

7. Column Shears
V5 =
V6 =
V7 =
V8 =
V1 =
V2 =
V3 =
V4 =

top
M5
H5
2
top
M6
H6
2
top
M7
H7
2
top
M8
H8
2
top
M1
H1
2
top
M2
H2
2
top
M3
H3
2
top
M4
H4
2

4.5
5.6
3.6

0.52 k

6.5

0.93 k

4.5

= 0.56 k

5.6

= 0.70 k

3.6

0.46 k

6.5

k
k

= 0.80 k

k
k

= 0.64 k

k
k

0.81 k

14
2
14
2

14
2
14
2

16
2
16
2

16
2
16
2

8. Top Column Axial Forces

Victor Saouma

P5
P6
P7
P8

=
=
=
=

lf
V12 t
= 2.50 k
rgt
lf t
V12 + V13 = (2.50) + 3.75 = 6.25 k
rgt
lf
V13 + V14 t = (3.75) + 3.00 = 6.75 k
rgt
V14 Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete
= 3.00 k

Draft

7.2 Horizontal Loads

79

0.25K/ft

12

13

14

0.50K/ft

10

+18.0k

30

+8.0k
-4.5k

-4.5k
+16.0k

-9.0k

-20.2

-4.5k

+4.5k

+5.6k
-4.5k

+4.5k

+5.6k

+11.5k
-6.5k

+23.0k

+32.0k
k

16

24

-10.1k -10.1k -6.5

-9.0k

14

11
3

20

-13.0k
-20.2
k

-13.0k

-5.6k

+3.6k

-5.6k

-3.6k
-6.5k
+3.6k
+6.5k

+6.5k

-3.6k

-6.5k

Figure 7.8: Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Vertical Loads

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
710

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

+2.5K

+3.75K

+3.0K

-2.5K

-3.75K

+7.5

+5.0

+6.0

-5.0K

-0.64K

-0.56K

-3.0K

-6.0K

-7.5K

-0.80K

+0.51K

-0.70K

+0.45K

+0.93K

+0.81K

Figure 7.9: Approximate Analysis of a Building; Shears Due to Vertical Loads

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

7.2 Horizontal Loads

711

9. Bottom Column Axial Forces


=
=
=
=

P1
P2
P3
P4

P5 + V9lf t = 2.50 + 5.0


rgt
P6 V10 + V9lf t = 6.25 (5.00) + 7.50
rgt
lf
P7 V11 + V10 t = 6.75 (7.50) + 6.0
rgt
P8 V11 = 3.00 (6.00)

=
=
=
=

7.5 k
18.75 k
20.25 k
9.00 k

Horizontal Loads, Portal Method


1. Column Shears
V5
V6
V7
V8
V1
V2
V3
V4

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

15
(2)(3)

2(V5 ) = (2)(2.5)
2(V5 ) = (2)(2.5)
V5
15+30
(2)(3)

2(V1 ) = (2)(7.5)
2(V1 ) = (2)(2.5)
V1

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

2.5 k
5k
5k
2.5 k
7.5 k
15 k
15 k
7.5 k

2. Top Column Moments


top
M5
bot
M5
top
M6
bot
M6

H
= V12 5 =
top
= M5
H
= V62 6 =
top
= M6

(2.5)(14)
2
(5)(14)
2

=
=
=
=

17.5
17.5
35.0
35.0

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

top
M7
= 72 7 =
bot = M top
M7
7

V up H

(5)(14)
2

V up H

=
35.0 k.ft
= 35.0 k.ft

top
M8
= 82 8 =
bot = M top
M8
8

(2.5)(14)
2

=
17.5 k.ft
= 17.5 k.ft

3. Bottom Column Moments


top
= 1 2 1 =
M1
bot = M top
M1
1

V dwn H

(7.5)(16)
2

=
60 k.ft
= 60 k.ft

top
M2
= 2 2 2 =
bot = M top
M2
2

V dwn H

(15)(16)
2

=
120 k.ft
= 120 k.ft

top
M3
= 3 2 3 =
bot = M top
M3
3

V dwn H

(15)(16)
2

=
120 k.ft
= 120 k.ft

top
M4
= 4 2 4 =
bot = M top
M4
4

V dwn H

(7.5)(16)
2

=
60 k.ft
= 60 k.ft

4. Top Girder Moments


lf
M12t
rgt
M12
lf
M13t
rgt
M13
lf
M14t
rgt
M14

Victor Saouma

=
=
=
=
=
=

top
M5
lf
M12t
rgt
top
M12 + M6 = 17.5 + 35
lf t
M13
rgt
top
M13 + M7 = 17.5 + 35
lf
M14t

=
=
=
=
=
=

17.5
17.5
17.5
17.5
17.5
17.5

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
712

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

Approximate Analysis Vertical Loads

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

Height
14
16

Span
Load
Load

APROXVER.XLS

Victor E. Saouma

L1
20
0.25
0.5

L2
L3
30
24
0.25
0.25
0.5
0.5
MOMENTS
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft Cnt Rgt
Lft Cnr Rgt
Lft Cnt Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -4.5
8.0 -4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -10.1 18.0 -10.1AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -6.5 11.5 -6.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-5.6
3.6
6.5
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA5.6 AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA-3.6 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA
-6.5
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-9.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -20.3 36.0 -20.3AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -13.0 23.0 -13.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -9.0 16.0
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-5.6
3.6
6.5
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
4.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
5.6
-3.6
-6.5
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
SHEAR
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 2.50AAAAAAAAAAAA -2.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 3.75 AAAAAAAAAAAA -3.75AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 3.00 AAAAAAAAAAAA -3.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-0.64 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-0.80
0.52
0.93
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 5.00AAAAAAAAAAAA -5.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAA -7.50AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 6.00 AAAAAAAAAAAA -6.00 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-0.56 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-0.70
0.46
0.81
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AXIAL FORCE
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
0.00
0.00 AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA
0.00
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
2.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAA
6.25
6.75
3.00
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
0.00
0.00
0.00
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
18.75
20.25
9.00
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Figure 7.10: Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Spread-Sheet Format

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Victor Saouma
L1
20
0.25
0.5

H
L2
30
0.25
0.5

APROXVER.XLS

M
L3
24
0.25
0.5

Victor E. Saouma

=-0.045*D5*D3^2 =0.08*D5*D3*D3 =+D13

=-F13+I13+G12
=-G14

=-0.045*I5*I3^2 =0.08*I5*I3*I3 =+I13

=-K13+N13+L12
=-L14

=-0.045*N5*N3^2 =0.08*N5*N3*N3 =+N13

=-P13+Q12
=-Q14

=2*G14/A5

=-D22

=+C28+D22

Bay 2
Beam
0

=+I3*I5/2

=-I22

Column

=2*L14/A5

Bay 3
Beam
0

=+N3*N5/2

=-N22

Col

=2*Q14/A5

=+G28-F22+I22

=-F20+I20

=+L28-K22+N22

=-K20+N20

=+Q28-P22

=-P20

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

=+D20

AXIAL FORCE
Bay 1
Col

Beam
0

Column

=2*C14/A5

=+D3*D5/2

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Bay 2
Bay 3
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+D3*D4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-D20 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+I3*I4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-I20 A AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N3*N4/2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-N20 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
=2*C11/A4
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*G11/A4
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =2*L11/A4
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=2*Q11/A4

SHEAR
Bay 1
Col

=+D13+C12
=-C14

AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Bay 2
Bay 3
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft
Cnt
Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAALft
Cnr
Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft
Cnt
Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-0.045*D4*D3^2 =0.08*D4*D3*D3 =+D10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-0.045*I4*I3^2 =0.08*I4*I3*I3 =+I10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-0.045*N4*N3^2 =0.08*N4*N3*N3 =N10 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-P10
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-F10+I10
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-K10+N10
=+D10
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
=-C11
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-Q11
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-G11
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-L11
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

MOMENTS
Bay 1
Col

29
30

Span
Load
Load

24
25
26
27
28

22
23

16
17
18
19
20
21

13
14
15

A
1
2
3 Height
4 14
5 16
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Approximate Analysis Vertical Loads

Draft
7.2 Horizontal Loads

713

Figure 7.11: Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loads; Equations in Spread-Sheet

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
714

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

5. Bottom Girder Moments


lf
M9 t
rgt
M9
lf
M10t
rgt
M10
lf
M11t
rgt
M11

15K

=
=
=
=
=
=

top
bot
M1 M5 = 60 (17.5)
lf t
M9
rgt
top
bot
M9 + M2 M6 = 77.5 + 120 (35)
lf
M10t
rgt
top
bot
M10 + M3 M7 = 77.5 + 120 (35)
lf t
M11

12

30K

13

10

20

+17.5K

+17.5K

-35K
+60K

-120K
+17.5K

-120K

+77.5

+77.5

-17.5K

-60K

+17.5K

-17.5K
K

16

24

-35K
+120K

-60K

k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft
k.ft

14

+35K

+35K

77.5
77.5
77.5
77.5
77.5
77.5

11

30

-17.5K
+120K

+60K

+17.5K

14

=
=
=
=
=
=

-17.5K
+77.5

-77.5K

-17.5K

-77.5K

-77.5K

Figure 7.12: Approximate Analysis of a Building; Moments Due to Lateral Loads

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

7.2 Horizontal Loads

715

6. Top Girder Shear


lf
12
V12 t = L12 = (2)(17.5)
20
rgt
lf
V12 = +V12 t

2M lf t

= 1.75 k
= 1.75 k

lf
13
V13 t = L13 = (2)(17.5)
30
rgt
lf t
V13 = +V13

2M lf t

= 1.17 k
= 1.17 k

lf
14
V14 t = L14 = (2)(17.5)
24
rgt
lf t
V14 = +V14

2M lf t

= 1.46 k
= 1.46 k

V9lf t = L12 = (2)(77.5)


