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A Revision

the Genus Boisdl1valia (Onagraceae)
The genus Boisduvalia, although a small one, is an interesting one
in illustrating various distributional trends: several species occur
in western North America, one of which CB. glabella) occurs also
in southern Argentine; a closely related one occurs in Tasmania (B.
tasmanica) ; a distinct group of three others is found in Chile. It
is generally known (cf. JOHNSTON, Journ. Arn. Arbor. 21: 356-7,
1940) that such affinity exists between various species of western
North America and southern South America, likewise one between
Patagonia and Tasmania. Each clear additional case of such
relationship or identity is worth pointing out. I believe it has not
generally been understood that Oenothera tasmanica is a Boisduva-
lia, and now after careful consideration of the genus, I am convinced
that B. pygmaea of southern Argentine is the same as small forms
of B. glabella of the United States.
It is a pleasure to acknowledge indebtedness to and express grati-
tude to many institutions and individuals:
(1) Professor of Botany, Pom,ona College, Claremont, California, U. S. A. El
Dr. MUNZ me escribe 10 siguiente aJ remitir el manuscrito: I am delighted to send
c you helewith a manuscript for the volume to honor Professor PARODIj it is a
c high bonor to be asked to contribute to this volume and I appreciate very much
c your kindness and tha.t of Dr. CABRERA in asking to do so. I am glad to bave
c the opportunity to add my bit to anything that shows honor to so distinguished
c a scientist ... I trust that this little paper, dealing as it does with species from
c both North and South America, may prove to be fitting for the volume you
c have in contemplation ... (in litt. l-XJ-l940). - A. BURKART.
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the Genus Boisiluvalia (Onagraaeae) 125
(1) John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. As a
Guggenheim Fellow in 1938-39 I had the opportunity in South
America of visiting, and studying material in various Herbaria.
(2) Clarem<,mt Colleges and Pomona College (POM) for financial
and other aid.
(3) Professor L. R. PARJODI and Dr. A. L. CABRERA for the
privilege of studying the type of Oenothera; pygmaea from the
Instituto de Botanica C. SPEGAZZINI (LPS).
(4) Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile (SGO)
and the Curator of the Herbarium, Prof. M. R. ESPINOSA BusTOs.
(5) Instituto de Botanica y Farmacologia de la Facultad de
Ciencias Medicas (BAF), Buenos Aires, and the Curator, Senor
JOSE MOLFINO for the privilege of examing material.
(6) Instituto DARWINlON of San Isidro, Buenos Aires (SI) and
the Director, ARTURJO BURKART.
(7) Tasmanian Museum, Hobart, (HO) and Dr. J. M. BLACK
of North Adelaide, South Australia, for material of I!oisduvalia
(8) Institut de Botanique Systematique de l'Universite, Geneva,
(G) and the Director, Professor B. P. G. HOCHREUTINER.
(9) Museum National d'Histoire Paris, (P) and the
Curator, Dr. H. HUMBERT.
(10) Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew (K), and the Director, Sir
(11) British Museum of Natural History (BM) and the Keeper
(12) Gray Herbarium (GB) and Professor M. L. FERNALD, Mr.
(13) New York Botanical Garden (NY) and the Head Curator,
<14) Field 'Museum of Natural History (F) and the Curator of
the Herbarium, Dr. PAUL C. STANDLEY.
(15) University of California Herbarium (UC) and Dr. H. L.
MAsoN and Miss ETHEL CRUM.
(16) United States National Herbarium (US) and Mr. ELLS-
(17) Mr. JOHN THOMAS HOWELL of the California Academy of
Sciences for checking on type specimens.
(18) Dr. THEOOOR JUST of Notre Dame University for looking up
types in the E. L. GREENE Herbarium.
Darwiniana" t. 5, 1941
(19) Dr. P. LEHENBAUER and Dr. W. D. BILLINGS of the Uni-
versity of Nevada for the loan of the type of Boisduvalia sparsifolia.
The abbreviations above indicated in parentheses are those used
in the citation of herbarium specimens in this paper.
, Boisduvalia
BoisduvaZia, as a genus: SPACH, Hist. Veg. Phan. 4: 383,1835; Nouv. Annal.
MU8. Paris, ser. Ill, 4: 398, 1835. - ENDLlCHER, Gen. PI., 1191, 1840.
-WALPERS, Rep. 2: 89, 1843,-GAY, Fl. Chilena 2: 343, 1846.-BREwER
& WATSON, Bot. CaUf. 1: 233, 1876.-TRELEASE, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard.,
5: 116, 1894. - REICHE, -Flora de Chile, 2: 470, 1898. - JEPSON, Fl.
Calif. 2: 571, 1936.
Boi8duvalia, as a section under Oe1wthera: TORREY & GRAY, Fl. No. Amer.
1: 505,1840. - BENTH. & HOOK., Gen. PI. 1: 790, 1867. WATSON, Proc.
Amer. Acad. 8: 600, 1873. As Il; c group under Oenothera: LEVEILLE,
Monogr. Oenoth: groupe B, 296, 1908.
Cratericarpium, as a genus: SPACH, Nouv. Annal. MU8. Paris, ser. Ill,
4:397, 1835. - ENDLICHER, 1. c. - GAY, 1. c., 341.
Caulescent, mostly erect annuals, sometimes decumbent, perhaps
sometimes perennials. Leaves generally alternate, sometimes
opposite, simple, sessile. Flowers diurnal, often small" even minute,
in leafy spikes, or in axils of ordinary leaves. Hypanthium pro-
dbced above the ovary, more or less funnelform, short to elongate;
sepals 4, erect. Petals 4, sessile, obovate to deeply bilobed, purple
to reddish to pink or white. Stamens 8, those opposite the petals
shorter and usually inserted below the summit of the hypanthium;
'anthers basifixed, all perfect; pollen in tetrads. Stigma with 4
very short broad lobes, or almost capitate. Capsule 4-celled, 4-
valved, sessile, terete to somewhat angled. Seeds smooth, without a
coma, with thin margin at each end, apparently ascending, usually
in a single row in the locule. (Named for JEAN ALPHONSE BOISDU-
VAL, French naturalist and physician of the 19th Century).
The relationship of the genus Boisduvalia must be with the Epi-
'lobiae as evidenced by such characters as:
(1) pollen in tetrads,
(2) tendency to erect sepals,
(3) bilo bed petals,
(4) insertion of shorter epipetalous stamens lower in the
hypanthium than that of th\l longer episepalous ones,
(5) color of flowers red or purplish to white.
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the Ge'1lJ!b8 Boisiluvalia (Onagraoeae) 127
The absence of the coma on the seeds is the most evident
difference. In fact, BoisduvaUa seeins to stand between the Epilo-
biae (Zauschneria and Epilobittm) on the one hand and the
Oenothera complex on the other. As can be seen from the refe-
rences cited above, it has often been placed as a section of Oenothe-
ra, but most recent authors have separated it generically.
Traditionally the genus has been treated for North America as
consisting of four species: B. densiflora, B. glabella, B. stricta and
B. cleistogama, and for South America as having three in Chile:
B. concinna, B. subulata, and B. Tocornalii and sometimes a fourth:
B. Volckmanni: I am now convinced that two more mnst be added
in the United States: B. macrantha and B. pallida, that B. glabella
occurs also in Argentine, and that Oenothera tasmanica is a Boisdu-
valia. I therefore recognize a total 'of ten species.
A. Hypanthium 6-18 mm long. (Sect. Euboisduvalia (1. South America.
B. P e ~ l s 15-25 mm long; stems smooth at base, pubescent in inflorescence;
hypanthium 12-18 mm long; sepals 7-10 mm long. 3. B. TocornaZii
BB. Petals 6-10 mm long; hypanthium 6-12 mm long; sepals 4-7 mm long.
C. Whole plant strigose, the leaves linear, 1-2 mm wide; capsule obovate,
sometimes 4-winged in upper part. 2. B. subuZata
CC. Whole plant with spreading hairs; leaves lanceolate, 3-8 mm wide;
capsule cylindrical. 1. B. concinna
AA. Hypanthium 0.5-3 mm long.
B. Capsule septifragal, the septa wholly adherent to the placental axis,
making the latter 4-winged; capsule not conspicuously beaked; floral
bracts proportionally wider than cauline leaves. W. North America. (Sect.
Pachydium (2). 4. B. densijlora
BB. Capsule subterete and loculicidal, the septa adhering to the valves in
dehiscence, or 4-sided and not dehiscent. (Section Currania (8), new sect.).
(1) Section Euboisduvalia, new name for sect. Dictyopetalum (FISCH. & MEYEB)
ENDLlCHEB, Gen. Pl., 1191, 1840; WALPERS, Rep. 2: 89, 1843, Sect. Dictyopetalum
under genus Oenothera, FISCH. & MEY., Ind. SBm. hort. Petrap. 2: 45, 1835, for
B. concinna, For the type species of the genus, it is according to Rules of Nomen-
clature necessary to take up a section name such as the one I here propose.
(2) Sect. Pachydium (FISCH. & MEY.) ENDLICHER, Gen. Pl., 1191, 1840; WALF.,
Rep. 2: 89, 1843. Sect. under Oenothera, F. & M., Ind. sem. hort. Petrop. 2: 45,
1835, for Oenothera densiflora.
(') Currania, new sect. Capsula tereta aut quadrangularia, ZoculiGidalia aut
indehisoontia, cum septis vaZvas adhaeresci:.ntibu8. Named in honor of KATHERINE
LA YNE CUBRAN BBANDEGEE, critical student of the California flora, who as Mrs.
CURRAN discovered and proposed B .. CZeistogama.
Darwiniana, t .. 5, 1941
C. Capsule coriaceous, 4-sided, tardily if at all dehiscentj leaves narrowly
lanceolate; ovules rather numerous, 10-14 in each row. Great Valley
of California. 5. B. cleistogama
CC. Capsule membranaceous, subterete, usually dehiscent; ovules
fewer, except sometimes in B. glabella.
D. Capsule somewhat enlarged upward, not beaked; leaves oblong,
crisped denticulate. Tasmania. 6. B. tasmanicu
DD. Capsule larger in lower half, often definitely beaked. America.
E. Hypanthium 0,5-1 mm long; petals 1,5-4 mm long.
F. Fruit straight, 5-8 mm long; floral bracts ovate to
oblong; petals 2-4 mm long. W. United States and
S. Argentine. 7. B. glabella
FF. Fruit curved, 6-10 (13) mm long, the tip turned
away from the stem; floral bracts linear; petals
1,5-2 mm long. 'Wo United States. 9. B. strictu
EE. Hypanthium 2-3 mm long; petals 5-10 mm long.
