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PROPOSAL FOR DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF CENTRALISED LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LPG) STORAGE AND RETICULATION SYSTEM.

INTEGRAL ESTATE-FACILITY UTILITY SYSTEM INVOLVING SAFE STORAGE, DISTRIBUTION, AND METERED SALES OF LPG (DOMESTIC COOKING GAS)

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DYATT ENGINEERING LTD

INTRODUCTION AND SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


BACKGROUND Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), also referred to as cooking gas, is a heavy than air gaseous mixture of combustible gases. Its constituent gases are mainly Propane and Butane with a little of Pentane and a few other heavy gaseous hydrocarbons. LPG burns completely in air giving a clean bluish flame producing carbon dioxide and water vapour. Its use is friendly to the environment and LPG has proven to be an easy and safer to use domestic energy source. LPG is a readily available product in towns and cities in Nigeria, it is produced by NNPC owned refineries and distributed to bottlers and dispensers in tanks, eventually sold in small cylinders to consumers. Though the use of LPG in Nigeria is rivalled by that of kerosene, LPG has consistently proven to be a safer and more easily harnessed cooking energy source. Adulteration of LPG is less probable compared to kerosene. When stored and used as specified it presents practically no harm to its users and the environment. As a step in improving the safety of use of LPG in domestic facilities, LPG storage should be as remote as reasonable and centralised while only the gas vapours; which are of lower energy content, are distributed to end users through an engineered pipe network. Domestic gas consumer reticulation systems have been in use in developed countries for more than 200 hundred years. Domestic gas networking and distribution improves on the availability of gas to end users and also improves on safety and aesthetics of end user facilities as unsightly LPG cylinders are eliminated from use. Robust safety instrumentation and piping systems are essentials features built in LPG reticulation systems which serve to prevent unintentional discharge of gas to the environment or end user facility. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION LPG reticulation systems offer the following features: 1. Remote Central Storage 2. Leakage detection and management systems 3. Localised end user metering; post-paid or prepaid 4. Pressure assurance and overpressure protection systems
Prepared by STEITOFF DYATT ENGINEERING LTD

The illustration above provides some detail into the minimum an LPG reticulation system should offer. LPG reticulation has consistently enhanced the service experience of domestic/residential/commercial facility owners and users as it places emphasis on quality of service received and not procurement planning or supply chain of service.

BENEFITS OF LPG RETICULATION SYSTEMS


Some obvious benefits to having a centralised LPG storage system include the following: Remote siting of inflammable liquids far from possible sources of ignition Safe and rapid dissipation of explosive atmospheres if accidentally created due to damage in gas piping Delivery of gas to consumer locations and not highly volatile flammable liquids. LPG has a higher energy density compared to either gaseous propane or butane, it also gasifies very rapidly filling drains and low lying areas The risk of additional damage to property in the event of a fire is eliminated as fuel source is kept out of reach The aesthetics of buildings/facilities is enhanced as unappealing cylinders, indoors or outdoors, and protection for such from theft are eliminated Quality control of gas used within an estate is made easier further protecting lives of end users. Burden of identifying and procuring LPG meeting

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appropriate specification is transferred to dedicated estate management personnel Centralisation enhances control of movement of flammable and explosive substances within estate or facilities.

SCOPE DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT


To develop an LPG reticulation system it is required that as-is data of estate/facility are acquired and studied. LPG reticulation systems are engineered using the most rigorous engineering procedures and designs are governed by stringent process and safety codes of engineering practice. Full cooperation and involvement of all stakeholders in the development of a customer facility is required; LPG reticulation systems are best suited to residential estates, high-rise buildings, hotels, catering facilities, laboratory complexes, field bases, school/college/university facilities, and smaller buildings where safety and/or aesthetics are of concern. At the incipient stages of developing an LPG reticulation system for a client, data under the general headings following will be sought; Site survey data Basic building plan Architectural drawings Road network design drawings Potable water distribution design drawings User density estimate for entire site Consumption scenarios and consumption estimates Plot plan showing land use plan for entire location Waste management plan or design for site (liquids and solids)

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REFERENCES
For more information on LPG/Gas reticulation systems, their impact on facilities, and end user experiences, the clients listed below may be consulted 1. Santos Field Logistics Base, Roma, Queensland, Australia 2. Singapore Parallel Train staff accommodation, Jurong Island, Singapore 3. Fawley Refinery Utilities, Fawley, Hampshire, UK (Projects delivered while working with Foster Wheeler Energy Ltd, Reading)

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