20
9
V9rgt = +V9lf t

2M lf t

= 7.75 k
= 7.75 k

lf
10
V10 t = L10 = (2)(77.5)
30
rgt
lf
V10 = +V10 t

2M lf t

= 5.17 k
= 5.17 k

lf
11
V11 t = L11 = (2)(77.5)
24
rgt
lf t
V11 = +V11

2M lf t

= 6.46 k
= 6.46 k

7. Bottom Girder Shear

8. Top Column Axial Forces (+ve tension, -ve compression)


P5
P6
P7
P8

=
=
=
=

lf
V12 t
= (1.75) k
rgt
lf t
+V12 V13 = 1.75 (1.17) = 0.58 k
rgt
lf
+V13 V14 t = 1.17 (1.46) = 0.29 k
rgt
V14 = 1.46 k

9. Bottom Column Axial Forces (+ve tension, -ve compression)


P1
P2
P3
P4

=
=
=
=

P5 + V9lf t = 1.75 (7.75)


rgt
P6 + V10 + V9lf t = 0.58 7.75 (5.17)
rgt
lf
P7 + V11 + V10 t = 0.29 5.17 (6.46)
rgt
P8 + V11 = 1.46 6.46

=
=
=
=

9.5 k
3.16 k
1.58 k
7.66 k

Design Parameters On the basis of the two approximate analyses, vertical and lateral load,
we now seek the design parameters for the frame, Table 7.2.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
716

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

Portal Method

A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

PORTAL.XLS

Victor E. Saouma

PORTAL METHOD
# of Bays

# of Storeys
2
Force Shear
H Lat. Tot Ext Int
H1

14 15 15 2.5

H2

16 30 45 7.5 15

L1
20

L2
L3
30
24
MOMENTS
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Lft Rgt AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.5 -17.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.5 -17.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 17.5 -17.5AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
17.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
35.0
35.0
17.5
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-17.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-35.0
-35.0
-17.5
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.5 -77.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.5 -77.5 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 77.5 -77.5AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
60.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
120.0
120.0
60.0
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-60.0 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-120.0
-120.0
-60.0
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
SHEAR
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
Lft Rgt
Lft Rgt
Lft Rgt
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.75 -1.75 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.17 -1.17 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -1.46 -1.46AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
2.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
5.00
5.00
2.50
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
2.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
5.00
5.00
2.50
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -7.75 -7.75 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -5.17 -5.17 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA -6.46 -6.46AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
15.00
15.00
7.50
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
7.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
15.00
15.00
7.50
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AXIAL FORCE
Bay 1
Bay 2
Bay 3
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam Col
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
0.00
0.00
0.00
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
1.75AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAA
-0.58
0.29
-1.46
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
0.00
0.00
0.00
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
9.50 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
-3.17
1.58
-7.92
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

Figure 7.13: Portal Method; Spread-Sheet Format

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

7.2 Horizontal Loads


Portal Method

A
1 PORTAL METHOD

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

717

PORTAL.XLS

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A

AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A

Victor E. Saouma

A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
AAAAA
AL1
A
A
AA
A L3
A
2 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA3 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
# of Bays
L2
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
3
30
A
A
A
A
A
A20
A
A
AA
A
A
A 24
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A MOMENTS
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
Bay 1
Bay 2 AA
Bay 3 A
A
A
A2
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
6
Force A
Shear
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
7
H Lat. A Tot
Ext
Lft
Lft
Lft
A
AInt
A Rgt
A Rgt
A Rgt
A
AAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H9
A
A
8
=-I8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
=+J8+K9
=-M8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N8+O9
=-Q8 AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A=2*E9
9 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+D9/(2*$F$2) AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E9*B9/2
H1
14 A15
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F9*B9/2
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A =+C9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-K9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H10
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K10
10
=-H9
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
11
=-I11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
=+K12-K10+J11 =-M11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O12-O10+N11 =-Q11 AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H12-H10AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
12 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA30
H2
16 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+D12/(2*$F$2) A=2*E12
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F12*B12/2
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K12
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H12
A =SUM($C$9:C12) AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E12*B12/2
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
13
=-H12
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-K12
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+K13
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+H13
AAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
14
A SHEAR
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
15 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Bay 1
Bay 2 AA
Bay 3
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
16
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
17
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
Lft
Rgt
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-2*I8/I$3 =+I18 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
18
=-2*M8/M$3
=+M18AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-2*Q8/Q$3
=+Q18AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+F9
A
A
A
A
A
A
19
=+E9
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K19
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S19
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O19
A
A
A
A
A
A
20
=+H19
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
21
=+I21 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
=-2*M11/M$3 =+M21AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-2*Q11/Q$3
=+Q21AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=-2*I11/I$3 AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
22
=+E12
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+F12
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+F12
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+E12
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
23
=+H22
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K22
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O22
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S22
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
24
A AXIAL FORCE
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
25
Bay 1
Bay 2 AA
Bay 3
A
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
26
Col
Beam
Column
Beam
Column
Beam
Col
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA0
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0
A
A
A
A
A
A
27
0
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
A
A
28 AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =-I18 AAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+J18-M18AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+N18-Q18 AAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+R18 AAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA0
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA 0
A
A
A
A
A
A
29
0
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
30
=+H28-I21
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+K28+J21-M21
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA =+O28+N21-Q21
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA=+S28+R21
A
A
A
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

5 # of Storeys

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

Figure 7.14: Portal Method; Equations in Spread-Sheet

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
718

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

Mem.

Vert.
Moment
Axial
Shear
Moment
Axial
Shear
Moment
Axial
Shear
Moment
Axial
Shear
Moment
Axial
Shear
Moment
Axial
Shear
Moment
Axial
Shear
Moment
Axial
Shear

Hor.

4.50
7.50
0.56
5.60
18.75
0.70
3.60
20.25
0.45
6.50
9.00
0.81
4.50
2.50
0.64
5.60
6.25
0.80
3.60
6.75
0.51
6.50
3.00
0.93

60.00
9.50
7.50
120.00
15.83
15.00
120.00
14.25
15.00
60.00
7.92
7.50
17.50
1.75
2.50
35.00
2.92
5.00
35.00
2.63
5.00
17.50
1.46
2.50

Design
Values
64.50
17.00
8.06
125.60
34.58
15.70
123.60
34.50
15.45
66.50
16.92
8.31
22.00
4.25
3.14
40.60
9.17
5.80
38.60
9.38
5.51
24.00
4.46
3.43

Table 7.1: Columns Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

7.2 Horizontal Loads

719

Mem.

10

11

12

13

14

Vert.
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear
-ve Moment
+ve Moment
Shear

Hor.

9.00
16.00
5.00
20.20
36.00
7.50
13.0
23.00
6.00
4.50
8.00
2.50
10.10
18.00
3.75
6.50
11.50
3.00

77.50
0.00
7.75
77.50
0.00
5.17
77.50
0.00
6.46
17.50
0.00
1.75
17.50
0.00
1.17
17.50
0.00
1.46

Design
Values
86.50
16.00
12.75
97.70
36.00
12.67
90.50
23.00
12.46
22.00
8.00
4.25
27.60
18.00
4.92
24.00
11.50
4.46

Table 7.2: Girders Combined Approximate Vertical and Horizontal Loads

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
720

Victor Saouma

APPROXIMATE FRAME ANALYSIS

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 8

COLUMNS

Draft
Chapter 9

COLUMNS
9.1

Introduction

Columns resist a combination of axial P and exural load M , (or M = P e for eccentrically
applied load).
1

9.1.1

Types of Columns

Types of columns, Fig. 9.1


Composite colum

Tied column
tie steel
main longitudinal steel reinforcement

Pipe column
Spiral column

Figure 9.1: Types of columns


2

Lateral reinforcement, Fig. 9.2


P
Spiral
X Tied

Figure 9.2: Tied vs Spiral Reinforcement


1. Restrains longitudinal steel from outward buckling
2. Restrains Poissons expansion of concrete
3. Acts as shear reinforcement for horizontal (wind & earthquake) load
4. Provide ductility

Draft
92

COLUMNS

very important to resist earthquake load.