F. Leaves serrulate, crowded; petals 7-10 mm long; cap-
sules straight. N. California. 8. B. macranthu
FF. Leaves quite entire, not crowded; petals 5-8 mm
long; capsules curved. S. Oregon & N. California.
10. B. pallida
1. Boisduvalia concinna (D. DON) SPACH
SPACH, Hist. Veg. Phan. 4: 384, 1835; Nouv. Annal. Mus. Paris, ser. Ill,
4: 399, 1835.
Oenothem concinna D. DON, in SWEET, Brit. Fl. Garden, ser. I1, pI. 183,1833.
Boisduvalia subulata race concinna LEYL., Bull. Acad. Internat. Geogr.
Bot. 18: 298, 1908.
Oenothem caespitosa GILL. ex H. & A. in HOOK., Bot. 3: 311, 1833,
pro synon. Published in synonymy under B. subulata, but the specimen
cited (<< between Talca and Cucico in Chili, Dr. Gillies ) and which I
have seen at Kew. I place under B. concinna.
Oe. humifusa LINDL., Bot. Rey. 22: pI. 1829, 1836. Misapplication of name
Oe. humifusa NUTT.
Nierembergia subdentata MEYEN, Reise 1: 314, 1843. Cf. WALPERS, Rep.
3: 6, 1844. I have seen type at Berlin: Cordillera. de S. Fernando, Col-
chagua, MEYEN.
Boisduvalia andina PHIL., Linnaea 33: 70, 1864-65. Said to have come
from Andes of Linares. I r.ave seen no authentic specimens.
Oenothera gaurodes KUNTZE, Rev. Gen. 3 (2): 99, 1898. Based on collection
by KUNTZE from Maule, which I have seen.
FIGURE 5, for habit.
Annual, usually freely branched at base, with decumbent or
ascending branches, sometimes simple and suberect, silky-villous
P. A. MUNZ, A. Revision of the Genus Boisauvalia (Onagraceae) 129
throughout, stems 5-30 (50) cm. long; leaves often spreading or
recurved, frequently crowded, o f ~ e n with axillary fascicles, ovate-
lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, subentire to denticulate, sessile,
acuminate, 1-5 cm. long, 3-8 mm. wide, scarcely reduced in inflo-
rescence; flowers solitary in upper axils; inflorescence glandular-
pubescent; hypanthium 6-12 mm. long, slightly enlarged upward;
sepals lanceolate, 4-6 mm. long; petals pink with deeper colored
veins, rarely white, ob cordate, 6-10 mm. long; episepalous stamens
about 2/3 as long as petals; epipetalous slightly shorter; anthers
1.5-2 mm. long; style slightly longer than stamens, 20-25 mm. long;
stigma 1.5-2 mm. wide, with 4 short broad lobes; capsule subterete
to 4.-angled, 4-ribbed, straight or slightly curved, villouS, 5-10
(18?) .mm. long, 2 mm. thick, loculicidal; seeds oblong-ovoid, 1 mm.
long', cellular-punctate, brown or with brown spots.
Type locality probably Valparaiso, Chile. Given only as Chile,
plants having been raised from seeds sent by CUMING. The' only
herbarium 'specimens I have seen from him are labelled Valparaiso.
Species well distributed in Chile.
MATERIAL SEEN: From Gardens: Cobham Lodge, Surrey Herb.
in 1840, F. YOUNG (K); Jardill des Plantes, seeds from FISC HER
(K); Hart. bot. Berol. iD'1835 (B), in 1844 (B), in 1841 (B), in.
1849 (B). CHILE, Acollcagua, in collibus V al paraiso, GAY in 1838
(P); Valparaiso, CUMING 606 (BM, K). Santiago, near road to
Santiago, BRIDGES (G, K). Colchagua, Cordillera de San Fernan-
do, MEYEN, as Nierembergia subdentata n. sp. (B); without definite
.locality, GAY in 1833 (G), PHIIJIPPI in 1862 (G), 795 (BM); San
Fernando, BERTERO 465, in 1828 (G); Pichilemu, Feb. 21, 1927,
MONTERO 1810 (GH). Curico, Curico, corn. PHILIPPI, Feb. 1888
(B. K) ; plains base of Andes, BRIDGES 1233 (B, BM, K) ; between
Curico and Talca, GILLIES, as Oenothera caespitosa, n. sp. (K).
Talca, Talca, E. C. REED (K); Camarico, Rio Claro, MOREIRA in
1926 (GH). Maule, without definite locality, Feb. 8, 1892, O.
KUNTZE, type number of Oenothera gaurodes (B, G, NY) ; Cauque-
11es, C. ELLIOTT 119 (K); Banos de Cauquenes, Jan. 15, 1920, E.
W. & M. M. HOLWAY 298 (US). Linares, Panamavida. PHILIPPI &
BORCHERS in 1883 (BM), E. W. & M. M. HOLWAY 230 (US). :Nu-
hIe, without definite locality, PHILIPPI (B); Chillan, March, 1862,
PHILIPPI (B, G, SGO) ; near Chillan, GERMAIN in 1855 (BM, F, G,
K). Concepcion, Chiguayante, O. KUNTZE, Feb. 19, 1892 (NY).
Malleco, Angol, Feb. 1925, F. W. PENNELL 12823 (GH). Cautin,
Temuco, BRo. CLAUDE-JOSEPH 1053, Jan. 1920 (US).
DAB\l"INIANA. - T. V 9
130 Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
2, Boisduvalia subulata eR. & P.) RAIMANN
RAIMANN in ENGLER & PRANTI" Die Naturl. Pjlanzenjam., 3 (7): 212,1893.
Oenothera subulata R. & P., Fl. Peruv. 3: 82, pI. 316, 1802.
Crateriwrpium argyrophyllum SPACH, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Paris 4: 327 & 398.
1835, new name for sul:ulata.
Oenothem unijlora GILLIES ex H. & A. in HOOK., Bot. Mise. 3: 311, 1833,
pro synon. Type at Kew seen.
Boisduvalia Volckmanni PHIL., Linnaea, 30: 187, J859-60. Based on collec-
tion by VOLCKMAN from foot of Andes in Colchagua. In the Museum
at Santiago on 1 sheet labelled B. Volckmanni are 4 difterent collec-
tions, all unmounted and only one having the label fastened to a plant.
One of the loose labels reads Pruv. Colchagua frequens. Ad radicem
Andium los Niches. 1858. VOLCKMAN ; ihis undoubtedly goes with the
type, but I was unable to tell to which specimen the label belonged. Of
these four plants, some are strigose, some not; some with leaves 1-2 mm
wide, others ca. 3 mm wide. For the most part they are B. subulata.
Oenothera Volckmanni LEVL. & GUFFR., Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot., 18: 299,
312, 1908.
FIGURE 4, for habit and fruit.
Annual, grayish, strigose-villous throughout, usually branched
from near base, erect or ascending, 1-3 dm. high, the branches usually
simple; leaves alternate, sessile, linear, entire, ascending, l.5-3 cm.
long, 1-1.5 (3) mm. wide, gTadually reduced up the stem and with
fascicles of shorter ones in the axils; flowers few, solitary in the
upper axils; inflorescence glandular-puberulent as well as somewhat
strigose-villous; hypanthium narrow, gradually expanding toward
the summit, 8-12 mm. long; sepals narrowly lanceolate, 4-5 mm.
long; petals cuneate, 7-9 mm. long, bifid, one-third to one-half the
way toward the base, purplish-red to pink with violet veins; episepa-
lous stamens two-thirds as long as petals; epipetalous one-third the
petals; anthers about 2 mm. long; style slightly exceeding the longer
stamens, 18-20 mm. long; stigma-lobes about 0.5 mm. long; capsule
. sessile, 6-10 mm. long, 1-2 mm. thick, subcylindric in lower portion,
gradually expanded upward and sometimes slightly 4-winged
toward the apex; seeds smooth, brown, narrowly obovoid, about
1 mm. long.
Type locality, Concepcion, Chile.
MATERIAL SEEN: CHILE: without locality, Herb. PAVON, type 1 (G),
Herb. DOMBEY in Herb. JUSSIEU (P), LESSON in 1824, ex Herb.
KUNTH (B), Poppw 111 (G), REYNOLDS (GH), CL. GAY (B, G
GH, K, NY). Aconcagua, without definite locality, ALBERT in
P. A. MUNZ, A of the Genus Boisduvalia (Onagraccae) 131
1898 (SGO). Talca, between Talca and Curico, GILLIES, type of
Oenothem uniflora, n. sp. (K). Linares, between Talca and Lina-
res, Jan., 1877, PRILIPPI (SGO). Nuble, near ChilUm, March,
1862, PRILIPPI (B, SGO; photo of B. specimen at F, POM); Chi-
Han, M. A. DE SOLlS in 1863 (SGO), F. INGA in 1875 (SGO). Con-
cepcion, Los Angeles, Dec., 1838, GAY, 1230 (F, P, SGO); Penco.
Feb. 19, 1925, BERNINGER 22 (B); la Vega de Concepcion, POPPIO
55 (111) (B, G, BM, P; photo of Berlin 'specimen a.t POM); Con-
cepcion, PRILIPPI, Jan., 1885 (BM), D'URVILLE ded. 1845 (B),
DOMBEY (F, P), CUMING 821 .(BM, K). Bio Bio, Antuco, REY-
NOLDS 100 (K). Cautin, Cholchol, R. MORTON MIDDLE TON in 1106
(BM, G). - ARGENTINE: Chubut, Lago Puelo, Jan., 1937, R. LA-
The Argentine specimen is apparently a new record for that
country. In it the capsules are not at all winged, but subcylindric,
slightly enlarged upward; there is some question in my mind as to
whether such plants as this and BERNINGER 22, and PHILIPPI, March.
1862 should be treated as a separate species from B. subulata. If
so, they apparently should be called B. Volckmanni, as nearly as
one can judge from the original description of the latter. But in
such plants as the DOMBEY collection, cited in the preceding para-
graph, both kinds of capsules, winged and subcylindric, appear 011
the same stem.
3. Boisduvalia Tocornalii C. GAY
GAY, Fl. Chil. 2: 344, 1846.
FIGURE 8, for habit.
Branched at base, the stems few, suberect, simple or branched,
2-7 dm. tall, glabrous below, pubescent, even somewhat ghindulal'
in inflorescence; leaves linear-lanceolate, 2.5-4 cm, long, 3-8 mm.
wide, subentire, acuminate, quite sessile, sparsely strigulose, gra-
dually reduced up the stem, the floral bl'acts lance-ovate, 8-10 mm.
long, glandular-pubel'ulent, wavy; hypanthium yellow-green, 10-18
mm. long, gradually enlarged upward; sepals lanceolate, 7-10 mm.
long; petals lavender, obcordate to bilobed, 15-25 mm. long j epise-
palous stamens one-half /lIS long as petals, epipetalous slightly
shorter; anthers ca. 3 mm. long; style almost as long as petals;
stigma with 4 ovate lobes, these 0.6 mm. lo,ng; capsules subsessile,
loculicidal, quadrangular, sub cylindric, but slightly enlarged above,
Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
not winged, 10-14 mm. long, ca. 2 mm. thick; seeds numerous,
irregularly narrowly obovoid, dark brown, 2 mm. long.
