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Orthodontic Study Model

Dr. Heba A. Mohammad MAHSA University

Study model is an accurate plaster reproductions of the teeth and their surrounding soft tissues. Orthodontic study models are essential diagnostic records, which help to study the occlusion and dentition from all three dimensions.


Ideal Requirements of Orthodontic Study Models

1. Models should accurately reproduce the teeth and their surrounding soft tissues. 2. Models are to be trimmed so that they are symmetrical so that an asymmetrical arch form can be readily recognized. 3. Models are to be trimmed in such a way that the dental occlusion shows by setting the models on their backs.

4. Models are to be trimmed such that they replicate the measurements and angles proposed for trimming them. 5. Models are to have clean, smooth, bubble-free surfaces with sharp angles where the cuts meet. 6. The finished models should have a glossy finish.


Benefit of Study Model

1. They are invaluable in planning treatment as they are the only three dimensional records of the patient's dentition. 2. Occlusion can be visualized from the lingual aspect. 3. They provide a permanent record of the intermaxillary relationships and the occlusion at the start of therapy; this is necessary for medicolegal considerations. 4. They are a visual aid for the dentist as he monitors changes taking place during tooth movement.


5. Help motivate the patient, as the patient can visualize the treatment progress. 6. They are needed for comparison at the end of treatment and act as a reference for post-treatment changes. 7. In case the patient has to be transferred to another clinician, study models are an important record.

Parts of The Study Models

The study models can be divided into two parts: The anatomic portion The artistic portion


Anatomic Portion
is that part which is the actual impression of the dental arch and its surrounding soft tissue structures. This is the part must be preserved when trimming the model.

Artistic Portion
The stone base supporting the anatomic portion (the base of the model) .


Study Model Fabrication and Trimming Preliminary procedures in the fabrication of study models are:
Remove any obviously excessive bulk on the periphery of the models. Remove any nodules that may be present on the occluding surfaces of the teeth. Remove any extensions in the posterior areas that prevent occluding of the models Using the wax bite to occlude the models.

Steps in Art Portion Fabrication

1. The base of the lower model is trimmed parallel to the occlusal plane.


2. Trim the back of the lower model perpendicular to the base

This is done on a near symmetrical model by measuring the distance from the distal of the first molars or second molar to the back of the model on both the left and right sides

3. The back is trimmed so that it is 90 to the base of the model.


4. The posterior surface should not be trimmed too close to the posterior aspect of the mandibular teeth as the hamular notch of the upper model governs the distance, this surface should be from the teeth.

5. To trim the back of the upper model, occlude the models utilizing the wax bite.
maintains the correct interrelationship. prevent fracturing of the teeth


Carefully trim the posterior surface of the occluded models so that the upper model matches that of the lower model.

6. The back of the upper and lower models should be 90 to the base of the lower model.
Trim the posterior surfaces of both models until you are just posterior to the hamular notch which should be several millimeters posterior to the last tooth.


7. Trim the base of the upper model so that it is parallel to the base of the lower model

Trim until the top base is flat, but leave several millimeters of extra height. The occlusal plane should be centered between the top of the maxillary model and the base of the mandibular model

The Lower Model

1. Make the buccal cuts on the edge of the vestibule at 60 angle to back of the model.



2. The anterior segment of the lower arch is trimmed into a curve, which should follow the arc of a circle The finished model should have this curve trimmed to within 5 to 6 mm of the anterior teeth.



3. The heels of the lower model are cut at approximately 115 to the back of the model

The floor of the mouth should be leveled and smoothed to form a flat surface. The ideal set of models will have the art portion representing approximately 1/3rd of the total height and the anatomic portion approximately 2/3rd of the height.
1/3 rd 2/3 rd



The Upper Model

1. Make the buccal cuts to the edge of the vestibule at an angle of 60 to the back of the model.

2. Make the anterior cuts so that the ends are at the midline and approximately in the canine area.
Approximately 5 to 6 mm from the labial surface of the anterior teeth. Both sides of equal length and their intersection on the midline.



3. The heels of the upper model are formed by occluding both the models and finishing them such that they are flush with the heels of the lower models at 115.
The heels of the upper model may not be the same length as those of the lower model.

4. The finished height of the occluded models should be 7 cm.



Finishing the Models

The surface must be made smooth, flat and at right angles to the bases of the models. The finishing process should not change the dimensions or any of the angulations of the models.

Carborandum Stone Technique

1. The model is rubbed over the stone with an even pressure under a stream of water until a smooth surface results. 2. The model is set aside to dry for 48 hours or dried overnight in an orthodontic oven.



3. The model should be labeled on the backs of both the upper and lower models :
patient's name patient's date of birth Registration No. Doctor Name Impression date

Glazing of Model
1. put on the models by immersing them in a commercial gloss. 2. The models are allowed to remain in this solution for one-half hour. 3. Holding each arch under cold water, the models are polished and soap solution removed by buffing with cotton. 4. The models are set on their occlusal surfaces to dry for another twelve hours, then buffed with a very light but rapid motion using cotton.



Thank You