9.1.2
3

Possible Arrangement of Bars

Bar arrangements, Fig. 9.3

6 bars

4 bars

8 bars

Corner column

10 bars
12 bars

Wall column

16 bars
14 bars

Figure 9.3: Possible Bar arrangements

9.2

Short Columns

9.2.1
4

Concentric Loading

No moment applied,

Elastic Behaviour
P

= fc Ac + fs As
= fc (Ac + nAs )

Ultimate Strength
Pd = Pn
Pn = .85fc Ac + fy As
note:
1. 0.85 is obtained also from test data
2. Matches with beam theory using rect. stress block
3. Provides an adequate factor of safety

9.2.2
5

Eccentric Columns

Sources of exure, Fig. 9.4


1. Unsymmetric moments M L = M R
2. Uncertainty of loads (must assume a minimum eccentricity)

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.2 Short Columns

93
P

P
M

M
L

MR
L

e= M M
P

Figure 9.4: Sources of Bending


3. Unsymmetrical reinforcement
6

Types of Failure, Fig. 9.5


1. Large eccentricity of load failure by yielding of steel
2. Small eccentricity of load failure by crushing of concrete
3. Balanced condition
c

Pn
cu
P

cu

Compression
failure range

e = 0; a = h; c =

Radial lines show


constant e=
e small

Mn

cu

Pn

Balanced Failure
Load path for
givin e

Tension failure
range

eb

c ~ h; e=

cu

e large
M

Mn

su

> y

Figure 9.5: Load Moment Interaction Diagram


7

Assumptions As = As ; =

9.2.2.1
8

As
bd

As
bd ; fs

= fy

Balanced Condition

There is one specic eccentricity eb =

M
P

such that failure will be triggered by simultaneous

1. Steel yielding
2. Concrete crushing
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
94

COLUMNS

From the strain diagram (and compatibility of concrete and steel strains), Fig. 9.6

d
d
h/2
A

cs

s
A sf y

s
Pn

A sf s

A sf s

0.85f
c

A sf s

A sf y

a
e
e

Figure 9.6: Strain and Stress Diagram of a R/C Column

c = .003
fy
y =
Es
u
d=
c =
u + y

(9.1-a)
(9.1-b)
.003
fy
Es

+ .003

(9.1-c)

Furthermore,
s
cd

s =

c
c
cd
c
c

(9.2-a)
(9.2-b)

thus the compression steel will be yielding (i.e. s = y ) for c = .003 and d = 2 in if c > 6 in
10

Equilibrium (neglecting ceter steel for now):

Pn
Pn = .85fc ab + As fy As fs a = .85fc b
a = 1 cb
fs = fy
.003
c =
d
b
fy
As = As
+.003

Pn,b = .851 fc bd fy
Es

.003
+ .003

(9.3)

Es

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.2 Short Columns

95

or
Pnb = .851 fc bd

87, 000
fy + 87, 000

(9.4)

11 To obtain Mnb we take moment about centroid of tension steel As of internal forces, this
must be equal and opposite to the externally applied moment, Fig. 9.6.

a
Mnb = Pnb eb = .85fc ab(d ) + As fy (d d )
2
Mext

12

(9.5)

Mint

Note: Internal moments due to As fy and As fy cancel each other for symmetric columns.

9.2.2.2

Tension Failure

Case I, e is known and e > eb


In this case a and Pn are unknowns, and for failure to be triggered by fy in As we must
have e > eb .
Can still assume As fy = As fy
Fy = 0 Pn = .85fc ab a =
M = 0 Pn e

Pn
.85fc b

(9.6-a)

a
= Pn (d ) + As fy (d d )
2

(9.6-b)

Two approaches
1. Solve iteratively for those two equations
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Assume a (a < h )
2
From strain compatibility solve for fsc , center steel stress if applicable.
Fy = 0 solve for Pn
M = 0 with respect to tensile reinforcement, solve for Pn
If no convergence among the two Pn , iterate by solving for a from Fy = 0

2. Combine them into a quadratic equation in Pn

e 2
e
d
1
Pn = .85fc bd ( 1) +
+ 2 1

d
d
d
where
=
=

Victor Saouma

e
+
d

(9.7)

As
As
bd = bd
fy
.85fc

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
96

COLUMNS

Case II c is known and c < cb ; Pn is unknown


In this case, we only have two unknown, Pn and fs .
1 c

(9.8-a)

fy

(9.8-b)

fs

u E s

Pn

Mn

a
fs

=
def

cd
c
0.85fc ab

fy

(9.8-c)
(9.8-d)

C + As fs As fy
h
ha
+ As fs
d
C
2
2
Mn
Pn

(9.8-e)
+ As fs d

h
2

(9.8-f)
(9.8-g)

Note this approach is favoured when determining the interaction diagram.


9.2.2.3

Compression Failure

Case I e is known and e < eb ; Pn , a and fs are unknown


Compression failure occurs if e < eb u = .003, assume fs = fy , and fs < fy
From geometry
c =
fs

d
+ u
dc
= E s u
c
a
d 1
= E s u a
fs
Es

(9.9-a)

Pn = .85fc ab + As fy As fs
a
Pn e = .85fc ab(d ) + As fy (d d )
2

(9.9-b)
(9.9-c)

this would yield a cubic equation in Pn , which can be solved analytically or by iteration.
1. Assume a (a

h)

2. Solve for M = 0 with respect to tensile reinforcement & solve for Pn


3. From strain compatibility solve for fs
4. Check that Fy = 0 & solve for a
5. If ai+1 = ai go to step 2
Case II: c is known and c > cb ; fs , fs , and Pn are unknown

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.2 Short Columns

97

In this case
a = 1 c

(9.10-a)

dc
c
cd
fs = c Es
c
C = 0.85fc ab
fs = c Es

fy

(9.10-b)

fy

(9.10-c)
(9.10-d)

Pn = C + As fs + As fs
h
ha
+ As fs
d
Mn = C
2
2

9.2.3

(9.10-e)
+ As fs d

h
2

(9.10-f)

ACI Provisions

1. Governing equations
min
max
s

=
=
=
=
=

1%
8%
A
fc
0.45( Ag 1) fy
c
0.7 for tied columns
0.75 for spiral columns

ACI 10.9.1
ACI 10.5

(9.11)

where
s minimum ratio of spiral reinforcement
Ag gross area of section
Ac area of core
2. A minimum of 4 bars for tied circular and rect
3. A minimum of 6 bars for spirals (ACI10.9.2)
4. increases linearly to 0.9 as Pn decreases from 0.10fc Ag or P0 , whichever is smaller,
to zero (ACI 9.3.2).
5. Maximum strength is 0.8P0 for tied columns ( = 0.7) and 0.85P0 for spirally reinforced
columns ( = 0.75).

9.2.4
13

Interaction Diagrams

Each column is characterized by its own interaction diagram, Fig. 9.7

9.2.5

Design Charts

To assist in the design of R.C. columns, design charts have been generated by ACI in term
+A
Pn
M
of non dimensionalized parameters = bhf vs bh2n = e for various t where t = Asbh s and
h
f

14

fy
.85fc

Example 9-1: R/C Column, c known


Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
98

COLUMNS

Tied:
Pn(max) = 0.80 P
0
Spir. reinf: P n(max) = 0.85 P
0

Compression
control region

P0

P n(max)

1
e

P nM n

(M

n Pn )

P d M d
(M

mi

e=0; a=h; c= infty

P
n(max)

eb

ilur

d fa

ce
alan

Tension

nb

Pnb ) control region

0.10f c A g

e~h; e = infty

M n

Mn

Figure 9.7: Column Interaction Diagram


A 12 by 20 in. column is reinforced with four No. 4 bars of area 1.0 in2 each, at each
corner. fc = 3.5 ksi, fy = 50 ksi, d = 2.5 in. Determne: 1) Pb and Mb ; 2) The load and moment
for c = 5 in; 3) load and moment for c = 18 in.
Solution:
Balanced Conditions is derived by revisiting the fundamental equations, rather than mere
substitution into previously derived equation.

h d = 20 2.5 = 17.5 in
.003
.003
17.5 = 11.1 in
d = 50
fy
+ .003
29,000 + .003
E

(9.12-b)

1 cb = (0.85)(11.1) = 9.44 in

(9.12-c)

cb
a

(9.12-a)

fs

def

fs

Pnb

Mnb

=
=

eb

fy = 50 ksi
(9.12-d)
cd
11.1 2.5
c = (29, 000)(
(0.003) = 67.4 ksi > fy fs = 50 ksi
Es
(9.12-e)
c
11.1
0.85fc ab = (0.85)(3.5)(9.44)(12) = 337 k
(9.12-f)
C + As fs As fs = 337 + (2.0)(50) + (2.0)(50) = 337 k
(9.12-g)
a
Pnb e = .85fc ab(d ) + As fy (d d )
(9.12-h)
2
9.44
+ (2.0)(50)(17.5 2.5) = 5, 807 k.in = 484 k.ft (9.12-i)
337 17.5
2
5, 807
= 17.23 in
(9.12-j)
337

Tension failure, c = 5 in
fs

def

Victor Saouma

fy = 50 ksi

(9.13-a)
Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.2 Short Columns

fs

c E s

99
cd
c

fy

(9.13-b)

5.0 2.5
= 43.5 ksi
5.0
1 c = 0.85(5.0) = 4.25 in

0.85fc ab

(9.13-e)

(0.85)(3.5)(4.25)(12) = 152 k

(9.13-f)

C + As fs As fy

(9.13-g)

(9.13-h)
152 + (2.0)(43.5) (2.0)(50) = 139 k
h
h
ha
+ As fs
d + As fs d
about section centroid (9.13-i)
C
2
2
2
20
20
20 4.25
+ (2.0)(43.5)
2.5 + (2.0)(50) 17.5 (9.13-j)
(152)
2
2
2

Pn

Mn

=
=

(0.003)(29, 000)

(9.13-c)
(9.13-d)

=
e

2, 598 k.in = 217 k.ft

(9.13-k)

2, 598
= 18.69 in
139

(9.13-l)

Compression failure, c = 18 in
a = 1 c = 0.85(18) = 15.3 in
dc
fy
fs = c Es
c
17.5 18.0
= 2.42 ksi As is under compression
= (0.003)(29, 000)
18.0
cd
fy
fs = c Es
c
18.0 2.5
= 75 ksi > fy fs = 50 ksi
= (0.003)(29, 000)
18.0
C = 0.85fc ab = (0.85)(3.5)(15.3)(12) = 546 k
Pn = C + As fs As fs