Type locality, en 108 camp08 incultos de las provincias meridio-
nales , Chile, possibly Nacimiento, Bio Bio.
MATERIAL SEEN: CHILE, without definite locality, CL. GAY (B, G,
GH, K; photo of B. specimen at F, POM). Concepcion, Concep-
don, D'URVILLE ded. 1825, ex hb. KUNTH CB). Bio Bio, Nacimien-
to, Dec., 1839, GAY 1217 (F, NY, P, SGO). Nuble, Chilli m, April,
1865, PHILIPPI ? (SGO).
Readily distinguished from related species by its much larger
4. Boisduvalia densiflora (LINDL.) S. W ATS.
S. WATS., in Bot. Calif. 1: 233, 1876.
Oenothera densiflora LINDL., BOi. Reg. 19: pI. 1593, 1833.
Simple or branched, particularly above, erect or nearly so, 3-10
r( 15) dm. tall, comm?nly pilose, sometimes crisp-pubescent, glan-
dular or not in inflorescence, green to canescent, leafy throughout;
lower cauline leaves lanceolate to lance-linear, sessile or short-
petioled, acute to acuminate, entire or denticulate, 2-5 (9) cm. long,
3-7 (9) mm. wide, spreading or ascending; upper ones somewhat
reduced and narrower; floral bracts ovate to lance-ovate, acute to
abruptly acuminate, mostly entire, 5-12 (20) mm. long, 3-10 (15)
mm. wide; inflorescence spicate, elongating in fruit, terminating
main stem and branches; hypanthiuin narrow, 1.5-2.5 mm. long;
sepals lanceolate; 2.5-6 mm. long; petals rose-purple to pink with
deeper veins to white, 5-10 (12) mm. long, bifid one-third to one-
half their length; episepalous stamens almost half as long as petals,
epipetalous one-fourth to one-fifth the petals; anthers 1 mm. lcrng;
style 3-9 mm. long; stigma 0.5-1 mm. broad, 4-lobed; capsules
subfusiform, quite straight, usually subterete, with 4 broad nerves,
.6-10 mm. long, 1.5-2.5 mm. thick, acute at apex but not beaked,
rather thin-walled, septifragal, the septa adhering to the placental
axis which thus becomes 4-winged; seeds few, 3-6 (8) in each cell,
oblong-ovoid, flattened, brown, paler at ends, smooth, 1-2 mm. long,
'0.4-0.8 mm. wide.
This species has long been recognized as exceedingly variable and
a number of segregates has been proposed. TRELEASE, Rep. Mo.
Bot. Gard. 5: 120, 1894, after mentioning a number of variants,
-wrote I do not see how to separate these forms as even varieties,
P. A. MUNZ, .d Revision of the Genu.!! Boisduvalia (Onagraceae) 133
although as here defined, densiflora is far more variable than the
other species of the genus . In fact, the intergradation is so
complete and puzzling that I cannot recognize nomenclatorially all
the variants, nor can I separate any as species. Many characters
which have been used, such as flower-color, seem quite worthless.
The following treatment is offered:
A. Pubescence loose, S'preading, usually with some gland-tipped hairs; floral blacts
often subolbicular-ovate; plant green or if canescent with some long hairs.
B. Spikes more or less lax, the floral bracts or leaves not dense.
C. Seeds 4-6 in each cell, 1-1,5 mm long. 4 a. var. genuina
CC. Seeds 3-4 in each cllll, 2 mm long. 4 c. var. pallescens
BB. Spikes long and dense, the bracts so densely imbricated as to conceal
the capsules. 4 b. forma imbricma
AA. Pubescence more appressed, no hairs gland-tipped; floral bracts lance-ovate;
ovate; plant strigose-canescent. 4 d. var. salicina
4 a. B. densiflora (LINDL.) S. WATS. var. genuina MUNZ, novo nom.
Oenothera densiflora LINDL., Bot. Rey. 19: pI. 1593, 1833.
Boisduvalia densiflora S. WAT8., Bot. Calif. 1: 233, 1876. TRELEA8E, Rep.
Mo. Bot. Gard. 5: 118, pI. 25, 1894.
B. Douglasii SPACH, Hist. Veg. Phan. 4: 385, 1835; Nouv. Annal. MU8.
Paris, sel. Ill, 4: 400, 1835. New name for B. densiflora.
B. bipartita GREENE, Erythea 3: 119. 1895. .
B. densiflora var. bipartita (GREENE) JEPSON, Fl. W. Mid. Calif., ed. 2,
276, 1911. Said to differ from B. densiflora var. genuina by the unequal
lobes of the petals, and to have come sandy dry bed of the Arroyo del
Valle, California, June 14, 1895 (Alameda Co.). At the GREENE Her-
barium are two specimens witb such data. According to letter from
Dr. JUST: c Flowers from both boiled and examined as to petal character
in question. In both cases the petals were found to be parted into two
nearly e q u ~ l segments >.
B. sparsifolia NELSON & KENNEDY, Muhlenbergia 3: 139, 1908. Based on
KENNEDY 644 from Maggie Creek, Elke Co., Nevada, which I have
:F'IGURE 1, for habit and fruit .
. Plant green to canescent; stems with spreading longer hairs and
some shorter gland-tipped ones especially in inflorescence; leaves
spreading to ascending; flowers more or less remote, the bracts not
overlapping; petals purple-rose to white, the lobes equal; seeds 1-1.5
mm. long.
134 Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
Type locality given by Lindley as Northern California; type.
grown in England from seeds sent by DOUGLAS in 1831. GREENE,
Fl. Francisc., 225, 1891, wrote The type, figured by LINDLEY, is
not in middle California, but must be Oregonian. . LINDLEY'S
Northern California would of course refer to what we now
consider middle California. It is known that DOUGLAS was in the
Monterey-San Francisco region during 1831 and it seems to me that
some of the plants from that region _ match LiNDLEY'S figure very
well in the drooping narrow leaves, compact habit, etc. In fact,
it is difficult to tell from the figure whether 01). greater maturity
this plant would be GREENE'S var. irnbl-icata or not, but the floral
bracts as figured seem too narrow. Moreover, herbarium specimens
like Hart. Soc. Hart. Land. (NY), Hart. Beral., 1839 (GH),
I think from SPACH [in GRAY'S hand] CGR), H. B. BASIL, 1839
(NY), are for the most part not imbricate, yet from thl<ir early
date are likely to have come from the DOUGLAS material. I judge
then that the type locality is western middle California.
The var. genuina, as I here. treat it, ranges from Vancouver Island,
B. C., to Idaho, Nevada, and Baja California, but in the northern
part of the range is quite rare. I have seen much more material
than needs to be cited; representative specimens are: BRITISH CO-
LUMBIA: all from Vancouver Island, DAWSON 55009, in 1876 (NY);
Victoria, MACOUN 85910, July 24, 1908 (NY); Wellington, W. R.
CARTER in 1916 (GH). - WASHINGTON: Stevens Co., Chewelah.
KREAGER 526, Aug. 26, 1902 (GR, NY, US); Walla Walla Co.,
'Vaitsburg, R. M. HORNER 401, July 23, 1897 (UC.). - OREGON:
without aefinite locality, DOUGLAS (GR), E. HALL 186, in 1871
(GH, NY), 188 (NY), Oe. (Baisduvalia) irnbricata, NUTALL (NY);
Clackamas Co., Oregon City, ELMER 3067, Aug., 1901 (POM) ; Hood
River Co., Mt. Hood, HENDERSON in 1882 (NY); Wasco Co., The
Dalles, LYALL in 1860 (GH) ; 1 mi. south of Antelope, ABRAMS 9572,
July, 1922 (POM); Douglas Co., Roseburg, ABRAMS 8709, July 4,
1922 (POM); near Yoncalla, HELLER 14709, July 31, 1928 (NY);
Jackson Co., Wimer, HAMMOND 148, July 26, 1892 (GH, NY). -
IDAHO: Washington Co., Snake River Valley, M. E. JONES 6314,
Sept. 4,1899 (POM, US); Ada Co., Arrowrock Reservoir near Boise,
Aug. 29, 1936, MUNZ 14554 (POM); Boise, JUNE CLARK 155, July
27,1911 (GH, NY) ; Canyon Co., Nampa, NELSON & MACBRIDE 1063,
July 13, 1911 (GH, NY, POM, UC); Owyhee Co., Twilight Gulch,
MACBRIDE 483, July 28,1910 (GH, NY, DC). - NEVADA: Elko Co.,
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the Genus Boisduvalia (Onagraceae) 135
Gold Creek, NELSON'& MACBRIDE 2134, July 29,1912 (GR) j east
side Ruby Mts., Aug. 3. 1936, P. TRAIN 431 (POM) j Maggie Creek,
KENNEDY 644, type of B. sparsifolia (Univ. of Nevada) ; Eureka Co.,
Palisade, DIEHL 274, .July 10, 1902 (POM) ; Washoe Co., 8 mi. SW.
of Reno, ARCHER 6126, June 24, 1938 (POM); Franktown Creek,
C. L. BROWN in 1907 (GR). - CALIF'ORNIA: Humboldt Co., moo of
Grizzly Creek, Van Duzen River, ABRAMs 6027 (NY) j valley of
Trinity River near mouth of Willow Creek, July 8, 1911, TRACY
3475 (UC); Mendocino Co., Ukiah, FEUDGE 209, July 13, 192B
(POM) ; Wolf Creek, ABRAMs 5863, July 7, 1916 (NY); Yorkville,
EASTWOOD ,& HOWELL 4575, June 20, 1937 (POM); Sonoma Co ..
