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To begin with To start with In the first place Firstly Finally the writer tells us that city life is dangerous . he describes how cities cause families to break up. Secondly In the second place Next In conclusion To sum up he tells us how unhealthy it is.

he says that the days of the cities are numbered.

First (of all) he opened the door. Then After that he looked outside.

a. Adding adjectives within a sentence. London is (both) exciting and / as well as tiring b. Adding nouns within sentences , together with his friend, is , as well as his friend, is and his friend are attending university in Scotland. And CANNOT be used to join sentences in formal English

My brother


Adding ideas in different sentences My father was a teacher. Furthermore In addition Not only that, Moreover

he was a very good one.

a. Joining ideas within sentences: You can have fish or meat tonight I don't like (either) meat or fish. I like neither meat nor fish b. Alternatives in two sentences: I could write this text by hand. Alternatively, I could type it.

a. Within sentences Even though Although Whereas But joins main clauses, NEVER sentences in formal English. Contrasting nouns and pronouns with ideas in clauses. my brother prefers country life, he lives in the city. My brother prefers country life but he lives in the city. In contrast to me, As opposed to me, Unlike me, my brother prefers...


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Linker + noun phrase + ~ing-form In spite of Despite living in the city, my brother prefers


Linking sentences I live in the country However Nevertheless I prefer city life.

On the one hand, country life is peaceful, on the other hand it can be very boring.

6. TIME (Introducing temporal clauses.)

a. As soon as The moment When Immediately Once Before After By the time he gets home, I'll have made his tea.

Bob gets home, I'll make his tea. (THERE IS NO FUTURE TENSE IN THE TEMPORAL (= "TIME") CLAUSE!!)

b. c:

Whenever (= "always when") I'm with you I'm late. (Future perfect tense in the main clause.) Since living here, I've had nothing but trouble. After living in London, I moved to Liverpool. I won't do anything until I've heard from you. (Present perfect in the temporal clause!)

d. Linker + noun phrase + ~ingform e. "Bis" = "until"

a. If Provided that As long as Assuming that Granted that Given that Unless (= "if .... not") In case (= "Falls..." / "Fr den Fall da...)

the good weather holds, the match will take place.

b. c.

Unless the good weather holds, the match will not take place.

If the good weather does not hold, the match will not take place.

In case I'm not at home when you come, leave the parcel in the garage.

a. Affirmative sentences: She left home so as to become more independent. in order to become more independent. to become more independent. She left home so that she could become more independent. b. Negative sentences. She left home so as not to be too dependent on her parents. in order not to be too dependent on ......

a. Linker + noun: She left home because of the quarrels her parents were always having.
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Linker + clause because her parents were always having rows. since* her parents were always having rows. as her parents were always having rows. (cf. 6d above for other meanings of "since")

She left home

a. b. Within a sentence: I haven't any money so I can't help you. (So CANNOT be used to join sentences in formal English.) Linking sentences: Therefore, Thus, Consequently As a result of this,

Stress makes many students tired.

they should relax at the weekend.

With the exception of Apart from Except for an occasional cold, I've been healthy all winter.

a. Within a sentence: All leisure activities, especially reading, particularly reading, even reading, can cause tiredness.

Good working habits are very important for learning vocabulary. In other words, That is to say, working regularly and systematically will help you to learn vocabulary better and more quickly.


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CONNECTORS SHOWING ADDITION, ALTERNATIVES AND CONTRAST Fill in the gaps with a suitable connector. Do not use the same connector more than once.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Setting realistic goals helps students to organise their work efficiently ... they provide the students with suitable incentives. Painters ... dramatists are taking part in the arts festival. The first sentence of any text you read is most important because it attracts your attention. ... it will decide whether you continue reading. Books ... pencils, ... a lot of papers were lying untidily on the desk. I don't care what you do. You can ... stay here ... go home. If you can't get to the meeting on time, give me a ring tonight. ... leave a note with Mrs Smith. ... John ... Edward was able to help me. I don't know who else to ask. It's going to rain. Shall we stay in ... go out? We enjoyed ourselves ... the weather was bad. ... the weather was bad we enjoyed ourselves very much. He wrote a book about New York ... he had never been there. My father offered to lend me half the money towards the cost of the car. ... there was no way for me to raise the other half so I didn't buy it. He had never had a university education ... he became one of the most influential men in the country. ... the ... living at home can restrict one's personal freedom; ... the ... it can save a student a lot of money.


English food has a bad name abroad (although / because / if) foreigners visiting England often meet it in the more 'popular' type of restaurant (which / it / one) is the easiest to find. The food in (the / a / such) restaurants has to be served quickly (and / as well as / in addition) being cheap. (Although / Nevertheless / Together with) the food is often badly cooked (together with / as well as / and) presented without any imagination. This is because some of the restaurants do not pay enough attention to what their customers want. (Together with / Moreover / Whereas) these restaurants do nothing for the reputation of British food abroad, the foreigner who takes a little trouble and compares the restaurants carefully, can eat well in Britain.


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C. LINKERS SHOWING CONDITION, PURPOSE (INTENTION) AND REASON (CAUSE). Note: "If" / "Assuming that" can be used in all types of conditional sentences. Other linkers are restricted to probable conditions.) Fill in the gaps with suitable linkers. Do not use the same one twice.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.


... you work hard, you will probably get good marks in the examination. We wouldn't have missed the bus ... we'd left earlier. ... you change your working habits, you won't have any success. Don't stand on that chair ... you'll fall over and hurt yourself. ... I were you, I'd stop work now. ... you don't make any noise, you can stay here. He left at 7.30 a.m. ... could catch the bus. He left at 7.30 a.m. ... catch the early bus. He left at 7.30 a.m. ... catch the early bus. I didn't say anything ... I didn't want to make him angry. ... there was not enough demand the course was cancelled. I went into his room quietly ... I didn't want to wake him.

To many people the word sounds awful, not necessarily (when / if / because / alternatively) they are lazy. The man (which / who / what) hates his job in the factory (either / neither / otherwise / or) in the office may work very hard at the weekend, painting the house. ... he may spend a lot of his weekend in the garden, digging and planting. What, then, is the reason for this attitude? Often it is simply (because / although / while) they do not like the job they are doing. (It / one / the same) may be easy, like making cardboard boxes. ... it may be well-paid. ... the man still finds the job boring. Very often they have to do a job (where / which / who) is just a small part of a much larger one, such as putting in the windows of a car. ... the part they play is so small that they can never have the feeling that they have really created something. ... in modern society, someone has to do these jobs ... that is the way society is organised. What, therefore, can be done to make work more attractive? Should the people get more pay (alternatively / neither / or / as well as) should they be given more free time? ... if they are given more free time, how can they be taught to enjoy their leisure?


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