Mn

(9.14-a)
(9.14-b)
(9.14-c)
(9.14-d)
(9.14-e)
(9.14-f)
(9.14-g)

= 546 + (2.0)(50) (2.42)(2) = 650 k


(9.14-h)
h
h
ha
+ As fs
d + As fs d
about section centroid (9.14-i)
= C
2
2
2
20 15.3
20
20
= (546)
+ (2.0)(50)
2.5 + (2.0)(2.42) 17.5 (9.14-j)
2
2
2
=

e =

2, 000 k.in = 167 k.ft

(9.14-k)

2, 000
= 3.07 in
650

(9.14-l)

Example 9-2: R/C Column, e known


Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
910

COLUMNS

For the following column, determine eb , Pb , Mb ; Pn and Mn for e = 0.1h and e = h.


fc = 3, 000 psi and fy = 40, 000 psi. The area of each bar is 1.56 in2 .
12"

20"

3"

3"

24"
c

.003

Cc

Balanced Condition:
fy
40
= .001379
=
Es
29, 000
u
.003
.003 = 14.4 in
d=
cb =
u + y
.003 + .001379
a = 1 cb = (.85)(14.4) = 12.2 in

y =

(9.15-a)
(9.15-b)
(9.15-c)

Cc = .85fc ab = (.85)(3)(12.2)(20) = 624 k


c h/2
14.4 12
u =
.003 = .0005
sc =
c
14.4
fsc = (29, 000)(.0005) = 15 ksi center bars

(9.15-d)

Cs = (.0005)(29, 000)(2)(1.56) = 46.8 k

(9.15-g)

Pnb = 624 + 46.8 = 670.8 k

(9.15-e)
(9.15-f)
(9.15-h)

Note that the compression steel is yielding because d > 2 and c > 6 (as previously
proven)
Taking moment about centroid of section
Mnb = Pnb e

(9.16-a)
h a

2 2

h
h
d + As fy
d
2
2
12.2
+ 4(1.56)(9)(40)
= (.85)(3)(12.2)(20) 12
2
+4(1.56)(40 .85 3)(12 3)

= .85fc ab

+ As fy

(9.16-b)

(9.16-c)

= 3, 671 + 2, 246 + 2, 246

(9.16-d)

8, 164 k.in; 680 k.ft

(9.16-e)

8, 164
= 12.2 in
670.8

(9.16-f)

eb =
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.2 Short Columns

911

e= .1 h e = (.1)(24) = 2.4 in < eb failure by compression. Pn , a and fs are unknown.


Available equations: 1) F = 0; 2) M = 0; and 3) strain diagram; Solve by iterations.

12"

20"

3"

hcd

3"

24"
c=23.5"

9"

sc

e=2.4"

e=11.4"

.003

Pn
h/2=12"
.85f
c

A sf

A sc sc
f

Cc

a=20"
1. Assume a = 20 in
c=

A sf

a/2

a
20
= 23.5 in
=
1
.85

(9.17)

2. For center steel (from geometry)


sc
c h
2

.003
c

(9.18-a)

c h
2
.003
c
= Es sc

sc =
fsc

c
.003
c
23.5 12
.003 = 42.5 ksi > fy fsc = fy
= 29, 000
23.5
= Es

Victor Saouma

h
2

(9.18-b)
(9.18-c)
(9.18-d)
(9.18-e)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
912

COLUMNS

3. Take moment about centroid of tensile steel bar


a
h
= 0.85fc ab(d ) + As fy (h 2d ) + Asc fy ( d )
(9.19-a)
2
2
20
(9.19-b)
Pn (9 + 2.4) = (.85)(3)(20)(20)(21 ) + 4(1.56)(40)(24 6) + 2(1.56)(40)(9)
2
= 11, 220 + 4, 493 + 259.7
(9.19-c)
Pn e

Pn = 1, 476 k

(9.19-d)

4. Get s in tension bar (from strain diagram)


s
h d 23.5
s

.003
c
.003
(24 3 23.5)
=
23.5
= .000319
=

fs = Es = (29, 000)(0.000319) = 9.25 ksi

(9.20-a)
(9.20-b)
(9.20-c)
(9.20-d)

5. Take F = 0 to check assumption of a


Pn = 0.85fc ab + As fy + Asc fsc + As fy

(9.21-a)

1, 476 k = (.85)(3)(a)(20) + (4)(1.56)(40) + (2)(1.56)(40) + (4)(1.56)(9.25)


(9.21-b)
1, 476 = 51a + 432.1

a = 20.4 in
Pn =

(9.21-c)
(9.21-d)

1, 476 k

(9.21-e)

Mn = (1, 476)(2.4) = 3, 542 k.in = 295 k.ft

e=h

(9.21-f)

1. In this case e = 24 in > eb failure by tension. Pn and a are unknown. We have


two equations: 1) F = 0, and 2) M = 0.
2. Assume a = 7.9 in c =

a
1

7.9
.85

= 9.3 in

3. Steel stress at centroid


c
.003
sc
fsc

12 c
sc
12 9.3
.003 = .00087
=
9.3
= (29, 000)(0.00087) = 25.3 ksi

(9.22-a)
(9.22-b)
(9.22-c)

4. Iterate
F = 0 Pn = (.85)fc ab + Asc fsc
= (.85)(3)(7.9)(20) 2(1.56)(25.3)
= 403 79 = 324 k
a
M = 0 Pn (e + h/2 d ) = .85fc ab(d ) + As fy (d d )
2
dd
Asc fsc (
)
2
Victor Saouma

(9.23-a)
(9.23-b)
(9.23-c)

(9.23-d)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.2 Short Columns

913
Pn (24 + 9) = (.85)(3)(7.9)(20)(21
+2(1.56)(25.3)(9)

7.9
) + 4(1.56)(40)(21 3)
2
(9.23-e)

Pn (33) = 6, 870 + 4, 493 710 = 10, 653 k.in

Pn = 323 k

(9.23-f)
(9.23-g)

5. Determine Mn
Mn = Pn e = (323)(24) = 7, 752 k.in = 646 k.ft

(9.24)

Example 9-3: R/C Column, Using Design Charts


Design the reinforcement for a column with h = 20 in, b = 12 in, d = 2.5 in, fc = 4, 000 psi,
fy = 60, 000 psi, to support PDL = 56 k, PLL = 72 k, MDL = 88 k.ft, MLL = 75 k.ft,
Solution:
1. Ultimate loads
201
= 287 k
0.7
251
= 358 k.ft
= (1.4)(88) + (1.7)(75) = 251 k.ft Mn =
0.7

Pu = (1.4)(56) + (1.7)(72) = 201 k Pn =


Mu

(9.25-a)
(9.25-b)

2. Chart parameters
e
h

=
=

e
h

(358)(12)
= 0.75
(9.26-a)
(287)(20)
h 2d 20 (2)(2.5)
= 0.75 interpolate between A3 and A(9.26-b)
4
h
20
287
Pn
= 0.3
(9.26-c)
=
bhfc
(12)(20)(4)

= (0.3)(0.75) = 0.225

(9.26-d)

3. Interpolating between A.3 and A.4 t = 0.4


4. Reinforcement
t =
=

At
bh
fy
.85fc

At =

(0.4)(b)(h)(.85)(fc )
1
= 5.45 in2
= (0.4)(12)(20)(.85)(4)
(9.27-a)
fy
(60)

use 4 # 9 & 2 # 8, At = 5.57 in2

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
914

9.2.6
15

COLUMNS

Biaxial Bending

Often columns are subjected to biaxial moments (such as corner columns)

An exact approach entails the trial and eror determination of an inclined neutral axis, this
is an exact method but too cumbersome to use in practice.

16

17 Hence, we seek an approximate solution, the most widely used method is the load contour
method or Bresler-Parme method.
18

The failure surface of a biaxialy loaded column is shown in Fig. 9.8, and the general nondi-

Pn

M0x

1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000
1111111
0000000

M0y

Mny

Mnx
Figure 9.8: Failure Surface of a Biaxially Loaded Column
mensional equation for the moment contour at a constant Pn may be expressed as
Mnx
M0x
where
Mnx
Mny
M0x
M0y
and 1

=
=
=
=
and

Mny
M0y

= 1.0

Pn ey
Pn ex
Mnx capacity at axial load Pn when Mny (or ex ) is zero
Mny capacity at axial load Pn when Mnx (or ey ) is zero
2 are exponent which depend on geometry and strength.

19 Bresler suggested that we set 1 = 2 = . For practical purposes, a value of = 1.5 for
rectangular columns, and between 1.5 and 2.0 for square sections has proven acceptable.

An improvement of Bresler equation was devised by Parme. The main assumption is that at
any load Pn , Fig. 9.9
Mny
M0y
=
Mnx
M0x
or
Mnx = M0x ;
Mny = M0y
20

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.2 Short Columns

M 0y

915

M ny /M0y
1.0
C

M ny M
0x
C

M 0y

B
M 0y
M0x

A M
nx
M
0x

45

A
1.0
Mnx /M0x

Figure 9.9: Load Contour at Plane of Constant Pn , and Nondimensionalized Corresponding


plots
Thus, is the portion of the uniaxial moment strength permitted to act simultaneously on
the column section. It depends on the cross section, strength, and layout.