Santa Rosa, KUNTZE 28139 in part, July, 1904 (NY); between
Healdsburg and Geyersville, HELLER 5820, July 8, 1902 (GR, NY,
POM); Marin Co., 3 miles so. of San Anselmo, MUNz 14301. Aug. 7,
1936 (POM, UC); San Mateo Co., Crystal Springs Lake, ELMER
4273, April, 1903 (NY, POM, UC); Santa Clara Co., road to
Madrone Springs, EAsTwooD ,& HOWELL 4536, June 5, 1937 (NY,
POM) ; Black Mt., ELMER 4769, June, 1903 (NY, UC) ; San Beni-
to Co., Pinnacles National Monument, T. CRAIG 1369, June 12, Hl28
(POM) ; Monterey Co., Jolon, BRANDEGEE in 1886 (DC); San LUls
Obispo Co., DUllcans Spring, Cholame region. LEMMoN in 1888
(UC); Siskiyou Co., Yreka Creek, BUTLER 1614,' June 29, 1901
(POM, DC, US)'; Cottonwood Creek, Siskiyou Mts., L. WHEELER
2755. June 22, 1934 (GH, POM) ; Shasta Co., Middle Creek Station,
HELLER 7913. May 31, 1905 (GR, NY) ; Butte Co., 10 mi. east of
Oroville, HELLER 11564, JUly 13, 1914 (GR, NY, US) ; Plumas Co.,
Red Clover Valley, HELLER & KENNEDY 8877 (GR, F, NY, POM) ;
Lake Co., south of Mt. Sanhedrin, RELLER 5973, July 21, 1902 (GR,
NY, POM); Napa Co., Napa Valley, TORREY in 1865 (NY); San
Joaquin Co .. Btockton, QUICK in 19?9 (POM); Amador Co., lone,
BRAUNTON 1074 (NY), 1006 (DC); Stanislaus Co., mouth of Bear
Creek, Mrs. W. J. WILLIAMSON 170, May 24, 1919 (POM); Tuo-
lumne Co., Mather, MUNz 7384, July 18, .1923 (POM); Mariposa
Co., Yosemite Valley, HALL 9231, July 28, 1911 (DC), ABRAMs
4620 (GR, POM) ; Madera Co., San Joaquin Exp. Range, BISWELL
86 (UC); Fresno Co., Pine Ridge. HALL & CHANDLER 87, June, 1900
(NY, UC) ; Kern Co., Biilses Station, Tehachapi Mts., DUDLEY 462,
June 28, 1895 (NY, F, DC) ; Ventura Co., Frazier Mt., HALL 6617,
July 10, 1905 (UC) ; Los Angeles Co., Sulphur Springs, San Gabriel
Mts., V. DURAN 3511, July 10, 1933 (NY, POM, DC) ; San Bernar-
dino Co., Victorville, PARISH 10629, June 25, 1915 (UC); Fish
136 Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
Camp, San Bernardino Mts., JOHNSTON 2893, July 17, 1921 (POM);
Lower San Sevaine Flats, San Gabriel Mts., JOHNSTON in 1925
(POM) ; Riverside Co., San Jacinto Mts., G. F. REINHARDT, June,
]897 (UC); 5 miles SE. of Poppet Flats, San Jacinto Mts., MUNZ
& JOHNSTON 8818, July 29, 1924 (GR, POM) ; Idyllwild, SPENCER
1209, July 10, 1921 (GH); San Diego Co., Palomar Mt., SPENCER
997, Aug. 18, 1918 (POM); Cuyamaca Lake, MUNz & HARwooD
7215, June 27, 1923 (NY, POM), ABRAMs 3885 (NY, GH, POM). -
BAJA CALIFORNIA: Hanson Ranch, ORCUTT, July 27, 1883 (UC, F).
4 b. B. densiflora var. genuina forma imbricata (GREENE)
MUNZ, novo comb.
B. var'
imbricata GREENE, Fl. Francisc., 225, 1891.
B. imbricata HELLER, Muhlenbergia 1: 42, 1904.
densiflora. var. imbricma LEVL., Bull. Acad. fm. Geogr. Bot. 18:
302, 1908.
Boisduvalia densiflora var. mOlltana [published as m01itanus] JEPSON, Fl.
W. Mid. Calif., 330, 1901. No type cited; said to come from Howell Mt.,
Napa Co. and characterized by short latera.l spikelets numerous below
the short terminal spike >. Reduced by JEPSON, Fl. Calif. 2: 572, 1936 to
synonymy under B. imbricata, and JEPSON 14390 cited as example. I have
not seen this number.
Floral bracts orbicular-ovate, densely imbricated and quite con-
cealing the capsules; flowers, seeds, etc. as in var. gennina.
GREENE cited no specimens in his original description; nor do
there seem to be any so designated by him, collected prior to 1891,
in the various herbaria containing many of his specimens: GREENE
Herbarium, .University of California, California Academy of Scien-
ces, U. S. National Herbarium. In order to choose one that he must
have seen, I suggest that BOLANDER 6403 from Mt. Diablo (UC) be
designated as type.
NUTTALL made a collection in Oregon which he labelled as
Oenothera (Boisduvalia) imbricata; of this material the Gray Her-
barium sheet it! imbricate, but belongs to var. salicina and the New
York Botanical Garden sheet is not at all imbricate and belongs to
var. genuina. GREENE makes no reference to the NUTTALL collection
and I doubt that he knew of it.
Since this plant occurs practically throughout the range of var.
genuina, often growing with it, since there is absolutely every degree
of intergradation, since it is often impossible to plants
until well in fruit, since in some. cases it seems quite seasonal or
P,. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the Gen;us Boisduvalia (Onagraceae) 137
ecological, and since the same tendency toward a compact imbricate
condition occurs in other varieties such as salicina. I cannot recog-
nize imbricata as of higher rank than forma. From California I
have seen so much material that from that region at least, I am
citing only a portion of it. WASHINGTON: without locality, BRANDE-
GEE 787, in 1883 (GH, DC) ; King Co., Seattle, SHUMWAY in 1892
(UC) ; Spokane Co., Spokane, Rev. SPALD!NG (GH); Walla Walla
Co., Waitsburg, HORNERin 1897 (GH). - OREGON: Columbia River,
DOUGLAS in 1830, in part (NY); Washington Co., Forest Grove,
LLOYD in 1894 (NY) ; Douglas Co., Riddle, WARD 70, Sept. 22, 1899
(NY). - NEVADA: Storey Co., 5 mi. SW. of Virginia City, R. A.
ALLEN 479 (POM). - CALIFORNIA: Humboldt Co., White Thorn
Valley, TRACY 5020, July 5,1918 (UC) ; Valley of Van Duzen River,
TRACY 2850 (GH, UC) ; Mendocino Co., Mendocino, H. E. BRowN
905 (GH, NY) ; 20 miles north of Willits, MUNZ 14327 (POM, UC) ;
Sonoma Co., Sonoma Valley, TORREY 104, in 1865 (NY); Lake Co.,
Kelseyville, TRACY 2260, July 13, 1905 (UC); Marin Co., Olema,
HARRIET WALKER 1187 (UC); Whites Hill, JUSSEL 419 (POM);
Napa Co., Knoxville, JEPSON in 1892 (UC); Contra Costa Co., road
to Mt. Diablo, SCIIREIBER 936, Oct. 5, 1933 (UC); Mt. Diablo, Bo-
LANDER 6403 (UC) ; Alameda Co., Oakland, M. E. JONES 2358, July
7, 1881 (POM); Alameda, KELLOGG & HARFORD, June, 1868 (NY);
Santa Clara Co., Saratoga, PENDLETON 358 (UC); Alviso, ELMER
4964 (POM, UC) ; San Mateo Co., Pigeon Point, KECK 2944, July 7,
1934 (NY, POM) ; Santa Cruz Co., Camp 44, Santa Cruz, BREWER
811 (UC); Monterey Co., Pajaro, CHANDLER 463 (UC); San Benito
Co., Vancouver Pinnacles, ABRAMS 6714 (NY, US) ; San Luis Obispo
Co., Mrs. R. W. SUMMERS in 1886 (POM, UC) ; Siskiyou Co., Mt.
Shasta, H. E. BROWN 566 (NY, UC); Hornbrook, E. B. GOPELAND
under C. F. BAKER 3543 (GH, POM, UC); Shasta Co., 5 miles
south of Redding, HELLER 12448, June 25, 1916 (GH, NY) ; Tehama
Co., 21.5 mi. west of Mineral, Mrs. BRACELIN 645 (UC), 654 (NY,
POM) ; Plumas Co., Genessee, HELLER & KENNEDY 8863 (GH, NY,
POM, UC) ; Butte Co., Wick',s Corner, HELLER 15109 (NY, POM) ;
Clear Creek, H. E. BROWN 111 (NY, UC); Solano Co., Laguna
Valley, JEPSON in 1893 (UC) ; San Joaquin Co., W. Stockton, SAN-
FORD 182 (UC); Nevada Co., Nevada City, HELLER 8107, July 14,
1905 (GH, NY, UC) ; Amador Co., near .Jackson, C. L. HITCHCOCK
27 (POM); Pioneer, HANSEN 1475 (POM, nC) ; Mariposa Co., Yo-
semite Valley, ABRAMS 4663 (GB, NY); Tulare Co., Lemon Cove,
Mrs. CLEMENS in 1910 (POM); Kern Co., Kern River, E. PALMER
Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
141, III 1888 (NY); San Diego Co., Mesa Grande, SPENCER 1209
(POM); Palomar Mt., SPENCER 997 (GH, NY).
4 c. B. densiflora var. pallescens SUKSDORF
SUKBDORF in Deutsch. Bot. Monatschr. 18: 88, 1900.
Plant pilose or villous; floral bracts often remote, broadly ovate,
g-raduaUy acuminate with conspicuous somewhat wavy or twisted
tips; petals usually pale; seeds mostly 3-4 in each locule, ca. 2 mm.
Type locality, a few km. east of Bingen, Klickitat Co;" Washington.
Type number SUKSDORF 2254. This is rather an uncertain entity
ranging from southern Washington to northern interior California
and characterized by the few large seeds (these not always pale in
col or as indicated by SUKSDORF) and the remote, long-acuminate
floral bracts. In the Sierra Nevada ot California it intergrades
freely with var. genuina and var. salicina.
MATERIAL SEEN. WASHINGTON : Klickitat . Co., east of Bingen,
SUKSDORF 2254, original collection (GH, NY, UC). - OREGON:
Multnomah Co., Mt. Scott, SHELDON S11112, Aug. 11, 1902 (GH,
NY, POM); Washington Co., Forest Grove, F. E. LWYD, July 9,
1894 (NY); Wasco Co., The Dalles, THoMPsoN 11880 (GH, NY,
POM, US) ; Josephine Co" Big Butte Creek, HELLER 12971, Sept. 3,
1917 (GH, NY), 12969 (GH, NY); Grants Pass, BRANDEGEE in 1885
'(UC) ; Klamath Co., mouth of Williamson River, LEIBERG 708, Aug.
12,1894 (GH, NY, UC). - CALIFORNIA: Butte Co., Jonesville, E .
. B. GOPELAND, July 12, 1931 (UC); Butte Meadows, HELLER 14677
(NY), 11621 (GH, F, NY, UC); Nevada Co., Soda Springs, M. E.
JONES 2715 (POM) ; Placer Co., CARPENTER in 1892 (UC); Madera
Co., North Fork San Joaquin River, CONGDON in 1895 (GH).