21

22

The usual range is between 0.55 and 0.70, with a recommended value of 0.65 for design.

23

Hence, once is selected, we can substitute in Breslers equation


M0x
M0x

0y
+ M0y

= 1.0

= 1
2
log = log 0.5
= log 0.5
log

thus,
Mnx
M0x

log 0.5/log

Mny
M0y

log 0.5/log

(9.28)

= 1.0

24

Eect of is shown in Fig. 9.10.

25

Gouwens proposed to replace the above curves, by a bilinear model, Fig. 9.11

Review of a section
Mny
Mnx
+
M0y
M0x
Mnx Mny
+
M0x
M0y

Mny
Mnx

M0y
M0x
Mny
Mnx
= 1 If

M0y
M0x
= 1 If

(9.29)
(9.30)

Design of a column
Mny + Mnx
Mnx + Mny

Victor Saouma

M0y
M0x
M0x
M0y

Mny
M0y

Mnx
M0x
Mny
M0y
If

Mnx
M0x

= M0y If

(9.31-a)

= M0x

(9.31-b)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
916

COLUMNS

Biaxial Bending Interaction Diagram


1.0

0.90

0.
0.8 85
0
0.7
5
0.7
0
0.6
5

0.8

0.6

be

ta

0.6

0.

55

=0

Nny/M0y

.5

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Mnx/M0x

Figure 9.10: Biaxial Bending Interaction Relations in terms of

Mnx

M ny /M 0y + M nx /M 0x (1 / ) =1

1.0

(M nx /M 0x ) +(M ny /M 0y) =1

M0y

0y

M0x

111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000

M ny /M

Pn

M nx /M 0x + M ny /M 0y (1 / ) =1

Mny

45

A
M nx /M 0x

1.0

Figure 9.11: Bilinear Approximation for Load Contour Design of Biaxially Loaded Columns

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.2 Short Columns

917

Note, circular or square columns with symmetric reinforcement should always be considered
rst for biaxially loaded columns.

26

Example 9-4: Biaxially Loaded Column


Determine the adequacy of a 16 in. square tied column with 8 # 9 bars. d = 2.5 in, and
there are 3 bars on each side. The section is to carry factored loads of Pu = 144 k, Mux = 120 k.ft
and Muy = 54 k.ft, fc = 3 ksi and fy = 40 ksi. P0 = 952 k, M0x = M0y = 207 k.ft (we have a
symmetrical reinforcement).
Solution:
ey =
ex =

Mux
Pu
Muy
Pu

(120)(12)
= 10.0 in
144
(54)(12)
= 4.5 in
144

=
=

The interaction diagram for e = 10 in, e = 4.5 in and e = 0 will give Pn equal to 254, 486, and
952 kips respectively.
The required load Pn = 144 = 205 k, the corresponding moments are M0x = M0y = 207 k.ft
0.7
from the interaction diagram. Using = 0.65
Required Mnx
M0x

Required Mny
M0y

120
0.7

207

= 0.828

207

= 0.373

54
0.7

We shall use both solutions


Bresler-Parme which is exact solution

Mnx
M0x

log(0.5)
log
log 0.5/log

log 0.5/log

Mny
M0y
1.609 + (0.373)1.609
(0.828)

Note that we could have rst solved for


This would have given
is safe.

Mny
M0y

Mnx
M0x ,

log 0.5
log 0.65

=
=

0.943

= 1.609

and then determined

Mny
M0y

from Fig. 9.10.

0.45 which is greater than the actual value, hence the design

Gouwens which is an approximate solution


Mnx
M0x

Mny
M0y

0.828 +

1
1

10.65
0.337 0.65

= 0.828 + 0.1815 = 1.0095

which indicates a slight overstress.


We note that the approximate method is on the conservative side.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
918

9.3
9.3.1

COLUMNS

Long Columns
Euler Elastic Buckling

Column buckling theory originated with Leonhard Euler in 1744. An initially straight member is concentrically loaded, and all bers remain elastic until buckling occur.

27

For buckling to occur, it must be assumed that the column is slightly bent as shown in Fig.
9.12. Note, in reality no column is either perfectly straight, and in all cases a minor imperfection

28

x and y are
principal axes

Slightly bent position


L

Figure 9.12: Euler Column


is present.
At any location x along the column, the imperfection in the column compounded by the
concentric load P , gives rise to a moment

29

Mz = P y

(9.32)

Note that the value of yis irrelevant.


30

Recalling that

d2 y
Mz
=
2
dx
EI
upon substitution, we obtain the following dierential equation
P
d2 y

=0
2
dx
EI
31

Letting k 2 =

P
EI ,

(9.34)

the solution to this second-order linear dierential equation is


y = A sin kx B cos kx

32

(9.33)

(9.35)

The two constants are determined by applying the essential boundary conditions
1. y = 0 at x = 0, thus B = 0
2. y = 0 at x = L, thus
A sin kL = 0

Victor Saouma

(9.36)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.3 Long Columns

919

This last equation can e satised if: 1) A = 0, that is there is no deection; 2) kL = 0, that is
no applied load; or 3)
kL = n
(9.37)
P
EI

Thus buckling will occur if

n 2
L

or
P =

n2 2 EI
L2

The fundamental buckling mode, i.e. a single curvature deection, will occur for n = 1; Thus
Euler critical load for a pinned column is

33

Pcr =

2 EI
L2

(9.38)

The corresponding critical stress is


cr =

2E

(9.39)

L 2
r

where I = Ar.
34

Note that buckling will take place with respect to the weakest of the two axis.

9.3.2
35

Large

Eective Length
kL
r

kL
r

column buckling, small

column crushing, Fig. 9.13.


Pfail

Pn
1

tan E

fp

Pcr
Crushing
1

tan

Buckling

(kl/r) lim

(kl/r)

Figure 9.13: Column Failures


36

Recall from strength of material slenderness ratio


=

Le
r

where Le is the eective length and is equal to Le = kL and r the radius of gyration (r =
37

I
A ).

Le is the distance between two adjacent (ctitious or actual) inection points, Fig. 9.13

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
920

COLUMNS

P cr

P cr

Pcr

i.p.
i.p.

l/4

kl= l
2

l
2

kl=l

<kl<l

i.p.

i.p.

l/4

i.p.

i.p.

Pcr

P cr

k=1

P cr

k=1/2

1/2<k<1

Pcr

cr

cr

l
kl=21

Pcr

l<kl<

i.p.

i.p.

kl=1

Pcr

P
cr

l<kl<

i.p.

k=2

i.p.

k=1
Figure 9.14: Critical lengths of columns

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.3 Long Columns

921

k is known for some simple highly idealized cases, but for most cases k depends on A + B
(relative stinesses of columns to connected beams), Fig. 9.15
38

( EI )of columns
L
( EI )of oor members
L

(9.40)

and k is then determined from the chart shown in Fig. 9.16.


( EI
ln

A
( EI
ln

( EI
ln

P
( EI
ln

MA

MA

M
A

MB

MB

M
B

Single curvature

Double curvature
Braced

Unbraced

Figure 9.15: Eective length Factors

9.3.3
39

Moment Magnication Factor; ACI Provisions

The critical stress in a column is given by


P
A

2E

kL 2
r

cr

Code recommends some minimum eccentricity to account for imperfectly placed load, Fig.
9.17

40

41

For an eccentrically placed load


Mmax = M0

1
1

P
1Pcr

(9.41)

Moment magnication factor


42 The moment magnication factor reects the amount by which the beam moment M0 is
magnied by the presence of an axial load, Fig. 9.18

The previous equation assumes the presence of hinges at each end (Euler column). In the
most general case we will have

43

Mmax = M0
Victor Saouma

Cm
P
1 Pcr

(9.42-a)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
922

COLUMNS

Sidesway Inhibited

50.
10.
5.
3.

Ga

1.0

0.9

2.

Sidesway Uninhibited
Gb

50.
10.
5.
3.

100.
50.
30.
20.

2.

1.

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

0.7

0.3

10.

5.
4.
3.

10.
9.
8.
7.
6.
5.

2.

4.
3.

2.

2.
1.5

0.2
1.

0.1

0.

Gb

100.
50.
30.
20.

3.

0.3
0.6

20.

4.

1.

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4

10.
9.
8.
7.
6.
5.

0.8

0.2

Ga

1.

0.1

0.5

0.

1.

Figure 9.16: Standard Alignment Chart (ACI)

Figure 9.17: Minimum Column Eccentricity

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.3 Long Columns

923
P
P

P 0(max)

P cr
M

Pu
in

Pn

em

Pu

Pu e

M
0

M c = M 2

kl/r

Mc

Figure 9.18: P-M Magnication Interaction Diagram


Cm = .6 + .4
where
M1
M1
M2
M1
M2

>0
<0
Cm < 1
Cm =1
44

45

M1
.4
M2

(9.42-b)

is numerically smaller than M2 (not algebracially)


if single curvature
if double curvature
if members are braced against sidesway
if members are not braced against sidesway

ACI Code
Lu
k 1.0
k 1.0
r = .3h
r = .25d
M1
kLu
r < 34 12 M2
kLu
r < 22

unsupported length ACI 10.11.1


braced columns ACI 10.11.2
unbraced columns ACI 10.11.2
rectangular x section ACI 10.11.3
circular cross section
braced, neglect slenderness ACI 10.11.4
unbraced, neglect slenderness

From conventional elastic analysis get Pn &Mn


Mc = M2
Cm
1.0
=
P
1 Pn
cr
2 EI
10.11.5
(kLu )2
M1
= .6 + .4
M2

(9.43)
(9.44)

Pcr =

(9.45)

Cm

(9.46)

EI =
or EI =
d =

Ec Ig
5

+ Es Is
1 + d

Ec Ig
2.5

1 + d
MD
1.4PDL
=
MD + ML
1.4PDL + 1.7PLL

(9.47)
(9.48)
(9.49)

d is the ratio of maximum design load moment to maximum design total load moment (always
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
924

+ve) as

EI

COLUMNS
dead load has a detrimental eect (creep)

Example 9-5: Long R/C Column


A 15 ft long, 14 circular column is connected to 40 ft long 14 by 22 beams. The column
is on the last oor, below it the column is circular and has a 16 diameter. No sidesway.
Given, Pn = 500 k, 14 22 has = .015, fc = 5, 000 psi, fy = 40, 000 psi
Solution:

22
= 13.17 ft
12
r = .25d = (.25)(14 in) = 3.5 in

Lu = 15 ft

Ec = 57, 000 fc = 57, 000 5, 000 = 4, 030 ksi


(14)4
d4
=
= 1, 886 in4
Ig =
64
64

EIcol =

Ec Ig
2.5

EIcol = (4, 030)(1, 886)

1+d

d = 0
EI
L

1
= 3, 040, 000 k in2
2.5

3, 040, 000
= 16, 890 k.in
(15)(12)

=
c

Ig
(14)(22)3 1
=
= 6, 210 in4
2
12
2
(4, 030)(6, 210)
= 52, 140 k.in
(12)(40)
(EI/L)col
(16, 890)
= .162
=
(EI/L)beam
2(52, 140)

Ibeam = Icr
EI
L

=
beam

A =
bottom column I =

(16)4
64

(9.50-b)
(9.50-c)
(9.50-d)

(9.51-a)

(9.52-a)
(9.52-b)
(9.52-c)
(9.52-d)

= 3, 217 in4
EI =
EI
L

=
col

B =

(4, 030)(3, 217)


= 5, 186, 000
2.5
5, 186, 000
= 28, 800 k.in
(15)(12)
16, 890 + 28, 800
= .438
2(52, 140)

From ACI commentary A = .162, B = .438, k


kLu
r
M1
34 12
M2
kL
r
Victor Saouma

(9.50-a)

(9.53-a)
(9.53-b)
(9.53-c)

.62 and

(.65)(13.16)(12)
= 29.3
3.5

(9.54-a)

= 34 12 = 22 assuming M1 = M2

(9.54-b)

> 22 consider column instability

(9.54-c)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

9.3 Long Columns

925
2 EI
2 (3, 040, 000)
=
= 2, 848 k
2
(kl)
[(.65)(13.16)(12)]2
M1
CM = .6 + .4
=1
M2
1
1
=
=
= 1.3
500
Pu
1 (.75)(2,848)
1 Pcr
Pcr =

(9.54-d)
(9.54-e)
(9.54-f)

Example 9-6: Design of Slender Column


Given: frame not braced, design AB as square column. PD = 46 k, MD = 92 k.ft, PL = 94 k,
ML = 230 k.ft, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi

L =18
u

L
3
l =43.3in

111
000
111
000
000
111

111
000
000
111
000
111

Solution:

Pu = 1.4 46 + 1.7 94 = 224 k


Mu = 1.4 92 + 1.7 230 = 520 k.ft
MDL
(1.4)92
= .24
=
d =
MDL + MLL
520

(9.55-a)
(9.55-b)
(9.55-c)

Assume a 22 22 inch column and t = .03


2.5
8.5
22"

22"

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
926

COLUMNS

If
Is

224
= 19, 500 in4
12
= (2)(.015)(22)2 (8.5)2 = 1, 050 in4
=

(9.56-a)
(9.56-b)

4, 000 = 3.6 10 psi


6

Ec = 57, 000

(9.56-c)

Es = 29 10 ksi
6

EI =
=
EIc
L
EIb
L

kL
r

+ Es Is
1 + d

(3.6106 )(19,500)
5

+ (29 106 )(1, 050)


= 3.59 1010
1 + .24

(9.56-e)

3.59 1010
= 1.66 108
12 18

(9.56-f)

= (3.6 106 )(43.3) = 1.56 108

(9.56-g)

AtA&B =
if

(9.56-d)

Ec Ig
5

2(1.66 108 )
= 2.13 from ACI commentary k = 1.65
1.56 108

(9.56-h)

= 22 neglect slenderness
r = (.3)(22) = 6.6 in
(1.65)(18)(12)
kL
=
= 54 > 22

r
6.6
2 EI
2 (3.59 1010 )
Pcr =
=
= 279 106 lbs
(kL)2
[(1.65)(18)(12)]2
Pu = 2.24 105 lb
Cm = 1.0(unbraced)
1
=
Moment Magnication =
P
1 Pu
1
cr
= 1.13

(9.57-a)
(9.57-b)
(9.57-c)
(9.57-d)
(9.57-e)

1
(2.24105 )
(.7)(2.79106 )

(9.57-f)
(9.57-g)

Moment for which the column is to be designed (1.13) (520) = 587 k.ft and Pu = 224

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Chapter 10

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
10.1

Introduction

Beams with longer spans are architecturally more appealing than those with short ones.
However, for a reinforced concrete beam to span long distances, it would have to have to be
relatively deep (and at some point the self weight may become too large relative to the live
load), or higher grade steel and concrete must be used.

2 However, if we were to use a steel with fy much higher than 60 ksi in reinforced concrete
(R/C), then to take full advantage of this higher yield stress while maintaining full bond between
concrete and steel, will result in unacceptably wide crack widths. Large crack widths will in
turn result in corrosion of the rebars and poor protection against re.

One way to control the concrete cracking and reduce the tensile stresses in a beam is to
prestress the beam by applying an initial state of stress which is opposite to the one which will
be induced by the load.

For a simply supported beam, we would then seek to apply an initial tensile stress at the
top and compressive stress at the bottom. In prestressed concrete (P/C) this can be achieved
through prestressing of a tendon placed below the elastic neutral axis.

Main advantages of P/C: Economy, deection & crack control, durability, fatigue strength,
longer spans.

There two type of Prestressed Concrete beams:

Pretensioning: Steel is rst stressed, concrete is then poured around the stressed bars. When
enough concrete strength has been reached the steel restraints are released, Fig. 10.1.
Postensioning: Concrete is rst poured, then when enough strength has been reached a steel
cable is passed thru a hollow core inside and stressed, Fig. 10.2.

10.1.1

Materials

P/C beams usually have higher compressive strength than R/C. Prestressed beams can have
fc as high as 8,000 psi.

The importance of high yield stress for the steel is illustrated by the following simple example.

Draft
102

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Vertical
bulkhead

Harping
hold-up
point

Harping
hold-down
point
Jacks

Anchorage

Prestressing
bed slab

Continuous
tendon

Precast Concrete
element
Tendon
anchorage

Jacks

Support
force

Casting bed

Jacks

Casting bed

Hold-down
force

Tendon

Figure 10.1: Pretensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

Anchorage

Anchorage

Intermediate
diaphragms

Jack

Beam

Jack

Tendon in conduct

Anchorage
Jack

Slab

Wrapped tendon

Figure 10.2: Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

10.1 Introduction

103

If we consider the following:


1. An unstressed steel cable of length Ls
2. A concrete beam of length Lc
3. Prestress the beam with the cable, resulting in a stressed length of concrete and steel
equal to Ls = Lc .
4. Due to shrinkage and creep, there will be a change in length
Lc = (sh + cr )Lc

(10.1)

we want to make sure that this amout of deformation is substantially smaller than the
stretch of the steel (for prestressing to be eective).
5. Assuming ordinary steel: fs = 30 ksi, Es = 29, 000 ksi, s =

30
29,000

= 1.03 103 in/ in

6. The total steel elongation is s Ls = 1.03 103 Ls


7. The creep and shrinkage strains are about cr + sh

.9 103

8. The residual stress which is left in the steel after creep and shrinkage took place is thus
(1.03 .90) 103 (29 103 ) = 4 ksi
Thus the total loss is

304
30

(10.2)

= 87% which is unacceptably too high.