The specimens cited below approach the var. pallescens inap-
pearance of floral bracts and in having few seeds, but the seeds
are small as in var. ge.nuina or var. salicina: OREGON: Josephine
Co., Waldo, EASTWOOD 2105 (GH); Wimer, HAMMOND 149 (GH,
NY). - CALIFORNIA: Lassen Co., Westwood, HELLER 15296 (NY,
POM) ; Amador Co., Wylie's Station, K. BRANDEGEE in 1910 (UC) ;
Tuolumne Co., Rawhide, ROXANA STINCHFIELD 6 (NY, POM) ; Ma-
riposa Co" Midway, C. B. WOLf<' 5105 (POM); I<'resno Co., Upper
Paradise Valley, South Fork, Kings River, YOUNGBERG 189 (POM) ;
Tnlare Co., Three Rivers, colI. CULBERTSON, dist. BAKER 4222 (GH,
F, NY, POM, DC).
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the Genu8 Boisduvalia (Onagraveae) 139
4 d. B. densiflom var. salicina (NUTT. ex TORR. & GRAY)
MUNZ, novo comb.
Oenothero densiflora LINDL. var. (J, TOM. & GRAY, FI. No_ Amer. 1: 505,1840.
Oenothera salicina NUTT. ex TORR. & GRAY, I. C., pro synon.
Boisdumlia 8alivina RYDB., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 40: 62, 1913.
B. sparsiflora HELLER, Muhlenbergia 1: 42, 1904. Based on HELLER 7021
from Donner Lake, Calit,; I haven seen examples.
Plant canescent-strigose throughout, the pubescence short and not
gland-tipped; petals mostly pale, rather short, 2.5-5 (7) mm. long;
capsule and seed as in var. genuina.
Type locality, On the W ahlamet ,& Wallawallah , near the
boundary line between eastern Washington and eastern Oregon.
Ranging through Washington and Oregon to Idaho, Nevada and
northern interior California. In this more northern region it
almost replaces var. genuina which is more common to the south,
but the two intergrade too compietely and freely for specific
MATERIAL SEEN. WASHINGTON: Island Co., Whidby Island, N. L.
GARDNER (UC) ; Okanogan Co., Peshastin, SANDBERG & LEIBERG 588
(GH, NY, UC) ; Klickitat Co., Falcon Valley, SUKSOORF 2215, Aug.
4, 1893 (GH, NY, UC) ; Whitmas Co., Pullman, PIPER 1839, July
30, 1894 (GH, NY), Aug. 20. 1894 (F, POM), -Aug. 13, 1894 (GH,
NY), ELMER 87 (NY, POM, US) ; east of Walla Walla, B. * albi-
florwn, NUTTALL (GH). - E. HALL 185 (GH, NY), 187
(NY), Oenothera * salicina, NUTTALL (NY, photo Kew Spec,imen at
POM), Oe. salicina albiflora, NUTTALL (NY), Oenothera * imbricata,
NUTTALL (GH), GEVER 591 (GH); Washington Co., Forest Grove,
LWYD, July 6, 1894 (NY) ; Benton Co., Junction City to CorvalIis,
ABRAMS 8727 (POM); Polk Co., Gerlinger,J. C. NELSON 1786
(GH) ; Lilll1 Co., Albany, LLOYD, July 10, 1894 (NY) ; Douglas Co.,
Calopooya Valley, BARBER 73 (GH) ; Lake Co .. Lakeview. THoMPsoN
12180, July 18, 1935 (NY, POM) ; Klamath Co., Swan Lake Valley,
ApPLEGATE 320 (GH). - IDAHO: Blaine Co., Corral, Camas Prairie,
MACBRIDE'& PAYSON 3826 (GH, NY, POM, UC) ; SW. corner, Big
Camas Prairie, HENDERSON 3108 (POM); Washington Co., Tama-
rack, JUNE CLARK 173 (GH, POM, UC). - NEVADA: Washoe Co.,
Frallktown, KENNEDY 1931, much imbricate (NY, POM, UC) ;
Ormsby Co., Carson City, MACFADDEN 12763 (NY); 5 miles SW.
of Carson City, BREENE 651 (POM). - CALIFORNIA: Modoc Co.,
Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
Goose Lake Valley, Mrs. AUSTIN, Aug. 1894 (UC), Aug. 1895,
nQ 153 (POM); Ralls Meadowe, Mrs. MANNING in 1904 (UC), in
1903, n
210 (UC); Siskiyou Co., Sisson, SETCHELL & DOBIE in
1902, in part (UC), RELLER 12560 (GR, NY); Metcalf's Ranch,
Ne. base Mt. Eddy, RELLER 12478 (GR, NY) ; Butte Co., Big Mea-
dows, Mrs. AUSTIN 1316, July 22, 1897 (NY); Nevada Co., lower
end of Donner Lake, July 25, 1903, RELLER 7021, type n
of B.
sparsiflora (GR, NY, POM, UC).
The following specimens approach var. salicin a in being canescent
but are more loosely pubescent and have some gland-tipped hairs
as in var. genuina. IDAHO: Kootenai Co., North Fork Coeur d' Alene
River, LEIBERG 1528 (GR, NY). - CALlJilORNIA: Trinity Co.; Ren-
nessey Road, leading up South Fork, Trinity River, TRACY 770ij
(UC). Those cited below are nearer to var. salicina in not being
glandular, but are too loosely pubescent: OREGON: Lane Co., 10
miles SW. of Eugene, OONSTANCE 949 (GR, NY, POM, UC) ; WasCtJ
Co., The Dalle,\;, BRANDEGEE in 1882 (UC); Marion Co., Jefferson,
NETTlE GALE 365 (GR). - Mendo?ino Co., Big River,
MoMuRPHY 197 (NY); Ft. Bragg to Glen Blair, ,EASTWOOD 1682-
(GR, NY); Sonoma Co., Santa Rosa, RELLER 5640 (GR, NY,
POM); Napa Co., between St. Relena & Calistoga, ABRAMS 5775-
5. Boisduvalia CURRAN
ClJRRAN in Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1: 12, 1884; TRELEASE, Rep. Mo. Bot.
Gard. 5: 121, pI. 26, 1894.
Oenothera cleistogama LEVL., Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot. 18: 304, 312, 1908.
FIGURE 2, for habit.
Erect and simple, or more commonly decumbently branched from
base, the branches stout, stiff, pale, 1-2dm. long, more or less pilose
and glandular-pubescent, densely leafy; leaves linear to linear-
lanceolate, pale green, remotely callous-denticulate, glandular-pu-
bescent to subglabrous, 2-3.5 (4) cm. long, 1.5-5 (6) mm. wide, acute
at apex, slightly narrowed into broad petiole-like base, upper leaves
scarcely if at all reduced; flowers axillary along the branches, the
earliest said to be cleistogamous, the later pink; hypanthium obconic,
glandular-pubescent without, scarcely 1 mm. long; sepals lanceolate,
ca. 2 mm. long, tending to adhere in pairs; petals 3-4 mm. long,
bifid about one-third their length; episepalous stamens half the
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the GenU<! Bois(1uvalia (Onagraoeae) 141
length of the petals; anthers 0.7 mm. long; epipetalous stamens one-
fourth the length of the petals; anthers 0.5 mm. long; style stout,
1.5 mm. long; stigma scarcely lobed, elongate-capitate; capsule hard,
4-sided, sharply 4-angled and plainly nerved on each face along
septal line, glandular-pubescent, tending to be divergent, somewhat
{!urved, - pointed, 8-10 mm. long, 1.5 mm. thick,. tardily if ever
dehiscent; seeds brownish, angled, irregularly linear-obovoid, 1-1.4
mm. long, 10-14 in each row, the rows sometimes partially double.
Type locality: in the original description, Mrs. CURRAN stated,
Collected by the writer- the smooth form from near Mt. Diablo in
May, the pubescent one near Elmira, in the strip of wild land
bordering the railway, in August, 1883 . The description itself
began, Puberulent, or sometimes, nearly glabrous , as if the
pubescent form were more definitely considered typical. . I should
therefore take Elmira as the type locality, although JEPSON, Pl.
Calif. 2: 573, 1936, considers Mt. Diablo such. Several sheets at
University of California and Pomona have annotations by Mrs.
BRANDEGEE (formerly CURRAN), which do not settle the matter:
Elmira, May 31, 1909 (POM) annotated type locality; Elmira,
May, 1909 (UC) type locality of pubescent form; Elmira (UC)
part 0f type; between Antioch and Marsh Creek, the Mt. Diablo
region, June 16, 1907 (UC), type locality.
Like some other species of the genus, this one inhabits dried beds
-'0f rain pools; it ranges at low elevations in the Great interior Valley
'0f California.
CALI]lORNIA: Tehama Co., Vina, May 19, 1937, R. F. HOOVER 2256
(UC) ; Butte Co., just north of Nelson, June 10, 1922, HELLER 13627
(NY) ; Yolo Co., Zamora, May 19, 1937, R. F. HOOVER 2300 (UC);
Solano Co., Elmira, K. CURRAN in May, 1883 (UC), Aug., 1883
(GH), K. BRANDEGEE, May 31, 1909 (POM, UC), J. T. HOWELL
5210 (GH, POM) ; Contra Costa Co., Antioch, CURRAN, June, 1884
(UC), May, 1886 (UC), K. BRANDEGEE, June 16, 1907 (UC); San
.Joaquin Co., Farmington, TRACY 5787, May 25, 1921 (UC); Stanis-
laus Co., between Oakdale and La Grange, JEPSON, July 1, 1897
(GH) ; Merced Co., betw.een Volta & Gustine, J. T. HOWELL 13837,
May 28, 1938 (POM); 2 miles NE. of Planada, May 27, 1937, R. F.
HOOVER 2302 (UC); M a d e ~ a Co., Chowchilla, May 29, 1938, J. T.
HOWELL 13840 (POM), HOOVER 3510 (UC); Fresno Co., 5 miles E.
of Clovis, May 27, 1937, HOOVER 2318 (UC); Tulare Co., Yettem,
June 30, 1937, HooYER 2586 (UC).
Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
6. Boisduvalia tasmanica (HOOK. f.) MUNZ, novo comb.
Oenothero tasmanica HOOK. j., HOOK., Lond. Journ. Bot. 6: 475, 1847; FI.
Tasmaniae 1: 119, 1860; "Fl. 3: 303,1866.