9. Alternatively if initial stress was 150 ksi after losses we would be left with 124 ksi or a
17% loss.
10. Note that the actual loss is (.90 103 )(29 103 ) = 26 ksi in each case
9

Having shown that losses would be too high for low strength steel, we will use

Strands usually composed of 7 wires. Grade 250 or 270 ksi, Fig. 10.3.
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111 111111
000000 000000
111111
000000
11111111111
00000000000
111111 111111
000000 000000
111111
000000
11111111111
00000000000
111111 111111
000000 000000
111111
000000
11111111111
00000000000
111111
000000
11111111111
00000000000
111111
000000
11111111111
00000000000
111111
111111
000000
11111000000
00000000000
111111
000000
11111
00000111111
111111
000000
11111111111
00000000000
111111
11111111111
00000000000
11111 000000
00000 000000
111111
000000
111111
11111111111
00000000000
11111 111111
00000 000000
111111
000000
11111111111
00000000000
11111
00000
111111
000000
111111
000000
11111
00000
111111
000000
11111
00000
111111
000000
11111
00000
111111
000000
11111
00000
111111
000000
11111
00000
111111
000000
11111
00000
111111
000000
11111
00000
111111
000000
11111
00000
111111
000000

Figure 10.3: 7 Wire Prestressing Tendon


Tendon have diameters ranging from 1/2 to 1 3/8 of an inch. Grade 145 or 160 ksi.
Wires come in bundles of 8 to 52.
Note that yield stress is not well dened for steel used in prestressed concrete, usually we take
1% strain as eective yield.
Steel relaxation is the reduction in stress at constant strain (as opposed to creep which
is reduction of strain at constant stress) occurs. Relaxation occurs indenitely and produces
signicant prestress loss. If we denote by fp the nal stress after t hours, fpi the initial stress,
and fpy the yield stress, then
10

fp
log t
=1
fpi
10
Victor Saouma

fpi
.55
fpy

(10.3)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
104

10.1.2
11

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Prestressing Forces

Prestress force varies with time, so we must recognize 3 stages:


1. Pj Jacking force. But then due to
(a) friction and anchorage slip in post-tension
(b) elastic shortening in pretension
is reduced to:
2. Pi Initial prestress force; But then due to time dependent losses caused by
(a) relaxation of steel
(b) shrinkage of concrete
(c) creep of concrete
is reduced to:
3. Pe Eective force

10.1.3
12

Assumptions

The following assumptions are made;


1. Materials are both in the elastic range
2. section is uncracked
3. sign convention: +ve tension, ve compression
4. Subscript 1 refers to the top and 2 to the bottom
5. I, S1 =

I
c1 ,

S2 =

I
c2 ,

(section modulus)

6. e + ve if downward from concrete neutral axis

10.1.4

Tendon Conguration

Through proper arrangement of the tendon (eccentricity at both support and midspan)
various internal exural stress distribution can be obtained, Fig. 10.4.

13

10.1.5

Equivalent Load

An equivalent load for prestressing can be usually determined from the tendon conguration
and the prestressing force, Fig. 10.5.

14

10.1.6
15

Load Deformation

The load-deformation curve for a prestressed concrete beam is illustrated in Fig. 10.6.

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

h/2

2h/3

111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
f
y

2f c
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000

fc
1111
0000
1111
0000

1111
0000
fc =f t

fc
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
000
111
000
111
fc
2f c
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
0

1111
0000
1111
0000
+ 0000
1111

2f c
0
111 1111111
000 0000000
111 1111111
000 0000000
111 1111111
000 +0000000
111 1111111
000 0000000 =
111 1111111
000 0000000
2f c
2f =2f
t
c

2f c
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
0
fc
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
000
111
fc

111
000
111
000
= 000
111
000
111

None
P cos
2P sin

P
h/2

f
c
1111
0000
1111
0000

1111
0000
ft =f c

1111
0000
+ 0000
1111
1111
0000

Midspan

fc
111
000
111
000

0
2f c
111 1111111
000 0000000
111 1111111
000 0000000
111 0000000
000 +
1111111
111 1111111
000 0000000
111 1111111
000 0000000 =
111 1111111
000 0000000
2f c
2f
t =2f c
fc
Midspan
11
00
11
00 +
=
0
11
00
11
00
00
11
Ends
fc
0
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
2f c

fc
fc
111
000
111
000
111
= 000
000
111
000
111
fc

P cos
P cos

2Q

h/3

h/2

Ends

(g)
P

2Q

Q
P

fc
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
000
111
fc

None

(f)
P

P sin

P P sin
P cos
P
(e)
P

P
h/3

P cos

M
P sin
M P sin
P
(d)
P
e

P sin
P sin
(b)

P cos
2P sin
P cos

P
Pe
Pe
P
P
e
(c)
P

P cos
P
P

P sin
P

Moment from prestressing


Equivalent load on concrete from tendon

Member

P sin
(a)
P

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Victor Saouma

105

Draft

10.1 Introduction

Figure 10.4: Alternative Schemes for Prestressing a Rectangular Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

Figure 10.5: Determination of Equivalent Loads

Draft
106

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Load

Ru

ptu

Steel yielding
Service load limit
including
tolerable overload

Overload

re

Tn

Service
load
range

First cracking load


f cr

Decompression

or higher
cgs (f=0)

Balanced
Full dead load

Deformation

(deflection of camber)

pi = Initial prestress camber


pe = Effective prestress camber
O = Selfweight deflection
D= Dead load deflection
L= Live load deflection

pe

pi

Figure 10.6: Load-Deection Curve and Corresponding Internal Flexural Stresses for a Typical
Prestressed Concrete Beam, (Nilson 1978)

10.2
16

Flexural Stresses

We now identify the following 4 stages:

Initial Stage when the beam is being prestressed (recalling that r2 =

I
Ac )

1. The prestressing force, Pi only


ec1
Pi
Pi
Pi ec1
1 2
=
+
Ac
I
Ac
r
ec2
Pi
Pi
Pi ec2
1+ 2
=
=

Ac
I
Ac
r

f1 =

(10.4)

f2

(10.5)

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment
the beam cambers due to prestressing)
Pi
ec1
M0
1 2
Ac
r
S1
ec2
M0
Pi
1+ 2 +
=
Ac
r
S2

f1 =

(10.6)

f2

(10.7)

Service Load when the prestressing force was reduced from Pi to Pe beacause of the losses,
and the actual service (not factored) load is apllied
3. Pe and M0

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

f1 =

(10.8)
f2

(10.9)

ec1
M0
Pe
1 2
Ac
r
S1
ec2
M0
Pe
1+ 2 +
=
Ac
r
S2

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 4

f1 =

(10.10)
f2

(10.11)

ec1
M0 + MDL + MLL
Pe
1 2
Ac
r
S1
Pe
ec2
M0 + MDL + MLL
=
1+ 2 +
Ac
r
S2

c1
c2

Pi
Ac

11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00
11
00

Pi
Ac

e c1
)
r2

e c2
)
r2

ec
1 ) Mo
r2
S1

Pi
(1+
Ac

111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000

Pi
(1
Ac

Pe
(1
Ac

Mo
e c2
)+
r2
S2

111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000

Pe
(1+
Ac

Pi e c 1
Ic

Pi e c 2
Ic

Mo
S1

Pi
(1
Ac

e c1
)
r2

111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000
111111111
000000000

e c2
)
r2

Mo
e c1
)
r2
S1

Pi
(1+
Ac

Pi
(1
Ac

111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000
111111
000000

e c1
Mt
)
r2
S1

e c2
Mo
)+
r2
S2

111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000
111
000

Pe
(1+
Ac

e c2
Mt
)+
r2
S2

11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000

Pe
(1
Ac

Pi
(1+
Ac

Md + Ml
S1

Mo
S2

1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
1111
0000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000
11111
00000

Md + Ml
S2

1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000
1111111111
0000000000

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Victor Saouma

107

Draft

10.2 Flexural Stresses

4. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL

The internal stress distribution at each one of those four stages is illustrated by Fig. 10.7.

Figure 10.7: Flexural Stress Distribution for a Beam with Variable Eccentricity; Maximum
Moment Section and Support Section, (Nilson 1978)

Draft
108

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Those (service) exural stresses must be below those specied by the ACI code (where the
subscripts c, t, i and s refer to compression, tension, initial and service respectively):
fci permitted concrete compression stress at initial stage .60fci
fti permitted concrete tensile stress at initial stage
< 3 fci
fcs permitted concrete compressive stress at service stage .45fc
fts permitted concrete tensile stress at initial stage
6 fc or 12 fc
Note that fts can reach 12 fc only if appropriate deection analysis is done, because section
would be cracked.
17

18

Based on the above, we identify two types of prestressing:

Full prestressing (pioneered by Freysinet), no tensile stresses, no crack, but there are some
problems with excessive camber when unloaded.
Partial prestressing (pioneered by Leonhardt, Abeles, Thurliman), cracks are allowed to
occur (just as in R/C), and they are easier to control in P/C than in R/C.
19 The ACI code imposes the following limits on the steel stresses in terms of fpu which is the
ultimate strength of the cable: Pj < .80fpu As and Pi < .70fpu As . No limits are specied for
Pe .