Annual,branched from base, the stems slender, crisp-puberulent,
2-10 cm. long, procumbent, simple or branched; lower leaves op-
posite, others alternate, nearly or quite sessile, oblong, obtuse, quite
glabrous, crisped and more or less denticulate, 8-12 mm. long, 2.5-5
mm. wide, not much reduced up the stem; flowers small, pink,
solitary in the axils, sessile; hypanthium scarcely 1 mm. long; sepals
lanceolate, 1.5-2 mm. long, sub glabrous ; petals pink, 2-2.5 mm. long,
obovate, bilobed about half their length; episepalous stamens slightly
exceeding sepals; epipetalous somewhat shorter; anthers oblong;
style not surpassing anthers j stigma almost entire, elongate-capitate.
capsule 1-1.5 cm. long, about 2 mm. thick, terete or slightly 1-
angled, often somewhat curved, puberulent; seeds about 1 mm.
long, pIano-convex, subalate, cellular-punctate, olive in colaI' with
lighter margin.
Type locality, Marlborough, Van Diemen Land, Tasmania.
MATERIAL SEEN. TASMANIA: Marlborough, GUNN, Jan. 5; 1841,
nQ 1065, type collection (K, photo POM; isotype BM) ; Great Lake,
Boggy Marsh , Central Plateau, L. S. GIBBS 6770, Feb., 1915
(BM) ; Middlesei Mains, Jan., 1909, ex R'ODWAY Herbarium (HO) ;
near Lake St. Clair, Dec., 1923, ex RODWAY Herbarium (HO).
Evidently very near to B. glabella, but apparently separable by
having the capsule enlarged somewhat in upper portion.
7. Boisduvalia glabella (NUTT.) WALP.
WALPERfI, Repert. 2: 89, 1843.
Oenotheraglabella NUTT. ex TORR. & GRAY, Fl. No. Amer. 1: 505,1840.
Sometimes simple, more frequently freely and decumbently
branched from base; stems 0.2-3 dm. long, slender, pale. glabrous
to pubescent, uniformly and rather densely leafy throughout j leaves
sessile, lanceolate to lance-ovate to oblong, denticulate, acute to
obtusish, glabrous to pubescent, 4-15 mm. long, 2-7 mm. wide; flowers
solitary in most leaf-axils, except sometimes the lowermost;
hypanthium about 0.5 mm. long, glabrous to puberulent; sepals
lance-ovate, glabrous to puberulent, about 1 mm. long; petals
pinkish or purplish-red, 2-4 mm. long, bilobed one-half to one-third
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the Genus Boisiluvalia (Onagraceae) 143
their length, the lobes oblong to lance-ovate; episepalous stamens
one-half as long as petals; epipetalous one-fourth the petals; anthers
about 0.5 mm. long; style 1.2-2.5 mm. long; stigma very slightly
lobed, subcapitate, 0.5 mm. long j capsule subterete, with somewhat
flattened sides, almost straight, pointed at apex, puberulent, 5-8 mm.
long, 1-1.5 mm. thick, loculicidal; seeds narrowly and irregularly
obovoid or sub fusiform, brownish, each row, ca. 1 mm. long,
one-third as thick.
A. Leaves of upper branches lance-ovate, not conspicuously overlapped nor
entirely concealing capsules. Generally distributed. 7 a. var. typica
AA. Leaves of upper branches ovate to oblong-ovate, densely overlapped and con-
cealing the branches. Great Valley of California. 7 b. var. campestris
7 a. Boisduvalia glabella (NuTT.) WALP. var. typica Mu NZ,
novo nom.
Oenothera glabella NUTT., ex Toll.ll.. & GRAY, PI. No. Amer. 1: 505, 1840.
Boisduvalia glabella WALP., Rep. 2: 89, 1843; TRELEASE, Rep. Mo. Bot.
Gard. 5: 117, pI. 23, 1894.
B. diffusa Gll.EENE, Proc Acad. Philad. 1895: 547, 1896.
Oenothera pygmaea SPEGAZZTNI, Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent. 48: 46, 1899;
Nov. Add. Fl. Patag. 1: 53, 1901. Boisduvalia pygmaea (SPEG.) MUNZ,
Physis 11: 278, 1933. Based on a collection from Chonkenk-aik, by
AMEGHlNo, which I have had privilege of studying.
FIGURE 6, for habit.
Capsules not concealed by overlapping floral bracts.
Type locality, Plains of the Oregon east of W allawalIah ,
NUTTALL. Growing in dry mud flats and vernal pools, Saskatche-
wan to North Dakota, Utah and Southern California; southern
Argentine. For some time I believed the Argentinian plants separa-
ble from North American ones, partly by their smaller size and
more reduced parts, but careful study of a large series of specimens
convinces me that it is impossible to distinguish plants of the
southern continent when one does not already know their source.
North American plants, such as Y ATES 5269, BAKER .1620, MANNING
337, BLANKINSHIP 188, etc. match them in all respects. Represen-
tative material of B. glabella var. typica is as follows: ASSINIBOIA,
Saskatchewan, Crane Lake, July 3, 1894, MAOQUN 4938 (GH);
Cypress Hills, Aug. 7, 1880, MACOUN 67 (GH). - WASHINGTON:
Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
Whitman Co., Pullman, PIPER, June 23, 1897 (GB, NY), July'23,
1897 (GB, POM); east of Walla Walla, Oenothera '*' glabella,
NUT TALL (GH, NY, photo of K specimen at POM). - OREGON: E.
HALL 190, in 1871 (GH, NY), BOWELL 702, in 1887 (GH); Wallowa
Co., 15 miles NE. of Enterprise, PECK 18401 (NY); Marion Co ..
Salem, J. C. NELSON 1872 (GB), 4633 (GB); Co" Junction
City to Corvallis, ABRAMS 8739, July 5, 1922 (POM); Wasco Co.,
The Dalles, THOMPSON 11878, July 6, 1935 (GH, NY, POM);
SUKSDORF 862, June .12, 1886 (NY, UC); Josephine Co., Grants
Pass,'T. HOWELL, in 1887 (NY); Lake Co., Button Springs, LEIBERG
793 (GH, NY, UC) ; Klamath Co., Yanix Reservation, Mrs. AUSTIN
& Mrs. BRUCE 1684 (POM) ; 2 miles s.E. of Keno, PECK 9381 (GB,
NY) ; near Ft. Klama th, LEIBERG 647 ( GB, NY, U C) . - CALIF'ORNIA :
Humboldt Go., Dobbyn Creek, TRACY 13349, July 9, 1934 (POM.
UC) ; Miranda, TRACY 6341 (UC); Mendocino Ukiah, BELLER,
in 1902 (GR, UC); Siskiyou Co., plains of Shasta River, E. L.
GREENE in 1876 (F, GH); Modoc Co., 2' miles NE. of Alturas, L.
WHEELER 3894 (GB, NY) ; 1 mile S. of Clear Lake, L. WHEELER
2351 (POM); Lassen Co., 10-15 miles W. of Amedee, M. E. JONES
in 1897 (POM); Sonoma Co., W. of Windsor, near Russian River,
BELLER 5784 (GB, NY, POM); Sierra Co., Sattley, YATES 5269
(UC); Placer Co., Truckee, SONNE in 1893 (NY); Colusa Co.,
Davistule near Willow Lake, STINCHFIELD 446 (NY); Santa Clara
Co., between Gilroy and Morgan Hill, ABRAMS 5666 (NY); Gilroy
to Hollister, J. T. BOWELL 13802 (POM) ; San Luis Obispo District,
. E. PALMER 145% in 1876 (GR); Ventura Co., between Ventura
& Ojai, FEUDGE 1715 (POM); Los Angeles Co., Ballona Creek,
MESMER, June 6, 1901, ABRAMS 1740 (POM) ; Riverside Co., Murietta
Bot Springs. MUNZ 10802, May 20, 1927 (GB, POM); Menifee
Valley, May 19, 1922, MUNZ & JOHNSTON 5368 (POM, UC) ; Mystic
Lake, near Moreno, May 21, 1922, MUNZ & JOHNSTON 5542 (POM,
UC); San Diego Co., San Diego, BRANDEGEE, May 8, 1902, distri-
buted as C. F. BAKER 1620 (GB, NY, POM, UC) ; National Ranch,
San Diego, CLEVELAND 865 (UC), 868 (GB). - NORTH DAKOTA:
Bettinger Co., Mott, Mrs. M. MEISSNER, July 28,1937 CF, GB, POM,
UC). - MONTANA: Cascade Co., Sandcoulee, ANDERSON, July 28,
1887 (UC); Gallatin Co" BQzeman, BLANKINSHIP 188 (F. POM,
UC) ; Wibaux Co., Wibaux, BLANKINSHIP, Aug. 15, 1903 (POM).-
IDAHO: Blaine Co., Lava Lake, DAVIS 693, July 27, 1938 (POM);
Lincoln Co., Shoshone, July 18, 1911, NELSON'& MACBRIDE 1174 (GB,
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the Ge'fIIUS Boisduvalia (Onagraceae) 145
NY, POM, UC). - NEVADA: Washoe Co., Reno, HILLMAN (POM);
Truckee Valley, Aug .. 1867, BAILEY 413 (GH) ; Ormsby Co., Carson
Valley, WATSON 413, Aug., 1867 (NY). - UTAH: Cache Co., Dry
Lake, Aug. 13, 1929, GARRETT 5382 (POM), Aug. 7, 1933, GARRETT
6474 (POM). - ARGENTINE: Terr. Chubut, Wohlers, HICKEN 506,
Feb. 5, 1914 (POM, SI); entre Bolson y Colonia, Oct. 16, 1901,
ILLIN 235 (BAF, G, POM) ; Chonkenk-aik, Aug. 1, 1897, C. AMEGIII-
NO, type of B. pygrnaea (LPS).
7 b. B. glabella (NUTT.) WALP. var. campestris JEPSON
JEPSON, Fl. W. Mid. Calij., ed. 2, 276, 1911.
B. campestris JEPSON, Fl. W. Mid. Ca,lij. ed. 1: 330, 1901.
Leaves of upper branches ovate to oblong-ovate, densely over-
lapping and concealing the capsules.
Type locality, Little Oak, Vacaville, Solano Co., California. A
poorly marked variety of the Great Valley of California, with the
same compact habit as var. imbricata under B. densiflora. But
since in this case, it occupies a more definite region and is not
scattered throughout the range of the species, I am maintaining it
as a variety. Intergrades between var. typica and var. campestris
may be cited: CALIFORNIA: Modoc Co., Tamarack Flat, Mt. BidwelI,
Mrs. MANNING 337 (UC); Butte Co., Between Nelson and Durham,
HELLER 11395 (GR, NY, UC); Solano Co., Suisun, BAKER 3213
(POM, UC) ; Alameda Co., Livermore, J. T. ROWELL 5332 (POM);
San Mateo Co., Mt. Eden, K. BRANDEGEE in 1893 (UC); Monterey
Co., between Parkfield & Cholame Ranch, EASTWOOD & HOWELL
5896 (POM). Representative of the var. campestris, I cite from
CALIJlIORNIA: Glenn Co., 5 miles NW. of Hamilton, HELLER 11557
(GR, UC); Lake Co., Boggs Lake, K. BRANDEGEE (UC); Snow
Mountain, T. S. BRANDEGEE in 1892 (UC) ; Colusa Co., College City,
ALICE KING (UC); Sacramento Co., Sacramento, H. F. COPELAND
in 1934 (POM); Napa Co., Napa, SUKSDORF 692, July 28, 1913
CGH) ; Solano Co., Elmira, K. CURRAN in 1883 (GH) ; Contra Costa
Co., Antioch, K. BRANDEGEE in 1905 (POM); between Walnut
Creek and ),\iartinez, July 1, 1916, ABRAMs 5727 (NY); Pittsburg,
July 20, 1929, J: T. HOWELL 4331 (POM, UC) ; San Joaquin Co.,
Farinington, June 11, 1936, HoovER 1301 (UC), TRACY 5788 (POM,
DC) ; Stockton, SANJlIORD 32 (UC); Merced Co., Athlone, May 30,
1935, HOOVER 609 (UC); Stanislaus Co., 12 miles E. of Waterford,
HoovER 3626 (UC).
- T. V 10
Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
8. Boisduv.alia HELLER
Hl.'lLLER in Ml.lhlenbergia 2.: 101, 1905.
FIGURE 7, for habit.
Stems mostly erect, 1-10 dm. high, usually simple, or few-branched
at base or above, the branches simple, plant glabrous near bas.e,'
villous above, sometimes partly reddish, leafy throughout; the leaves
rather crowded, lower ones subopposite, oblanceolate, principal ones
lanceolate, subopposite to alternate, sessile, remotely serrulate, acute
to almost acuminate, ascending to erect, 2-4 cm. long, 5-9 mm. wide,
upper ones villous, almol;>t ovate; flowers solitary in upper axils;
hypanthium villous, 2.5-3 mm. long; sepals narrowly lanceolate,
villous, 3-6 mm. long; rose-purple when dry, 7-10 mm. long,
divided about half their length, the lobes asymetrically rounded at
tips; episepalous stamens two-thirds the petals; epipetalous one-
third to one-half the petals; anthers 0.6-1.4 mm. long; style slender,
about three-fourths as long as petals; stigma ca. 1 mm. wide, discoid
with 4 short lobes; capsule sessile, lance-linear, quite straight, 1-2
cm. long, 2 mm. thick near base, with slender apical beak 2-3 mm.
long, villous loculicid;;tl; seeds 5-6 in each row, narrowly obovoid,
2 mm. long, brownish, somewhat shining, minutely cellular-punctate
under magnification.
Type locality, 2 miles NE. of Redding, Shasta Co., California.
Found from Modoc and Shasta Counties to Butte Co. Characte-
rized by its yellow-green foliage, rather crowded serrulate, leaves
which are equally distributed, and by the large flowers. I have
seen the following material. CALIFIORNIA: Modoc Co., Little Hot
Spring Valley, June 4, 1894, M. S. BAKER & F. NUTTING (UC);
Shasta Co., near Redding, May 30. 1905, HELLER 7906, type col-
lection (GH, NY, UC), May 28, 1927, HELLER 14395, topotype (GH,
NY, POM, UC) ; 3 miles E. of Redding, May 22, 1936, R. F. HOOVER
. 1193 (UC); Butte Co., field.s, June, 1897, Mrs. C. C. BRUCE 200E)
(POM); rocks, March, 189S, Mrs. BRUCE 2006 (NY); Tab:1e Mt.
Olive Ranch north of Oroville, May 23, 1912, HELLER 10750 (GH,
NY, UC); Durham, June 5; 1932, Mrs. J. H. (POM).
A specimen from IDAHO: 50 miles east of Boise City, June 10,
1883, without collector (POM) seems referrable to this. While
such a distribution seems unbelievable, it is not altogether out of
line with other cases I have seen, for instance, Epilobium. obcorda ..
tum GRAY, common in the higher Serra Nevada of California, and
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the GenUIJ Boisduvalia (Onagraceae) 147
in adjacent Oregon and Nevada, is found in the Sa-wtooth Mts. of
Idaho; I have seen three such collections.
In its leaf-shape, B. rnacranthm suggests B. glabella; in habit jt
is more like B. pallid a and B. stricta, with all three of these h
agrees in capsule-structure.
9, Boisduvalia stricta (GRAY) GREENE
GREENE, Fl. Francisc., 225, 1891; TRELEASE. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 5: 117,
pI. 24, 1894.
Gayophytum GRAY, P'roc. Ame'r. Acad. 7: 340, 1867. Type seen.
Oenothera Torreyi S. WATS., Proc. Amer. Acad. 8: 600, 1873. Boisduval'ia
Torreyi S. WATI>., Bot. Calif. 1: 233, 1876. I consider type to be New
Almaden, Santa Clara Co., Calif., TORREY 109, which I have seen.
Oenothera densijlora vat. tenella A. GRAY, Proc-. Amer. Acad. 8: 384, 1872.
Type flOm Or,egon, E. HALL 189, which I have seen.
B. GREENE, Proc. Awd. PMlad. 1895: 547, 1896. From Dry bed
of the Upper Humboldt River, near Deeth, Nevada, Aug. 5, 1895 . I
have been unable to locate the type specimen, but the characters given
(outwardly curving capsules, hirtellous foliage, etc.) make certain that
it falls here.
Boisduvalia parvijlora HELLER, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 199, 1898. Based
on HELLER 3411 from Lake Waha, Idaho, which I have seen. It is possible
that such nort/lern material has laxer habit, thinner leaves than do
California plants, but the tendency is very uncertain and I can find
no morphological distinctions.
FIGURE 3, for habit.
Stems 1-5 dm. long, simple and erect, or more frequently with
few to several, erect or ascending, virgate branches from near the
base, pilose and quite canescent throughout; leaves linear to lan-
ceolate, 1-4 cm. long, 2-3 (5) mm. wide, pilose,acute, entire to
sharply denticulate, nearly or quite sessile, often r!lther crowded,
usually ascending, the upper ones somewhat reduced; flowers soli-
tary in the leaf-axils, often from near the very base of the plant;
hypanthium scarcely 1 mm. long; sepals about 1 mm. long, pilose;
petals rose-purple to violet to pale pink with darker veins, 1.5-2 (3)
mm. long; episepalous stamens about one-third the length of the
petals; epipetalous about one-fifth the petals; anthers 0.6 mm. long;
style about 2 mm. long; stigma elongate-capitate, somewhat lobed,
1 mm. long; capsule somewhat 4-cornered and 4-ribbed, haFd, slender,
attenuate, usually with tip curved outward away from stem, more
or less pubescent; tardily loculicidal, 6-10 (13) mm. long, mm.
thick near base, the narrow beak-like apex 1-2 mm. long; seeds
Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
oblollg-ovoid, brown, about 1 mm. long, cellular-pitted, 6-8 in each
Type locality, Cloverdale, SOlloma Co., California. Growing in
stream-be as or other moist places which dry with the advancing
season, from Washington and Idaho to Nevada and Tulare Co.,
California. Variable as to pubescence, leafiness, leaf-width, curva-
ture of cap:;mle, habit, etc., but for the most part distinguished by
its grayish color, long stems with numerous, short outwardly curved
short-beaked capsules, ai1d by its small flowers.
Representative material may be cited as follows: WASHINGTON:
'Washington Territory, in 1883, BRANDEGEE 788 (GR, UC) ; Spokane
Co .. Spokane, SANDBERG, MACDoUGALL & RELLER 905, Aug. 16, 1892
(GR, NY, POM); Whitman Co., Pullman, PIPER in 1897 (GH);
1N awawai, ELMER 757 (NY) ; Yakima Co., Rattlesnake Mts. COTTON
fi90, July 15, 1902 (GH) ; Yakima region, BRANDEGEE in 1882 (UC) ;
Klickitat Co., Falcon Valley, SUKSDORF 558 (GH); Walla Walla
Co., Waitsburg, RORNER R176B210 (GR). - IDAHO: Kootenai Co.,
SANDBERG 285 (NY); Nez Perces Co., Lake Waha, July 10, 1896,
A. A. &.E. G. RELLER 3411, type collection of B. parviflora (NY,
POM, UC).-NEVADA: Rumboldt Co., E. Fork, Quinn River, TRAIN
464, July 20, 1937 (POM). - OREGON: without definite locality, E.
HALL 189 in 1871, type Oe. densiflora var. tenella (GR, NY);
Columbia Co., St. Helens, J. HOWELL 176 (GH), July, 1876 (POM) ;
Multnomah Co., Willamette Heights, Portland, SHELDON Sl1174
(GR, NY, POM) ; Yamhill Co., Yamhill Valley, Mrs. SUMMERS in
1878 (UC); Washington Co., Tualatin Plains, HENDERSON 360
{UC); Clackamas Co., Oregon City, HARFORD & DUNN in 1869
(NY) ; Marioll Co., Salem, J. C. NELSON 1613 in part (GR) ; Wasco
Co., The Dalles, M. E. JONES in 1897 (POM) ; Josephille Co., Grants
Pass, PIPER in 1904 (G R, US) ; J ackson Co., 6 miles W. of Trail,
HITCHCOCK & MARTIN 5074 (NY, POM) ; Klamath Co., THoMPsoN
12189 (NY, POM); Harney Co., Alvord Lake, spelled Alwood,
LElBERG 2530 (NY, POM, UC). - CALIFORNIA: Humboldt Co., Forks
of Dobbyn Creek, TRACY, June 19, 1916, n
4728 (UC); Mendocino
Co., Ukiah, July 11, 1902, HELLER (GH, UC) ; 20 miles N. of Willits,
Aug. 9, 1936, MUNZ 14325 (POM) ; Sonoma Co., Cloverdale, in 1867,
BOLANDER 6535, type collection of B. stricta (GH, DC, US) ; Shasta
Co., Goose Valley, EASTWOOD 771 (GH, NY); Montgomery Creek,
EASTWOOD 669 (GR, NY) ; Tehama Co., Coyote Creek bridge south
of Red Bluff, ROOVER 3589 (UC) ; Butte Co., airport north of Chico,
P. A. MUNZ, .A Revision of the Genus Boisduvalia (Onagraccae) 149
HELLER 15107 (NY, POM) ; 8 miles north of Oroville, HELLER 11388
(GH, NY, DC); Placer Co., St. Lawrence, M. E. JONES ill 1882
(POM) ; Eldorado Co., Simpsons Ranch, Sweetwater Creek, K.