Example 10-1: Prestressed Concrete I Beam


Adapted from (Nilson 1978)
The following I Beam has fc = 4, 000 psi, L = 40 ft, DL+LL =0.55 k/ft, concrete density
= 150 lb/ft3 and multiple 7 wire strands with constant eccentricity e = 5.19 in. Pi = 169 k,
and the total losses due to creep, shinkage, relaxation are 15%.
12"
4"
5"

2"

7"
4"

6"
24"
6"

7"

2"
5"

4"

The section properties for this beam are Ic = 12, 000 in4 , Ac = 176 in2 , S1 = S2 = 1, 000 in3 ,
I
= A = 68.2 in2 .
Determine exural stresses at midspan and at support at initial and nal conditions.
Solution:
r2

1. Prestressing force, Pi only


f1 =
Victor Saouma

Pi
ec1
1 2
Ac
r

(10.12-a)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

10.2 Flexural Stresses

109
169, 000
176
Pi
=
1+
Ac
169, 000
=
176
=

f2

(5.19)(12)
68.2

= 83 psi

ec2
r2
1+

(10.12-b)
(10.12-c)

(5.19)(12)
68.21

= 1, 837 psi

(10.12-d)

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the
beam cambers due to prestressing)
w0 =
M0 =

(176) in2
(.150) k/ ft3 = .183 k/ft
(144) in2 / ft2
(.183)(40)2
= 36.6 k.ft
8

(10.13-a)
(10.13-b)

The exural stresses will thus be equal to:


w0
f1,2 =

M0
(36.6)(12, 000)
= 439 psi
=
S1,2
1, 000
ec1
M0
Pi
1 2
Ac
r
S1
83 439 = 522 psi

3 fc = +190
ec2
M0
Pi
1+ 2 +

Ac
r
S2
1, 837 + 439 = 1, 398 psi

.6fc = 2, 400

(10.14)

f1 =

(10.15-a)

(10.15-b)

fti =
f2 =
=
fci =

(10.15-c)
(10.15-d)
(10.15-e)
(10.15-f)

3. Pe and M0 . If we have 15% losses, then the eective force Pe is equal to (1 0.15)169 =
144 k
ec1
M0
Pe
1 2
Ac
r
S1
(5.19)(12)
144, 000
1
=
176
68.2

f1 =

(10.16-a)
439

= 71 439 = 510 psi


ec2
M0
Pe
1+ 2 +
Ac
r
S2
144, 000
(5.19)(12)
=
1+
176
68.2

(10.16-c)

f2 =

= 1, 561 + 439 = 1, 122 psi

(10.16-b)

(10.16-d)
+ 439

(10.16-e)
(10.16-f)

note that 71 and 1, 561 are respectively equal to (0.85)(83) and (0.85)(1, 837)
respectively.
Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1010

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

4. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL


(0.55)(40)2
= 110 k.ft
8

(10.17)

(110)(12, 000)
= 1, 320 psi
1, 000

(10.18)

MDL + MLL =
and corresponding stresses
f1,2 =
Thus,

ec1
M0 + MDL + MLL
Pe
1 2
Ac
r
S1
510 1, 320 = 1, 830 psi

.45fc = 2, 700
ec2
M0 + MDL + MLL
Pe
1+ 2 +

Ac
r
S2
1, 122 + 1, 320 = +198 psi

6 fc = +380

f1 =

(10.19-a)

(10.19-b)

fcs =
f2 =
=
fts =

(10.19-c)
(10.19-d)
(10.19-e)
(10.19-f)

+198

10.3

2
-1122

1
-1398

-1837

-83
-510
-522

-1830

5. The stress distribution at each one of the four stages is shown below.

Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge

Adapted from (Billington and Mark 1983)


The historical Walnut Lane Bridge (rst major prestressed concrete bridge in the USA) is
made of three spans, two side ones with lengths of 74 ft and a middle one of length 160 feet.
Thirteen prestressed cocnrete beams are placed side by side to make up a total width of 44
fet of roadway and two 9.25 feet of sidewalk. In between the beams, and cast with them, are
transverse stieners which connect the beams laterally, Fig. 10.8

20

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

10.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge

1011

80 ft
CENTER
LINE

ELEVATION OF BEAM HALF

9.25

44

ROAD

9.25

SIDEWALK

BEAM CROSS SECTIONS

TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGMS

CROSS - SECTION OF BRIDGE

52"
10"
3"
7"

TRANSVERSE DIAPHRAGM
10"

7"

3-3"

6-7"
SLOTS FOR CABLES

6 1/2"
3 1/2"
7"
30"

CROSS - SECTION OF BEAM

Figure 10.8: Walnut Lane Bridge, Plan View

Victor Saouma

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1012

10.3.1
21

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Cross-Section Properties

The beam cross section is shown in Fig. 10.9 and is simplied


52"

8.9"

22.5"

7"

22.5"
6-7"
= 79"

61.2"

8.9"

SIMPLIFIED CROSS - SECTION OF BEAM

Figure 10.9: Walnut Lane Bridge, Cross Section


Ac = 2(8.9)(52) + (7)(61.2) = 1, 354 in2
I = 2

c 1 = c2
S1 = S2
r2

10.3.2

(52)(8.9)3
+ (52)(8.9)
12

79 8.9

2
2

(10.20-a)
2

(7)(61.2)3
12

= = 1, 277 103 in4


79
h
=
= 39.5 in
=
2
2
1, 277 103
I
=
= 32, 329 in3
=
c
39.5
1, 277 103
I
=
= 943. in2
=
A
1, 354

(10.20-b)
(10.20-c)
(10.20-d)
(10.20-e)
(10.20-f)

Prestressing

Each beam is prestressed by two middle parabolic cables, and two outer horizontal ones
along the anges. All four have approximately the same eccentricity at midspan of 2.65 ft. or
31.8 inch.

22

Each prestressing cable is made up 64 wires each with a diameter of 0.27 inches. Thus the
total area of prestressing steel is given by:

23

Awire = (d/2)2 = 3.14(


Victor Saouma

0.276 in 2
) = 0.0598 in2
2

(10.21-a)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

10.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge

1013

Acable = 64(0.0598) in2 = 3.83 in2


2

Atotal = 4(3.83) in = 15.32 in

(10.21-b)

(10.21-c)

Whereas the ultimate tensile strength of the steel used is 247 ksi, the cables have been
stressed only to 131 ksi, thus the initial prestressing force Pi is equal to

24

Pi = (131) ksi(15.32) in2 = 2, 000 k


25

The losses are reported ot be 13%, thus the eective force is


Pe = (1 0.13)(2, 000) k = 1, 740 k

10.3.3
26

(10.22)

(10.23)

Loads

The self weight of the beam is q0 = 1.72 k/ft.

The concrete (density=.15 k/ ft3 ) road has a thickness of 0.45 feet. Thus for a 44 foot width,
the total load over one single beam is
1
(10.24)
qr,tot = (44) ft(0.45) ft(0.15) k/ ft3 = 0.23 k/ft
13
27

Similarly for the sidewalks which are 9.25 feet wide and 0.6 feet thick:
1
qs,tot = (2)(9.25) ft(0.60) ft(0.15) k/ ft3 = 0.13 k/ft
(10.25)
13
We note that the weight can be evenly spread over the 13 beams beacause of the lateral
diaphragms.
28

29

The total dead load is


qDL = 0.23 + 0.13 = 0.36 k/ft

(10.26)

The live load is created by the trac, and is estimated to be 94 psf, thus over a width of
62.5 feet this gives a uniform live load of
1
(10.27)
wLL = (0.094) k/f t2 (62.5) ft = 0.45 k/ft
13

30

31

Finally, the combined dead and live load per beam is


wDL+LL = 0.36 + 0.45 = 0.81 k/ft

10.3.4

(10.28)

Flexural Stresses

1. Prestressing force, Pi only


ec1
Pi
1 2
Ac
r
6)
(31.8)(39.5)
(2 10
1
=
1, 354
943.
Pi
ec2
=
1+ 2
Ac
r
(31.8)(39.5)
(2 106 )
1+
=
1, 354
943.

f1 =

f2

Victor Saouma

(10.29-a)
= 490. psi

(10.29-b)
(10.29-c)

= 3, 445. psi

(10.29-d)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
1014

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

2. Pi and the self weight of the beam M0 (which has to be acconted for the moment the
beam cambers due to prestressing)
(1.72)(160)2
= 5, 504 k.ft
8
The exural stresses will thus be equal to:
M0 =

w0
f1,2 =

(10.30)

M0
(5, 50.4)(12, 000)
=
= 2, 043 psi
S1,2
943.

(10.31)

ec1
M0
Pi
1 2
Ac
r
S1
490 2, 043 = 1, 553 psi

3 fc = +190
Pi
ec2
M0
1+ 2 +
Ac
r
S2
3, 445 + 2, 043 = 1, 402. psi

.6fc = 2, 400

f1 =

(10.32-a)

(10.32-b)

fti =
f2 =
=
fci =

(10.32-c)
(10.32-d)
(10.32-e)
(10.32-f)

3. Pe and M0 . If we have 13% losses, then the eective force Pe is equal to (10.13)(2106 ) =
1.74 106 lbs
Pe
ec1
M0
f1 =
(10.33-a)
1 2
Ac
r
S1
(31.8)(39.5)
1.74 106
1
2, 043. = 1, 616 psi
(10.33-b)
=
1, 354
943.
ec2
M0
Pe
1+ 2 +
(10.33-c)
f2 =
Ac
r
S2
(31.8)(39.5)
1.74 106
1+
+ 2, 043. = 954. psi
(10.33-d)
=
1, 354
943.
4. Pe and M0 + MDL + MLL
MDL + MLL =

(0.81)(160)2
= 2, 592 k.ft
8

(10.34)

and corresponding stresses


f1,2 =

(2, 592)(12, 000)


= 962. psi
32, 329

(10.35)

Thus,
ec1
M0 + MDL + MLL
Pe
1 2
Ac
r
S1
1, 616 962. = 2, 578. psi

.45fc = 2, 700
ec2
M0 + MDL + MLL
Pe
1+ 2 +
Ac
r
S2
954 + 962. = +8. psi

6 fc = +380

f1 =

(10.36-a)

(10.36-b)

fcs =
f2 =
=
fts =
Victor Saouma

(10.36-c)
(10.36-d)
(10.36-e)
(10.36-f)

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft

10.3 Case Study: Walnut Lane Bridge

Victor Saouma

1015

Mechanics and Design of Reinforced Concrete

Draft
Bibliography
Billington, D. and Mark, R.: 1983, Structural studies, Technical report, Department of Civil
Engineering, Princeton University.
Nilson, A.: 1978, Design of Prestressed Concrete, John Wiley and Sons.