BRANDEGEE in 1907 (POM, UC) ; Amador Co., Jackson, HANSON 281
(UC) ; Stanislaus Co., 4 miles south of Oakdale, HOOVER 619 (UC);
Calaveras Co., Milton, J. BURTT DAVY 1226 (UC); Tuolumne Co.,
Hetch Hetchy Valley, HALL'& BABCOCK 3375 (POM, UC) ; Mariposa
Co., Bear Mt., TORREY ill 1865 (NY); Madera Co., 11.8 miles NW.
of Coarse Gold, June 28, 1938, CONSTANCE 2345 (NY, POM, UC);
Tulare Co., Dry Creek, JUSSEL in 1927 (POM); Lake Co., between
Bartlett Springs and Allen Springs, June 7, 1916, HELLER 12367
(GH, NY) ; Napa Co., Wooden Valley Grade, J. T. HOWELL 13059
(POM) ; Sacramento Co., North Sacramenta, May 13, 1917, F. RA-
MALEY 11241 (POM, UC) ; Solano Co., SUiSUll, BAKER 3206 (POM) ;
Santa Clara Co., road to Madrone Springs, EASTWOOD & HOWELL
4537 (NY, POM) ; Pacheco Pass, May 3,1938, EASTWOOD & HOWELL
5320 (POM); New Almaden, TORREY 109, ill 1865 (GH, NY).
I take this last named collection by TORREY to be the type number
for Oenothera Torreyi; in his description, WATSON, Proc. Amcl'.
Acad. 8: 600, 1873, cited From Oregon (190 Hall) and Central
California (Bear Mt., Borax Lake, and New Almaden, Torrey)>>.
Since he gave the name Torreyi, I w.ould select a TORREY specimen
as the type and since the only such at Gray Herbarium where
WATSON worked seems to be TORREY 109 from New Almadell, this
should be selected as the type.
10. Boisduvalia pallida EASTWOOD
EASTWOOD, Lwflets W. Bot. 2: 54, 1937.
PIGURE 9, for habit.
Usually branched from the base. sometimes above, occasionally
simple, 1-4 dm. tall, branches erect, tomentulose and pilose, glabres-
cent in age in lower parts, reddish, slender; leaves lanceolate, acu-
minate to acute, subentire, subsessile, not crowded, strigose to
subglabbrous, 1.5-5 cm. long, 3-6 (10) mm. wide, only gradually
reduced upward; flowers axillary, even in lowermost axils; hy-
panthium soft-pubescent, 2-3 mm. long; sepals 3-4 mm. long,
pubescent; petals reddish, 5-8 mm. long; episepalous stamens about
one-third as long as petals. epipetalous one-fourth the petals; anthers
0.6 mm. long; style 4-5 mm. long; stigma slightly lobed, ca. 1 mm.
DarwinimuJ., t.5, 1941
long; capsule 1.5-3 cm. long, 1.5-2 mm. thick at base, tapering
gradually into slender, outcurved beak 2-4 .mm. long j seeds few,
about 6 in each locule, brownish, oblong-ovoid, 1.5-2 mm. long,
Type locality, GeorgeDillman Ranch, Goose Valley, Shasta Co.,
California. A somewhat doubtful entity, closely related to B.
stricta with which it grows j differing in the larger flowers, longer
capsules with longer beaks and larger seeds, and in the more local
range. From B. macrantha, it differs in the more entire and less
crowded leaves, more grayish-green col or, curved fruits.
MATERIAL SEEN. OREGON : Josephine Co., Big ButteCreek, Sept.
3, 1917, RELLER 12970 (GB, NY) j Jackson Co., 7 miles SW. of
Prospect,June 28, 1939', HITCHOOCK & MARTIN 5006 (NY, POM) ;
Wimer, July 26,1892, HAMMOND 149A (NY). -CALIF1ORNIA: Modoc
Co., Goose Lake, June, 1898, Mrs. AUSTIN & Mrs. BRUCE 426 (UC);
Egg Lake, M. S. BAKER in 1893 (UC); Davis Creek, Mrs. AUSTIN,
July, 1894 (UC), July, 1895 (POM) j EASTWOOD & HOWELL 8126
(POM) j Shasta Co., Goose Valley, July 11, 1912, ,EASTWOOD 1021,
type number (GR, POM) jFall River Springs, June, 1903, HALL &
BABCOCK 4180 (UC) j Butte Co., Iron Canyon, Mrs. AUSTIN 135
(UC) j Tehama Co., Coyote Creek Bridge south of Red Bluff,June
10, 1938, HOOVER 3588 (UC) j Lassen Co., 1 mile east of Westwood, .
HELLER 15295 (NY, POM) jPlumas Co., Prattvilie, M. K JONES,
July 2, 1897 (POM).
1. Oenothera comrnixta GUFFR., and Oenothera glabella race
cornnJ,ixta GUFFR. ex LEVL., Bull. Acad. Internat. Geogr. Bot. 18:
308, 311, 1908. Inadequate description and lack of citation of any
specimens make it impossible for me to determine what this may be ..
2. Oenothera Torreyoides LEVL., l. c., 306 j Oenothera densiflora
Tort'eyi LEVL., l. c., 313. Here again, neither description nor citation
of specimens make it possible to identify what LEVEILLE had in
mind. .
El autor haee la reviai6n del pequefio genero de Onagraeeas, Boisdllvalia; .
dose en el estudio de abundante material de herbario, que eita. DIJ. una clave de
laa 10 especies que adrnite y describe estas plantas detalladamente mEmcionaildo
la bibliografia y 108 sin6nimos. Antes se consideraba que este era norte y
P. A. MUNZ, A Revision of the "Ge'fllU;s ' Botsduvalia > (Onagraeeae) 151
sudamericano y contaba 7 especies: B. densiflora, B . . glabella, B. stricta y B. cleis-
togama en Norte America y B. roncinna, B. 8ubulata y B. Toeornalii en Chile.
MUNZ completa 108 conocimientos agregando dos especies norteamericanas: B.
macrantha y B. pallidaj comprobando que B. glabella del .aeste de NorteaIIierica
existe tambien en el sur de Argentina, siendo un notable ejemplo de especie con
area disyunta; ademas agrega una especie de Tasmania, pasando Oenolhera tasma-
?lieu al genero que nos ocupa. Estas 10 e8pecies las agrupa en 3 secciones: Eucois-
duvalia, nOI'. nom., Pachidium y Currania, novo sect. Da claves para las variedadE's
de algunas especies polimorfas, como B. densiflora y B. glabella. La Miniris trae
figuras de 9 especies. - A. B.
Fig. 1. - Boisduvalia densiflora var. genuina: drawn from KEeK & HEUSI 301, from Mather, Tuo-
lumne Co., California: habitat and fruit. "
Fig. 2. - B. cleistogama; drawn from HOWELL 5210, from Elmira, 80lano Co., California.-
Fig. 3. - B. stricta; drawn from TmiMPsoN 12189, from ~ l y , KlaIllath Co., Oregon.
Fig. 4. -E. subuta!a; drawn from LABITTE in 1937, from Puelo, Chubut, Argentina: habit and fruit.
Fig. 5. - B. concinna; drawn from O. KUNTZE in 1892, from Maule, Chile.
Fig. 6. - B. glabella v. typica; drawn from M. E. JONES in "1897, from "Amedee, California.
Fig. 7. - B. ma.crantha; drawn from RELLER 14395, from Reddirig, California.
Fig. 8. - B. Tocorntdii: drawn from GAY, from Chile.
Fig. 9. - B. pallida; drawn from Mr . AUSTIN 426, from Davi. Creek, northern California.
Boisduvalia densiflora var. genuina, novo nom., 133
forma imbricata, novo comb., 136
var. salicina, novo comb., 139
glabella vat. typica, novo nom., 143
tasmanica, novo comb., 142
Currania, novo sect., 127
Euboisduvalia, novo sect., 127
Boisduvalia, 126
a,ndina PHIL., 128
bipartita GREENE, 133
campestris JEPSON, 145
clE'istogama CURRAN, 127, 140
concimna (D. DON) SPA CH, 126,
127, 128
densiflora (LINDL.) S. WATS., 127,
132, 133
val'. hipartita (GREENE), JEp
SON, 133
var. genuilla MUNZ, 133, 136,
138, 139, 140
forma imbricata (GREENE) MUNZ,
136, 145
var. imbricata GREENE, 134, 136
var. montana. JEPSON, '136
var. paIlescens SUKSDORF, 138
var. salicilla (NUTT.) MUNZ,
136, 137, 138, 139
diffusa GREENE, 143, 147
DouglalSii SPACH, 133
glabella (NUTT.) WALP., 124, 127,
142, 143, 147
var. campestris JEPSON, 145
var. typica MUNZ, 143, 145
Darwiniana, t. 5, 1941
imbricata HllLLER, 136
macl'Ulltha HELLER, 127, 146, 150
pallida EASTWOOD, 127, 147, 149
parviflora H1ELLER, 147, 148
pygmaea (SPEG.) MUNZ, 124, 143,
salicina RYDB., 139
.spal'siflol'a RELLER, 139, 140
sparsifolia NELSON & KENNEDY,
.133, 135
stricta (GRAY) GREENE; 127, 147,
subulata (R. &: P.) RAIMANN, 127,
128, 130
race COlleillll!L LEVL., 128
tasmanica (HOOK. f.) MUNZ, 124,
Torornalii C. Gay, 127, 131
TOl'l'eyi S. WATS., 147
Yolckmanni PBIL., 127, 130, 131
Cl'atericarpium, 126
:1rgyl'ophyllum SPACII, 130
Currania MUNZ, 127
Dictyopetalum (FISCII. & MEY.) 'E'ND-
Epilobiae, 126
Epilobium, 127
obcordatum GRAY, 146
Euboisduvalia MUNZ, 127
Gayophytum strictum GRAY, 147
Niel'embel'gia subdentata MEYEN, 128
Oenothel'a, 126, 127
caespitosa GILL., 128
cleistogama LEVL., 140
commixta GUFFR., 150
cOllcinna D. DON., 128
.densifloJ'a LINDL., 127, 132, 133
val'. B TORR. &; GRAY, 139
var. imhricata LEVL., 136
val. tellella. A. GRAY, 147, 148
densiflol'a Torreyi LEVL., 150
gaurodes KUNTZE, 128
glabella NUTT., 142, 143
race commixta GUFFR., 150
humifusa LINDL., 128
humifusa NUTT., 128
pygmaea SPEGAZZINI, 143
salicilll1 NUTT., 139
subulata R. &; P., 130
tasmanica HOOK. f., 124, 127, 142
TOl'l'eyi S. WATS., 147, 149
Torreyoides LEVL., liiO
'Ulliflora GILL., 130
Yolckmanni LEVL. &: GUFFR., 130
Pachydium (FISCH. & MEY.) ENDLI-
CBER, 127
Zauschlleria, 127